Capital_District by zzzmarcus


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Capital District

Capital District
Capital District Capital Region, Tech Valley Region

Panoramic view of the Albany-Rensselaer area, with the Empire State Plaza at center Name origin: Named for Albany being the capital of New York Country State Region Cities Counties United States New York Upstate New York Albany, Schenectady, Troy 11 - Albany - Rensselaer - Schenectady - Saratoga - Schoharie - Warren - Washington - Columbia - Montgomery - Fulton - Greene 13 and 144 7,228 sq mi (18,720 km²) Hunter Mountain Catskill Mountains in Greene County 42°10′39″N 74°13′49″W / 42.1775°N 74.23028°W / 42.1775; -74.23028 4,040 ft (1,231 m) Hudson River at sea level South from Troy 0 ft (0 m) 1,166,290 (2000) 161.4 /sq mi (62 /km²) Eastern Standard Time (UTC-5) Eastern Daylight Time (UTC-4) 518 Core Capital District counties Peripheral counties Website :

Cities and towns Area Highest point - location - coordinates

- elevation Lowest point - location - elevation Population Density Time zone - summer (DST) Area code

The Capital District is a region in upstate New York that generally refers to the four counties surrounding Albany, the capital of the state: Albany County, Schenectady County, Rensselaer County, and Saratoga County. Other surrounding counties are sometimes included depending on the context, which is why the area is not specifically defined by actual borders; much like upstate New York itself, it is a region that is subjectively described. The Capital District is notable for many historical and industrial events. The Battle of Saratoga and the Albany Plan of Union are two historical events from before American independence which are now considered of national and sometimes also of international importance. Many multinational corporations were founded in the Capital District including American Express,[1] General Electric, American Locomotive Company,[2] and International Paper.[3] According to a report by the Capital District Regional Planning Commission released on 19 November 2008 the gross product of the area (defined as the Albany-Schenectady-Troy MSA) is $70.1 billion.[4] The Capital District was first settled by the Dutch in the early 1600s and came under British control in 1664. Albany has been the permanent capital of the state of New York since 1797.


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Capital District
northern portions of the Mid-Hudson Valley, usually Ulster and Dutchess counties or extreme southern sections of Essex County.[12]

Origin of the name
The term Capital District is commonly used to refer to the area due to its location surrounding the state capital. This is similar to other capital districts throughout the world, all of which are associated with a respective capital city. Other nicknames have included Tri-Cities and Tech Valley, while Capital Region is the most popular of the typical nicknames.[5] A Capital Police District was attempted by the state in the late 1860s comprising of land that is now the cities of Albany, Troy, Rensselaer, Watervliet, and Cohoes; along with what are now the towns of Colonie (including the villages of Colonie and Menands), Green Island, North Greenbush, and East Greenbush.[6] Later, Schenectady was added to this district as well.[7] The name of the police district was often abbreviated as "the capital district".[8] This is apparently the earliest instance of the name "capital district" in reference to the greater area around Albany. In the 1910s several organizations covering the area of Albany, Schenectady, Troy and inbetween used the name Capital District in their name, such as the Capital District Conference of Charities and Corrections in 1913,[9] the Capital District Life Underwriters Assocation also in 1913,[10] and the Capital District Recreation League.[11] The Capital District Recreation League, formed in 1916, proposed a Capital District Park (also referred to as the Six City Park) to be roughly 8 miles (13 km) from each of the six cities (Albany, Cohoes, Rensselaer, Schenectady, Troy, and Watervliet). The location proposed was the area of the Shaker settlement.[11] The park was never created though in 1928, the location was used for Albany County Airport for the same reason of its central location to those same cities.

College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering at SUNY Albany, also headquarters of International Sematech. The Capital District has also been given the marketing moniker Tech Valley in recognition of the technology companies that have moved to the region, or are being wooed by governmental or educational institutions to relocate to the area. The term "Tech Valley" (originally Techneurial Valley) originated in 1998 by the Albany-Colonie Regional Chamber of Commerce.[13] The Chamber holds a registered trademark for the term. The 19-county region, which extends from the Canadian border south to Orange County,[14] is marketed by organizations such as the Tech Valley Chamber Coalition, the Albany-Colonie Regional Chamber of Commercee, and the Albany-based Center for Economic Growth.[15] The region has made great strides by landing a chip fabrication plant by GlobalFoundries (which is planned to be built in Malta, Saratoga County);[16] boasting the nation’s first and top nanotechnology college, College of Nanotechnology Science and Engineering at the University at Albany;[17] luring headquarters of SEMATECH’s manufacturing and research division- International Sematech, to the University at Albany from Austin, Texas;[18] and the engineering- and technology-centered university Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy and its corresponding Technology Park in North Greenbush, which is used as an incubator for start up companies.[19] In addition, the new Tech Valley High School opened in 2007 and educates local students in a project-based learning environment.[20]

Alternative names
Capital Region and Northeastern New York (NENY) are terms sometimes used to refer to the Capital District in combination with counties surrounding the area (usually those to the north, and to a lesser degree west of the four core counties of the District). Different definitions or uses of the names Capital District, Capital Region, and NENY may sometimes be used on regions that include Hamilton County and the extreme

First settlements
The first European settlers in the area were French fur traders; in 1540 they built a fort on Castle Island in Albany, but it was soon destroyed by the annual freshet.[21] Permanent European claims and settlement began in


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Capital District
Schuylerville in 1691; and Greenbush (present-day city of Rensselaer) would be settled in the 1620s. South of Albany, settlement occured quickly at first, but slowed as growth on the frontier pushed people north and west of Albany and left the southern reaches of the Capital District behind. Hudson, in Columbia County, was purchased from the natives in 1662 by Dutch settlers but didn’t see actual settlement and growth until the 1700s by New Englanders mainly from southeastern Massachussetts and Rhode Island. It was chartered as a city in 1785. The French and Indian War saw several major battles in the Capital District, including at the aforementioned forts. In the end, the French were defeated, freeing the land for further settlement to the west and north of Albany. During the American Revolution the area again saw fighting and Fort Ticonderoga experienced notable action. The Battle of Saratoga in the present-day town of Stillwater is considered the turning point of the war. In 1776, General Philip Schuyler built a small fleet of ships at Whitehall. They were used by Benedict Arnold in the Battle of Valcour Island. The event led to Whitehall’s modern-day claim to be the birthplace of the United States Navy. After the Revolution, settlements continued to proliferate west and north of the Albany area. North of Albany, along the river, settlements grew quickly: Waterford (oldest continuously incorporated village in the US, incorporated in 1794),[29] Troy (settled in 1787, chartered as a village 1801, city in 1816), Lansingburgh (a village in 1763, annexed to Troy in 1900), and Watervliet (settled in 1643 and incorporated as a village in 1836 as West Troy, city in 1897). West from Schenectady, land purchases in the 1750s led to settlements at Fonda and Fultonville in Montgomery County, but land purchases elsewhere, such as at Gloversville in Fulton County didn’t see settlement until the end of the 18th century when the Iroqouis threat had been eliminated by the Sullivan Expedition in 1779 in retaliation for the Cherry Valley Massacre in nearby Otsego County.

