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Mari El

Mari El
Mari El Republic (English) Республика Марий Эл (Russian) Марий Эл Республик (Mari) President[6] Legislative body Constitution Official website http://gov.mari.ru/ Leonid Markelov[7] State Assembly[6] Constitution of the Mari El Republic

Coordinates: n/a Coat of Arms Flag

Mari El Republic (Russian: Респу́блика Мари́й Эл; Mari: Марий Эл Республик) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). The direct romanization of the republic’s Russian and Mari names are Respublika Mariy El and Marii El Respublik, respectively. The republic is also sometimes called Mariy El or Marii El in English.

Flag of Mari El

Geography
The Republic is located in the eastern part of the East European Plain of the Russian Federation, along the Volga River. The swampy Mari Depression is located in the west of the republic. 57% of the republic’s territory is covered by forests. • Area: 23,200 km² (9,000 sq mi) • Internal borders: Nizhny Novgorod Oblast (SW/W/NW/N), Kirov Oblast (N/NE/E), Republic of Tatarstan (SE/S), Chuvash Republic (S) • Highest point: 278 m[8]

Coat of arms of Mari El

Anthem: National Anthem of the Mari El Republic Capital Established Political status Federal District Economic region Code ISO 3166-2:RU Area Area[3]
- Rank within Russia

Yoshkar-Ola November 4, 1920 Republic Volga[1] Volga-Vyatka[2] 12 RU-ME

Time zone

23,200 km² (8,957.6 sq mi)
72nd

Population (as of the 2002 Census) Population[4]
- Rank within Russia - Density - Urban[4] - Rural[4]

Mari El is located in the Moscow Time Zone (MSK/MSD). UTC offset is UTC+3 (MSK)/UTC+4 (MSD).

727,979 inhabitants
66th 31.4/km² (81.3/sq mi) 63.1% 36.9%

Rivers
There are 476 rivers in Mari El. Most of them are considered to be minor: 10-50 m wide and 0.5-1.4 m deep. They usually freeze from mid-November till mid-April. Major rivers include: • Bolshaya Kokshaga River • Ilet River • Kundysh River

Official language(s)

Russian, Mari[5]

Government (as of November 2008)

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• • • • • • • • Malaya Kokshaga River Maly Kundysh River Nemda River Rutka River Urzhumka River Vetluga River (navigable) Volga River (navigable) Yushut River

Mari El
• Rural: 36.7 years • Male: 34.0 years • Female: 39.0 years • : 263,382 (with 717,938 people) • Urban: 173,246 (with 455,006 people) • Rural: 90,136 (with 262,932 people) • (2005) • Births: 7,475 (birth rate 10.5) • Deaths: 12,256 (death rate 17.2) • The Mari did not have a designated territory before Russian Revolution of 1917. According to the 2002 Census only 51.7% of the Mari within Russia live in Mari El, while 17.5% live in Bashkortostan. During the last Soviet Census (1989) 4% of the Mari of the Soviet Union lived outside of Russia. According to the 2002 Census, Russians make up 47.5% of the republic’s population, while the ethnic Mari make up 42.3%. Other groups include Tatars (6.0%), Chuvash (1.0%), Ukrainians (5,097, or 0.7%), and a host of smaller groups, each accounting for less than 0.5% of the total population. 2,911 people (0.4%) did not indicate their nationalities during the Census.

Lakes
There are over two hundred lakes in Mari El, most of them with an area less than 1 km² and depth of 1-3 m. Many lakes are located among swamps. Swamps cover large areas (10-70 km², up to 100 km²), and usually freeze in December. Average depth of the swamps is .5-1.5 m (up to 3 m), but they are impassable in fall and spring due to flooding. Major lakes include: • Karas Lake • Kichiyer Lake • Yalchik Lake • Tair Lake • Cheboksary Reservoir

Natural resources
There are virtually no natural resources of industrial significance in the republic. Other resources include peat, mineral waters, and limestone.

History

Climate
Climate is moderately continental. Winters are moderately cold and snowy. Summers are warm and often rainy. • Average January temperature: −13 °C (8.6 °F) • Average July temperature: +19 °C (66.2 °F) • Average annual precipitation: 450–500 mm

Map of Mari El Ancient Mari tribes were known since the 5th century. Later their area was a tributary of Volga Bulgaria and the Golden Horde. In the 1440s it was incorporated into the Khanate of Kazan and was occupied by Russia after the fall of Kazan in 1552. Mari Autonomous Oblast was established on November 4, 1920. It was re-organized into Mari ASSR on December 5, 1936. In its present form the Mari El Republic was formed on December 22, 1990.

