Identity Fraud Investigation Techniques Internet Fraud  55

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Identity Fraud Investigation Techniques Internet Fraud  55 Powered By Docstoc
					Internet Fraud
       55% of all fraud reports the
        FTC received was Internet-
        related complaints.
       SSN misuse by electronic
        commerce on the Internet has
        become a national crisis.
       Identity theft statistics show
        that it is one of the world's
        fastest growing crimes.
       People can buy security
        software that informs them if
        someone is hacking into their
        system and who he/she is.
   Computer Data Recovery
A computer‟s hard drive is comprised of many
magnetic plates containing billions of magnetic points
arranged in concentric circles. When data is written
onto a hard drive, the magnetic points are either kept
magnetized or demagnetized to create a pattern that
the computer recognizes as symbols. Each eight
points represents a separate symbol.

The hard drive is separated into different sections,
known as clusters, for ease of finding information.
The computer keeps a list (The Master File Table)
with information of the documents contained in each
cluster

When a document is erased, it is taken off The
Master File Table and the computer is told that the
area of the cluster which the document used to hold
the file is now available for use. DELETING A FILE
DOES NOT CHANGE THE MAGNETIZED AREA IN
WHICH IT WAS LOCATED!
   Computer Data Recovery
Identity thieves can take advantage of
computer data recover technology and find files
which have been deleted, but which have not
been overwritten by new files.
 Search Methods of Identity Thieves
   “Logical searches” – looks through The
   Master File Tables for specific information
   (ex .jpg in the documents name, if
   searching for a picture
    EnCase forensic software and other
    forensics programs
    Hashkeeper and “hashing” – a data base
    and method that allows a person to type in
    a string of numbers which correspond to
    specific programs and documents. If the
    computer contains an exact match of the
    numbers then the computer contains the
    document.
Computer Data Recovery
         Data recovery is a process in which data is
          obtained from extracted from flawed files
          or impaired media devices such as hard
          drives or other computer parts.


         Overwriting the physical location of the file
          on the hard disk is the most effective way
          of deleting a file and preventing unwanted
          computer data recovery that can be used
          in identity theft.

         Formatting a drive overwrites the partition
          table instead of destroying the data.
          Computer Data
            Recovery
 When deleting files, emptying your recycle bin, or
  formatting your hard drive, it only removes the
  hard drive‟s table of contents. However, the data
  is still there and it can be found by many data
  recovery programs and free software downloaded
  from websites
 Everything in your hard drive includes the history
  of your internet use, passwords entered and other
  files that were saved for future reference
 Identity thieves look for donated, sold and
  discarded computer hard drives with information.
  Even a discarded diskette can contain your
  personal identity. Identity thieves can take the
  information out of these unwanted hard drives and
  diskettes and use it
 In order to prevent this type of identity theft, you
  can purchase hard drive wipe software so you can
  permanently delete files that you do not want
  others to obtain if you are selling or giving away
  your computer.
 To further prevent identity theft, old hard drives
  should be destroyed before discarding and to
  watch where you go to get your computer repaired
Financial Investigation
           Financial investigations frequently
            involve documents such as bank
            and motor vehicle records.
           The point of financial
            investigations is to trail the
            transfer of money.
           Law enforcers employ financial
            investigations to track down
            crimes, such as invasion of taxes,
            public corruption, health care
            scams, telemarketing scams and
            terrorist financing.
   Financial Investigation
 Financial investigations rely
  heavily on documents. Any kind
  of records that record the
  movement of money are useful.
 Once obtained, the documents
  are analyzed to determine the
  various amounts of money and
  dates of transfer/storage.
 This can reveal evidence of
  criminal activity, especially when
  examining how the money was
  obtained(and from whom) and
  who it went to afterwards.
 Financial Investigation
                   Financial Investigators
                      develop confidential financial profiles of
                        companies/individuals who are
                        prospective parties of financial
                        transactions
                      Work closely with investment bankers
                        and accountants
                      Search for assets in order to recover
                        damages awarded by a court in fraud or
                        theft cases
Surveillance and Interview
Usually have experience in law
enforcement, insurance, the military,
government investigative or intelligence jobs.
    Financial Investigation
What financial documents are used during financial
investigations, and how?
     Tax returns: comparison of federal (IRS) tax
     returns and tax returns filed in the hopes of
     getting a loan often show disparities. (Form
     1040 U.S. Individual Income Tax Return:
     information regarding assets and income. It can
     be used to prove or disprove information in
     insurance claims)
     Bank records: summary of all transactions        How do forensic
     (withdrawals, deposits, checks), per month.       investigators get these
     Loans: demonstrate financial obligations and     documents?
     patterns of purchasing behavior.                       interviews, search
How is this information used?                              warrants, written consent,
     To create a financial statement about the             court orders, subpoenas,
     suspect                                                or public access (as in a
                                                            person or company‟s web
     To monitor financial behavior and look for
                                                            site or annual memos).
     deviations from normal patters
     To assist forensic investigators in locating
     money and/or stolen good
   Document Examination
                                Document examination is a process that involves
                                comparing a suspected document by using a
                                scientific approach to a series of certified
                                standards.
                                The document can be of many types, and the
                                examiner‟s job is to see if the suspicious document
                                matches up with the known sources.

