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Baltimore

Baltimore
Baltimore — Independent city — City of Baltimore State Founded Incorporation Named for Government - Type - Mayor - Baltimore City Council
Downtown from Fayette Street

Maryland 1729 1797 Cecilius Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore Independent City Sheila Dixon (D) Council members Stephanie Rawlings Blake, President James B. Kraft (1) Nicholas D’Adamo, Jr. (2) Robert W. Curran (3) Bill Henry (4) Rochelle "Rikki" Spector (5) Sharon Green Middleton (6) Belinda Conaway (7) Helen L. Holton (8) Agnes Welch (9) Edward L. Reisinger (10) William H. Cole IV (11) Bernard C. Young (12) Warren Branch (13) Mary Pat Clarke (14) Delegates Frank M. Conaway, Jr. (40) (D) Barbara A. Robinson (40) (D) Shawn Z. Tarrant (40) (D) Jill P. Carter (41) (D) Nathaniel T. Oaks (41) (D) Samuel I. Rosenberg (41) (D) Curt Anderson (43) (D) Ann Marie Doory (43) (D) Maggie McIntosh (43) (D) Keith E. Haynes (44) (D) Ruth M. Kirk (44) (D) Melvin L. Stukes (44) (D) Talmadge Branch (45) (D) Cheryl Glenn (45) (D) Hattie N. Harrison (45) (D) Peter A. Hammen (46) (D) Carolyn J. Krysiak (46) (D) Brian K. McHale (46) (D) State senators Catherine E. Pugh (40) (D) Lisa A. Gladden (41) (D) Joan Carter Conway (43) (D) Verna L. Jones (44) (D) Nathaniel J. McFadden (45) (D) George W. Della, Jr. (46) (D) Representatives

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Nickname(s): Charm City,[1] Mob Town,[2] Crab City,[1] The City of Firsts,[3] Monument City,[4][5] Ravenstown[6] Motto: "The Greatest City in America",[1] "Get in on it."[1]

- Houses of Delegates

Location of Baltimore in Maryland

- State Senate

Baltimore
Location of Baltimore in the United States

Coordinates: 39°17′N 76°37′W / 39.283°N 76.617°W / 39.283; -76.617Coordinates: 39°17′N 76°37′W / 39.283°N 76.617°W / 39.283; -76.617 Country United States

- U.S. House

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Dutch Ruppersberger (2) (D) John Sarbanes (3) (D) Elijah Cummings (7) (D) Area - Independent city - Land - Water - Urban Elevation [7] 92.07 sq mi (238.5 km2) 80.8 sq mi (209.3 km2) 11.27 sq mi (29.2 km2) 12.2% 3,104.46 sq mi (8,040.5 km2) 33 ft (10 m)

Baltimore
As of 2007, the population of Baltimore was 637,455.[9] The Baltimore Metropolitan Area, which includes the city’s surrounding areas, has approximately 2.6 million residents; the 20th largest in the country. Baltimore is also the largest city in the Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area of approximately 8.1 million residents. The city is named after Lord Baltimore in the Irish House of Lords, the founding proprietor of the Maryland Colony. Baltimore himself took his title from a place in Bornacoola parish, County Leitrim and County Longford, Ireland.[11] Baltimore is an anglicized form of the Irish Baile an Tí Mhóir, meaning "Town of the Big House",[12] not to be confused with Baltimore, County Cork, the Irish name of which is Dún na Séad.[13]

Population (2007)[8][9] 637,455(20th) - Independent city 7,889.3/sq mi (3,045.7/km2) - Density 2,668,056(20th) - Metro Baltimorean - Demonym Time zone - Summer (DST) ZIP Code EST (UTC-5) EDT (UTC-4) 21201-21231, 21233-21237, 21239-21241, 21244, 21250-21252, 21263-21265, 21268, 21270, 21273-21275, 21278-21290, 21297-21298 24-04000 0597040 www.baltimorecity.gov

History
The Maryland colonial General Assembly created the Port of Baltimore at Locust Point in 1706 for the tobacco trade. The Town of Baltimore was founded on July 30, 1729, and is named after Lord Baltimore (Cecilius Calvert), who was the first Proprietary Governor of the Province of Maryland. Cecilius Calvert was a son of George Calvert, who became the First Lord Baltimore of County Cork, Ireland in 1625.[14] Baltimore grew swiftly in the 18th century as a granary for sugar-producing colonies in the Caribbean. The profit from sugar encouraged the cultivation of cane and the importation of food. Baltimore’s shorter distance from the Caribbean, compared to other large port cities such as New York City and Boston, reduced transportation time and minimized the spoilage of flour. Baltimore played a key part in events leading to and including the American Revolution. City leaders such as Jonathan Plowman Jr. moved the city to join the resistance to British taxes and merchants signed agreements to not trade with Britain. After the war, the Town of Baltimore, nearby Jonestown, and an area known as Fells Point were incorporated as the City of Baltimore in 1797. The city remained a part of Baltimore County until 1851 when it was made an independent city.[15] The city was the site of the Battle of Baltimore during the War of 1812. After burning Washington, D.C., the British attacked Baltimore on the night of September 13, 1814. United States forces from Fort McHenry

FIPS code GNIS feature ID Website

Baltimore (pronounced /bɒltɨmɔr/) is an independent city and the largest city in the state of Maryland. Baltimore is located in central Maryland along the tidal portion of the Patapsco River,[10] an arm of the Chesapeake Bay. Baltimore is sometimes referred to as Baltimore City in order to distinguish it from surrounding Baltimore County. Founded in 1729, Baltimore is a major U.S. seaport and is situated closer to major Midwestern markets than any other major seaport on the East Coast. Baltimore’s Inner Harbor was once the second leading port of entry for immigrants to the United States and a major manufacturing center. The harbor is now home to the Harborplace, a shopping, entertainment, and tourist center, and the National Aquarium in Baltimore. After a decline in manufacturing industries, Baltimore shifted to a service sector-oriented economy. Johns Hopkins University and Johns Hopkins Hospital are now the city’s largest employers. Despite some economic revitalization efforts, Baltimore still has many urban problems such as concentrated poverty, crime, and inadequate public education.

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Baltimore

Battle Monument commemorates the Battle of Baltimore. successfully defended the city’s harbor from the British. Francis Scott Key, a Maryland lawyer, was aboard a British ship where he had been negotiating for the release of an American prisoner, Dr. William Beanes. Key witnessed the bombardment from this ship and later wrote "The Star-Spangled Banner", a poem recounting the attack. Key’s poem was set to a 1780 tune by British composer John Stafford Smith, and the Star-Spangled Banner became the official National Anthem of the United States in 1931. Following the Battle of Baltimore, the city’s population grew rapidly. The construction of the Federally-funded National Road (presently U.S. Route 40) and the private Baltimore & Ohio Railroad (B&O) made Baltimore a major shipping and manufacturing center by linking the city with major markets in the Midwest. A distinctive local culture started to take shape, and unique skyline developed peppered with churches and monuments. Baltimore acquired its moniker , "Monument City" after an 1827 visit to Baltimore by President John Quincy Adams. At an evening function Adams gave the following toast: "Baltimore: the Monumental CityMay the days of her safety be as prosperous and happy, as the days of her dangers have been trying and triumphant."[5]. Baltimore suffered one of the worst riots of the Sixth Regiment fighting railroad strikers, July 20, 1877[16] antebellum south in 1835, when bad investments led to Baltimore Anti-bank riot.[17] Maryland did not secede during the American Civil War, but remained a part of the United States. However, when Union soldiers marched through the city at the start of the war, Confederate sympathizers attacked the troops, which led to the Baltimore riot of 1861. Four soldiers and 12 civilians were killed during the riot, which caused Union troops to occupy Baltimore. Maryland came under direct federal administration — in part, to prevent the state from seceding — until the end of the war in April 1865. Following an economic depression known as the Panic of 1873, the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad company attempted to reduce its workers wages, leading to the Great Railroad Strike of 1877. On July 20, Maryland Governor John Lee Carroll called up the 5th and 6th Regiments of the National Guard to end the strikes, which had disrupted train service at Cumberland in western Maryland. Citizens sympathetic to the railroad workers attacked the national guard troops as they marched from their armories in Baltimore to Camden Station. Soldiers from the 6th Regiment fired on the crowd, killing 10 and wounding 25. Rioters then damaged B&O

