Egg_-food- by zzzmarcus

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Egg (food)

Egg (food)

Chicken egg (left) and quail eggs (right), types of egg commonly used as food Also see: List of egg topics. An egg is a round or oval body laid by the female of any number of different species, consisting of an ovum surrounded by layers of membranes and an outer casing, which acts to nourish and protect a developing embryo and its nutrient reserves. Most edible eggs, including bird eggs and turtle eggs, consist of a protective, oval eggshell, the albumen (egg white), the vitellus (egg yolk), and various thin membranes. Every part is edible, although the eggshell is generally discarded. Nutritionally, eggs are considered a good source of protein and choline. Roe and caviar are edible eggs produced by fish.

Ostrich egg (right), compared to chicken egg (lower left) and quail eggs (upper left) eggs are commonly seen in marketplaces, especially in the spring of each year.[3] Pheasant eggs and emu eggs are perfectly edible but less widely available.[2] Sometimes they are obtainable from farmers, poulterers, or luxury grocery stores. Most wild birds’ eggs are protected by laws in many countries, which prohibit collecting or selling them, or only permit these during specific periods of the year.[2]

Culinary use
See also: List of egg dishes Bird eggs are a common food and one of the most versatile ingredients used in cooking. They are important in many branches of the modern food industry.[1] The most commonly used bird eggs are those from the chicken. Duck and goose eggs, and smaller eggs such as quail eggs are occasionally used as a gourmet ingredient, as are the largest bird eggs, from ostriches. Gull eggs are considered a delicacy in England,[2] as well as in some Scandinavian countries, particularly in Norway. In some African countries, guineafowl

Fried chicken egg Most commercially produced chicken eggs intended for human consumption are unfertilized, since the laying hens are kept without roosters. Fertile eggs can be purchased and


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eaten as well, with little nutritional difference. Fertile eggs will not contain a developed embryo, as refrigeration prohibits cellular growth for an extended amount of time. Chicken eggs are widely used in many types of dishes, both sweet and savory. Eggs can be pickled, hard-boiled, soft-boiled, scrambled, fried and refrigerated. They can also be eaten raw, though this is not recommended for people who may be especially susceptible to salmonella, such as the elderly, the infirm, or pregnant women. In addition, the protein in raw eggs is only 51% bioavailable, whereas that of a cooked egg is nearer 91% bio-available, meaning the protein of cooked eggs is nearly twice as absorbable as the protein from raw eggs.[4] As an ingredient, egg yolks are an important emulsifier in the kitchen, and the proteins in egg white allow it to form foams and aerated dishes.

Egg (food)
cooking separately from the yolk, and can be aerated or whipped to a light, fluffy consistency. Beaten egg whites are used in desserts such as meringues and mousse. Ground egg shells are sometimes used as a food additive to deliver calcium.[5] Boiled eggs that are difficult to peel are usually too fresh. Fresh eggs have a lower pH, and this does not allow the shell to separate easily from the underlying albumen. When put into vinegar the shell will dissolve slowly.

Although the age of the egg and the conditions of its storage have a greater influence, the bird’s diet does affect the flavor of the egg.[6] For example, when a brown-egg chicken breed eats rapeseed or soy meals, its intestinal microbes metabolize them into fishy-smelling triethylamine, which ends up in the egg.[6] The unpredictable diet of freerange hens will produce unpredictable eggs.[6]

Problems with cooking

Soft-boiled quail eggs, with potato galettes Quail eggs are considered a delicacy in many countries. They are used raw or cooked as tamago in sushi. In Colombia, quail eggs are considered less exotic than in other countries, and a single hard-boiled quail egg is a common topping on hot dogs and hamburgers, often fixed into place with a toothpick. A boiled egg can be distinguished from a raw egg without breaking the shell by spinning it. A hard-boiled egg’s contents are solid due to the denaturation of the protein, allowing it to spin freely, while viscous dissipation in the liquid contents of a raw egg causes it to stop spinning within approximately three rotations. The albumen, or egg white, contains protein but little or no fat. It can be used in

Shopping for chicken eggs in a grocery store. If a boiled egg is overcooked, a greenish ring sometimes appears around egg yolk. This is a manifestation of the iron and sulfur compounds in the egg. It can also occur when there is an abundance of iron in the cooking water. The green ring does not affect the egg’s taste; overcooking, however, harms the quality of the protein (chilling the egg for a few minutes in cold water until the egg is completely cooled prevents the greenish "ring” from forming on the surface of the yolk).


