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Summarizing and Notetaking 6th Grade PowerPoint

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					  Summarizing &
   Note Taking
Research-Based Strategies for Increasing
         Student Achievement
                 From
    Classroom Instruction that Works
                  by
  R. Marzano, D. Pickering, J. Pollock
 Created by The School District of Lee County, CSDC
                 in conjunction with
    Cindy Harrison, Adams 12 Five Star Schools
    Participant Outcomes
Participants will:
• Understand the purpose and
  importance of summarizing and
  notetaking
• Identify ways to implement
  summarizing and notetaking in
  the classroom
• Review examples of summarizing
  and notetaking activities
                                               Average Effect   Percentile
                       Category                                              No. of ESs
                                                 Size (ES)        Gain

Identifying similarities and differences           1.61            45           31
Summarizing and note taking                       1.00            34          179
Reinforcing effort and providing recognition       0.80            29           21
Homework and practice                              0.77            28          134
Nonlinguistic representations                      0.75            27          246
Cooperative learning                               0.73            27          122
Setting objectives and providing feedback          0.61            23          408
Generating and testing hypotheses                  0.61            23           63
Questions, cues and advance organizers             0.59            22         1,251
          Summarizing
Discussion question:

How do you currently teach students
 in your classroom to summarize
 information to enhance student
 learning?
     Research and Theory about
          Summarizing
Generalizations based on research:
1. Students must delete, substitute,
   and keep some information when
   summarizing.
2. Deep analysis is needed in order to
   do #1.
3. Must be aware of explicit structure
   of information.
         Research and Theory about
               Summarizing
Generalization #1:

Students must delete, substitute, and keep
   some information when summarizing.
  •   Condensing information
  •   Looking for patterns
  •   Distilling (extracting) and synthesizing information
  •   Modeling by teachers
                 Research and Theory about
                          Summarizing
Generalization #2:
To effectively delete, substitute, and keep information, students must analyze the
       information at a fairly deep level.

     •     Seems simple but requires analyzing content
     •     Students need practice to be good at analyzing information


Generalization #3:

Must be aware of explicit structure of information.

     •     Most writers present information with an explicit structure or pattern. The
           more students understand these structures, the better they are able to
           summarize information.
Recommendations for Classroom Practice on
           Summarizing
a. Teach the “Rule-Based”
   Strategy
  – Follows a set of rules that produce a
    summary
Recommendations for Classroom Practice on
                    Summarizing
                                MODEL FOR SUMMARIZING
   Steps in Rule-Based Summarizing for       Steps in Rule-Based Summarizing for
               Older Students                           Younger Students
    1. Delete trivial material that is        1. Take out material that is not
       unnecessary to understanding.             important to understanding.
    2. Delete redundant material.             2. Take out words that repeat
    3. Substitute subordinate terms for          information.
       more specific terms (e.g., use fish    3. Replace a list of things with a word
       for rainbow trout, salmon, and            that describes the things in the list
       halibut.)                                 (e.g., use trees for elm, oak, and
    4. Select a topic sentence of invent         maple).
       one if it is missing.                  4. Find a topic sentence. If you
                                                 cannot find a topic sentence, make
                                                 one up.
        Summarizing
  The basic unit of length in the
metric system is the meter (m). A
meter is equal to 39.4 inches, or a
little more than a yard. Your height
would be measured in meters. Most
students your age are between 1.5
and 2 meters tall.
        Summarizing
  The basic unit of length in the
metric system is the meter (m). A
meter is equal to 39.4 inches, or a
little more than a yard. Your height
would be measured in meters. Most
students your age are between 1.5
and 2 meters tall.
Recommendations for Classroom Practice on
             Summarizing
b. Use Summary Frames
  – Choose frame to match information
    type
  – 6 different types of frames
    •   Narrative
    •   Topic-restriction-illustration
    •   Definition
    •   Argumentation
    •   Problem/solution
    •   conversation
         Narrative Frame
Archimedes and the Gold Crown.

• Who are the main characters and what
  distinguishes them from each other.
• When and where did the story take place,
  what where the circumstances?
• What prompted the action in the story?
• How did the characters express their
  feelings?
        Narrative Frame
• What did the main characters decide
  to do? Did they set a goal, and, if
  so, what was it?
• How did the main characters try to
  accomplish their goals?
• What were the consequences?
Topic-Restriction-Illustration
           Frame
• What is the topic?
  Measurement using a balance

• What is the unit of measure using the triple beam
  balance?
  grams

• What are the three ways to measure mass and
  what are the differences between each?
  Measure mass directly
  Find mass by difference
  Measure out a chemical substance
        Definition Frame
• Good for vocabulary development.

• What is being defined?
  Tools of measure

• To which general category of
  measure does each item belong?
  Linear, Volume, Mass, Time
         Definition Frame
• What characteristics separate the item
  from other things in the general category?
  What characteristics indicate what each
  tool measures? Ex. The shape of Beakers,
  graduated cylinders, and Flasks allow
  them to hold liquids.