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trains and burned portions of the rail station. Order was restored in the city on July 21—22 when federal troops arrived to protect railroad property and end the strike.[18]

Baltimore
National Aquarium in Baltimore, Maryland’s largest tourist destination, and the Baltimore Museum of Industry in 1981. In 1992, the Baltimore Orioles baseball team moved from Memorial Stadium to Oriole Park at Camden Yards, located downtown near the harbor. Six years later the Baltimore Ravens football team moved into M&T Bank Stadium next to Camden Yards.[21] On January 17, 2007, Sheila Dixon became the first female Mayor of Baltimore.[22] The city has a number of properties on the National Register of Historic Places.[23]

Great Baltimore Fire of 1904, looking West from Pratt and Gay Streets. On February 7, 1904 the Great Baltimore Fire destroyed over 1,500 buildings in 30 hours and forced most of the city to rebuild. Two years later, on September 10, 1906, the Baltimore American newspaper reported that the city had risen from the ashes and "one of the great disasters of modern time had been converted into a blessing." The city grew in area by annexing new suburbs from the surrounding counties, the last being in 1918. A state constitutional amendment approved in 1948, requires a special vote of the citizens in any proposed annexation area, which effectively prevents any future expansion of the city’s boundaries.[19] The Baltimore riot of 1968 occurred following the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. in Memphis, Tennessee on April 4, 1968. Coinciding with riots in other cities, public order was not restored until April 12, 1968. The Baltimore riot cost the city of Baltimore an estimated $10 million (about $63 million in 2008). Maryland National Guard troops and 1,900 federal troops were ordered into the city. Lasting effects of the riot can be seen on the streets of North Avenue, Howard Street, and Pennsylvania Avenue where long stretches of the streets remain barren.[20] During the 1970s, Baltimore’s downtown area known as the Inner Harbor, had been neglected and was only occupied by a collection of abandoned warehouses. Efforts to redevelop the downtown area started with the construction of the Baltimore Convention Center, which opened 1979. Harborplace, an urban retail and restaurant complex opened on the waterfront in 1980, followed by the

Geography

Eastward view along Baltimore harbor Baltimore is in north-central Maryland on the Patapsco River close to where it empties into the Chesapeake Bay. The city is also located on the fall line between the Piedmont Plateau and the Atlantic Coastal Plain, which divides Baltimore into "lower city" and "upper city". The city’s elevation ranges from sea level at the harbor to 480 feet (150 m) in the northwest corner near Pimlico.[24] According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 92.1 square miles (238.5 km²), of which, 80.8 square miles (209.3 km²) of it is land and 11.3 square

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Baltimore
lighter rain showers of longer duration, and generally less sunshine and more clouds. Some light to moderate snowfall can occur occasionally in the winter, with heavy snows relatively rare. The average annual snowfall is only 21 inches (53 cm). Baltimore averages only 2–3 snow events per year[26] In the northern and western suburbs, the climate begins to transition to subtropical highland climate, and thus winter snowfall amounts are usually higher, with some towns annually receiving 24–36 inches (61–91 cm).[27] Freezing rain and sleet occurs a few times each winter in Baltimore, as warm air over rides cold air at the upper levels of the atmosphere. The cold air gets trapped against the mountains to the west and the result is freezing rain and or sleet. The city lies in between two peculiar physical features that protect it from extreme weather and account for the relatively tempered seasons. The Appalachian Mountains protect central Maryland from much of the harsh northern winds and accompanying lake effect weather that bring subfreezing temperatures and heavy snows to the Great Lakes region, and the Delmarva Peninsula protects Baltimore from many of the tropical storms that affect the immediate coast. The average date of first freeze in Baltimore is November 13, and the average last freeze is April 2.[28]

City plan of Baltimore (1852) by Lucas, Fielding Jr. of Baltimore. miles (29.2 km²) of it is water. The total area is 12.24 percent water.

Climate
Baltimore lies within the humid subtropical climate zone (Cfa), according to the Köppen classification. July is typically the hottest month of the year, with an average high temperature of 91 °F (32 °C) and an average low of 73 °F (22 °C).[25] Summer is also a season of very high humidity in the Baltimore area, with afternoon thunderstorms occurring regularly. The record high for Baltimore is 108 °F (42 °C), set in 1985. January is the coldest month, with an average high of 44 °F (6 °C) and an average low of 29 °F (-1 °C).[25] However, winter warm fronts can bring periods of springlike weather, and Arctic fronts can drop nighttime low temperatures into the teens. The record low temperature for Baltimore is -7 °F (-22 °C), set in 1934. Baltimore rarely experiences temperatures below 10 °F (−12 °C) or above 100 °F (38 °C). Due to an urban heat island effect in the city proper and a moderating effect of the Chesapeake Bay, the outlying, inland, and higher elevation parts of the Baltimore metro area are usually several degrees cooler than the city proper and the coastal towns. As is typical in most East Coast cities, precipitation is generous, and very evenly spread throughout the year. Every month usually brings 3-4 inches of precipitation, averaging around 43 inches (1,100 mm) annually. Spring, summer, and fall bring frequent showers and thunderstorms, with an average of 105 sunny days a year. Winter often brings

Cityscape

Baltimore’s Inner Harbor, seen from Federal Hill.

A night time panorama of Baltimore’s Inner Harbor.

Architecture
Baltimore exhibits examples from each period of architecture over more than two centuries, and work from many famous

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Baltimore
was securing its independence, as well as a scholarly interest in recently published drawings of Athenian antiquities. The Phoenix Shot Tower (1828), at 234.25 feet (71.40 m) tall, was the tallest building in the United States until the time of the Civil war. It was constructed without the use of exterior scaffolding. The Sun Iron Building designed by R.C. Hatfield in 1851, was city’s first ironfront building and it was a model for a whole generation of downtown buildings. Brown Memorial Presbyterian Church, built in 1870 in memory of financier George Brown, is noted for its stained glass windows by Louis Comfort Tiffany and has been called "one of the most significant buildings in this city, a treasure of art and architecture" by Baltimore Magazine.[30][31] The Johns Hopkins Hospital, designed by Lt. Col. John S. Billings in 1876 was a considerable achievement for its day in functional arrangement and fire proofing. I.M.Pei’s World Trade Center (1977) is the tallest equilateral pentagonal building in the world at 405 feet (123.4 m) tall. Future contributions to Baltimore’s skyline include plans for a 717 foot (218.5 m) tall structure known as "10 Inner Harbor". The building was recently approved by Baltimore’s design panel and will be completed around the year 2010. It will include luxury condominiums, a hotel, restaurants, and shopping centers. The Naing Corporation has approved a tower of 50-60 floors for the lot at 300 Pratt street, with the design currently being finalized. The Inner Harbor East area will see the addition of two new towers which have started construction: a 24-floor tower that will be the new world headquarters of Legg Mason, and a 21 floor Four Seasons Hotel complex. The streets of Baltimore are organized in a grid pattern. The streets are lined with tens of thousands of brick and Formstone faced rowhouses. Many consider the rowhouse the architectural form most closely associated to the city. Some rowhouses are dated as far back as the 1790s. Oriole Park at Camden Yards is considered by many to be the most beautiful baseball park in Major League Baseball, and has inspired many other cities to build their own versions of this Retro-Style Ballpark. Camden Yards along with the National Aquarium have helped revive the Inner Harbor from what once was an industrial district

Baltimore is the home of the National Aquarium, one of the world’s largest.