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Cooking also increases the risk of atherosclerosis due to increased oxidization of the cholesterol contained in the egg yolk.[7]

Egg (food)
paste of salt and mud or clay. The eggs stop absorbing salt after about a month, having reached chemical equilibrium.[8] Their yolks become an orange-red colored solid, but the white remains liquid. They are boiled before consumption and often served with rice congee.

For those who do not consume eggs, alternatives used in baking include other rising agents or binding materials, such as ground flax seeds or potato flour. Tofu can also act as a partial binding agent, since it is high in lecithin due to its soy content. Applesauce can be used as well as arrowroot and banana. Extracted soybean lecithin, in turn, is often used in packaged foods as an inexpensive substitute for egg-derived lecithin. Other egg substitutes are made from just the white of the egg for those who worry about the high cholesterol and fat content in eggs. These products usually have added vitamins and minerals as well as vegetablebased emulsifiers and thickeners such as xantham gum or guar gum. These allow the product to maintain the nutrition found in an egg as well as several culinary properties of real eggs. This makes it possible for food like Hollandaise sauce, custard, mayonnaise, as well as most baked goods to be prepared using these substitutes.

Pickled egg, colored with beetroot juice Another method is to make pickled eggs, by boiling them first and immersing them in a mixture of vinegar, salt, and spices like ginger or allspice. Frequently, beetroot juice is added to impart a red color to the eggs.[9] If the eggs are immersed in it for a few hours, the distinct red, white, and yellow colors can be seen when the eggs are sliced.[9] If marinated for several days or more, the red color will reach to the yolk.[9] If the eggs are marinated in the mixture for several weeks or more, vinegar’s acetic acid will dissolve much of the shell’s calcium carbonate and penetrate the egg, making it acidic enough to inhibit the growth of bacteria and molds.[8] Pickled eggs made this way will generally keep for a year or more without refrigeration.[8] A century egg or hundred-year-old egg is preserved by fermenting an egg in a mixture of clay, wood ash, salt, lime, and rice straw for several weeks to several months, depending on the method of processing. After the process is completed, the yolk becomes a dark green, cream-like substance with a strong odor of sulfur and ammonia, while the white becomes a dark brown, transparent jelly with a comparatively mild, distinct flavor. The transforming agent in a century egg is its alkaline material, which gradually raises the pH of the egg from around 9 to 12


Salted duck egg Preservation of edible eggs is extremely important, as an improperly handled egg can contain salmonella, a bacteria that can cause severe food poisoning. The simplest method to preserve an egg is to treat it with salt. Salt draws water out of bacteria and molds, which prevents their growth.[8] The Chinese salted duck egg is made by immersing duck eggs in brine, or coating them individually with a


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Egg (food)
The egg carton was invented by Joseph Coyle in Smithers, British Columbia, to solve a dispute about broken eggs between a farmer in Bulkley Valley and the owner of the Aldermere Hotel. Early egg cartons were made of paper.[13]

Anatomy and characteristics
See also: Egg (biology)

Century egg or more.[10] This chemical process causes an "inorganic version" of fermentation, which breaks down some of the complex, flavorless proteins and fats of the yolk into simpler, flavorful ones.

Bird eggs have been valuable foodstuff since prehistory, in both hunting societies and more recent cultures where birds were domesticated. In Thebes, Egypt, the tomb of Haremhab, built about 1420 BCE, shows a depiction of a man carrying bowls of ostrich eggs and other large eggs, presumably those of the pelican, as offerings.[11] In ancient Rome, eggs were preserved using a number of methods, and meals often started with an egg course.[11] The Romans crushed the shell in their plate to prevent evil spirits from hiding there.[1] In the Middle Ages, eggs were forbidden during Lent because of their richness.[1] It is possible that the word mayonnaise was derived from moyeu, the medieval French word for the yolk meaning center or hub.[1] Egg scrambled with acidic fruit juices were popular in France in the 17th century; this may have been the origin of lemon curd.[6] The dried egg industry developed in the 19th century, before the rise of the frozen egg industry.[12] In 1878, a company in St. Louis, Missouri started to transform egg yolk and white into a light-brown, meal-like substance by using a drying process.[12] The production of dried eggs significantly expanded during World War II, for use by the United States Armed Forces and its allies.[12]

