Summarizing & Note Taking Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement From Classroom Instruction that Works by R. Marzano, D. Pickering, J. Pollock Created by The School District of Lee County, CSDC in conjunction with Cindy Harrison, Adams 12 Five Star Schools Participant Outcomes Participants will: • Understand the purpose and importance of summarizing and notetaking • Identify ways to implement summarizing and notetaking in the classroom • Review examples of summarizing and notetaking activities Average Effect Percentile Category No. of ESs Size (ES) Gain Identifying similarities and differences 1.61 45 31 Summarizing and note taking 1.00 34 179 Reinforcing effort and providing recognition 0.80 29 21 Homework and practice 0.77 28 134 Nonlinguistic representations 0.75 27 246 Cooperative learning 0.73 27 122 Setting objectives and providing feedback 0.61 23 408 Generating and testing hypotheses 0.61 23 63 Questions, cues and advance organizers 0.59 22 1,251 Summarizing Discussion question: How do you currently teach students in your classroom to summarize information to enhance student learning? Research and Theory about Summarizing Generalizations based on research: 1. Students must delete, substitute, and keep some information when summarizing. 2. Deep analysis is needed in order to do #1. 3. Must be aware of explicit structure of information. Research and Theory about Summarizing Generalization #1: Students must delete, substitute, and keep some information when summarizing. • Condensing information • Looking for patterns • Distilling (extracting) and synthesizing information • Modeling by teachers Research and Theory about Summarizing Generalization #2: To effectively delete, substitute, and keep information, students must analyze the information at a fairly deep level. • Seems simple but requires analyzing content • Students need practice to be good at analyzing information Generalization #3: Must be aware of explicit structure of information. • Most writers present information with an explicit structure or pattern. The more students understand these structures, the better they are able to summarize information. Recommendations for Classroom Practice on Summarizing a. Teach the “Rule-Based” Strategy – Follows a set of rules that produce a summary Recommendations for Classroom Practice on Summarizing MODEL FOR SUMMARIZING Steps in Rule-Based Summarizing for Steps in Rule-Based Summarizing for Older Students Younger Students 1. Delete trivial material that is 1. Take out material that is not unnecessary to understanding. important to understanding. 2. Delete redundant material. 2. Take out words that repeat 3. Substitute subordinate terms for information. more specific terms (e.g., use fish 3. Replace a list of things with a word for rainbow trout, salmon, and that describes the things in the list halibut.) (e.g., use trees for elm, oak, and 4. Select a topic sentence of invent maple). one if it is missing. 4. Find a topic sentence. If you cannot find a topic sentence, make one up. Summarizing The basic unit of length in the metric system is the meter (m). A meter is equal to 39.4 inches, or a little more than a yard. Your height would be measured in meters. Most students your age are between 1.5 and 2 meters tall. Summarizing The basic unit of length in the metric system is the meter (m). A meter is equal to 39.4 inches, or a little more than a yard. Your height would be measured in meters. Most students your age are between 1.5 and 2 meters tall. Recommendations for Classroom Practice on Summarizing b. Use Summary Frames – Choose frame to match information type – 6 different types of frames • Narrative • Topic-restriction-illustration • Definition • Argumentation • Problem/solution • conversation Narrative Frame Archimedes and the Gold Crown. • Who are the main characters and what distinguishes them from each other. • When and where did the story take place, what where the circumstances? • What prompted the action in the story? • How did the characters express their feelings? Narrative Frame • What did the main characters decide to do? Did they set a goal, and, if so, what was it? • How did the main characters try to accomplish their goals? • What were the consequences? Topic-Restriction-Illustration Frame • What is the topic? Measurement using a balance • What is the unit of measure using the triple beam balance? grams • What are the three ways to measure mass and what are the differences between each? Measure mass directly Find mass by difference Measure out a chemical substance Definition Frame • Good for vocabulary development. • What is being defined? Tools of measure • To which general category of measure does each item belong? Linear, Volume, Mass, Time Definition Frame • What characteristics separate the item from other things in the general category? What characteristics indicate what each tool measures? Ex. The shape of Beakers, graduated cylinders, and Flasks allow them to hold liquids. • What are some different types or classes of the item being defined? Within the