Washington Monument, in the Mt. Vernon neighborhood of Baltimore architects such as Benjamin Latrobe, John Russell Pope, Mies Van Der Rohe and I.M. Pei. The city has architecturally important buildings in a variety of styles. The Baltimore Basilica (1806-1821) is a neoclassical design by Benjamin Latrobe, and also the oldest Catholic Cathedral in the United States. In 1813 Robert Cary Long, Sr. built for Rembrandt Peale the first substantial structure in the United States designed expressly as a museum. Restored, it is now the Municipal Museum of Baltimore, or popularly the “Peale Museum”. The McKim Free School founded and endowed by John McKim, although the building was erected by his son Isaac in 1822 after a design by William Howard and William Small. It reflects the popular interest in Greece when the nation

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full of dilapidated warehouses, into a bustling commercial district full of bars, restaurants and retail establishments.

Baltimore

Tallest buildings

Belair-Edison

Downtown Baltimore from the northwest. Rank Building 1 Legg Mason Building 2 Bank of America Building 3 William Donald Schaefer Building 4 Commerce Place 5 100 East Pratt Street 6 Baltimore World Trade Center 7 Tremont Plaza Hotel 8 Charles Towers South Apartments 9 Blaustein Building 10 250 West Pratt Street Height Floors Built 529 feet 40 1973 [32] (161 m) 509 feet 37 (155 m) 493 feet 37 (150 m) 1924 [33]

1992 [34] Homeland

454 feet 31 (138 m) 418 feet 28 (127 m) 405 feet 32 (123 m)

1992 [35] 1992 [36]

1977 [37]

395 feet 37 (120 m) 385 feet 30 (117 m)

1967 [38] 1969 [39] Woodberry

360 feet 30 (110 m) 360 feet 24 (110 m)

Neighborhoods

Baltimore is officially divided into nine geographical regions: Northern, Northwestern, 1962 [40] Northeastern, Western, Central, Eastern, Southern, Southwestern, and Southeastern, 1986 [41] with each patrolled by a respective Baltimore Police Department district. However, it is not uncommon for locals to divide the city simply by East or West Baltimore, using Charles Street or I-83 as a dividing line, and/or into

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Baltimore

Carrollton Ridge

Stonewood

Station North

Charles Village North and South using Baltimore Street as a dividing line. The Central region of the city includes the Downtown area which is the location of Baltimore’s main commercial area. Home to Harborplace, The Camden Yards Sports Complex (Oriole Park at Camden Yards and M&T Bank Stadium), the Convention Center, and

Fells Point the National Aquarium in Baltimore, the area also includes many nightclubs, bars and restaurants, shopping centers and various other attractions. It is also serves as the home to many of Baltimore’s key business such as Legg Mason and Constellation Energy. In addition, the University of Maryland, Baltimore campus is housed in this area, with the long-

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associated University of Maryland Medical System adjacent to the school. The downtown core has mainly served as a commercial district with limited residential opportunities. However since 2002 the population in the downtown has doubled to 10,000 residents with a projection of 7,400 additional housing units coming available by 2012.[42] The Central region also includes the areas north of the downtown core stretching up to the edge of Druid Hill Park. Included in the more northern part of the Central region are the neighborhoods of Mount Vernon, Charles North, Reservoir Hill, Bolton Hill, Druid Heights, as well as several other neighborhoods. These neighborhoods include many residential options and are home to many of the city’s cultural opportunities. Maryland Institute College of Art, the Peabody Institute of music, the Lyric Opera House, The Walters Art Museum, The Joseph Meyerhoff Symphony Hall, as well as several galleries are all located in this region. The Northern region of the city lies directly north of the Central region and is bounded on the East by The Alameda and on the West by Pimlico Road is a suburban residential area home to many of the city’s upper class residents in neighborhoods such as the Roland Park-Homeland-Guilford-Cedarcroft area. The Northern region is home to many of Baltimore’s notable universities such as Loyola College, The Johns Hopkins University and College of Notre Dame of Maryland. The Southern region of the city, a mixed industrial and residential area, consists of the area of the city below the Inner Harbor east of the B&O railroad tracks. It is a mixed socio-economic region consisting of working class ethnically mixed neighborhoods such as Locust Point; the recently gentrified Federal Hill area, home to many working professionals, pubs and restaurants; and low-income residential areas such as Cherry Hill. The Eastern part of the city consists of the Northeastern, Eastern, and Southeastern regions of the city. Northeastern Baltimore is primarily a residential neighborhood home to Morgan State University bounded by the city line on its Northern and Eastern boundaries, Sinclair Lane, Erdman Avenue, and Pulaski Highway on its southern boundaries and The Alameda on its western boundaries. It has undergone demographic shifts over many years and remains a diverse but

Baltimore
predominantly African American region of the city.[43][44][45] The Eastern region is the heart of what is considered "East Baltimore" and is home to world renown Johns Hopkins Hospital and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. Located below Erdman Avenue and Sinclair Lane above Orleans Street, it is almost an exclusively African American area home to lowincome residential neighborhoods, several of which constitute many of Baltimore’s high crime areas. The Southeastern region of the city is located below Orleans Street bordering the Inner Harbor on its western boundary,the city line on its eastern boundaries and the Baltimore harbor on its southern boundaries is a mixed industrial and residential area. Home to many young professionals and working class people, it is an ethnically rich section of Baltimore home to many Polish Americans, Greek Americans, African Americans, and Italian Americans. Upper Fells Point is the center of the city’s steadily growing Latino population. The Western part of the city consists of the Northwestern, Western, and Southwestern regions of Baltimore. The Northwestern region of the city bounded by the county line on its northern and western boundaries, Gwynns Falls Parkway on the south and Pimlico Road on the East is a predominantly residential area home to Pimlico Race Course, Sinai Hospital and several of Baltimore’s Synagogues. Once the center of Baltimore’s Jewish community, it has undergone white flight since the 1960s and has become an almost exclusively African American area. It is home to many suburban residential areas primarily located above Northern Parkway and several lower-income areas below Northern parkway. The Western region of the city located west of downtown is the heart of "West Baltimore" bounded by Gwynns Falls Parkway, Fremont Avenue, and Baltimore Street. Home to Coppin State University and Pennsylvania Avenue, it has been the center of Baltimore’s African American culture for years home to many of the city’s historical African American neighborhoods and landmarks. Once home to many middle to upper class African Americans, over the years, the more affluent African American residents have since left migrating to other sections of the city in addition to areas such as Randallstown and Owings Mills in Baltimore County

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and Columbia in Howard County. The area now constitutes a deprived socio-economic group of African American residents and like "East Baltimore", it is known for its high crime rates. Television series, such as The Wire, that concern themselves with Baltimore’s crime problems have been based on events that took place in West Baltimore. The Southwestern region of the city is bounded by Baltimore County to the west, Baltimore Street to the north, and downtown and the B&O railroad to the east. A mixed industrial and residential area, it has gradually shifted from having a predominantly White to a predominantly African American majority.