Schematic of a chicken egg: 1. Eggshell 2. Outer membrane 3. Inner membrane 4. Chalaza 5. Exterior albumen 6. Middle albumen 7. Vitelline membrane 8. Nucleus of pander 9. Germinal disk 10. Yellow yolk 11. White yolk 12. Internal albumen 13. Chalaza 14. Air cell 15. Cuticula The shape of an egg is an ovate spheroid with one end larger than the other end. The egg has cylindrical symmetry along the long axis. An egg is surrounded by a thin, hard shell. Inside, the egg yolk is suspended in the egg white by one or two spiral bands of tissue


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called the chalazae (from the Greek word khalazi, meaning hailstone or hard lump.)

Egg (food)
are deposited in the yolk, coloring it. A colorless diet can produce an almost colorless yolk. Farmers may enhance yolk color with artificial pigments, or with natural supplements rich in lutein (marigold petals are a popular choice), but in most locations, this activity is forbidden.

Air cell
The larger end of the egg contains the air cell that forms when the contents of the egg cool down and contract after it is laid. Chicken eggs are graded according to the size of this air cell, measured during candling. A very fresh egg has a small air cell and receives a grade of AA. As the size of the air cell increases, and the quality of the egg decreases, the grade moves from AA to A to B. This provides a way of testing the age of an egg: as the air cell increases in size, the egg becomes less dense and the larger end of the egg will rise to increasingly shallower depths when the egg is placed in a bowl of water. A very old egg will actually float in the water and should not be eaten.[14]


Egg shell color is caused by pigment deposition during egg formation in the oviduct and can vary according to species and breed, from the more common white or brown to pink or speckled blue-green. In general, chicken breeds with white ear lobes lay white eggs, whereas chickens with red ear lobes lay brown eggs.[15] Although there is no significant link between shell color and nutritional value, there is often a cultural preference for one color over another. For example, in most regions of the United States, chicken eggs are generally white; while in the northeast of that country, and in countries as diverse as Costa Rica, Ireland, and the United Kingdom, they are generally light-brown. In Brazil and Poland, white chicken eggs are generally regarded as industrial, and brown or reddish ones are preferred. A hardboiled double-yolked egg, cut in half Some hens will lay double-yolked eggs as the result of unsynchronized production cycles. Although heredity causes some hens to have a higher propensity to lay doubleyolked eggs, these occur more frequently as occasional abnormalities in young hens beginning to lay. Usually a double-yolked egg will be longer and thinner than an ordinary single-yolk egg. Double-yolked eggs occur rarely, only leading to observed successful hatchlings under human intervention, as the unborn chickens would otherwise fight each other and die.[16] It is also possible for a young hen to produce an egg with no yolk at all. Yolkless eggs are usually formed about a bit of tissue that is sloughed off the ovary or oviduct. This tissue stimulates the secreting glands of the oviduct and a yolkless egg results.

White (albumen) Yolk
The yolk in a newly laid egg is round and firm. As the yolk ages it absorbs water from the albumen which increases its size and causes it to stretch and weaken the vitelline membrane (the clear casing enclosing the yolk). The resulting effect is a flattened and enlarged yolk shape. Yolk color is dependent on the diet of the hen; if the diet contains yellow/orange plant pigments known as xanthophylls, then they

Nutritional value
Chicken egg, whole, hard-boiled
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 150 kcal 650 kJ Carbohydrates Fat Protein Water 1.12 g 10.6 g 12.6 g 75 g


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Egg (food)
laying hens a diet containing polyunsaturated fats and kelp meal. Nutrition information on the packaging is different for each of the brands.