Capital District settlements in 1771 1609 when Henry Hudson sailed north up the Hudson River to the core of the Capital District in the name of the Dutch.[22] During the same year, Samuel Champlain explored south down Lake Champlain and Lake George into the northern areas of the Capital District in the name of France.[22] Conflict soon ensued between the French and Dutch for control of the fur trade and both would make alliances with different Native American tribes.[23] In 1664 the English would conquer the Dutch and rivalry with the French would continue.[24] The Dutch, and then the English, would focus on settlement and farming while the French incursion into this area would be limited to hunting for furs, trading with the natives, and building a few forts. In 1691 the mayor of Albany Pieter Schuyler built a fort at Ticonderoga where Lake George flows into Lake Champlain, directly threatening French claims. This fort was later abandoned but later replaced in the area with the Frenchbuilt Fort Carillon and the British-built Fort William Henry. From the mid 1600s to the late 1700s, settlers at Fort Orange (later Albany) bought land from the natives and started their own settlements further into the hinterland. Albany was granted the right to purchase 500 acres (2.0 km2) in "Schaahtecogue" (today Schaghticoke) by Governor Thomas Dongan in its City Charter,[25][26] in Rensselaer County; and 1,000 acres (4.0 km2) at "Tionnondoroge" (today Fort Hunter),[27][28] in Montgomery County. Arent van Curler founded Schenectady in 1662; Fort Saratoga would be built at present-day

Creation of the counties
The entire area of the Capital District was within the original boundaries of Albany


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| Washington*

Capital District
| Warren* | Fulton*

-*-Current name of a county in the District -#-Name of a former county in the District -¥-Name of a county currently outside the District

Albany County in 1776 County as established by the Province of New York on November 1, 1683; it was one of the original 12 counties.[30] In 1772 formed from Albany County was Charlotte County, in the Capital District it included Washington and Warren counties.[31] Also in 1772 Tryon County was formed from Albany, Tryon was renamed Montgomery County in 1784.[31] In the Capital District it included Montgomery, Schoharie, and Fulton counties. Tryon encompassed the lands from five miles west of Schenectady to the western indeterminate boundary of the Province of New York.[32] What remained of Albany County in 1774 was the most populated county in the state with 42,921 persons.[30] In 1786 Columbia County would be formed.[31] In 1790 Albany County remained the most populated county in the state with 75,921 persons,[30] though in 1791 Rensselaer and Saratoga counties would be separated from Albany.[31] In 1795 Schoharie County would be formed from parts of Otsego County (which had been split off from Montgomery County in 1791) and Albany.[31] Greene County would be formed in 1800.[31] Schenectady County would be created in 1809 from Albany, in 1813 Warren County from Washington, and in 1838 Fulton County would be formed from Montgomery,[31] the last Capital District county to be formed.

Industrialization and transportation

Waterwheel at Burden Iron Works on the Wynants Kill in Troy.

Many geographical features led to early industrialization. Having many small creeks with waterfalls led to early adoption of the waterwheel while navigation south on the Hudson and the relatively flat Mohawk Valley to the west allowed for easy access to and from resources and markets to the south and to the west. In the late 1790s stage lines began to connect the various cities and villages in the area and then with the rest of the country in the early 1800s. Also the early 1800s saw the rise of turnpikes (Great Western Turnpike would be the first in 1799), Albany County* plank roads, and post roads. It was in Albany | in 1809 that Robert Fulton first demon+----------+-----------+------------+---------+----------+---------+----+ strated that steam boats could be economic- | | | | | | | | ally successful with a trip to the city Greene* | Schenectady* Charlotte# Columbia* Tryon# Rensselaer* Saratoga* of New York. In 1813 to support the army in the War | | | of 1812 the US government built the | +--------+-------+ +---+---------+


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Watervliet Arsenal in West Troy, one of the earliest large scale industrial complexes in the Capital District. In 1823 the Federal Dam would be built allowing for navigation north past Troy to Waterford and Cohoes. In 1825 the Erie Canal and Champlain Canal would built connecting the area with the Great Lakes and Saint Lawrence leading to a large influx in industrialization and immigration. Shortly after the completion of the canals the Mohawk and Hudson Railroad Company (M&H) built the Albany and Schenectady Railroad between those two cities in 1831, this was the first railway in the state. Gloversville would be labeled the "headquarters of the glove and mitten industry" and would be the preeminent glove manufacturing and leather-working region in New York.[33] Cohoes would soon become known as the Spindle City for its large cotton mills, mostly thanks to Harmony Mills, the largest cotton mill complex in the world when it opened in 1872. Troy would become famous for its iron works thanks to the Burden Iron Works, though later Troy would earn the nickname of "Collar City" thanks to Cluett, Peabody & Co. which made Arrow brand shirts at the largest collar, cuff, and shirt factory in the world there in Troy (today the building is Hedley Park Place). In 1887 Thomas Edison moved his Edison Machine Works to Schenectady, and in 1892 Schenectady became the headquarters of the General Electric Company (GE).[34] Schenectady Locomotive Works along with seven other locomotive manufacturers would merge in 1901 and the American Locomotive Company (ALCO) would be formed and headquartered in Schenectady.[2] Due to the dominance of GE and ALCO in their respective industries Schenectady would gain the nicknames of Electric City and "The City that Lights and Hauls the World".

Capital District
interstates and other highways allowing for more commuting, lack of available suitable land within the urban centers, and the subsequent location of shopping centers following the people to the suburbs. The decline of manufacturing from the northeastern United States contributed to a general decline as well. Watervliet, Cohoes, and especially Troy lost their competitive edge when being at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers no longer meant better access to markets, waterfalls no longer made the cheapest power, and cheap labor in the southern and western parts of the nation became important to companies.[36] General Electric moved their headquarters out of Schenectady and to Connecticut in the mid-70s.[37] Within the Capital District manufacturing shifted to the suburbs as well, as the suburbs had large open spaces for the construction of larger warehouses, factories, and office parks while the cities were constrained in available land. Albany International, with their headquarters and factory straddling the Menands and Albany cityline built a new factory in 1987 in rural East Greenbush,[38] as did Garden Way, headquartered in Troy.[39] The region’s first tech park would be built in the 1980s in rural North Greenbush by Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI).[40] Not only was there a shift in population and manufacturing to the suburbs, there was also a shift in retail shopping as well, retail sales declined between 1972 and 1987 by 1 percent in the cities, while at the same time they increased 63 percent in the suburbs.[41] In 1957 Westgate Plaza became the first "suburban"-style shopping center in the area, it was and still is within the city-limits of Albany however, but then two years later in 1959 Stuyvesant Plaza was built outside Albany in the neighboring town of Guilderland.[42] In 1966 Colonie Center, the first enclosed shopping mall was built,[42] and as with all the other future successful enclosed malls in the area it was built close to, but outside city-limits. When built it drew shoppers from hundreds of miles from Albany.[42] Macy’s and Sears originally wanted to build in downtown Albany, but interference from Mayor Erastus Corning 2nd led to those stores choosing to move into Colonie Center instead.[43] Problems with Mayor Corning would also force the Albany Times Union newspaper in the 1970s to move out of