Baltimore

Adjacent communities
The City of Baltimore is bordered by the following communities, all unincorporated census-designated places. All are in adjacent Baltimore County, except Brooklyn Park and Glen Burnie, which are in adjacent Anne Arundel County. In addition, the southern part of the city is bordered by another unincorporated part of northeastern Anne Arundel County. • Arbutus • Brooklyn Park • Catonsville • Dundalk • Glen Burnie • Lansdowne-Baltimore Highlands • Lochearn • Overlea • Parkville • Pikesville • Rosedale • Towson • Woodlawn

The Washington Monument in the movie Sleepless in Seattle); and Little Italy, located between the other two, where Baltimore’s Italian-American community was based–and where current U.S. House Speaker Nancy Pelosi grew up. Further inland, Mt. Vernon is the traditional center of cultural and artistic life of the city; it is home to a distinctive Washington Monument, set atop a hill in a 19th century urban square, that predates the more well-known monument in Washington, D.C. by several decades. The traditional local accent has long been noted and celebrated as "Baltimorese" or "Bawlmorese." One thing outsiders quickly notice is that the locals refer to their city as "Bawlamer," dropping with the "t" for the most part. The dialect is similar to that of many Marylanders and Pennsylvanians; it may reflect the region’s roots in Cornwall and the English West Country, as many of the original settlers of the Chesapeake Bay area came from this area in colonial times (Traditionally, many Marylanders call their state "Merlin"--and likewise, many Pennsylvanians call their state "Pennsavania," dropping the "l"). However, Baltimore’s local accent also reflects the rich mix of ethnic groups from Ireland, Germany, and southern and eastern Europe who immigrated to the city during

Culture
See also: List of museums in Baltimore Historically a working-class port town, Baltimore has sometimes been dubbed a "city of neighborhoods," with over 300 identified districts[46] traditionally occupied by distinct ethnic groups. Most notable today are three downtown areas along the port: the Inner Harbor, frequented by tourists due to its hotels, shops, and museums; Fells Point, once a favorite entertainment spot for sailors but now refurbished and gentrified (and featured

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Baltimore
professionals and college students to reside. In addition, Latinos are making their mark, notably in Upper Fells Point. Much of Baltimore’s black American culture has roots that long predate the 20th century "Great Migration" from the Deep South. Like Atlanta, Georgia and Washington, D.C., Baltimore has been home to a successful black middle class and professional community for centuries. Before the Civil War, Baltimore had one of the largest concentrations of free black Americans among American cities. In the twentieth century, Baltimoreborn Thurgood Marshall became the first black American justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. Baltimore’s culture has been famously celebrated in the films of Barry Levinson, who grew up in the city’s Jewish neighborhoods. His movies Diner, Tin Men, Avalon, and Liberty Heights are inspired to varying degrees by his life in the city. Baltimore native John Waters parodies the city extensively in his films, including the 1972 cult classic Pink Flamingos. His film Hairspray and its Broadway musical remake are also set in Baltimore. See List of films shot in Baltimore

Bromo Seltzer Tower, erected in 1911 the industrial era. More recently, references like "B-More" have become common. Baltimore has typically been pronounced "Baldimore" by its residents, changing only the hard "T" sound to a softer, "D" sound. "Bawlamer" pronunciations are used by a very small subclass of individuals, most of them now living outside of Baltimore, in surrounding areas like Dundalk and Essex. Newer residents of Baltimore have found ways to profit from the quaintness of the "Bawlamerese" business, and it has become a widespread misunderstanding. As Baltimore’s demographics have changed since World War Two, its cultural flavor and accents have evolved as well. Today, after decades of out-migration to suburbs beyond its corporate limits and significant in-migration of black Americans from Georgia and the Carolinas, Baltimore has become a majority black city with a significantly changed, but still regionally distinctive, dialect and culture. Recently, neighborhoods such as Federal Hill and Canton have undergone extensive gentrification and have proven to be popular places for young

Performing arts
The Baltimore Symphony Orchestra is an internationally-renowned orchestra, founded in 1916 as a publicly-funded municipal organization. The current Music Director is Marin Alsop, a protégé of Leonard Bernstein. Center Stage is the premier theater company in the city and a regionally well-respected group. The Baltimore Opera was an important regional opera company, though it filed for bankruptcy in 2008 and is not currently performing.[47] The Baltimore Consort has been a leading early music ensemble for over twenty-five years. The France-Merrick Performing Arts Center, home of the restored Thomas W. Lamb-designed Hippodrome Theatre, has afforded Baltimore the opportunity to become a major regional player in the area of touring Broadway and other performing arts presentations. Baltimore also boasts a wide array of professional (non-touring) and community theater groups. Aside from Center Stage, resident troupes in the city include Everyman Theatre and Baltimore Theatre Festival. Community theaters in the city include Fells Point Community Theatre and the Arena

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Players, which is the nation’s oldest continuously operating African American community theater.[48] Baltimore is home to the Pride of Baltimore Chorus, a 3-time International silver medalist women’s chorus, affiliated with Sweet Adelines International. 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 62,738 80,620 102,313 169,054 212,418 267,354 332,313 434,439 508,957 558,485 733,826 804,874 859,100 949,708 939,024 905,759 786,775 736,014 636,251

Baltimore
34.8% 28.5% 26.9% 65.2% 25.7% 25.9% 24.3% 30.7% 17.2% 9.7% 31.4% 9.7% 6.7% 10.5% −1.1% −3.5% −13.1% −6.5% −13.6%

Notable persons

Economy
Once an industrial town, with an economic base focused on steel processing, shipping, auto manufacturing, and transportation, Baltimore now has a modern service economy. Although deindustrialization took its toll on the city, costing residents tens of thousands of low-skill, high-wage jobs, the city is a growing financial, business, and health service base for the southern Mid-Atlantic region. Greater Baltimore is home to six Fortune 1000 companies, Constellation Energy, Grace Chemicals (in Columbia), Black & Decker (in Towson), Legg Mason, T. Rowe Price, and McCormick & Company (in Hunt Valley). Other companies that call Baltimore home include, Brown Advisory, Alex. Brown & Sons, a subsidiary of Deutsche Bank (of Baltimore origin, and at the time of its acquisition, the oldest continuously-running investment bank in the United States), FTI Consulting, Vertis, Thomson Prometric, Performax, Sylvan Learning/Laureate Education, Under Armour, DAP, 180°, Old Mutual Financial Network, and Advertising.com. The city is also home to the Johns Hopkins Hospital, which will serve as the center of a new biotechnology park. The park, one of two such projects currently under construction in the city, will provide room for medical/ technology start-ups as well as industry giants to tap into the wealth of knowledge in Baltimore. Baltimore is widely regarded as one of the world’s most important repositories of medical knowledge.

Demographics
Historical populations Census Pop. %± 13,503 — 1790 26,514 96.4% 1800 1810 46,555 75.6%

Est. 2007 637,455 0.2% After New York City, Baltimore was the second city in the United States to reach a population of 100,000, (followed by New Orleans, Philadelphia, Boston).[49] In the 1830, 1840, and 1850 censuses of the United States of America, Baltimore was the second-largest city in population, surpassed by Philadelphia in 1860. It was among the top 10 cities in population in the United States in every census up to the 1980 census, and after World War II had a population of nearly a million. The city and metropolitan area currently rank in the top 20 in terms of population. In the 1990s, the US Census reported that Baltimore ranked as one of the largest population losers alongside Detroit and Washington D.C., losing over 84,000 residents between 1990 and 2000.[50] According to the 2007 American Community Survey, the city’s population was 32.4% white (30.4% non-Hispanic-White alone), 64.6% black or African American, 0.8% American Indian and Alaska native, 2.2% Asian, 0.1% native Hawaiian and other Pacific islander, 1.4% from some other race and 1.3% from two or more races. 2.4% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.[51] As of 2006, the population was 637,455. The Baltimore–Towson metropolitan area, as of 2004, was estimated to have a population of 2.6 million.[52] The population density was

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8,058.4 people per square mile (3,111.5/ km²). There were 300,477 housing units at an average density of 3,718.6/sq mi (1,435.8/ km²). The racial makeup of the city was 64.85% African American, 31.28% white, 0.32% native American, 1.53% Asian, 0.03% Pacific islander, 0.67% from other races, and 1.47% from two or more races. 1.70% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. This census, however, does not accurately represent the city’s Latino population, which, over the past few years, has been steadily increasing. This growth is mainly seen in the southeastern neighborhoods around Upper Fells Point, Patterson Park, and Highlandtown, and in the city’s Northwestern neighborhoods such as Fallstaff, as well as various neighborhoods of Northeastern Baltimore.[53] 6.2% of the population were of German ancestry according to Census 2000. There were 257,996 households, out of which 25.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 26.7% were married couples living together, 25.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 43.0% were non-families. 34.9% of all households are made up of individuals, and 11.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42, and the average family size was 3.16. In the city, the population age spreads were 24.8% for persons under the age of 18, 10.9% for ages 18 to 24, 29.9% for ages 25 to 44, 21.2% for ages 45 to 64, and 13.2% were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 87.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $30,078, and the median income for a family was $35,438. Males had a median income of $31,767 versus $26,832 for females. The per capita income for the city was $16,978. About 18.8% of families and 22.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 30.6% of those under age 18 and 18.0% of those age 65 or over.