Vitamin A equiv. 140 μg Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.066 mg Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.5 mg Pantothenic acid (B5) 1.4 mg Folate (Vit. B9) 44 μg Calcium 50 mg Iron 1.2 mg Magnesium 10 mg Phosphorus 172 mg Potassium 126 mg Zinc 1.0 mg Choline Cholesterol

16% 5% 33% 28% 11% 5% 10% 3% 25% 3% 10% 225 mg 424 mg

Health issues of eating chicken eggs
Cholesterol and fat
More than half the calories found in eggs come from the fat in the yolk; a 100 gram chicken egg contains approximately 10 grams of fat. People on a low-cholesterol diet may need to reduce egg consumption, although only 27% of the fat in egg is saturated fat (Palmitic,Stearic and Myristic acids) that contains LDL cholesterol. The egg white consists primarily of water (87%) and protein (13%) and contains no cholesterol and little, if any, fat. There is debate over whether egg yolk presents a health risk. Some research suggests dietary cholesterol increases the ratio of total to HDL cholesterol and, therefore, adversely affects the body’s cholesterol profile;[20] whereas other studies show that moderate consumption of eggs, up to two per day, does not appear to increase heart disease risk in healthy individuals.[21] Harold McGee argues that the cholesterol in the yolk is not what causes a problem, because fat (particularly saturated) is much more likely to raise cholesterol levels than the actual consumption of cholesterol.[14] A 2007 study of nearly 10,000 adults demonstrated no correlation between moderate (6 per week) egg consumption and cardiovascular disease or strokes except in the sub-population of diabetic patients which presented an increased risk of coronary heart disease.[22] Other research supports the idea that a high egg intake increases cardiovascular risk in diabetic patients.[23] However, some "no correlation" findings have come under attack by independent observers for flawed methodology and financial ties to the egg industry.[24]

For edible portion only. Refuse: 12% (Shell) Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

Eggs add protein to one’s diet, as well as various other nutrients. Chicken eggs are the most commonly eaten eggs. They supply all essential amino acids for humans,[17] and provide several vitamins and minerals, including vitamin A, riboflavin, folic acid, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, choline, iron, calcium, phosphorus and potassium. They are also an inexpensive singlefood source of protein. All of the egg’s vitamin A, D and E is in the egg yolk. The egg is one of the few foods which naturally contain Vitamin D. A large egg yolk contains approximately 60 Calories (250 kilojoules); the egg white contains about 15 Calories (60 kilojoules). A large yolk contains more than two-thirds of the recommended daily intake of 300 mg of cholesterol (although one study indicates that the human body may not absorb much cholesterol from eggs[18]). The yolk makes up about 33% of the liquid weight of the egg. It contains all of the fat in the egg and slightly less than half of the protein and much of the nutrients. It also contains all of the choline, and one yolk contains approximately half of the recommended daily intake. Choline is an important nutrient for development of the brain, and is said to be important for pregnant and nursing women to ensure healthy fetal brain development.[19] Recently, chicken eggs that are especially high in Omega 3 fatty acids have come on the market. These eggs are made by feeding

Type 2 diabetes
Consumption of eggs has been linked to an increased risk of Type 2 diabetes in both men and women. A 2008 study using data on over 50,000 individuals collected by the Physicians’ Health Study I (1982-2007) and the Women’s Health Study (1992-2007)


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determined that the “data suggests that high levels of egg consumption (daily) are associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes.”[25]

Egg (food)
The egg allergy is prevalent enough in the United States that food labeling practices now include eggs, egg products and the processing of foods on equipment that also process foods containing eggs in a special allergen alert section of the ingredients on the labels.

A health issue associated with eggs is contamination by pathogenic bacteria like Salmonella enteritidis. Contamination of eggs exiting a female bird via the cloaca may also occur with other members of the Salmonella group, so care must be taken to avoid the egg shell becoming contaminated with fecal matter. In commercial practice, eggs are quickly washed with a sanitizing solution within minutes of being laid. The risk of infection from raw or undercooked eggs is dependent in part upon the sanitary conditions under which the hens are kept. Health experts advise people to refrigerate eggs, use them within two weeks, cook them thoroughly, and never consume raw eggs.[26] As with meat, containers and surfaces that have been used to process raw eggs should not come in contact with readyto-eat food. A study by the U.S. Department of Agriculture in 2002 (Risk Analysis April 2002 22(2):203-18) suggests the problem is not as prevalent as once thought. It showed that of the 69 billion eggs produced annually only 2.3 million are contaminated with salmonella - equivalent to just one in every 30,000 eggs thus showing that salmonella infection is quite rarely induced by eggs. However, this has not been the case in other countries where Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium infections due to egg consumptions are major concerns [27], [28], [29]. Egg shells act as hermetic seals which guard against bacteria entering, but this seal can be broken through improper handling or if laid by unhealthy chickens. Most forms of contamination enter through such weaknesses in the shell.