Urban decline and rise of the suburbs
Starting with the 1960 US census the core cities of the Capital District: Albany, Schenectady, and Troy; have posted declines in population in every census. Meanwhile the suburbs, and in particular Saratoga County, saw an influx in population. Saratoga County grew at the expense of Albany, Rensselaer, and Schenectady counties.[35] There were many causes to this, including the building of


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Albany to the suburbs of Colonie as well. Five more enclosed malls were built in the next ten years, Mohawk Mall outside Schenectady, Northway Mall across from Colonie Center, Pyramid Mall outside Saratoga Springs, Aviation Mall outside Glens Falls, and Clifton Country Mall in Clifton Park.[42] In 1977 the first mall in the Capital District inside a city was built, the Amsterdam Mall in Amsterdam. This destroyed much of Amsterdam’s downtown.[44] The next year, Troy tried one of their own, the Uncle Sam Atrium.[42] In 1986 Cohoes would also try an urban mall. All three would fail and turn into office space.

Capital District
in Schoharie, Greene, and western Albany counties, which includes the Heldeberg Escarpment in Albany County; and the Catskill Mountains in Greene County. Major lakes include the Great Sacandaga Lake in Saratoga and Fulton counties, Saratoga Lake in Saratoga County, and Lake George in Warren and Essex counties.

Location Climate
The Capital District has a humid continental climate, with cold, snowy winters, and hot, wet summers. Snowfall is significant, totaling about 63 inches annually, but with less accumulation than the lake-effect areas to the north and west, being far enough from Lake Ontario. The core of the region is however, is close enough to the coast to receive heavy snow from Nor’easters, and the region gets the bulk of its yearly snowfall from these types of storms. The region also occasionally receives Alberta clippers. Winters are often very cold with fluctuating conditions, temperatures often drop to below 0 °F (-18 °C) at night. Summers in the region can contain stretches of excessive heat and humidity, with temperatures above 90 °F (32 °C) and dew points near 70. Severe thunderstorms are common but tornadoes are rare.


Geologic features of northeastern United States, centered on the Capital District The Capital District’s most prominent geological features were formed by glaciers creating its major rivers and valleys through ancient mountain ranges. The Hudson River forms the Hudson Valley which is a northsouth running valley through the core of the Capital District while its tributary the Mohawk River forms the Mohawk Valley which runs west from Schenectady, the Schoharie Creek, a tributary of the Mohawk, forms the Schoharie Valley which runs through Schoharie County. Major mountain ranges are the Adirondack Mountains in the northwestern area and the Appalachian Mountains along the southern and eastern sections. The Appalachians include the Rensselaer Plateau in Rensselaer and southeastern Washington counties; the Taconic Mountains along the Washington, Rensselaer, and Columbia counties’ borders with Vermont, Massachussetts, and Connecticut; the Allegheny Plateau

For recreation the Capital District has state and local parks, large shopping centers, sporting events, and amusement parks. The following state parks are in the Capital District: Cherry Plain, Max V. Shaul State Park, Saratoga Spa State Park, Grafton, Mine Kill, Schodack Island, Hudson River Islands, Moreau Lake, Thompson’s Lake, John Boyd Thacher State Park, and Peebles Island.[46] The various municipalities of the Capital District have established many parks, small and large, for the recreational enjoyment of the residents and visitors of the area. Central Park in the city of Schenectady has over 4,000 individual rose bushes of 300 and 400 different varieties in its rose garden at the Wright Avenue entrance.[47] Washington Park in Albany is home to many festivals, including the Tulip Fest and the Latin Fest. The Capital District has many enclosed malls that are regional malls (malls over


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Capital District
Flags park in Queensbury, Warren County with a brand new indoor waterpark across the street. Zoom Flume Water Park is in East Durham, Greene County. Hoffman’s Playland in the town of Colonie, in Albany County, is a children’s amusement park.

Culture and contemporary life

The Albany Institute of History and Art, in Albany. Minelot Falls along the Indian Ladder Trail in Thatcher State Park

• Albany Center Galleries, Albany, Albany County • Albany Heritage Area Visitors Center and Henry Hudson Planetarium, Albany, Albany County • Albany Institute of History & Art, Albany, Albany County • Albany Pine Bush Discovery Center, Albany, Albany County • The Arts Center of the Capital Region, Troy, Rensselaer County • Burden Iron Works, Troy, Rensselaer County • Cherry Hill, Albany, Albany County • The Children’s Museum of Science and Technology (The Junior Museum), North Greenbush, Rensselaer County • Crailo State Historic Site, Rensselaer, Rensselaer County • Empire State Aerosciences Museum, Glenville, Schenectady County • Empire State Plaza, Albany, Albany County • Fort Crailo, Rensselaer, Rensselaer County • Hart-Cluett Mansion, Troy, Rensselaer County

The newer wing at Crossgates Mall, which opened in 1994. 400,000 sq. feet), and two that are classified as super-regional malls (malls with over 800,000 sq. feet).[48] Crossgates Mall in Guilderland and Colonie Center in Colonie are the two super-regional malls with over one million square feet of rentable space in each. Regional malls are located in Schenectady, Saratoga, and Warren counties. In the Capital District are several regional amusement parks and water parks. The Great Escape & Splashwater Kingdom is a Six


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Capital District
• Saratoga National Historical Park, Stillwater, Saratoga County • Schenectady Museum, Schenectady, Schenectady County • Schuyler Mansion, Albany, Albany County • Shaker Museum and Library, Chatham, Columbia County • Ten Broeck Mansion, Albany, Albany County • USS Slater (DE-766), Albany, Albany County • Yaddo, Saratoga Springs, Saratoga County