 During an examination, the examiner can check
  handwriting, signatures, the type of machine it was
  from, any stamps or labels, printing process, etc.
     The five most important necessities needed to
      analyze documents are eexcellent eye sight, hand
      lens, Stereomicroscope, Electrostatic Detection
      Apparatus (ESDA) and Video Spectral
      Comparator (VSC)
     A document can also contain latent fingerprints, so
      the document can also be tested for fingerprints.
     If as suspect leaves a ransom note, it can we can
      trace the note back to the suspect by analyzing it
      carefully, and then relating him to the case.
    Document Examination
 Document examination is used to analyze an unknown
  document to a series of known standards.
 Illegal reproduction of handwriting occurs frequently
  and regularly appears in the legal court system.
  Comprehensive handwriting and signatures are
  constant “victims of forgery”, and are analyzed by a
  document examiner.
 Every typewriter has a distinct "signature" or
  “fingerprint“. This allows typewritten documents to be
  traced back to the typewriter that produced them. Color
  printers and photocopiers add a “stenographic pattern
  of minuscule yellow dots to the printout encoding the
  printer's serial number”. Another identification method is
  the ribbon ink analysis.
 Similar to identification of typewriters, printers and
  copiers can be identified by the imperfections which
  appear in the product. Banding contains information
  about the specific device's mechanical properties and
  with this, it is possible to figure out a printer‟s name and
  brand. Sometimes, a specific printer can be identified
  by comparing their outputs to a set of already identified
  printers.
 Some high-quality color printers and copiers
  steganographically insert fine and almost invisible
  patterns of yellow dots into the printed pages as their
  identification code. The US government ask these
  companies to apply this “tracking scheme” to trace
               Document
              Examination
 Handwriting examination by use of a powerful light and
  microscope enable law enforcement officers to find out if
  someone wrote something, which could be useful in the case
  of identity crimes as people often forge signatures
 Type examination uses a similar technique as handwriting
  examination, but also involves checking inks and paper types
  for falsifications and potential leads to where the documents
  may have originated
 Photocopied documents, such as identification can be
  compared with the originals to determine if they are the
  original, or examined on their own to find if they are
  photocopied
 Printed documents would be examined in the same manner as
  typed & photocopied documents, with more emphasis on the
  characteristics of what it was typed on and clues that could
  show where it came from
 Alterations and obliterations would be dealt with in a similar
  manner: both would be checked to reveal that they were in fact
  changed or removed, and then attempts would be made to
  discover what had been changed or obliterated.
     In identity crimes, this is highly important, as identity
        thieves could use documents written by the actual person,
        edit them, and use them to their advantage if unchecked
     Document Examination
 Most “questioned” documents can be checked for identity theft by comparing
  handwritings of the doubtful documents with a real handwriting
 Graphologists are usually psychology experts who assess personality traits
  from handwriting samples
 Forgery specialists experts who analyze altered, obliterated, changed or
  doctored documents and photos using infrared lighting, spectrographic
  equipment, or digital enhancement techniques
 Forensic stylistics are like graphologists except they look at handwriting by
  looking at semantics, spelling, word choice, syntax and phraseology
 Handwriting analyst can tell whether a crime was committed through
  document examination
      n
                  Fingerprint
           While it may be true that fingerprints are all but infallible, detecting
           them in order to obtain their data can sometimes be a difficult task,
           to accomplish this, forensic scientists emplo y such techniq ues as
           micro-X-ray fluorescence, a technique which does not damage the

