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NATIONAL INTERPRETER EDUCATION STANDARDS FORMULATION OF STANDARDS The National Interpreter Education Standards and guidelines for accrediting interpreter education programs were formulated by the Conference of Interpreter Trainer’s Educational Standards Committee with substantial input from the professional community. The Commission on Collegiate Interpreter Education’s Committee on Policies and Standards will be responsible for periodic review and reformulation of the Standards and guidelines according to a procedure that will assure the participation of the CCIE stakeholders. Committee members may be interpreter educators or practitioners, representatives of the public served by interpreters, and others deemed appropriate to the development of acceptable standards for reviewing interpreter education programs. A balance of interests will be maintained in committee composition. As emphasized in the composition of the CCIE Board and Committee structure, it is strongly recommended that composition of the above mentioned committee also preserves stakeholder diversity. The review cycle for the National Interpreter Education Standards is every ten (10) years. The timetable recognizes the continuous development of the practice of interpretation, the expanding body of knowledge in interpretation, and changes in postsecondary education. Proposed standards and guidelines revisions will be circulated to the CCIE constituencies for review and comment. Those invited to comment may include the CCIE-accredited programs, site visitors and committee members, the interpreting organizations and individuals from those organizations, employers, other accrediting bodies and related regulatory groups, interpreter education programs, and interested individuals. The committee will carefully consider comments gathered in this process. Changes to the Standards and guidelines resulting from the review and comment process may be circulated repeatedly for additional review. This dialogue with the field of interpretation is an important component of the accreditation process. Once formulated, standards and guidelines are submitted to the CCIE Board of Commissioners for adoption. The CCIE Board will determine an effective date for all of the CCIE Standards and guidelines. Revised September 12, 2007 THE STANDARDS PREAMBLE GENERAL CRITERIA Description of the Profession A. Sponsorship Interpretation is the art and science of receiving 1. The sponsoring institution of higher a message from one language and rendering it education must be accredited by a nationally into another. It involves the appropriate transfer recognized agency or agencies. and transmission of culturally based linguistic 2. The sponsoring institution(s) must be and nonlinguistic information. The goal of authorized under applicable law or other interpreting is to transfer a message from a acceptable authority to provide a program of source language into a target language without postsecondary education. skewing it while keeping in mind the linguistic needs of the recipients of the message. 3. The sponsoring institution(s) shall Interpreting serves a diverse population in a demonstrate a commitment to recognizing variety of settings across a broad range of fields and fostering positive attitudes and efforts and therefore requires professional interpreters toward diversity among its members. to possess a breadth and depth of knowledge. 4. The sponsoring institution(s) assumes Objective (assume) primary responsibility for student admission, curriculum planning, selection of Since its inception, the Conference of Interpreter course content, coordination of classroom Trainers has held the vision of national teaching and supervised practice, standards for interpreter education. The National appointment of faculty, receiving and Interpreter Education Standards identify the processing applications for admission, and knowledge, skills, and perspectives students documenting satisfactory completion of the need to gain in order to enter the field of educational program. The sponsoring professional interpreting. The Standards give institution shall also be responsible for students, faculty, curriculum developers, providing assurance that practicum activities administrators, employers, and consumers a assigned to students are appropriate to the common set of expectations about what basic program. knowledge and competencies interpreting students should acquire. 5. In programs in which academic instruction and supervised practice are provided by two The Standards are to be used for the (2) or more institutions, responsibility of the development, evaluation, and self-analysis of sponsoring institutions and of each postsecondary professional interpreter practicum center must be clearly education programs. They will guide new documented as a formal affiliation programs in defining policies on entry agreement or memorandum of requirements, curricular goals, faculty selection, understanding. The time schedule for teaching methods, and projected student periodic review shall be documented. outcomes. For existing programs, the Standards provide benchmarks for assessing and enhancing student outcomes, evaluating and updating faculty, and improving curricula and related practices. Revised September 12, 2007 B. Resources 2) Each faculty member shall have a written plan for continuing Personnel professional development. The program shall have a director and faculty d) Faculty/Student Ratio: who possess the necessary qualifications to perform the functions identified in documented The faculty/student ratio shall: descriptions of roles and responsibilities. Efforts 1) Permit the achievement of the should be made to recruit qualified Deaf purpose and stated objectives of the program directors, faculty, and practicum program. supervisors. 