Performing arts

Troy Savings Bank building, home to the Troy Savings Bank Music Hall. • Capital Repertory Theater • Cohoes Music Hall, Cohoes, Albany County • The Egg, Albany, Albany County • Experimental Media and Performing Arts Center (EMPAC), Troy, Rensselaer County • The Linda- WAMC’s Performing Arts Center, Albany, Albany County • New York State Theatre Institute, Troy, Rensselaer County • Palace Theatre, Albany, Albany County • Proctor’s Theatre, Schenectady, Schenectady County • Saratoga Performing Arts Center, Saratoga Springs, Saratoga County • Troy Savings Bank Music Hall, Troy, Rensselaer County

Saratoga Monument in Victory, New York • Howe Caverns, Schoharie, Schoharie County • The Hyde Collection, Glens Falls, Warren County • Irish American Heritage Museum, East Durham, Greene County • New York State Capitol, Albany, Albany County • New York State Museum, Albany, Albany County • New York State Executive Mansion, Albany, Albany County • Olana State Historic Site, Greenport, Columbia County • Professional Wrestling Hall of Fame and Museum, Amsterdam, Montgomery County • Pruyn House, Colonie, Albany County

Media market
The Albany-Schenectady-Troy media market, which is the 56th largest in the United States,[49] includes all of the 11 counties of


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the Capital District, along with Hamilton County, New York, as well as Berkshire County, Massachusetts, and Bennington County, Vermont.[50] In total, there are 16 AM/MW stations, 30 full-power FM stations, 14 low-power FM translators, 8 full power analog TV stations, 5 low-power TV translators, and 8 full power digital TV (DTV) stations licensed to communities within 30 miles (48 km) of downtown Albany. In terms of broadcast media, Albany is part of Arbitron market #63 (radio), and Nielsen DMA #57 (television), and is a broadcast market with historical relevance. The pioneering influence of General Electric in Schenectady directly contributed to the area emerging as the birthplace of station-based television (WRGB) and one of the earliest FM broadcast stations (today’s WRVE), in addition to the first federally licensed radio station in upstate New York, WGY.

Capital District
currently no local affiliates for any of the Spanish-language domestic broadcast television networks, however the national service of Univision is provided via basic cable TV. Local cable TV operator Time-Warner Cable provides a 24-hour cable news channel, Capital News 9. Christian television networks TBN and 3ABN are available via low-power translator service to the immediate metro area. Unlike many television markets around the country, TV stations from neighboring markets cannot normally be received in the greater Albany area due to distance and terrain.

In 1947, this region was also home to the first independently-owned and operated stand-alone FM radio station in the United States, W47A. In the early 2000s, the greater Albany market had the distinction of having the highest concentration of FM broadcast stations east of the Mississippi River. The Capital District has three local News/Talk radio stations, WGY, WROW, and WGDJ on the AM (MW) band. All feature a mixture of locally oriented and nationally syndicated programming. There are two Sports formatted stations: WOFX, local affiliate for FOX Sports Radio; and WTMM, local affiliate for ESPN Radio. Both stations provide local sports and sports-talk programming as well as national content. The FM dial is primarily made up of commercial music-formatted stations similar to those in other cities around North America, the largest of which include Pop music station WFLY ’FLY-92’, Adult Contemporary WYJB ’B-95.5’, Adult Rock WRVE ’99.5 The River’, Soft music WKLI ’Magic 100.9’, Rock station WQBK-FM ’Q-103’, Classic Rock WPYX ’PYX-106’, and Country music WGNA ’Country 107.7’. Public radio broadcasting is available from two organisations: Northeast Public Radio serves the Capital Region via their flagship station WAMC-FM, and is the primary local affiliate for NPR network programming, and WMHT-FM is another local outlet that clears select NPR and PRI programming. WAMC focuses on News & Talk programming during the day, various music programs and BBC World Service programming in the evening, while WMHT-FM mainly provides Classical Music programming for most of their broadcast schedule. There are no radio stations in the Albany area that provide programming in languages other

The Albany Times Union is area’s primary daily newspaper; its headquarters moved to suburban Colonie from Albany in the 1970s after a dispute with then-Mayor Erastus Corning 2nd over land needed for expansion. More localized are the Daily Gazette, which focuses primarily on Schenectady; the Troy Record, which focuses on Troy; The PostStar, which focuses on Washingon, Warren, and northern Saratoga counties; The Saratogian, which focuses on Saratoga County; the Amsterdam Recorder for Montgomery and Fulton County; the Gloversville Leader-Herald for Fulton County; and the Hudson Register Star for Columbia and Greene counties. Metroland is the alternative newsweekly in the area, publishing each Thursday, while The Business Review is a business weekly published each Friday.

WRGB has the distinction of being the very first affiliated station of the NBC Television Network. The Albany TV DMA is served by the following stations, providing programming from many of the English-language American broadcast television networks: WRGB-CBS, WTEN-ABC, WNYT-NBC, WXXA-FOX, WMHT-PBS,WCWN-CW, WNYA-My Network TV, and WYPX-ION. All of these services, with the exception of WNYA, also have companion digital television transmitters serving the region. There are


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than English on a full-time basis. A few individual programs in languages including Spanish, Italian and Arabic are scheduled, primarily on college owned and operated stations.

Capital District
Abdul-Jabbar); and his future coach Pat Riley. In 1991, Riley called it, "One of the greatest games in the history of Schenectady basketball."[52] Riley was also a football star at Linton (he would even be drafted by the Dallas Cowboys), and as a young boy played on the Schenectady Little League baseball team when in 1954 it won the Little League World Championship. Since 1988, the Siena College men’s basketball team (the Siena Saints) have appeared in five NCAA Tournaments (1989, 1999, 2002, 2008, and 2009)


Minor league professional teams
• Albany River Rats (AHL affiliate of the Carolina Hurricanes, was an affiliate of the New Jersey Devils until 2006). • Albany Firebirds (af2 arena football) • Albany Patroons (CBA and USBL basketball) • Tri-City Valley Cats (New York-Penn League "short A" baseball, affiliate of the Houston Astros) • New York Buzz (World Team Tennis) • Chance of a Lifetime Basketball Academy (National Pro-Am basketball franchise)

The Times Union Center in Albany, the largest sporting and concert venue in the Capital District. Though the Capital District is not well-known for its sports teams it does have a rich history of professional teams and college athletics. The Troy Trojans were a Major League Baseball team in the National League for four seasons from 1879 to 1882. In 1883 the New York Gothams, later the New York and San Francisco Giants, took the Trojans place in the National League. Nearly half of the original Gotham players had been members of the Trojans. NBA head coach of the Los Angeles Lakers Phil Jackson won his first championship ring when he guided the Albany Patroons to the 1984 CBA championship. Three years later, the Patroons completed a 50-6 regular season, including winning all 28 of their home games; at that time, Denver Nuggets head coach George Karl was the Patroons’ head coach. Future NBA stars Mario Elie and Vincent Askew were part of that season’s squad. A third NBA head coach has roots in the Capital District as well, Pat Riley, most famous as the coach of the Los Angeles Lakers, but also of the New York Knicks and Miami Heat. Riley played for Linton High School in Schenectady.[51] Linton High School’s 74-68 victory over New York City’s Power Memorial Academy on December 29, 1961, is remembered mostly for its two stars: Power Memorial’s Lew Alcindor (who later changed his name to Kareem