                   Evidence
           documents on which they reside, and other techniques such as
           dusting, which may damage evidence, but will certain ly obtain
           results from suspected objects.
      n    Preserving fingerprints can be just as important as collectin g them,
           and in order to properly preserve them, everythin g must be
 Forensic scientists employ fingerprint detecting techniques such as
           properly photographed and video taped both before and after the
           fi gerprints are obtained, and the actual fingerprint data secured in
micro-X-raynfluorescence, a technique that does not damage the
           an unmolested place.
documents on which they reside, and other techniques such as dusting,
which may damage evidence, but will certainly obtain results from
      n    The development of fingerprints can be dependant on a varie ty of
suspected things, naturally, it depends on the way they were found and what
            objects
           method was used for be just as In the instance of dustin them,
 Preserving fingerprints can lifting them.important as collectingg, they
           are simply lif ted, in the instance everything they be lifted by
and in order to properly preserve them, of chemicals,must are properly
           isolating the area in which they are suspected to be, and
photographed and video taped both before and after the fingerprints are
           developin g that particular area with the proper chemicals or light.
obtained, and the actual fingerprint data secured in an unmolested place
      n    Digital Imagery plays an important role in Fingerprint evidence
           because it of fingerprints depends on more convenie nt way
 The developmentprovides a cheaper, faster and a variety of things to
           both photograph fingerprints as well as a way to compare them
including the way they were found and which approach was used to lift
them       faster by means of computer.
       In dusting, they are simply lifted. In the instance of chemicals,
      they are lifted by isolating the area where they are suspected to be
      and developing that area with the proper chemicals or light
 Digital imagery plays an important role in fingerprint evidence
because it provides a cheaper, faster and more convenient way to both
photograph fingerprints as well as compare them by means of computer
Fingerprint Evidence
           A fingerprint is an impression
            left on a surface made by the
            ridges on a fingertip.
           No two fingerprints are the
            same making them very
            useful for setting tow people
            apart.
           Fingerprints can be left on
            forged documents; forensic
            scientists can then lift the
            prints with chemical methods
            like ninhydrin, iodine fuming,
            and silver nitrate.
           If a match is found between
            two prints, law enforcement
            officers can then apprehend
            the perpetrator.
    Fingerprint Evidence
 What is a fingerprint?
     An impression left on a surface made by the
       ridges on a fingertip.
 Fingerprints are very valuable pieces of evidence in
  identifying the perpetrator because fingerprints are
     Unique; no two people have the same
       fingerprints.
     Unchanging; the fingerprints a person is born with
       are the fingerprints they will have for life
Fingerprints can be left on forged documents or on the surfaces near the forged
documents
      Forensic investigators can lift the prints
           with dusting powders, black or gray
           with chemicals, including ninhydrin, iodine, silver nitrate, and SuperGlue
If eight to sixteen points on a suspect‟s fingerprints correspond to points on the
prints found at the crime scene, law enforcement agents can bring this suspect to
court based on the fingerprint evidence