Administrative divisions Demographics
• : 727,979 (2002) • Urban: 459,687 (63.1%) • Rural: 268,292 (36.9%) • Male: 338,485 (46.5%) • Female: 389,494 (53.5%) • : 1,151 • : 36.7 years • Urban: 36.7 years

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census 1926 Mari 247,979 (51.4%) census 1939 273,332 (47.2%) 266,951 (46.1%) 27,149 (4.7%) 5,504 (0.9%) 6,674 (1.2%) census 1959 279,450 (43.1%) 309,514 (47.8%) 38,821 (6.0%) 9,065 (1.4%) 10,830 (1.7%) census 1970 299,179 (43.7%) 320,825 (46.9%) 40,279 (5.9%) 9,032 (1.3%) 15,433 (2.3%) census 1979 306,627 (43.5%) 334,561 (47.5%) 40,917 (5.8%) 8,087 (1.1%) 14,015 (2.0%) census 1989 324,349 (43.3%) 355,973 (47.5%) 43,850 (5.9%) 8,993 (1.2%) 16,167 (2.2%)

Mari El
census 2002 312,178 (42.9%) 345,513 (47.5%) 43,377 (6.0%) 7,418 (1.0%) 19,943 (2.7%)

Russians 210,016 (43.6%) Tatars 20,219 (4.2%)

Chuvash 2,184 (0.5%) Others 1,703 (0.4%)

Politics
The head of government in the Mari El Republic is the President. As of 2008, the president is Leonid Markelov, who was elected in January 2001. The ethnic Mari people are under heavy Russification and Leonid Markelov has ordered many Mari language newspapers to close. Many ethnic Mari activists live under fear of violence. The Mari activist and chief editor Vladimir Kozlov was badly beaten after he published criticism toward Leonid Markelov’s politics. The Marla faith of the Mari people have had some troubles. Vitaly Tanakov was charged with inciting religious, national, social and linguistic hatred after publishing the book The Priest Speaks[9].

Communication
Telephony, Internet service, and cable television are provided by Volga Telecom.

Culture
There are many museums located throughout the territory of Mari El. The largest ones include the National Museum, the Museum of History, and the Museum of Fine Arts in Yoshkar-Ola; the Museum of Arts and History, the Ethnographic Open-Air Museum, and the Merchant Life Museum in Kozmodemyansk; and the Sheremetevo Castle Museum-reserve in Yurino. There are also museums dedicated to the poet Nikolay Mukhin and the composer Ivan KlyuchnikovPalantay in Yoshkar-Ola and the house-museum of writer Sergei Chavayn in Chavaynur. Five theaters are located in Yoshkar-Ola with performances in both the Russian and Mari languages.

Economy
The most developed industries are machine construction, metal working, timber, woodworking, and food industries. Most of the industrial enterprises are located in the capital Yoshkar-Ola, as well as in the towns of Kozmodemyansk, Volzhsk, and Zvenigovo

Education
The most important facilities of higher education are Mari State Technical University and Mari State University, both located in Yoshkar-Ola. There are also more than 900 primary and secondary schools located throughout the republic. For the past few years, the Mari El Republic has been participating in the national project "Education" ("Oбразование"), which is designed to improve education throughout Russia by bringing new technology into the classroom, improving material conditions in schools, and providing financial awards to extraordinary students and teachers.

Transportation
Traveling cheaply and quickly to various towns and villages in Mari El is made possible through a network of fifteen train stations, fifty-three bus stations, and numerous marshrutkas. The republic is connected to different regions throughout Russia by daily trains to and from Moscow and Kazan, an airport located near Yoshkar-Ola, and a port on the Volga River in Kozmodemyansk. There are also four other minor river ports in Mari El.

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Mari El
more stringent checks and vetting procedures than others.

Religion
The most common religions in Mari El include Russian Orthodoxy, Old Believers, and Islam. The traditional Mari pagan faith is still present, as is the Marla faith, which is a combination of these traditional beliefs and modern Christianity.