Baltimore
cities of 250,000 or more population.[54] Though this is significantly lower than the record-high 353 homicides in 1993, the homicide rate in Baltimore is nearly seven times the national rate, six times the rate of New York City, and three times the rate of Los Angeles. Other categories of crime in Baltimore have also been declining, although overall crime rates are still high compared to the national average. The rate of forcible rapes has fallen below the national average in recent years; however, Baltimore still has much higher-than-average rates of aggravated assault, burglary, robbery, and theft.[55] City officials have, however, come under scrutiny from Maryland legislators regarding the veracity of crime statistics reported by the Baltimore City Police Department.[56] In 2003, the FBI identified irregularities in the number of rapes reported, which was confirmed by then-Mayor Martin O’Malley. The number of homicides in 2005 appeared to exhibit discrepancies as well.[57] The former police commissioner stated upon interview that the administration suppressed corrections to its crime reports;[58] however, many of the charges made by the police commission now appear to be politically motivated.[59] Under the administration of Mayor Sheila Dixon and a new police commissioner, crime rates have been reduced, including a 17% reduction in the number of homicides from 2007 to 2008. For 2008 Baltimore had 234 homicides, down from 282 in 2007.[60]

Government
Baltimore is an independent city — not part of any county. For most governmental purposes under Maryland law, Baltimore City is treated as a "county"-level entity. The United States Census Bureau uses counties as the basic unit for presentation of statistical information in the United States, and treats Baltimore as a county equivalent for those purposes. Baltimore has been a Democratic stronghold for over 150 years, with Democrats dominating every level of government.

Crime
See also: Baltimore Police Department According to crime statistics there were 276 homicides in Baltimore in 2006, the secondhighest homicide rate per 100,000 of all U.S.

Mayor
For a full list of mayors who served the city, see List of Baltimore Mayors. On November 6, 2007, incumbent Democratic Mayor Sheila Dixon was elected Mayor.

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Baltimore
the Department of Disabilities,[63] the State Department of Education,[64] the Department of the Environment,[65] the Department of General Services,[66] the Department of Health and Mental Hygiene,[67] the Department of Human Resources,[68] the Department of Juvenile Services,[69] the Department of Labor, Licensing and Regulation,[70] and the Department of Planning.[71] In addition the Department of Budget and Management, [72] the Department of Housing and Community Development,[73] the Department of Information Technology,[74] the Maryland Department of Public Safety and Correctional Services,[75][76] and the Department of Veterans Affairs have offices in Baltimore.[77] Independent agencies headquartered in Baltimore include the Maryland Commission on Human Relations, [78] the Maryland Health Care Commission,[79] the Maryland Lottery,[80] and the Maryland Tax Court.[81]

Baltimore City Hall Dixon, as former City Council President, had assumed the office of Mayor on January 17, 2007 when former Mayor Martin O’Malley took office as the Governor of Maryland.

Baltimore City Council
Grassroots pressure for reform, voiced as Question P, restructured the city council in November 2002, against the will of the mayor, the council president, and the majority of the council. A coalition of union and community groups, organized by ACORN, backed the effort. The Baltimore City Council is now made up of 14 single member districts and one elected at-large council president. Stephanie Rawlings Blake is the council’s president and Robert W. Curran is the Vice President.

Federal government
Three of the state’s eight congressional districts include portions of Baltimore: the 2nd, represented by Dutch Ruppersberger; the 3rd, represented by John Sarbanes; and the 7th, represented by Elijah Cummings. All three are Democrats; a Republican has not represented a significant portion of Baltimore since 1931 and has not represented any of Baltimore since 2003. Both of Maryland’s Senators, Ben Cardin and Barbara Mikulski, are from Baltimore. Coincidentally, both represented the 3rd District before being elected to the Senate. Mikulski represented the 3rd from 1977 to 1987, and was succeeded by Cardin, who held the seat until his election and inauguration to the Senate in 2007. The United States Postal Service operates post offices in Baltimore. The Baltimore Main Post Office is located at 900 East Fayette Street in the Jonestown area.[82]

State government
Prior to 1969, some considered Baltimore and its suburbs to be particularly underrepresented in the Maryland General Assembly, while rural areas were heavily overrepresented. Since Baker v. Carr in 1962, Baltimore and its suburbs account for a substantial majority of seats in the state legislature; this has caused some to argue that rural areas are now underrepresented. Baltimore’s steady loss of population, however, has resulted in a loss of seats in the Maryland General Assembly. Since 1980, Baltimore has lost four senators from the 47-member Maryland State Senate and twelve delegates from the 141-member Maryland House of Delegates.

Law enforcement
• The is the primary law enforcement agency servicing the citizens of Baltimore: see main article here. • The (BSO) is the enforcement arm of the Baltimore court system. Deputy Sheriffs are sworn law enforcement officials with full arrest authority as granted by the

State agencies
Several state agencies are headquartered in Baltimore. Executive departments include the Department of Aging,[61] the Department of Business and Economic Development,[62]

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constitution of Maryland, the MPCTC and the Sheriff of the City of Baltimore.[83] • -The current Sheriff is John W. Anderson. The BCSO is divided into several sections as follows: • Field Enforcement Section • District Court Section • Child Support (Civil) Section • Child Support (Warrant) Section • Transportation Unit • Warrant Unit • Special Response Team • K-9 Team • Witness Protection Team • • -The Sheriff is responsible for the following: security of city courthouses and property, service of court-ordered writs, protective and peace orders, warrants, tax levies, as well as prisoner transportation and traffic enforcement. • The Maryland Transportation Authority Police is responsible for policing the tunnels and bridges under MTA jurisdiction and have concurrent jurisdiction with the Baltimore city police under a memorandum of understanding with the city police.

Baltimore
and I-70 are not directly connected to each other, and in the case of I-70 end just outside city limits at the Baltimore Beltway, because of freeway revolts in the City of Baltimore. These revolts were led Barbara Mikulski, now United States Senator, which resulted in the abandonment of the original plan. U.S. highways and state routes that run to and through downtown Baltimore include U.S. 1, U.S. Route 40 National Road, and the Baltimore-Washington Parkway. There are two tunnels traversing the Baltimore harbor within the city limits: the four-bore Fort McHenry Tunnel (served by I-95) and the two-bore Harbor Tunnel (served by I-895). The Baltimore Beltway crosses south of Baltimore harbor over the Francis Scott Key Bridge. Baltimore is a top destination for Amtrak along the Northeast Corridor. Baltimore’s Penn Station is one of the busiest in the country. In 2005, it ranked 8th in the United States with a total ridership of 910,523.[84] Just outside the city, Baltimore/Washington International (BWI) Thurgood Marshall Airport Rail Station is another popular stop. Amtrak’s Acela Express, Palmetto, Carolinian, Silver Star, Silver Meteor, Vermonter, Crescent, and Regional trains are the scheduled passenger train services that stop in the city. Additionally, MARC commuter rail service connects the city’s two main intercity rail stations, Camden Station and Penn Station, with Washington, D.C.’s Union Station as well as stops in between.