Chicken egg grading
The US Department of Agriculture grade eggs by the interior quality of the egg and the appearance and condition of the egg shell. Eggs of any quality grade may differ in weight (size). • U.S. Grade AA eggs have whites that are thick and firm; yolks that are high, round, and practically free from defects; and clean, unbroken shells. Grade AA and Grade A eggs are best for frying and poaching where appearance is important. • U.S. Grade A eggs have characteristics of Grade AA eggs except that the whites are "reasonably" firm. This is the quality most often sold in stores. • U.S. Grade B eggs have whites that may be thinner and yolks that may be wider and flatter than eggs of higher grades. The shells must be unbroken, but may show slight stains. This quality is seldom found in retail stores because they are usually used to make liquid, frozen, and dried egg products, as well as other eggcontaining products.

Chicken egg sizes
Chicken eggs are graded by size, for the purpose of sales. The United States Department of Agriculture sizing is based by weight per dozen. The most common US size of chicken egg is ’Large’ and is the egg size commonly referred to for recipes. The following egg masses have been calculated on the basis of the USDA sizing: In Europe, modern egg sizes are defined as follows: In Australia, the Australian Egg Corporation defines the following sizes in its labelling guide.[31] In Western Australia, two additional sizes are also standardized by the Golden Eggs Corporation[32] In New Zealand sizes are based on the minimum mass per egg: [33]

Food allergy
One of the most common food allergies in infants is eggs.[30] Infants usually have the opportunity to grow out of this allergy during childhood, if exposure is minimized. Generally, physicians will recommend feeding only the yolks to infants because of the higher risk of allergic reaction to the egg white.


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Modern Sizes (USA) Size Jumbo Large (L) Medium (M) Small (S) Peewee Mass per egg Greater than 2.5 oz. or 71g Greater than 2 oz. or 57g Greater than 1.5 oz. or 43g Greater than 1.25 oz. or 35g Modern Sizes (Europe) Size Very Large Large Medium Small Mass per egg 73g and over 63-73g 53-63g 53g and under Modern Sizes (Australia) Size Jumbo Extra Large Large Mass per egg 68g 60g 52g Additional Sizes (Western Australia) Mega or XXXL Medium Modern Sizes (New Zealand) Size 8 (Jumbo) 7 (Large) 6 (Standard) 5 (Medium) 4 (Pullet) Minimum mass per egg 68g 62g 53g 44g 35g Traditional Sizes Size Size 0 Size 1 Size 2 Size 3 Size 4 Size 5 Size 6 Size 7 Mass Greater than 75g 70g-75g 65g-70g 60g-65g 55g-60g 50g-55g 45g-50g less than 45g 72g 43g 46 mL (3.25 tbsp)

Egg (food)

Cooking Yield (Volume)[1]

Very Large or Extra Large (XL) Greater than 2.25 oz. or 64g 56 mL (4 tbsp) Greater than 1.75 oz. or 50g 43 mL (3 tbsp)


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Egg (food)
birds of the laying strain do not lay eggs and are not suitable for meat production, they are generally culled at the hatchery.[37] Free-range eggs are considered by some advocates to be an acceptable substitute to factory farmed eggs. Free range laying hens are given outdoor access instead of being contained in crowded cages. Questions on the actual living conditions of free range hens have been raised as there is no legal definition or regulations for eggs labeled as free range in the US.[38] In the US, increased public concern for animal welfare has pushed various egg producers to release eggs under a variety of different standards. The most widespread standard in use is used by United Egg Producers and is a volunteer program known as United Egg Producers Certified(UEP Certified).[39] The program includes guidelines with regard to housing, feed, water, air, space allowance, beak trimming, molting, handling, and transportation; however, critics such as The Humane Society have alleged UEP Certification misleadingly allows for a significant amount of animal cruelty.[40] Other standards include "Cage Free", "Natural", "Certified Humane", and "Certified Organic." Of these standards, "Certified Humane", which carries requirements for stocking density and cage-free keeping, among others, and "Certified Organic", which requires hens have outdoor access and are fed only organic, vegetarian feed, among other requirements, are the most stringent.[41][42]