• What are some different types or classes
  of the item being defined?
  Within the linear category, when would
  you use each tool?
    Argumentation Frame
• What information is presented that
  leads to a claim?
• What is the basic statement or claim
  that is the focus of the information?
• What examples or explanations are
  presented to support this claim?
• What concessions are made about
  the claim?
   Problem/Solution Frame
• What is the problem?
  How would you measure the volume of a marble?
• What is a possible solution?
  Mathematical formula for volume of a sphere?
• What is another possible solution?
  Volume displacement with a graduated cylinder.
• What is another possible solution?
  Spill method.
• Which solution has the best chance of
  succeeding?
  Which method would be most accurate answer?
       Conversation Frame
• How did the members of the conversation greet
  each other?
• What question or topic was insinuated, revealed,
  or referred to?
• How did their discussion progress?
  Did either person state facts?
  Did either person make a request of the other?
  Did either person demand a specific action of the
  other?
  Did either person threaten consequences if a
  demand was not met?
  Did either person indicate that he/she valued
  something that the other had done?
• How did the conversation conclude?
       Conversation Frame
• Ideas on how to use the conversation frame

  Strategies to analyze a debate.

  Guiding focus questions to approach controversial
  issues.

  Examples:
  Stem cells research, Okeechobee water release
  into the Caloosahatchee river, boat speeds and
  manatees, Issues in Science from the textbook.
Recommendations for Classroom Practice on
               Summarizing
c. Teach Students Reciprocal Teaching
  –   4 step process
      1. Summarizing –        Can anyone tell me what the
         reading stated in their own words.
      2. Questioning –      Ask specific questions about the
         information from the reading selection.
      3. Clarifying –    Have group members explain confusing
         parts to each other.
      4. Predicting –    Leader asks group members what will
         happen in future reading.
     Reciprocal Teaching
   Calculating the density of a regular solid such
as a cube is easy. Measure the sides of the
object with a metric ruler and calculate the
volume. Place the object on a balance to
determine its mass. Then use the formula D =
M/V to calculate the object’s density. But can
you determine the density of an object that has
an irregular shape and is not easy to measure? A
rock, for example. It’s easy when you know how.
Follow along and you can become the density
calculator for your class.
        Reciprocal Teaching
Summarizing – After the students have silently or
  orally read a passage, a single student acting as
  the student leader summarizes what has been
  read, heard, or seen.
Questioning – The student leader asks some
  questions, to which the group responds.
Clarifying – The student leader tries to clarify
  confusing points in the passage or the student
  leader might ask students to ask clarification
  questions.
Predicting – The student leader asks for predictions
  about what will happen in the next segment of
  the text.
             Note Taking
Discussion statement:


It is appropriate for the teacher to
  provide students with a complete
  set of notes on a topic.”

Do you…

  Strongly   Agree      Disagree   Strongly
   Agree                           Disagree
    Research and Theory about
          Note Taking
Generalizations based on research:
1. Verbatim note taking is least
   effective.
2. Should be a work in progress.
3. Should be used as study guides for
   tests.
4. The more notes taken, the better.
        Research and Theory about
               Note Taking
Generalization #1:
Verbatim note taking is least effective.
  •   Not engaged in synthesis
  •   Only recording, not analyzing

Generalization #2:
Should be a work in progress.
  •   Continually add to notes
  •   Revise notes
  •   Time to review notes
            Research and Theory about
                   Note Taking
Generalization #3:
Should be used as study guides for tests.

   •   If well done, powerful study guide



Generalization #4:
The more notes taken, the better.

   •   Strong correlation between amount of notes and
       achievement on exams
       Think-Pair-Share
• When is Note Taking note taking,
  and when is Note Taking copying
  notes?
Recommendations for Classroom Practice on
                       Note Taking
a. Give Teacher-Prepared Notes
      –     Model
  Teacher Prepared         Graphic   Questions
       Notes

i.        The Basics
 A.




ii. Characteristics
 A.
Recommendations for Classroom Practice on
           Note Taking
b. Teach Multiple Formats
Recommendations for Classroom Practice on
            Note Taking
c. Use Combination Notes
    Uses 3 parts:

    1. Informal outlining

    2. Graphic representation

    3. Summary
Combination Notes



Regular notes Symbol, picture
                or graphic




          Summary
Combination Notes Example
Topic: How to test whether the king’s crown is gold_________________ Date:___________________


Notes:                                                 Graphic representation:

1. Volume by Displacement
    Density = Mass/Volume

    a. weigh crown

    b. volume by displacement

    c. If the gold was replaced by a different metal
       then the density would be different.

2. Use a lever and suspend the wreath from one side
and an equal mass on the other.
Summary:
         Using a whip
What have you learned about
 summarizing and note taking?
   What thoughts,
questions, challenges,
or ideas do you have?

				
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posted:11/24/2010
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