linear category, when would you use each tool? Argumentation Frame • What information is presented that leads to a claim? • What is the basic statement or claim that is the focus of the information? • What examples or explanations are presented to support this claim? • What concessions are made about the claim? Problem/Solution Frame • What is the problem? How would you measure the volume of a marble? • What is a possible solution? Mathematical formula for volume of a sphere? • What is another possible solution? Volume displacement with a graduated cylinder. • What is another possible solution? Spill method. • Which solution has the best chance of succeeding? Which method would be most accurate answer? Conversation Frame • How did the members of the conversation greet each other? • What question or topic was insinuated, revealed, or referred to? • How did their discussion progress? Did either person state facts? Did either person make a request of the other? Did either person demand a specific action of the other? Did either person threaten consequences if a demand was not met? Did either person indicate that he/she valued something that the other had done? • How did the conversation conclude? Conversation Frame • Ideas on how to use the conversation frame Strategies to analyze a debate. Guiding focus questions to approach controversial issues. Examples: Stem cells research, Okeechobee water release into the Caloosahatchee river, boat speeds and manatees, Issues in Science from the textbook. Recommendations for Classroom Practice on Summarizing c. Teach Students Reciprocal Teaching – 4 step process 1. Summarizing – Can anyone tell me what the reading stated in their own words. 2. Questioning – Ask specific questions about the information from the reading selection. 3. Clarifying – Have group members explain confusing parts to each other. 4. Predicting – Leader asks group members what will happen in future reading. Reciprocal Teaching Calculating the density of a regular solid such as a cube is easy. Measure the sides of the object with a metric ruler and calculate the volume. Place the object on a balance to determine its mass. Then use the formula D = M/V to calculate the object’s density. But can you determine the density of an object that has an irregular shape and is not easy to measure? A rock, for example. It’s easy when you know how. Follow along and you can become the density calculator for your class. Reciprocal Teaching Summarizing – After the students have silently or orally read a passage, a single student acting as the student leader summarizes what has been read, heard, or seen. Questioning – The student leader asks some questions, to which the group responds. Clarifying – The student leader tries to clarify confusing points in the passage or the student leader might ask students to ask clarification questions. Predicting – The student leader asks for predictions about what will happen in the next segment of the text. Note Taking Discussion statement: It is appropriate for the teacher to provide students with a complete set of notes on a topic.” Do you… Strongly Agree Disagree Strongly Agree Disagree Research and Theory about Note Taking Generalizations based on research: 1. Verbatim note taking is least effective. 2. Should be a work in progress. 3. Should be used as study guides for tests. 4. The more notes taken, the better. Research and Theory about Note Taking Generalization #1: Verbatim note taking is least effective. • Not engaged in synthesis • Only recording, not analyzing Generalization #2: Should be a work in progress. • Continually add to notes • Revise notes • Time to review notes Research and Theory about Note Taking Generalization #3: Should be used as study guides for tests. • If well done, powerful study guide Generalization #4: The more notes taken, the better. • Strong correlation between amount of notes and achievement on exams Think-Pair-Share • When is Note Taking note taking, and when is Note Taking copying notes? Recommendations for Classroom Practice on Note Taking a. Give Teacher-Prepared Notes – Model Teacher Prepared Graphic Questions Notes i. The Basics A. ii. Characteristics A. Recommendations for Classroom Practice on Note Taking b. Teach Multiple Formats Recommendations for Classroom Practice on Note Taking c. Use Combination Notes Uses 3 parts: 1. Informal outlining 2. Graphic representation 3. Summary Combination Notes Regular notes Symbol, picture or graphic Summary Combination Notes Example Topic: How to test whether the king’s crown is gold_________________ Date:___________________ Notes: Graphic representation: 1. Volume by Displacement Density = Mass/Volume a. weigh crown b. volume by displacement c. If the gold was replaced by a different metal then the density would be different. 2. Use a lever and suspend the wreath from one side and an equal mass on the other. Summary: Using a whip What have you learned about summarizing and note taking? What thoughts, questions, challenges, or ideas do you have?
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