Map of the constituent MSAs within the Albany-Schenectady-Amsterdam CSA: Albany-Schenectady-Troy Glens Falls Hudson Amsterdam Gloversville The Albany-Schenectady-Troy Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) which, as defined by the Office of Management and Budget, includes Albany County, Rensselaer County,


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Saratoga County, Schenectady County, and Schoharie County makes up a large portion of the Capital District.[53] The AlbanySchenectady-Troy MSA was ranked the 56th most populous in the United States of America in the 2000 census, with a total population of 848,879.[54] Warren and Washington counties, in the northern reaches of the Capital District, make up the Glens Falls MSA; while Fulton County is the Gloversville Micropolitan Statistical Area (formed in 1990), Montgomery County the Amsterdam Micropolitan Stat. Area (formed in 1990 from Albany-Schenectady-Troy MSA), and Columbia County is the Hudson Micropolitan Stat. Area (formed in 1990). The AlbanySchenectady-Troy and Glens Falls MSA’s along with those Micropolitan Stat. Areas combine to form the Albany-Schenectady-Amsterdam Combined Statistical Area (A-S-A CSA).[55] The A-S-A CSA is the vast majority of the Capital District, leaving out only Greene County. It has a population of 1,118,095 according to the 2000 US census,[56] and is ranked 38 out of the 123 CSAs in the US,[57] and third largest in the state. Adding the population of Greene County in the 2000 census, 48,195, to the population of the A-S-A MSA there is 1,166,290 persons in the 11 counties of the Capital District.

Capital District
Congressmen of the Capital District

Scott Murphy (20th)

The 11 counties of the Capital District are divided into 13 cities and 144 towns, with 62 villages that are inside one or more towns. One village, Green Island is coterminous with its town and share only one government institution. The municipalities in the Capital District range in size from villages with a few hundred residents to Albany (the largest city) with over 95,000 and Colonie (the largest town) with over 79,000.

State and congressional representation
The Capital District is split between several different districts for representation in the New York Legislature and the United States Congress. Chuck Schumer[58] (D) and Kirsten Gillibrand[59][60] (D) represent the state in the United States Senate. The area contains three congressional districts. The 20th Paul Tonko (21st) district makes up most of the south, east, and north of the Capital District, while much of


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Capital District

Albany High School In Albany, Rensselaer, Saratoga, and Schenectady counties (the four core counties of the Capital District) there are 54 public school districts,[79] some of these districts cross county borders and cover areas in counties outside or are even based outside those counties. They range from the extremely small (North Greenbush Common School District with 20 students in 2006[80]) to the largest school district in the region (Shenendehowa Central School District with 9,745 in the end of the 2008 school year,[81] which overtook Schenectady Central School District[82]).

John M. McHugh (23rd) the rest is part of the 21st district. A small part of Fulton County is part of 23rd district. Currently the districts are represented by Scott Murphy (20th district),[61][62] Paul Tonko (21st district),[63] and John M. McHugh (23rd district).[64] The area is represented by nine Assembly districts and four Senate districts. For the Assembly the area is represented by Jack McEneny (D) of Albany (104th district);[65] George Amedore (R) of Rotterdam (105th district);[66] Ronald Canestrari (D) of Cohoes (106th district);[67][68] Timothy P. Gordon (I) of Delmar (108th district);[69] Robert Reilly (D) of Colonie (109th district);[70] James Tedisco (R) of Schenectady (110th district);[71] Tony Jordan (R), (112th district);[72] Teresa Sayward (R) of Willsboro (113th district);[73] and Peter Lopez (R) of Schoharie (127th district).[74] In the State Senate the area is represented by Roy McDonald (R) of Wilton (43rd district);[75] Hugh Farley (R) of Schenectady (44th district);[76] Betty Little (R) of Queensbury (45th district);[77] and Neil Breslin (D) of Albany (46th district).[78]

Colleges and universities
The colleges and universities of the Capital District have a long and distinguished heritage. Union College in Schenectady, the oldest in the area and founded in 1795, has had two US Presidents attend (Chester A. Arthur and Jimmy Carter).[83][84] Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy is the oldest continually-existing technical university in the English-speaking world.[85] Albany Law, Albany College of Pharmacy, Sage College of Albany, and Albany Medical Center (which consists of Albany Medical Center Hospital and the Albany Medical College) are independent of each other but all share one campus as part of the University Heights Association, in Albany.

Four-year institutions
• The College of Saint Rose • Excelsior College • Empire State College (part of the State University of New York (SUNY) system with locations at Saratoga Springs,

School districts


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Two college buildings representing the past and the future, the Nott built in 1879 and EMPAC in 2008

Capital District

Two-year institutions
• Adirondack Community College (part of the SUNY system) • Bryant & Stratton College • Columbia-Greene Community College (part of the SUNY system) • Fulton-Montgomery Community College (part of the SUNY system) • Hudson Valley Community College (part of the SUNY system) • Mildred Elley • Schenectady County Community College (part of the SUNY system)

Graduate colleges and speciality schools
• Albany College of Pharmacy (part of Union University) • Albany Law School (part of Union University) • Albany Medical College (part of Union University) • Graduate College of Union University (part of Union University) • Sage Graduate School (part of The Sage Colleges)

Nott Memorial at Union College

Albany has long been at the forefront of transportation technology from the days of turnpikes and plank roads to the Erie Canal, from the first passenger railroad in the state to the oldest municipal airport in the nation. Today, Interstates, Amtrak, and the Albany International Airport continue to make the Capital District a major crossroads of the Northeastern United States. The Capital District Transportation Committee (CDTC) is the Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO) for the AlbanySchenectady-Troy Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA). Every metropolitan area in the United States with a population of over 50,000 must have a MPO in order to get any federal transportation funding. The US Department of Transportation (USDOT) uses an MPO to make decisions on what projects are most important to a metro area for immediate versus long term funding. The USDOT will not approve federal funds for transportation projects unless they are on an MPO’s list.[86] The Adirondack/Glens Falls Transportation Council (A/GFTC) is the MPO for

Experimental Media and Performing Arts Center at RPI Latham, Queensbury, Schenectady, and Johnstown) Maria College of Albany Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) Russell Sage College (part of The Sage Colleges) Sage College of Albany (part of The Sage Colleges) Siena College Skidmore College State University of New York at Cobleskill (part of the SUNY system) Union College (part of Union University) University at Albany (part of the SUNY system)