Medium White Eggs in Carton

Issues in mass production
Commercial factory farming operations often involve raising the hens in small crowded cages, preventing the chickens from engaging in natural behaviors such as wingflapping, dust-bathing, scratching, pecking, perching and nest-building. Such restrictions can lead to pacing and escape behavior.[34] Many hens confined to battery cages, and some raised in cage-free conditions, are debeaked to prevent harming each other and cannibalism. According to critics of the practice, this can cause hens severe pain to the point where some may refuse to eat and starve to death. Some hens may be force molted to increase egg quality and production level after the molting.[35] Molting can be induced by extended feed withdrawal, water withdrawal or controlled lighting programs. Laying hens are often slaughtered between 100 - 130 weeks of age when their egg productivity starts to decline.[36] Due to modern selective breeding, laying hen strains differ from meat production strains. As male

Cultural influences

Hanácké kraslice, Easter eggs from the Haná region, the Czech Republic


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A popular Easter tradition in some parts of the world is the decoration of hard-boiled eggs (usually by dyeing but often by spraypainting). Adults often hide the eggs for children to find, an activity known as an Easter egg hunt. A similar tradition of egg painting exists in areas of the world influenced by the culture of Persia. Before the spring equinox in the Persian New Year tradition (called Norouz), each family member decorates a hard-boiled egg and sets them together in a bowl. Although a food item, eggs are sometimes thrown at houses, cars, or people generally on Halloween. This act, known commonly as egging in the various English-speaking countries, is a minor form of vandalism and, therefore, usually a criminal offense and is capable of damaging property (egg whites can degrade certain types of vehicle paint) as well as causing serious eye injury[43]. On Halloween, for example, trick or treaters have been known to throw eggs (and sometimes flour) at property or people from whom they received nothing. Eggs are also often thrown in protests, as they are inexpensive and nonlethal, yet at the same time very messy when broken.

Egg (food)

[1] [2] [3]


[5] [6] ^ McGee, Harold (2004). On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen. Scribner. pp. p. 87. ISBN 0-684-80001-2. [7] The role of eggs, margarines and fish oils in the nutritional management of coronary artery disease and strokes [8] ^ McGee, Harold (2004). On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen. Scribner. pp. p. 116. ISBN 0-684-80001-2. [9] ^ Stadelman, William (1995). Egg Science and Technology. Haworth Press. pp. p. 479–480. ISBN 1560228547. [10] McGee, Harold (2004). On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen. Scribner. pp. p. 117. ISBN 0-684-80001-2. [11] ^ Brothwell, Don R.; Patricia Brothwell (1997). Food in Antiquity: A Survey of the Diet of Early Peoples. Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. p. 54–55. ISBN 0801857406. [12] ^ Stadelman, William (1995). Egg Science and Technology. Haworth Press. pp. p. 221–223. ISBN 1560228547. [13] Easterday, Jim (April 21, 2005), "The Coyle Egg-Safety Carton", Hiway16 Magazine, ^ Montagne, Prosper (2001). Larousse magazine/pages/Jim/egg/egg1.htm, Gastronomique. Clarkson Potter. pp. p. retrieved on 2008-04-21. 447–448. ISBN 0609609718. [14] ^ McGee, H. (2004). On Food and ^ Roux, Michel; Martin Brigdale (2006). Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Eggs. Wiley. pp. p. 8. ISBN 0471769134. Kitchen. New York: Scribner. ISBN Stadelman, William (1995). Egg Science 0-684-80001-2. and Technology. Haworth Press. pp. p. 1. [15] Information on chicken breeds ISBN 1560228547. [16] Kruszelnicki, Karl S. (2003), "DoubleEvenepoel, P., Geypens, B., Luypaerts, yolked eggs and chicken development", A., Hiele, M., Ghoos, Y., & Rutgeerts, P. Australian Broadcasting Corporation, (1998). Digestibility of Cooked and Raw Egg Protein in Humans as Assessed by moments/s409538.htm, retrieved on Stable Isotope Techniques. The Journal 2007-12-09. of Nutrition, 128 (10), 1716-1722. [17] Food and Agriculture Organization abstract article on eggs Anne Schaafsma, Gerard M Beelen [18] University Science article on eggs and (1999), "Eggshell powder, a comparable cholesterol or better source of calcium than purified [19] Eggs and fetal brain development calcium carbonate: piglet studies", [20] Weggemans RM, Zock PL, Katan MB Journal of the Science of Food and (2001), "Dietary cholesterol from eggs Agriculture 79 (12): 1596–1600, increases the ratio of total cholesterol to doi:10.1002/ high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in (SICI)1097-0010(199909)79:12<1596::AIDhumans: a meta-analysis", Am. J. Clin. JSFA406>3.0.CO;2-A, Nutr. 73 (5): 885–91, PMID 11333841.