Arrests
13 September 2006 More than a hundred people were detained in the course of a special police operation, which had been held on September 13, 2006 by the Federal Security Service Department of Mari El. The operation was aimed at capturing the Internet scammers who posted introduction profiles on different sites, portraying themselves as women who wanted to get married to foreigners. In those profiles they used other people’s photos illegally. Such Mari "fiancees" regularly tapped money from their men, motivating this with the necessity to learn English or paying for the driving lessons. According to the special services, this criminal business was built on the following scheme. Organizers rented apartments in the quietest districts of Yoshkar-Ola, turned them into small offices, equipping them with satellite Internet access and several computers. The role of "fiancees" corresponding with the foreigners were mostly played by students, who received 10 or 15% of the amount they managed to tap from the clients. August 2006 It was the application from a German citizen, who had transferred 26,000 euros to his future fiancee’s bank account in Yoshkar-Ola, that helped the police officers from "K" department to find the traces of the criminals. "The scammer did not appear to meet her future husband, she also never returned the money, and stopped corresponding. Later it was found out that the German citizen was sent a photo of a famous Russian ballet dancer instead of a picture of his possible fiancee", informs the press center. Having checked up the information, officers of "K" department, Ministry of Internal Affairs of Mari El republic found out that the correspondence was carried on from a socalled "office" settled in an apartment in Yoshkar-Ola, where the seven members of the criminal group were arrested. Also, the police established the identity of the two organizers of the criminal business and the two women with a good knowledge of English, who helped with phone talks with foreigners. During the search there were found 16 computers, a large amount of money,

Tourism
Mari El is one of the more ecologically pure areas of the European part of Russia with numerous lakes, rivers, and forests. As a result, it is a popular destination for tourists looking to enjoy nature. One of the most popular destinations is Marii Chodra national park in the Ilet valley, where visitors can enjoy various activities such as boating, horseback riding, fishing, and mushrooming. Another is the Bolshaya Kokshaga National Reserve, where visitors can walk through virgin forests and observe local wildlife. Mari El is also the site of several mineral springs, many of which are located in the Ilet valley. Many small resorts and children’s camps are also located on the various lakes throughout the republic.

Crime
There have been allegations that Mari El, and in particular its capital city Yoshkar-Ola, is a centre of operation for a number of international criminal gangs who obtain money from people by fraudulent means. A number of dating scams are said to originate in Mari El, whereby criminals will place profiles on dating sites, often using fake identities and photographs (although the profiles will typically state that they come from a variety of locations in Russia and other former Soviet Union states). Young women typically establish a correspondence with people, "fall in love" in a very short time, and then attempt to obtain money on various pretexts.[10] Reports vary as to the extent of the problem, with some sources indicating that as many as 50% of the male and 90% of the female profiles on dating sites are bogus. Other sources are more conservative, however, and estimate that only about 10% of the profiles are false. The extent of fraud will vary from site to site, as some dating sites carry out

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correspondence in foreign languages, bank tickets about money transfers from foreign citizens and other exhibits.

Mari El
населением 3 тысячи и более человек (Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (AllRussia Population Census of 2002). Federal State Statistics Service. http://perepis2002.ru/ct/html/ TOM_01_04_1.htm. Retrieved on 2008-10-17. [5] Constitution, Article 15 [6] ^ Constitution, Article 6.2 [7] Official website of the Mari El Republic. Leonid Igorevich Markelov (Russian) [8] Сайт "Спортивный туризм в Татарстане". По просторам Марий Эл. Справка о местности. (Russian) [9] Russia Moves to Ban Religious Rites of Indigenous Finno-Ugric People Mari [10] Scamski city, where online ’Russian brides’ turn out to be Mafia conmen | Mail Online

References
[1] Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 1. Федеральные округа», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 1. Federal Districts, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER). [2] Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER). [3] Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002). Federal State Statistics Service. http://perepis2002.ru/ct/html/ TOM_01_03.htm. Retrieved on 2008-10-17. [4] ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с

Sources
• 24 июня 1995 г. «Республика Марий Эл. Конституция», в ред. Закона №38-З от 5 августа 2008 г. (June 24, 1995 Mari El Republic. Constitution, as amended by the Law #38-Z of August 5, 2008).

External links
• (Russian) Official website of the Mari El Republic • (Russian) Industry in Mari El Republic • (English) A short Meadow Mari-English dictionary at http://www.uta.fi/~km56049/ mari/mariengvocab.html • (Russian) Meadow Mari-Russian-Japanese dictionary at http://www.kmatsum.info/ mari/mardic/mar0Aa.html • (English) Kimberli Mäkäräinen’s Meadow Mari Grammar at http://www.uta.fi/ ~km56049/mari/indexmari.html

Further reading
• Daniel Kalder. Lost Cosmonaut: Observations of an Anti-tourist

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Mari El

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mari_El" Categories: Mari El, States and territories established in 1920 This page was last modified on 16 May 2009, at 17:37 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers

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