Transportation

The Baltimore Light Rail provides service to Baltimore-Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport. The interstate highways serving Baltimore are I-70, I-83 (the Jones Falls Expressway), I-95 (the John F. Kennedy Memorial Highway), I-395, I-695 (the Baltimore Beltway), I-795 (the Northwest Expressway), I-895 (the Harbor Tunnel Thruway), and I-97. Several of the city’s interstate highways, e.g. I-95, I-83, Interior of Baltimore-Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport, Baltimore’s major commercial airport Public transit in Baltimore is provided by the Maryland Transit Administration. The city has a comprehensive bus network, a small light rail network connecting Hunt Valley in

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the north to BWI airport and Cromwell in the south, and a subway line between Owings Mills and Johns Hopkins Hospital.[85] A proposed bus rapid transit or rail line, known as the Red Line, which would link the Social Security Administration to Fells Point and perhaps the Canton and Dundalk communities, is under study as of 2007; a proposal to extend Baltimore’s existing subway line to Morgan State University, known as the Green Line, is in the planning stage.[86] Baltimore is served by Baltimore-Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport, generally known as "BWI," which lies about 10 miles (16 km) to the south in neighboring Anne Arundel County, and by Martin State Airport, a general aviation facility, to the north in Baltimore County. BWI and Martin State airports are operated by the Maryland Aviation Administration, which is part of the Maryland Department of Transportation.[87] In terms of passenger traffic, BWI is the 24th busiest airport in the United States.[88] Downtown Baltimore is connected to BWI by two major highways (I-95 and the BaltimoreWashington Parkway via Interstate 195), the Baltimore Light Rail, and Amtrak and MARC commuter rail service between Baltimore’s Penn Station and BWI Rail Station. Martin State Airport is linked to downtown Baltimore by two major highways, I-95 and U.S. Route 40, and MARC commuter rail service between Baltimore’s Penn Station and its nearby Martin State Airport MARC Train stop.

Baltimore
The port was founded in 1706, preceding the founding of Baltimore. The Maryland colonial legislature made the area near Locust Point as the port of entry for the tobacco trade with England. Fells Point, the deepest point in the natural harbor, soon became the colony’s main ship building center, later on becoming leader in the construction of clipper ships.[89] After the founding of Baltimore, mills were built behind the wharves. The California Gold Rush led to many orders for fast vessels; many overland pioneers also relied upon canned goods from Baltimore. After the civil war, a coffee ship was designed here for trade with Brazil. At the end of the nineteenth century, European ship lines had terminals for immigrants. The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad made the port a major transshipment point. Currently the port has major roll-on rolloff facilities, as well as bulk facilities, especially steel handling.[90] Water taxis also operate in the Inner Harbor. Governor Ehrlich participated in naming the port after Helen Delich Bentley during the 300th anniversary of the port.[91] In 2007, Duke Realty Corporation began a new development near the Port of Baltimore, named the Chesapeake Commerce Center. This new industrial park is located on the site of a former General Motors plant. The total project comprises 184 acres (0.74 km2) in eastern Baltimore City and the site will yield 2,800,000 square feet (260,000 m2) of warehouse/distribution and office space. Chesapeake Commerce Center has direct access to two major Interstate Highways (I-95 and I-895) and is located adjacent to two of the major Port of Baltimore Terminals. The Port of Baltimore is the furthest inland port in the U.S. with a 50-foot (15 m) dredge to accommodate the largest shipping vessels.

Port of Baltimore

Education
See also: List of high schools in Maryland

Colleges and universities
Baltimore is the home of numerous places of higher learning, both public and private. Among them are:

Baltimore harbor in 1849 with the prominent Washington monument in the background North of the city

Private
• Baltimore Hebrew University (BHU) • Baltimore International College (BIC)

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Baltimore
• Cardinal Gibbons School • School of the Cathedral of Mary our Queen • Friends School of Baltimore • Gilman School • Institute of Notre Dame • Mount Saint Joseph College • Roland Park Country School • The Catholic High School of Baltimore • Waldorf School of Baltimore

Parochial schools
Undergraduates walk across Keyser Quadrangle in Spring at the Johns Hopkins University • College of Notre Dame of Maryland (CND or NDM) • The Johns Hopkins University (JHU) • Loyola College in Maryland (LC) • Maryland Institute College of Art (MICA) • Peabody Institute • Sojourner-Douglass College • • • • • • • • • • Archbishop Curley High School Bais Yaakov of Baltimore Cardinal Gibbons School The Catholic High School of Baltimore St. Frances Academy (Baltimore, Maryland) Institute of Notre Dame Mercy High School Mount Saint Joseph College Seton Keough High School Yeshivat Rambam

Public
• • • • • Baltimore City Community College (BCCC) Coppin State University Morgan State University University of Baltimore (UB) University of Maryland, Baltimore (UMB, formerly UMAB)

Media
Baltimore’s main newspaper is The Baltimore Sun. It was sold by its Baltimore owners in 1986 to the Times Mirror Company,[96] which was bought by the Tribune Company in 2000.[97] Baltimore is the 26th-largest television market and 21st-largest radio market in the country. Like many cities well into the 20th Century, Baltimore was a two-newspaper town until the Baltimore News American ceased publication in 1986. [98] In 2006, the Baltimore Examiner was launched to compete with The Sun. It was part of a national chain that includes the San Francisco Examiner and the Washington Examiner. In contrast to the paid subscription Sun, the Examiner was a free newspaper funded solely by advertisements. Unable to turn a profit and facing a deep recession, the Baltimore Examiner ceased publication on February 15, 2009.

Primary and secondary schools
The city’s public schools are operated by the Baltimore City Public School System and include the historic Frederick Douglass High School, which is the second oldest African American high school in the United States,[92] Baltimore City College, the third oldest public high school in the country,[93] and Western High School, the oldest public all girls school in the nation.[94] Baltimore City College (also known as "City") and Baltimore Polytechnic Institute (also known as "Poly") share the nation’s second-oldest high school football rivalry.[95]

Private schools
These private schools are within the city: • Archbishop Curley High School • Arlington Baptist High School • Baltimore Junior Academy • The Bryn Mawr School • Boys’ Latin School of Maryland • Calvert School

Sports teams
Baltimore has a long and storied sporting history encompassing many teams from many different eras. The Baltimore Orioles, have represented Major League Baseball locally since 1954 when the St. Louis Browns moved to the city of Baltimore. The Orioles won

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• • • • • • • • • •

Baltimore
Ashkelon, Israel (2005) Bremerhaven, Germany (2007) Gbarnga, Liberia (1973) Genoa, Italy (1985) Kawasaki, Japan (1978) Luxor, Egypt (1982) Odessa, Ukraine (1974) Piraeus, Greece (1982) Rotterdam, Netherlands (1985) Xiamen, People’s Republic of China (1985)

Oriole Park at Camden Yards three World Series Championships (1966, 1970, and 1983), advanced to the World Series in 1969, 1971, and 1979, and made the playoffs all but one year from 1969 through 1974. In 1995, local player (and later Hall of Famer) Cal Ripken, Jr. broke Lou Gehrig’s "unbreakable" streak of 2,130 consecutive games played (for which he was named the Sportsman of the Year by Sports Illustrated magazine). Six former Orioles players have been inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame. The Baltimore Ravens have represented the National Football League since moving from Cleveland in 1996. The team has had great success, including a Super Bowl Championship in 2001, two division championships (2003 and 2006), and two AFC Championship appearances in 2001 and 2009. Other current teams include: Baltimore Blast, National Indoor Soccer League since 1998; Crystal Palace Baltimore, USL Second Division since 2006; Baltimore Mariners, American Indoor Football Association since 2008; Baltimore Burn, National Women’s Football Association since 2004; Baltimore Nighthawks, Independent Women’s Football League since 2001; and the Charm City Roller Girls Women’s Flat Track Derby Association since 2006. Area fans are known for their passion and reverence for historical sports figure who played in the city or were born there. Wild Bill Hagy is an example of a famous fan.

See also
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Arabbers Baltimore Development Corporation Baltimore Police Department Baltimorese Baltimore in Fiction Baltimore Steam Packet Company ("Old Bay Line") Cemeteries in Baltimore Dickeyville Historic District Eliza Ridgely Enoch Pratt Free Library Formstone List of parks in the Baltimore-Washington metropolitan area List of people from Baltimore Music of Baltimore National Bohemian National Register of Historic Places listings in Baltimore, Maryland Plug Uglies Royal Blue (train) Screen painting The Wire

References
[1] ^ Donovan, Doug (2006-05-20), "Baltimore’s New Bait: The City is About to Unveil a New Slogan, ’Get In On It,’ Meant to Intrigue Visitors", The Baltimore Sun, http://www.redorbit.com/ news/business/511672/ baltimores_new_bait_the_city_is_about_to_unveil_a/ index.html, retrieved on 2008-11-28. [2] Smith, Van (2004-10-06), "Mob Rules", Baltimore City Paper, http://www.citypaper.com/arts/ story.asp?id=9176, retrieved on 2009-01-24.