• • • • • • • • •


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the Glens Falls MSA (and the town of Moreau, in Saratoga County).[87]

Capital District

Interstate and other major highways

CDTA Gillig hybrid bus, in Schenectady, with iRide branding. The Greater Glens Falls Transit serves the city of Glens Falls, and its suburbs in Warren, Washington, and Saratoga counties. The Gloversville Transit System covers the twin cities of Gloversville and Johnstown along with their suburbs in Fulton County, along with one longer distance route to and through Amsterdam in Montgomery County and back. The Schoharie County Public Transit services a large swath of that county. The city of Mechanicville, Saratoga County runs a public transit service on four routes which cover the city and the surrounding suburbs in the towns of Stillwater and Halfmoon in Saratoga County and the hamlet of Hemstreet Park in the town of Schaghticoke, Rensselaer County.[89]

US 4 begins in the Capital District here at US 9 & 20 in East Greenbush • Thomas E. Dewey New York State Thruway (I-87 south of Albany, I-90 west of Albany) • Interstate 90 • Interstate 87 (Adirondack Northway north of Albany) • Interstate 88 • Interstate 787 • Interstate 890 • US Route 9 • US Route 20 • US Route 4 • US Route 9W • New York State Route 7 • New York State Route 5 • New York State Route 85 • New York State Route 32 • New York State Route 30 • South Mall Arterial • Taconic Parkway

Cities with intercity bus service to outside of region
• Albany- Greyhound Lines, Trailways, and Peter Pan/Bonanza buses are all served by a downtown terminal. There is also a Chinatown bus service that leaves from Central Avenue and goes to Chinatown in Manhattan. • Schenectady- Greyhound and Trailways serve a downtown terminal on State Street. • Glens Falls- Greyhound and Trailways serve a downtown terminal. • Saratoga Springs- Greyhound

Mass transit
The four core counties of the Capital District is served by buses of the Capital District Transportation Authority, which has transit hubs in the three principal cities of Albany, Schenectady, and Troy. There is also express bus service between Saratoga Springs and Albany. The CDTA serves a large part of Albany, Rensselaer, and Schenectady counties, and has recently started expanding its service in Saratoga County,[88] but currently does not serve north of Saratoga Springs.

Nine of the 11 counties in the Capital District make up the Upper Hudson Region as defined by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). In 1978 the FAA assigned the


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Capital District
city of New York), Empire Service (west to Buffalo and Niagara Falls, south to New York), Ethan Allen Express (northeast to Rutland, Vermont and south to New York), Maple Leaf (west to Toronto and south to New York), and the Lake Shore Limited (at Albany-Rensselaer separate routes from Boston and New York merge to one train west to Chicago, on way east one train splits to two, one east to Boston another south to New York). Amtrak stations in the region include:

Albany International Airport main entrance to terminal Capital District Regional Planning Commission to be responsible for this region’s aviation system planning and to provide technical assistance. The Upper Hudson Region has 26 airports open to public use, with 13 designated as system airports.[90] Those 13 airports are:[91] • Albany International Airport in Colonie, Albany County; • Schenectady County Airport in Glenville, Albany County; • Saratoga County Airport in Milton, Saratoga County; • Columbia County Airport in Columbia County; • Fulton County Airport in Johnstown, Fulton County; • Freehold Airport in Greenville, Greene County; • South Albany Airport in Bethlehem, Albany County; • Rensselaer County Airpark in Poestenkill, Rensselaer County; • Duanesburg Airport in Duanesburg, Schenectady County; • Burello-Mechanicville Airport in Schaghticoke, Rensselaer County; • Plateau Sky Ranch in Edinburg, Saratoga County; • Sharon Airport in Sharon, Schoharie Couny; • Maben Airport in Prattsville, Greene County.

Albany-Rensselaer Rail Station

Fort Edward-Glens Falls Rail Station • Albany-Rensselaer Amtrak Station in Rensselaer County • Schenectady Amtrak Station in Schenectady County • Saratoga Springs Amtrak Station in Saratoga County • Fort Edward-Glens Falls Amtrak Station in Washington County • Hudson Amtrak Station in Columbia County • Amsterdam Amtrak Station in Montgomery County • Whitehall Amtrak Station in Washington County • Ticonderoga Amtrak Station in Warren County

Amtrak has several routes servicing the stations of the Capital District. The Adirondack (north to Montreal, Quebec and south to the


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Capital District

Notes and references









[10] The Insurance Year Book. The Spectator Company. 1914. p. 429. Cuyler Reynolds (1906). Albany Chronicles. p. 603. books?id=ONoMAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA429&dq=capital+ Retrieved on 2009-04-20. books?id=XNU0AAAAIAAJ&pg=PA17&dq=castle+island+french+fort+1540&lr=#PPR4,M1. [11] ^ John Whish (1917). Albany Guide Retrieved on 2009-01-18. Book. J.B. Lyon Company. ^ "American Locomotive Builders". Ogden Publishers. books?id=DqCeHOJyK0wC&pg=PA210&dq=capital+ Retrieved on 2009-04-20. Farm-Life/American-Locomotive[12] "Regional Offices". New York State Builders.aspx. Retrieved on 2009-04-30. Department of Transportation. "A Short History of International Paper". Forest History Today. Retrieved on 2009-05-05. [13] "Region hopes to make a name for itself". Publications/FHT/FHT1998/IP.pdf. Albany Times Union. 1998-03-11. Retrieved on 30 April 2009. Eric Anderson (20 November 2008). wmsql.wm.request?oneimage&imageid=5912929. "Port of Albany ’still thriving’.". Albany Retrieved on 23 May 2009. Times Union. [14] "FAQ". Tech Valley Chamber Coalition. AspStories/ story.asp?storyID=741724&category=BUSINESS. About%20Tech%20Valley/Key%20Facts/ Retrieved on 26 November 2008. FAQ.html. Retrieved on 2009-05-05. Wechsler, Alan (21 April 2006). "Region [15] "Advancing Tech Valley". Albany-Colonie rich in business history". Albany Times Regional Chamber of Commerce. Union. specialreports/tu150/stories/ RegionalDevelopment/ business.asp. Retrieved on 22 April AdvancingTechValley.aspx. Retrieved on 2006. 2009-05-05. "Statutes at Large of the State of New [16] "GLOBALFOUNDRIES, World’s First York". Weed, Parson & Company. 1870. Global Semiconductor Foundry Opens for Business". GlobalFoundries. books?id=dHo4AAAAIAAJ&pg=RA1-PA439&dq=capital+police+district+albany&lr=&as_brr=1#PPP Retrieved on 2009-03-19. globalfoundries_opens. Retrieved on 23 Edward Underhill, official stenographer May 2009. (1868). "Proceedings and debates of the [17] "The #1 College in the World for Constitutional convention of the state of Nanotechnology". College of Nanoscale New York, held in 1867 and 1868, in the Science and Engineering of the city of Albany. Vol. 4". Weed, Parsons & University at Albany, State University of Company. 3001. New York. books?id=2-4KAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA3001&dq=capital+police+district+albany&lr=&as_brr=1. about_cnse/why_cnse/1_in_world.html. Retrieved on 2009-03-19. Retrieved on 23 May 2009. Edward Underhill, official stenographer [18] Richard D’Errico (2007-05-10). (1868). "Proceedings and debates of the "International Sematech move to Constitutional convention of the state of transform local economy". The Business New York, held in 1867 and 1868, in the Review. city of Albany. Vol. 4". Weed, Parsons & albany/stories/2007/05/07/daily24.html. Company. 2954. Retrieved on 2009-04-20. books?id=2-4KAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA3001&dq=capital+police+district+albany&lr=&as_brr=1. [19] "Rensselaer Technology Park: About the Retrieved on 2009-03-21. Park". Rensselear Polytechnic Institute. Second Capital District Conference of Charities and Correction: Proceedings. aboutpark.php. Retrieved on 23 May J.B. Lyon Company. 1914. p. iv. 2009. [20] Gardinier, Bob (2007-09-03). "For 40 books?id=UVwuAAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=capital+district+conference+of+charities+and kids, an adventure begins Thursday". Retrieved on 2009-04-20. Times Union (Albany). pp. A1.