 * Fingerprints are the only piece of identity that cannot be easily
                              stolen. *
Fingerprint Evidence
      Fingerprints are one of the best forms of physical evidence.
       A fingerprint can both identify the offenders and victims
      Fingerprints are usually searched for at the place where an
       individual‟s identification was compromised, if possible
      Fingerprints on keypads, pens, doorknobs or any other place
       can be used against the identity thief
      University of California scientists have recently developed a
       novel method of detecting fingerprints based on the chemical
       elements present in fingerprint residue. It is known as micro-
       X-ray fluorescence, or MXRF
      MXRF shows the salts, such as sodium chloride and
       potassium chloride excreted in sweat, that way, it makes it
       possible to see the friction ridges in the fingerprint patterns
      Traditional detection method had been to treat the suspect
       area with powders, liquids, or vapors in order to add color to
       the fingerprint so that it can be photographed
      If positive identification of fingerprints can be recorded by the
       individual responsible at the time the identity was
       compromised, the one responsible can be prosecuted
      To minimize the risk of identity theft, in UK shops were
       protected by asking customers buying goods to submit a
       fingerprint to authorize a transaction when using a credit or
       debit card. The fingerprint is kept by shop in paper form for
       up to six months and if fraud was detected, police would
       have a fingerprint of the culprit
       Federal Policy
 Identity theft is overseen by the FTC (Federal Trade
Commission), the SSA‟s Office of the Inspector General (Social
Security Administration), the U.S. Secret Service, the FBI, the
U.S. Postal Inspection Service
 Theses agencies now take precautions with issuing social
security numbers and replacing cards
 The Identity Theft and Assumption Deterrence Act (Oct.
1998) makes identity theft a federal crime
      Under federal law identity theft is defined as when
     someone “knowingly transfers, possesses or uses,
     without lawful authority, a means of identification of
     another person with the intent to commit, or to aid or abet,
     or in connection with, any unlawful activity that constitutes
     a violation of federal law, or that constitutes a felony
     under any applicable state or local law”
 The Identity Theft Penalty Enhancement Act establishes
penalties for identity theft
         Federal Policy
   The Identity Theft Penalty Enhancement Act, a recent act from Bush‟s
    presidency, has huge penalties for those who use identity theft to commit
    other crimes, including and especially terrorism
   The Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act established a national
    system of fraud detection. This provides a way to stop identity thieves
    before they accumulate too much debt in illegal purchases and a means
    for victims to make only one call to alert all three major credit rating
    agencies, allowing them to protect their credit rating
   The federal government prosecutes identity theft and fraud under a
    variety of federal laws.
       In 1998, Congress passed the Identity Theft and Assumption
          Deterrence Act. “This legislation created a new offense of identity
          theft, which prohibits knowingly transfer[ring] or us[ing], without
          lawful authority, a means of identification of another person with the
          intent to commit or to aid or abet, any unlawful activity that
          constitutes a violation of Federal law, or that constitutes a felony
          under any applicable State or local law. This offense, in most
          circumstances, carries a maximum term of 15 years‟ imprisonment,
          a fine, and criminal forfeiture of any personal property used or
          intended to be used to commit the offense. Schemes to commit
          identity theft or fraud may also involve violations of other statutes
          such as identification fraud, credit card fraud, computer fraud, mail
          fraud, wire fraud, or financial institution fraud. Each of these federal
          offenses are felonies that carry substantial penalties – in some
          cases, as high as 10 years‟ imprisonment, fines, and criminal
         New York State Policy

    In October of 2002, Governor
    George Pataki made “identity
    theft” a crime in NYS by signing it
    into law legislation.

    The law provided penalties for
    actions that went into the category
    as identity theft which included
    unauthorized use of any sort of ID,
    credit cards, SSN, etc. Such a
    penalty was up to seven years in
    prison.

    Governor Pataki also made the
    Fraudulent Identification Task
    Force which targeted illegal
    manufacture of unauthorized
    passports, or forged licenses, and
    more.
     New York State Policy
New York State has helped
prevent identity theft by:
Allowing victims access to
transaction and application
records.
Implementing strict
punishments for convicted
identity thieves.
Placing Holograms on New
York State ID cards, such as
licenses to prevent the
counterfeiting of IDs.
New York State Policy
    Provisions in New York State Law
       Individuals who feel their
        personal information could have
        been compromised have access
        to transaction and application
        records
       Holograms on New York State
        I.D. cards (i.e. driver‟s license) to
        prevent identity counterfeiting
       Depending on amount of financial
        damage, or pain-and-suffering
        done to victim, an identity theft
        crime can result in heavy
        punishment.
       On cash register receipts there
        must be truncation of credit card
        info
California State Policy
           California State has helped
            prevent identity theft by:
           Requiring the shredding of
            information so that it is
            unreadable before disposal.
           Providing victims with access
            to transaction and application
            records
           Instating a credit freeze law
California State Policy
 More Provisions of California
  State Law:
   Issuing mandatory
     observations of fraud alerts
     on credit bureau reports
   Cash register receipts must
     show truncation of credit
     card info.
   Compulsory observation of       http://caag.state.ca.us/idtheft/images/topcities.gif