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Egg (food)

[21] Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Rimm EB, et al. [34] Scientists and Experts on Battery Cages (1999), "A prospective study of egg and Laying Hen Welfare consumption and risk of cardiovascular [35] Eggs and force-moulting [36] Commercial Egg Production and disease in men and women", JAMA 281 Processing (15): 1387–94, doi:10.1001/ [37] Egg laying and male birds jama.281.15.1387, PMID 10217054. [38] Free-range eggs [22] Qureshi AI, Suri FK, Ahmed S, Nasar A, [39] United Egg Producers Certified Program Divani AA, Kirmani JF (2007), "Regular [40] Wondering What The "UEP Certified" egg consumption does not increase the Logo Means? risk of stroke and cardiovascular [41] - Egg Labels diseases", Med. Sci. Monit. 13 (1): [42] A Brief Guide to Egg Carton Labels and CR1–8, PMID 17179903. Their Relevance to Animal Welfare [23] Schärer M, Schulthess G (2005), "[Egg [43] Stewart RM. Durnian JM. Briggs MC. intake and cardiovascular risk]" (in "Here’s egg in your eye": a prospective German), Ther Umsch 62 (9): 611–3, study of blunt ocular trauma resulting PMID 16218496. from thrown eggs. Emergency Medicine [24] Eggsaggerations: cracking open egg Journal. 23(10):756-8, 2006 Oct. myths (credit card required) [25] Egg Consumption and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Men and Women [26] "Eggs -- No Yolking Matter." Nutrition • Nutritional values of eggs Action Health Letter, July/August 1997. • Nutritional value of free range eggs [27] Kimura, Akiko C. et al. (2004), "Chicken compared with factory eggs Consumption Is a Newly Identified Risk • Criticism of the validity of the "Animal Factor for Sporadic Salmonella enterica Care Certified" logo used by United Egg Serotype Enteritidis Infections in the Producers(UEP) United States: A Case-Control Study in • British Egg Industry and the Lion Mark FoodNet Sites", Clinical Infectious • Henderson’s Chicken Breed Chart Diseases 38: S244–S252, doi:10.1086/ • Fact Sheet on FDA’s Proposed Regulation: 381576. Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in [28] Little, C.L et al. (2007), "Public health Shell Eggs During Production investigations of Salmonella Enteritidis • 4-H Embryology and EGG Cam University in catering raw shell eggs, 2002-2004", of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension in Letters in Applied Microbiology Lancaster County (Blackwell Publishing) 44 (6): 595–601, • Hatching Quail Eggs In A Classroom doi:10.1111/j.1472-765X.2007.02131.x. • Egg Miles Calculator - Uk Egg Tracker, [29] Stephens, N. et al. (2007), "Large see where your eggs are from. outbreaks of Salmonella Typhimurium • Factors Affecting Egg Quality, Kansas phage type 135 infections associated State University with the consumption of products • wiki articles on how to boil an egg, poach containing raw egg in Tasmania", an egg, and soft boil an egg. An overview Blackwell Publishing, of all processes for boiling eggs. entrez?db=pubmed&uid=17503652&cmd=showdetailview&indexed=google, retrieved on 20 November 2007. [30] Egg Allergy Brochure, distributed by Royal Prince Alfred Hospital [31] Egg Labelling Guide July 2007 [32] Golden Eggs Western Australia Product Range [33] Egg Producers Federation of New Zealand - Egg Quality

External links

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Egg (food)

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