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Capital District ~nyalbany/formed.html. Retrieved on 23 docheckout.asp?action=Get+Doc+Tag&dblist=TX2007_ALBANYTU&tagnum=200709030126&papid= May 2009. Retrieved on 2009-01-17. [32] "Introduction to Tryon County of [21] Cuyler Reynolds (1906). Albany 1772-1784". USGenWeb. Chronicles. p. 2. ~nytryon/intro2.html. Retrieved on 23 books?id=XNU0AAAAIAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=albany+chronicles&lr=&as_brr=1#PPA2,M1. May 2009. Retrieved on 2009-04-20. [33] "Annual report of the Commissioner of [22] ^ Paul Grondahl (8 February 2009). "400 Labor". New York State Department of Years: A Grand Perspective". Albany Labor. 285. Times Union. books?id=o-4ZAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA285&dq=one+out+ Retrieved on 2009-04-30. wmsql.wm.request?oneimage&imageid=7472911. [34] "History". Tech Valley Chamber Retrieved on 20 April 2009. Coalition. [23] Robbie Ethridge and Charles Hudson, ed Pages/Live/About%20Tech%20Valley/ (2002). The transformation of the History.html. Retrieved on 2009-05-05. southeastern Indians, 1540-1760. p. xxvi. [35] "Saratoga County keeps leading Capital growth". Albany Times Union. books?id=n7HeDFyntHYC&pg=PR26&dq=dutch+and+french+conflict+over+fur+trade+in+albany, 1987-09-01. Retrieved on 29 April 2009. [24] Alan Taylor (2001). American colonie. wmsql.wm.request?oneimage&imageid=5431386. Penguin Books. pp. 261. ISBN Retrieved on 23 May 2009. 0-670-87282-2. [36] Peg Shiro (1989-4-26). "Portrait of a city books?id=NPoAQRgkrOcC&pg=PA261&dq=english+and+french+conflict+over+fur+trade+in+alba by the river...Troy’s past, present and Retrieved on 29 April 2009. future". Albany Times Union. [25] Cuyler Reynolds (1906). Albany Chronicles. p. 93. wmsql.wm.request?oneimage&imageid=5510162. Retrieved on 23 May 2009. books?id=XNU0AAAAIAAJ&pg=PA17&dq=castle+island+french+fort+1540&lr=#PPR4,M1. [37] Monica Gagnier (2008-11-10). "The Retrieved on 18 January 2009. Synecdoche of Schenectady". Business [26] "Schaghticoke". Colonial Albany Social Week. History Project. blogs/recession_in_america/archives/ 2008/11/the_synecdoche.html. Retrieved sgtke.html. Retrieved on 15 February on 23 May 2009. 2009. [38] Glen King (1992-02-23). "Developers find [27] Cuyler Reynolds (1906). Albany opportunity knocks on ’other side’ of Chronicles. p. 93. river". Albany Times Union. books?id=XNU0AAAAIAAJ&pg=PA17&dq=castle+island+french+fort+1540&lr=#PPR4,M1. wmsql.wm.request?oneimage&imageid=5631646. Retrieved on 18 January 2009. Retrieved on 23 May 2009. [28] "Fort Hunter". Colonial Albany Social [39] Joe Picchi (1993-06-11). "Troy firm to History Project. create 100 jobs". Albany Times Union. forthunter.html. Retrieved on 15 wmsql.wm.request?oneimage&imageid=5680030. February 2009. Retrieved on 23 May 2009. [29] "Waterford, NY village web page". [40] Richard A. D’Errico (2008-01-04). "Tech Village of Waterford. park developers retain optimistic Retrieved outlook". The Business Review (Albany). on 20 April 2009. [30] ^ "Albany County". New York State albany/stories/2008/01/07/focus1.html. Museum. Retrieved on 23 May 2009. albany/albanycounty.html. Retrieved on [41] Craig Brandon (1991-09-17). "Capital 23 May 2009. District keeps moving to the suburbs". [31] ^ "Albany County formation timeline". Albany Times Union. NYGenWeb.