     fraud alerts on State Credit
     Bureau reports.
        California State

             Policy
    People must report right away to
    authorities if they think they are in danger
    of identity theft. For example, if a driver‟s
    license is misused, the owner of the ID
    must report to the California Department
    of Motor Vehicles.
   California has a Privacy Protection Plan
    which helps reduce identity theft rates.
   Victims must also fill out a Identity Theft
    Registry.
     City: New York City

    Mayor Bloomberg has signed three bills
    in May of 2005 regarding to identity
    theft.
                        The first bill, Intro 139-A further empowers
                       the Department of Consumer Affairs to deal
                       with businesses convicted of identity theft.

 Intro 140-A requires for businesses or
authorities that deal with the acquiring of
personal identification to notify the police if
they are suspicious of identity fraud.

                            Intro 141-A requires that a business or
                           authorities be licensed if they deal with
                           personal identification. They must also
                           destroy any personal identification if a
                           person doesn‟t have any relationship with
                           the business.
City: New York City
         City officials proposed about 10 bills in
          2001 to protect consumers from the
          misuse of their social security
          numbers.
         One bill helped in increasing the
          penalty for identity theft in the second
          degree from a Class E to a D felony.
          Meaning the punishment is more
          severe
         Comprehensive measures are being
          put into effect to protect privacy data
          and tighten security gaps at credit
          reporting agencies
         Limited Access to Credit Information
         Truncate Credit Card Receipts
     City: New York City
 New York City law provisions to help reduce incidents of
  identity theft include:
   Credit card companies generally must assume liability
     for debts incurred by identity theft
   Truncation of credit card information such as account
     numbers on cash register receipts.
   Identity theft is punishable by law
         City: Chicago
   The Department of Consumer
    Affairs in Chicago deals with
    consumer fraud, which includes
    identity theft
                        A police report must be
                      filed to be sent to the
                      creditors to prove identity
                      theft.
 The complaint can be filed to
the FTC, which is a database of
identity thefts for further
investigations.
   City: Los Angeles Policy
  The city of Los Angeles takes steps to protect its
  residents from identity theft such as:

 Credit Bureau reports must
  have observations of fraud
  alerts
 Credit card information on
  cash register receipts must
  be truncated
 Special designs on I.D.
  cards
 Public Service
  Announcements about
  protecting oneself from
  identity theft
Board of Education Policy



 In order to protect the safety and security of students and
teachers in New York City, anyone who wants to be employed by
the Board of Education must have their fingerprints taken.
 The Board also allows employees to obtain their own photo ID
card.
 The Board of Education requires that any new staff members
be screened by the Office of Personnel Investigation.
 If there are any cases of identity theft, a report must be made to
the Office of Inspector General of the U.S. Department of
Education.
Board of Education Policy
           Information has recently been added to the Student
            Guide and the High School Counselor’s Handbook
            regarding fraud when applying for student loans.
            These popular publications are distributed to
            counselors and students all over the country.
           The Department intends to include tips for students on
            loan billing statements about identity theft and the
            protection of their information. This step in the fight
            against identity theft will reach about 2.5 million
            student borrowers per month.
           The new link (www.ed.gov/misused) on the
            Department‟s Web Site is a helpful resources for
            students concerned about identity theft. It includes
            hints on how to protect personal information and ways
            to detect and combat identity theft.
           The Department also has a hotline for people who
            suspect that they could be victims of student loan
            fraud. By contacting the hotline, 1-800-MIS-USED, the
            Department and its partners can begin investigation of
            students‟ claims.
    Board of Education Policy