Sister cities
Baltimore has eleven sister cities, as designated by Sister Cities International: [99] • Alexandria, Egypt (1995)

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Baltimore

[3] "Why is Baltimore known as The City of [13] "Placenames Database of Ireland", Firsts?", City of Baltimore, Maryland, http://www.logainm.ie/ http://www.baltimorecity.gov/answers/ ?text=baltimore&uiLang=en&placeID=13321, index.php?action=artikel&cat=2&id=3&artlang=en, retrieved on April 04, 2009. retrieved on 2008-09-30. [14] Krugler, John D (2004). English and [4] "Best Monument", 2005 Baltimore Living Catholic: the Lords Baltimore in the Winners, Baltimore City Paper, Seventeenth Century. Baltimore: Johns 2005-09-21, http://www.citypaper.com/ Hopkins University Press. p. 74. ISBN bob/story.asp?id=10574, retrieved on 0801879639. 2007-09-19. [15] "Baltimore, Maryland - Government", [5] ^ "Baltimore, Oct. 17", Salem Gazette Maryland Manual On-Line: A Guide to (Salem, Massachusetts): p. 2, Maryland Government, Maryland State 1827-10-23, http://docs.newsbank.com/ Archives, 2008-10-23, openurl?ctx_ver=z39.88-2004&rft_id=info:sid/ http://www.msa.md.gov/msa/mdmanual/ iw.newsbank.com:EANX&rft_val_format=info:ofi/ 36loc/bcity/html/bcity.html, retrieved on fmt:kev:mtx:ctx&rft_dat=10C5DE501F137990&svc_dat=HistArchive:ahnpdoc&req_dat=0F418C809C 2008-10-27. retrieved on 2008-10-27. [16] "The Great Strike", Catskill Archive, [6] "Ravenstown", Baltimore Ravens, Timothy J. Mallery, http://preview.baltimoreravens.com/ http://www.catskillarchive.com/rrextra/ Ravenstown/Ravenstown.aspx, retrieved sk7711.Html, retrieved on 2008-10-26. on 2008-06-07. [17] http://www.press.uillinois.edu/books/ [7] "USGS detail on Baltimore", catalog/34gcw3dk9780252034800.html http://geonames.usgs.gov/pls/gnispublic/ [18] Scharf, J. Thomas (1967). History of f?p=gnispq:3:::NO::P3_FID:0597040, Maryland From the Earliest Period to the retrieved on 2008-10-23. Present Day. 3 (2nd ed.). Hatboro, PA: [8] "Annual Estimates of the Population of Tradition Press. pp. 733–42. Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical [19] Duffy, James (December 2007), Areas: 2007", US Census Bureau, "Baltimore seals its borders", Baltimore 2008-03-27, http://www.census.gov/ Magazine: pp. 124-27. popest/metro/CBSA-est2007-annual.html, [20] "Baltimore Riots of 1968: A Timeline", retrieved on 2008-10-23. University of Baltimore, [9] ^ "Baltimore city, Maryland", Population http://www.ubalt.edu/ Finder, US Census Bureau, 2008-03-27, template.cfm?page=1639, retrieved on http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ 2008-09-11. SAFFPopulation?_event=ChangeGeoContext&geo_id=05000US24510&_geoContext=01000US%7C04 [21] "Who We Are", Maryland Stadium retrieved on 2008-10-23. Authority, http://www.mdstad.com/ [10] "no title", Maryland Department of index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=12& Natural Resources, retrieved on 2008-10-26. http://www.dnr.state.md.us/fisheries/ [22] Fritze, John (2007-01-19), "Dixon Takes regulations/tidal_nontidal/central/ Oath", The Baltimore Sun. patapsco1a.jpg, retrieved on [23] "National Register Information System", 2009-02-09. Map shows the demarcation National Register of Historic Places, point between tidal and non-tidal National Park Service, 2008-04-15, portions of the Patapsco River. http://www.nr.nps.gov/. [11] As a goodwill gesture, and based on this [24] "Highest and Lowest Elevations in historic link, a statue of Lady Baltimore Maryland’s Counties", Maryland was sent back to Ireland in 1974 and Geological Survey, erected there some years later. See http://www.mgs.md.gov/esic/fs/fs1.html, Jensen, Brennen (2000-06-28), "Ms. retrieved on 2007-11-14. Mobtown", Baltimore City Paper, [25] ^ "Average Monthly High and Low http://www.citypaper.com/ Temperatures for Baltimore, MD printStory.asp?id=2478, retrieved on (21211)", The Weather Channel, 2009-01-24. http://www.weather.com/outlook/travel/ [12] Placenames. Northern Ireland. businesstraveler/wxclimatology/monthly/ Genealogy. URL retrieved March 29, graph/ 2007.

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21211?from=36hr_bottomnav_business, [42] Mirabella, Lorraine. "Downtown jobs, retrieved on 2007-10-21. housing boom", The Baltimore Sun, [26] "Climate of Baltimore", Discover January 30, 2007 Baltimore, http://www.baltimore[43] "Profile of General Demographic maryland.org/ Charaterics: Hillen" (PDF), Baltimore baltimore-101.html#climate, retrieved City Planning Department, on 2007-10-23. http://censusprofile.bnia.org/ [27] NOAA, ""Maryland Average Annual Hillen%20Demographic%20Profile.pdf, Snowfall Map"", retrieved on 2007-10-27. http://www.erh.noaa.gov/er/lwx/ [44] "Profile of General Demographic Historic_Events/md-snow-avg.gif. Characteristics: New Northwood" (PDF), [28] "US National Normal First Freeze", The Baltimore City Planning Department, Weather Channel, http://censusprofile.bnia.org/ http://www.weather.com/maps/activity/ New%20Northwood%20Demographic%20Profile.pdf garden/ retrieved on 2007-10-27. usnationalnormalfirstfreeze_large.html?clip=undefined&region=undefined&collection=localwxforeca [45] "Profile of General Demographic retrieved on 2007-09-11. Characteristics: Stonewood-Pentwood[29] "Monthly Averages for Baltimore, MD", Winston" (PDF), Baltimore City Planning The Weather Channel, 2008, Department, http://www.weather.com/outlook/travel/ http://censusprofile.bnia.org/Stonewoodbusinesstraveler/wxclimatology/monthly/ PentwoodUSMD0018, retrieved on 2008-09-11. Winston%20Demographic%20Profile.pdf, [30] Evitts, Elizabeth (April 2003), "Window retrieved on 2007-10-27. to the Future" (PDF), Baltimore [46] "Baltimore Neighborhoods", City of Magazine, Baltimore, Maryland, http://www.browndowntown.org/files/ http://www.baltimorecity.gov/ april_balt_magazine.pdf, retrieved on neighborhoods/, retrieved on 2009-05-06. 2007-06-14. [31] Bishop, Tricia (April 7, 2003), [47] Smith, Tim (December 9, 2008), "Illuminated by a jewel", The Baltimore "Baltimore Opera seeks Chapter 11 Sun, http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/ protection", The Baltimore Sun, baltsun/access/ http://www.baltimoresun.com/ 321974201.html?dids=321974201:321974201&FMT=ABS&FMTS, entertainment/balretrieved on 2009-05-06. te.to.opera09dec09,0,685458.story, [32] Emporis - Legg Mason Building. retrieved on 2009-02-21. Retrieved 1 November 2007. [48] Baltimore’s African American Heritage [33] Emporis - Bank of America Building. and Attractions Guide :: Visual and Retrieved 1 November 2007. Performing Arts [34] Emporis - William Donald Schaefer [49] United States census data for 1830, Tower. Retrieved 1 November 2007. 1840, and 1850 [35] Emporis - Commerce Place. Retrieved 1 [50] "Top 50 Cities in the U.S. by Population November 2007. and Rank (2005 Census)". [36] Emporis - 100 East Pratt Street. infoplease.com. 2005. Retrieved August Retrieved 1 November 2006. 1, 2006 [37] Emporis - World Trade Center. Retrieved [51] Baltimore city, Maryland - ACS 1 November 2007. Demographic and Housing Estimates: [38] Emporis - Tremont Plaza Hotel. 2005-2007 Retrieved 1 November 2007. [52] Annual Estimates of the Population of [39] Emporis - Charles Towers South Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Apartments. Retrieved 1 November Areas: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2004 2007. (CBSA-EST2004-01) [40] Emporis - Blaustein Building. Retrieved 1 [53] "Baltimore city QuickFacts from the US November 2007. Census Bureau", [41] Emporis - 250 West Pratt Street. http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/ Retrieved 1 November 2007. 24/24510.html, retrieved on 2007-04-30.