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wmsql.wm.request?oneimage&imageid=5613972. Management and Budget. 5 December Retrieved on 23 May 2009. 2005. 29. [42] ^ "The Malling of the Capital Region". omb/bulletins/fy2006/b06-01_rev_2.pdf. Albany Times Union. 1999-08-15. Retrieved on 1 May 2009. [54] Census 2000 PHC-T-29: Ranking Tables wmsql.wm.request?oneimage&imageid=6004302. Population of Metropolitan Statistical for Retrieved on 23 May 2009. Areas, Micropolitan Statistical Areas, [43] Combined Statistical Areas, New corning2.html England City and Town Areas, and [44] "Case Study: The Capital Region of New Combined New England City and Town York". 1990 and 2000 (Areas defined by york/albany-case-study. Retrieved on 23 the Office of Management and Budget as May 2009. of June 6, 2003.) [45] "Monthly Averages for Albany, NY". [55] "Metropolitan and Micropolitan Areas in 2008. New York State". New York State Department of Labor. weather-new-york/albany-weather.asp. Retrieved on 2008-09-26. workforceindustrydata/PDFs/ [46] "Albany Parks Guide". Metro_Micro_Areas_NYS.pdf. Retrieved Retrieved on 19 April 2009. on 23 May 2009. [56] "Population in Combined Statistical [47] "A walk through the garden". Rose Areas". US Census Bureau. Garden Restoration Committee. cen2000/briefs/phc-t29/tables/tab08.pdf. take_walk.htm. Retrieved on 15 May Retrieved on 19 April 2009. 2009. [57] "Annual Estimates of the Population of [48] International Council of Shopping Combined Statistical Areas: April 1, 2000 Centers Shopping Center Definitions for to July 1, 2007" (CSV). 2007 Population the U.S. Information accurate as of 2004. Estimates. United States Census Bureau, Retrieved Feb 20, 2007. Population Division. 27 March 2008. [49] "DMA Name: Albany-Schenectady-Troy". Backchannelmedia, Inc.. estimates/metro_general/2007/CSA EST2007-alldata.csv. Retrieved on 2 dma/show/Albany-Schenectady-Troy. April 2008. Retrieved on 2009-05-19. [58] "Senator Charles E. Schumer". United [50] "Albany Schenectady Troy DMA". States Congress. Truckads. Retrieved on Affiliate/Albany_Schenectady_Troy.htm. 6 May 2009. Retrieved on 2009-04-20. [59] "Kirsten Gillibrand - United States [51] "Schenectady City School District Hall of Senator for New York". United States Fame & Reunion Pat Riley Biography". Congress. Schenectady City School District. Retrieved on 6 May 2009. [60] Kirsten Gillibrand originally represented AthleticHallofFame/ the area from the 20th congressional HallofFameMembers/PatRiley.htm. district before being promoted to the Retrieved on 2009-05-01. United States Senate by New York [52] Mike MacAdam (2009-09-25). "Linton Governor David Paterson. She lives in grad Pat Riley, Class of ’63, bound for Hudson, in the Capital District. Basketball Hall of Fame". The Daily [61] "Congressman Scott Murphy, Gazette. Representing the 20th District of New news/2008/sep/05/0905_riley/. Retrieved York". United States Congress. on 2009-04-25. Retrieved [53] "OMB Bulletin No. 06-01 Corrected: on 6 May 2009. Update of Statistical Area Definitions [62] Scott Murphy filled the vacancy left by and Guidance on Their Uses". Executive the promotion of Kirsten Gillibrand to Office of the President: Office of the Senate, winning the New York’s 20th


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congressional district special election, 2009 [63] "Congressman Paul D. Tonko, Representing the 21st District of New York". United States Congress. Retrieved on 6 May 2009. [64] "Congressman John M. McHugh". United States Congress. Retrieved on 6 May 2009. [65] "Assemblymember John J. McEneny, 104th Assembly District". New York Legislature. mem/?ad=104. Retrieved on 6 May 2009. [66] "Assemblymember George Amedore, 105th Assembly District". New York Legislature. mem/?ad=105. Retrieved on 6 May 2009. [67] "Assemblymember Ron Canestrari, 106th Assembly District". New York Legislature. mem/?ad=106. Retrieved on 6 May 2009. [68] Mr. Canestrari is currently the Majority Leader of the Assembly [69] "Assemblymember Tim Gordon, 108th Assembly District". New York Legislature. mem/?ad=108. Retrieved on 6 May 2009. [70] "Assemblymember Bob Reilly, 109th Assembly District". New York Legislature. mem/?ad=109. Retrieved on 6 May 2009. [71] "Assemblymember James Tedisco, 110th Assembly District". New York Legislature. mem/?ad=110. Retrieved on 6 May 2009. [72] "Assemblymember Tony Jordan, 112th Assembly District". New York Legislature. mem/?ad=112. Retrieved on 6 May 2009. [73] "Assemblymember Teresa R. Sayward, 113th Assembly District". New York Legislature. mem/?ad=113. Retrieved on 6 May 2009. [74] "Assemblymember Peter D. Lopez, 127th Assembly District". New York Legislature.

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mem/?ad=127. Retrieved on 6 May 2009. [75] "New York State Senator Roy McDonald". New York Legislature. Retrieved on 6 May 2009. [76] "New York State Senator Hugh T. Farley". New York Legislature. Default.aspx. Retrieved on 6 May 2009. [77] "New York State Senator Elizabeth O’C. Little". New York Legislature. default.aspx. Retrieved on 6 May 2009. [78] "New York State Senator Neil D. Breslin". New York Legislature. Default.aspx. Retrieved on 6 May 2009. [79] "Capital Region School Districts". Capital District Regional Planning Commission. Retrieved on 2009-05-01. [80] "North Greenbush Common School District Internal Controls Over Financial Operations: Introduction". Office of the State Comptroller. 2006. audits/2007/schools/ northgreenbush.htm. Retrieved on 2009-05-01. [81] "The New York State District Report Card: Accountability and Overview Report 2007-2008 (Shenendehowa Central School District)" (PDF). New York State Education Department. 2009. 2008/15/AOR-2008-520302060000.pdf. Retrieved on 2009. [82] "The New York State District Report Card: Accountability and Overview Report 2007-2008 (Schenectady Central School District)" (PDF). New York State Education Department. 2009. 2008/23/AOR-2008-530600010000.pdf. Retrieved on 2009. [83] "Union Notables: Chester Alan Arthur". Union College. About/notables/Arthur.php. Retrieved on 2009-04-24. [84] "Biography of Jimmy Carter". Jimmy Carter Library & Museum. documents/jec/jecbio.phtml. Retrieved on 2009-04-24.


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Capital District

[85] "RPI History". Rensselaer Polytechnic [90] "CDRPC Mission & Work Program". Institute. Capital District Regional Planning history.html. Commission. [86] "Capital District Transportation Retrieved on 23 May 2009. Committee". Capital District [91] "Upper Hudson Region System Airport Transportation Committee. Data". Capital District Regional Planning Commission. Retrieved on 2009-04-23. Retrieved on 23 May 2009. [87] "About the Adirondack/Glens Falls Transportation Council". Adironadack/ Glens Falls Transportation Council. • Albany Colonie Regional Chamber of Commerce Retrieved on 2009-04-23. • Capital-Saratoga Region Tourist [88] Kenneth C. Crowe II (February 17, Information 2006). "CDTA bus service to grow in • Saratoga style". Albany Times Union. • Capital District Regional Planning Commission wmsql.wm.request?oneimage&imageid=6384333. • Capital District Transportation Authority Retrieved on 23 May 2009. [89] "City of Mechanicville Public Transit Coordinates: 42°39′9.3″N 73°45′26.49″W / System Guide". City of Mechanicville. 42.652583°N 73.7573583°W / 42.652583; -73.7573583 PublicTransit/ city_of_mechanicville_public_transit.htm. Retrieved on 2009-05-05.

External links

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