Rfid Gen 2 Technology by fev82582


More Info
									          RFID Standards
                         Vlad Krotov
                DISC 4397 – Section 12977
                   University of Houston
                Bauer College of Business
                       Spring 2005

Presentation Source: Bear and Stearns, 2003; RFID Journal; Auto-ID Inc.
          What is standard?
• Definition:
  – A generic, all-encompassing term used to
    describe documents that provide a specified
    set of mandatory or discretionary rules,
    requirements, or conditions concerned with
    performance, design, operation, or
    measurements of quality to accomplish a
    specific task

                Source: www.llnl.gov/es_and_h/hsm/doc_5.01/doc5-01.html
  Why do we need Standards?
• Better interoperability  Lower costs
• Lower costs:
  – Purchasing (economies of scale)
  – Maintenance
  The Essence of RFID Standards
• The primary issue in RFID standardization
  is the so-called “air interface” protocol, that
  is the protocol which outlines the
  mechanism through which tags and
  readers communicate
    History of RFID Standards
•   In the beginning:

     1) The International Organization for
        Standardization (ISO)
     2) The European Article Numbering/Uniform Code
        Council (EAN.UCC)
     3) The Auto-ID Center
    History of RFID Standards
• The EAN.UCC and the Auto-ID Center
  announced a deal in which the UCC will license
  the EPC technology developed by the Auto-ID
  Center, providing the UCC with exclusive rights
  to the technology (EPC) (Bear and Stearns,
        Auto-ID + EAN.UCC = EPCglobal
• EPCglobal has submitted its Generation 2
  standard to ISO and the standard is probably
  going to be approved in a year
    History of RFID Standards
• EPCglobal’s Gen 2 standard is likely to become
  the first global protocol
• How did they do it?
  – EPCglobal is a commercial enterprise
  – EPCglobal had the objective of becoming a universal
    standardization body with respect to Auto-ID (RFID)
  – EPCglobal was quick in introducing its standards
  – EPCglobal cooperated with companies
  – Matrics and Alien produced Class 0 and Class 1 tags
• EPCglobal web site: www.epcglobalinc.org
Some Initial Standards by Auto-ID
                EPC Standards
• Electronic Product Code (EPC)
    – Class 0
    – Class 1
    – Class 2
•   Savant Systems
•   Object Name Service (ONS)
•   Physical Markup Language (PML)
•   Reader protocol
• EPC (Electronic Product Code) is a new
  standard for identifying products
• Barcodes may migrate to EPC as well,
  since Auto-ID (EPCglobal) has adopted
  the basic structures of the Global Trade
  Item Number (GTIN)

Header                    Object Class

         EPC Manager                     Serial Number
• EPC can be 64 or 96 bits; 96-bit EPC is
  expected to become more common
• 4 bits are used to identify each symbol (letter of
• The 96-bit EPC provides unique identifiers for:
   – 268 million companies
   – Each manufacturer can have 16 million classes and
     68 billion serial numbers in each class
• Unlike UPC, EPC uniquely identifies each
• Savant is a middleware specification
  developed by the Auto-ID Center
• Savant acts as a “nervous system” of an
  RFID network
• After readers pick up EPC codes, Savant
  manages and moves the data
• Savant uses distributed architecture and is
  organized into a hierarchy of individual savants
  that manages the process of gathering and
  distributing data
• Tasks savant can do:
  –   Data smoothing
  –   Reader coordination
  –   Data forwarding
  –   Data storage
  –   Task Management
   Object Name Service (ONS)
• The Object Name Service (ONS) provides a global
  lookup service to translate an EPC into one or more
  Internet Uniform Reference Locators (URLs) where
  further information on the object may be found
• These URLs often identify an EPC Information Service,
  though ONS may also be used to associate EPCs with
  web sites and other Internet resources relevant to an
• ONS provides both static and dynamic services. Static
  ONS typically provides URLs for information maintained
  by an object’s manufacturer
• Dynamic ONS services record a sequence of custodians
  as an object moves through a supply chain
• ONS is built using the same technology as DNS, the
  Domain Name Service of the Internet
                                    Source: Auto-ID/EPCglobal
 Physical Markup Language (PML)
• The Physical Mark-Up Language (PML) is a collection of
  common, standardized XML vocabularies to represent
  and distribute information related to EPC Network
  enabled objects
• The PML standardizes the content of messages
  exchanged within the EPC network.
• It is a part of the Auto-ID Center’s effort to develop
  standardized 283
• interfaces and protocols for the communication with and
  within the Auto-ID infrastructure
• The core part of the physical mark-up-language (PML
  Core) provides a standardized format for the exchange
  of the data captured by the sensors (readers) in the
  Auto-ID infrastructure
           Reader Protocol
• The Reader Protocol specifies the
  interaction between a device capable of
  reading (and possibly writing) tags, and
  application software
        EPC Gen 2 Protocol
• EPC Gen 2 is a UHF protocol
• EPC Gen 2 Protocol is likely to become a
  global standard
• Gen 2 protocol was designed to optimize
  performance in different regulatory
  environments around the world
 EPC Gen 2 Protocol – Operating
• EPC Gen 2 Protocol is allows readers to
  operate in 3 different modes
  – Single-reader mode
  – Multi-reader mode
  – Dense-reader mode
• Dense mode is designed to prevent
  readers from interfering with one another
• Dense mode uses a backscatter method
  called “Miller subcarrier”
 EPC Gen 2 Protocol - Memory
• Gen 2 tags are field programmable
• Gen 2 tags have 4 memory areas:
  – 3 required:
     • EPC
     • Password
     • Tag identification
  – 1 optional
• Memory areas can be locked temporary or
EPC Gen 2 Protocol – Q Algorithm
• Q Algorithm allows readers to query tags
  even if two tags have the same UPC or do
  not contain EPC at all
• The query mechanism is based on random
  number generation
• The reader does not have to transmit
  EPC, preventing eavesdropping
• Each Gen 2 tags can have 4 separate
  sessions for communicating
• Sessions is a means for preventing
  interference (e.g. caused by different
• EPC is likely to become the global RFID
• For more information about the standard
  please refer to www.epcglobalinc.org

To top