The NYC Department of Education, beginning in September 2005
published a booklet on „Citywide Standards of Discipline and
Intervention Measures.‟ as a method of setting a clear policy for illegal
behaviors inside of schools.
Theft, which includes identity theft, is considered a level 3 infraction,
on the 1-5 level scale.
These offenses, directly related to identity theft are punishable in all of
the following manners.
 Board of Education Policy
 the DOE‟s Children Internet Protection Act (CIPA) requires
students‟ online activities to be monitored in order to make the
discovery of identity theft crimes committed within the DOE and its
schools easier to catch
 any internet identity theft crimes can also be found through the
Department Internet Acceptable Use Policy, which gives users no
privacy expectation in their personal files and records of online
activity while using the DOE system
 according to the DOE, students who fail to provide school
officials with proper ID are subjected to level 1 infraction
punishments including conferences of in-school disciplinary
actions such as exclusion from extracurricular activities
 students found misusing others‟ property or information are
subjected to level 2 infraction punishments such as a principal‟s
suspension
 plagiarism, considered a form of identity theft, is punishable by
level 3 infraction punishments including the most severe: a
regional superintendent‟s suspension resulting in an extended 1-
year suspension
      Bronx High School of Science
                 Policy



 In order to prevent outsiders from entering the school and to protect the
students‟ identity, each student of the Bronx High School of Science has
an ID card.
 These ID cards have photographs of the students along with their
personal information.
 Students must always carry their ID cards with them, and must show it
to any teachers, deans, or student officials that ask for it.
 Each student must scan their ID card when they enter the school, and
they must also present it for other actions such as borrowing books from
the library.
     Bronx High School of Science
                Policy
 Currently, no specific identity
  theft policy is published in school
  code
    School should explicitly state
      a policy on identity theft
 Measures school has taken to
  prevent identity theft include:
    Photo ID cards
    Personalized 9-digit O.S.I.S.
      numbers
 Though students misplace or
  lose their ID cards frequently,
  reports of identity theft are
  infrequent.
Bronx High School of Science Policy


                     At Bronx Science, identity theft can be
                     commonly described as plagiarism, as it is the
                     most common form of identity theft that occurs
                     in a school environment.