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[54] "Offenses Known to Law Enforcement by State by City, 2006", Uniform Crime Report, 2006, September 2007, http://www.fbi.gov/ucr/cius2006/data/ table_08.html, retrieved on 2008-09-12. [55] ""Baltimore Maryland Crime Statistics and Data Resources"", http://baltimore.areaconnect.com/ crime1.htm. [56] ""State Lawmaker Calls For Investigation Into Police"", http://www.thewbalchannel.com/news/ 7057074/detail.html. , WBAL-TV (February 14, 2006) [57] ""Homicide Rate, Police Procedures Questioned"", http://www.thewbalchannel.com/news/ 7056945/detail.html. , WBAL-TV (February 14, 2006) [58] ""Ex-Commish Raised Questions During Tenure"", http://www.thewbalchannel.com/news/ 7341879/detail.html. , WBAL-TV (February 22, 2006) [59] John Wagner and Tim Craig, ""Duncan Rebukes O’Malley Over Crime"", http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/ content/article/2006/02/13/ AR2006021301857.html. , Washington Post (February 14, 2006) [60] "Homicides Down In Many Major Cities", http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2009/ 01/03/national/main4696974.shtml. , CBS News (January 3, 2009) [61] "MDOA Contact Information." Maryland Department of Aging. Retrieved on March 23, 2009. [62] "Contact Us." Maryland Department of Business and Economic Development. Retrieved on March 23, 2009. [63] "Welcome to the Maryland Department of Disabilities." Maryland Department of Disabilities. Retrieved on March 23, 2009. [64] "About MSDE." Maryland State Department of Education. Retrieved on March 22, 2009. [65] "Contact the Office." Maryland Department of the Environment. Retrieved on March 23, 2009. [66] "About DGS." Maryland Department of General Services. Retrieved on March 23, 2009. [67] "[http://www.dhmh.state.md.us/html/ stoffbldg.htm Directions - State Office Building in Baltimore]." Maryland

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Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. Retrieved on March 23, 2009. [68] Home Page. Maryland Department of Human Resources. Retrieved on March 23, 2009. [69] "Contact Us." Maryland Department of Juvenile Services. Retrieved on March 23, 2009. [70] "Welcome to the Maryland Department of Labor, Licensing and Regulation." Maryland Department of Labor, Licensing and Regulation. Retrieved on March 23, 2009. [71] "Contact Us." Maryland Department of Planning. Retrieved on March 23, 2009. [72] "Contact Us." Maryland Department of Budget and Management. Retrieved on March 23, 2009. [73] Home page. Maryland Department of Housing and Community Development. Retrieved on March 23, 2009. [74] "Contact Us." Maryland Department of Information Technology. Retrieved on March 23, 2009. [75] "Contact Information by Agency." Maryland Department of Public Safety and Correctional Services. Retrieved on March 23, 2009. [76] "Maryland Department of Public Safety and Correctional Services." Maryland State Archives. Retrieved on March 23, 2009. [77] "Contact Information." Maryland Department of Veterans Affairs. Retrieved on March 23, 2009. [78] "Human Relations, Maryland Commission on (CHR)." Maryland Phone Directory. Retrieved on March 23, 2009. [79] "Contact Information." Maryland Health Care Commission. Retrieved on March 23, 2009. [80] "Contact the Maryland Lottery." Maryland Lottery. Retrieved on March 23, 2009. [81] Home page. Maryland Tax Court. Retrieved on March 23, 2009. [82] "Post Office™ Location - BALTIMORE." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on May 5, 2009. [83] Baltimore CIty Sheriff’s Office [84] 25 Busiest stations in 2005. Inside Amtrak. Government Affairs. Amtrak Information. URL retrieved April 1, 2007. [85] Maryland Transit Administration. URL retrieved April 5, 2007.

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Preceded by Philadelphia Capital of the United States of America 1776–1777 Succeeded by Philadelphia

Baltimore

[86] Baltimore Region Rail System Plan. URL retrieved April 5, 2007. [87] Maryland Aviation Administration. URL retrieved April 5, 2007. [88] Facts and Figures. Baltimore/ Washington International Airport. URL retrieved January 18, 2009. [89] History of the Port of Baltimore, Port of Baltimore Tricentennial Committee. [90] The Port of Baltimore’s Cargo, Maryland Port Administration]. [91] Governor Ehrlich Names Port Of Baltimore After Helen Delich Bentley, Tesla Memorial Society of New York. [92] "Film shows Baltimore school struggling despite No Child Left Behind law", Associated Press, 2008-06-21, http://www.globegazette.com/articles/ 2008/06/21/entertainment/tv/ doc485dd0f84f4ed169476907.txt, retrieved on 2009-01-24. [93] Katz-Stone, Adam (2000-01-28), "School boundaries", Baltimore Business Journal, http://baltimore.bizjournals.com/ baltimore/stories/2000/01/31/ focus2.html, retrieved on 2009-01-24. [94] "WHS Flyer", Western High School, http://www.westernhighschool.org/ academics/WHS_flyer.pdf, retrieved on 2009-01-24. [95] Patterson, Ted (2000). Football in Baltimore: History and Memorabilia. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 7. ISBN 978-0801864247. [96] "The Times Mirror Company – Company History", fundinguniverse.com, Funding Universe, http://www.fundinguniverse.com/ company-histories/The-Times-MirrorCompany-Company-History.html, retrieved on 2008-09-25. [97] Smith, Terence (2000-03-21), "Tribune Buys Times Mirror", pbs.org (MacNeil/ Lehrer Productions), http://www.pbs.org/ newshour/bb/media/jan-june00/

tribune_3-21.html, retrieved on 2008-09-25. [98] http://www.lib.umd.edu/RARE/ MarylandCollection/NewsAmerican/ Index.html [99] "Baltimore City Mayor’s Office of International and Immigrant Affairs Sister Cities Program", http://www.baltimorecity.gov/ government/intl/sistercities.php, retrieved on 2008-10-16.

External links
• Baltimore travel guide from Wikitravel • City of Baltimore Website • Baltimore Area Convention and Visitors Association • About Baltimore’s Google Street View • Baltimore History Time Line • Visit My Baltimore • The Baltimore Collective — MediaWiki cultural archive project for Baltimore, Maryland US • Baltimore Walking Tours • Savvy Shopping in Baltimore • Baltimore Private School Directory • Buildings of Baltimore • The Phoenix Shot Tower in Baltimore’s Inner Harbor • Baltimore Weather - Live weather, air quality, and archived weather from the UMBC weather station. • Baltimore, Maryland, a National Park Service Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baltimore" Categories: Settlements established in 1729, Baltimore, Maryland, Cities in Maryland, Former capitals of the United States, Independent cities in the United States, Port settlements in the United States, United States communities with African American majority populations, Chesapeake Bay, Irish-American culture

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Baltimore

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