 Punishment for plagiarism includes notification of parents and
  colleges, and failing grades, though it varies from teacher to
  teacher. When plagiarism is “unintentional” teachers may give
  warnings without further punishment.
 Students assuming the identity of other students in a class when
  those students are absent provides grounds for heavier
  punishment. This punishment could be expulsion from the class
  and/or a dean‟s referral.
  The Most Effective Feasible
                             Policy
 more information should be made available to the people of each city,
state, and country regarding identity theft
 ID theft is a serious crime that should be punishable by a fine and
imprisonment
 every person who commits ID theft should be made to pay for any loss
sustained by their victims, any costs incurred by the victim in correcting
his/her credit history, and any costs incurred from civil or administrative
proceeding to satisfy debt, lost wages, attorney‟s fees and more.
 the authorities in schools, cities, states, and the country should be
sympathetic towards victims of identity theft rather than suspicious and
should assist victims with filing reports and recovering their identities; they
should also be better educated on ways to prevent identity theft and track
down thieves
 more severe punishments should be established for ID thieves whose
victims are elderly, minors, or disadvantaged
 publications should be made and distributed to warn people of the dangers
of identity theft and inform them how to protect themselves
 all legitimate companies with identity information should have strong
privacy policies and security systems to prevent thieves from obtaining
others‟ info as well as identifying info for themselves so that people can tell if
representatives are legitimate or impostors
 internet monitoring is a cheap, easy, and effective way to prevent internet
identity theft, and to catch thieves in the act
                        Credits
Instructor:                          Production Staff:
Ms.Mary Villani                      Susan Chen          Elizabeth Tam
                                     Vincent Dang        Karmun Tang
Student Coordinator:                 Stephanie Dayrit    Scott Topal
Aeli Cho                             Glenn Doherty       Yi-Ting Wang
Arianna Ho                           Helen Fong
Sun A Yoon                           Grayson Gmuco
                                     Julia Heifets
Leaders:                             Alexander
                   Joy-Ann Mahabir   Kennedy
Christopher Bae
                   Andrew Pabon      Chris Kyriakakos
Susan Chen
                                     Bobby Lau
Aeli Cho           Silvia Park
                                     Joshua Leavitt
Onnelly Delacruz   Drew Schneider    Daniel Lee
Terri-Ann Grey     Tania Vasquez     Angela Lei
Arianna Ho
                   Derrick Yip       Julia Lukomnik
Eunge Jung
                   Suna Yoon         Joy-Ann Mahabir
Sam (Yong) Kim
                   William Yoon      Nick Minadis
Nicole Lam
                                     Noha Osman
Jordan Levine      Richard Zhao
                                     Bangacha Rajun
Dorris Ling        Darren Zue        Vishal Ramratten
              Researchers
Dennis Almodovar     Dong Hyuk Choi      George Hamelos      Kai Kuroiwa
David Alvarez        Nelson Chow         Amir Harel          Christopher
William Arsenault    Rebecca Chung       Proma Hassan        Kyriakakos
Kyle Aaquil Atmore   Sachio Cook         Dayne Haskin        Nicole Lam
Vinusha Autar        Jon Marciano Cruz   Julia Heifets       Samuel Lam
Sanu Babu            Xiao Yue Dai        Arianna Ho          Eli Lamb
Christopher Bae      Angela Dallara      Abid Hossain        Bobby Lau
Oni Banks-Hunt       Gon Man Dang        Ada Hung            Joshua Leavitt
Aman Birhanu         Stephanie Dayrit    Maksim Ilyaguyev    Daniel Lee
Daniel Blonshteyn    Anthony Delgado     Mickheila Jasmin    Tiffany Lee
Amina Bobb           Jesse Diasparra     Eun Ge Jung         Angela Lei
Matthew Breines      Glenn Doherty       Ping Kan            Ayesha Lewis
Kerry Ann Burke      Max Engel-Streich   Aman Katyal         Jordan Levine
Griffin Burnett      Steven Fields       Jane Kelly          Doris Ling
Maria Del Pilar      Vilion Fok          Alexander Kennedy   Julia Lukomnik
Casal                Helen Fong          Nazmus Khan         Joy Ann Mahabir
Michael Chan         Sharon Forrest      Joshua Kim          Perveen Manowar
Stephanie Chan       Sam Giller          Joyce Kim           Kathleen Marean
Michael Chelnis      Grayson Gmuca       Yong Kim            Candace Mashel
Michael Chen         Katherine Gorelko   Hazem Kiswani       Valeriy Matsiborchuk
Susan Chen           Jason Gorman        Joshua Kozlovsky    Kelley McDonough
Sung Chiu            Terry Ann Grey      Ilya Kurkov         Nicholas Minadis
Aeli Cho                                                     Samantha Montalvo
              Researchers
Michael Moore       Angelica Singh        Christopher Whylie
Holly               Benjamin Spinrad      Brandon Woo
Nordpodberesky      Rebekah Souder-       Cora Wu
Noha Osman          Russo                 Fang Xu
Andrew Pabon        Piotr Sowinski        Jennifer Yin
Caleb Pan           Erica Stumpf          Derrick Yip
Silvia Park         Elizabeth Tam         Sun A Yoon
Joseph Penney       Jacky Tan             William Yoon
Juan Carlos Perez   Karmun Tan            Allan Yu
Joshua Pozzuto      Samuel Thode          Kevin Yu
Daniel Pyon         Scott Topal           Daniel Yuabov
Renee Ragin         Alexander Trigoboff   Jason Yuan
Bangacha Rajan      Catalina Valencia     Richard Zhao
Vishal Ramrattan    Emma Vargas
Michael Riviera     Tania Vasquez
Owen Rogers         Frances Viafara
Vincenzo Romano     Gianni Villavicenio
Chris St. Louis     Tom Vouvoudakis
Jared Sapolski      Lauren Vriens
Henry Schiller      Kristen Walkes
Mary Schroeder      Yi Ting Wang
Timothy Shek        Maggie Wen

				
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