2) Be compatible with accepted 1. Program Director practices of the profession. a) Responsibilities 3) Ensure quality education by The director of the educational program adjustment of faculty/student ratio shall be responsible for management where required. and administration of the program including planning, on-going evaluation, 3. Clerical and Support Staff budgeting, and selecting faculty and Clerical and program support staff shall be staff. provided to meet program and b) Qualifications administrative requirements. The director of the educational program Financial Resources shall be an interpreter, ASL instructor, or interpreter educator who has relevant A budget of general institutional funds allocated experience in administration, teaching, to the program shall be sufficient to develop and and practice. The director shall hold a maintain the stated objectives of the program minimum of a master’s degree, or have and to fulfill its obligations to matriculating and equivalent educational qualifications. enrolled students. 2. Faculty Physical Resources a) Responsibilities 1. Facilities Faculty responsibilities shall be a) Classrooms and laboratories shall be consistent with the mission of the provided consistent with the program’s institution. educational objectives, teaching b) Qualifications methods, number of students, and safety standards of the institution, and The faculty shall: shall allow for efficient operation of the 1) Include certified interpreters. program. 2) Have documented expertise in the b) Appropriate laboratory space shall be area(s) of teaching responsibilities assigned to the interpreter education and shall demonstrate effectiveness program on a priority basis. in teaching their assigned subjects. c) Appropriate space shall be provided to 3) Collectively have academic and store and secure equipment and experiential qualifications and supplies. background appropriate to meet d) The program director, faculty, and program objectives. support staff shall have appropriate 4) Be collectively diverse or have office space. documented exposure to diverse e) Appropriate space shall be provided for populations. the private advising of students. c) Professional Development f) Facilities shall be constructed and 1) The program shall have a maintained according to appropriate documented plan for continued safety and health considerations and in professional growth to ensure that compliance with state and federal laws program faculty can fulfill their concerning accessibility. assigned responsibilities. Revised September 12, 2007 2. Equipment and Supplies 2. Advising during and pertaining to practicum shall be a collaborative process between the Appropriate and sufficient equipment and faculty and practicum educators. supplies shall be provided for student use and for teaching the didactic and practical 3. Referral by program faculty to other components of the curriculum. institutional or community resources shall be provided for students with problems that 3. Learning Resources may interfere with the students’ progress through the program. Students shall have ready access in time and location to an adequate supply of 4. Review of policies and procedures shall be current books, journals, periodicals, undertaken on a regular basis. Review computers, video and audio material, and policies and procedures shall be other reference materials related to the documented. curriculum. 5. Examination of curriculum design shall be done on a regular basis to assure integration of program’s mission and philosophy. C. Students Examination protocol shall be documented. Admissions Policies and Procedures 1. Admission of students shall be made in D. Operational Policies accordance with clearly defined and published practices of the institution of Fair Practices higher education. 1. Program description, publications, 2. Policies regarding standards for admission, announcements, and advertising shall advanced placement, transfer of credit, accurately reflect the program offered. credit for experiential learning (if applicable), 2. Student and faculty recruitment, student and requirements for previous education or admission, and faculty employment work experience shall be provided and practices shall comply with the institution’s readily accessible to prospective students published nondiscrimination, equal and the public. opportunity, and affirmative action policies. Evaluation of Students 3. Graduation requirements, tuition, and fees 1. Criteria for successful completion of each shall be published and made known to all segment of the educational program and for applicants. graduation shall be given in advance to each 4. Policies and processes for student student. withdrawal and for refunds of tuition and 2. Evaluation content and methods shall be fees shall be published and made known to consistent with the objectives and all applicants. competencies described for the educational 5. Policies and procedures regarding student program in both didactic and supervised suspension and dismissal shall be published education components. Evaluation shall be and made known. employed frequently enough to provide students and program officials with timely 6. The program or sponsoring institution(s) indications of the students’ progress and shall have a defined and published policy academic standing. and procedure for processing student and faculty grievances. Health 7. Provision shall be made for the health, Students shall be informed of and have access safety, and confidentiality of consumers, to the health services provided to other students students, and faculty associated with in the institution. educational activities. Guidance 8. A program or sponsoring institution(s) 1. Advising related to interpreter education admitting students on the basis of “ability to coursework and practicum shall be the benefit” shall publicize its objectives, responsibility of the program faculty and/or assessment measures, and means of other advisors as designated by the evaluating “ability to benefit.” “Ability to sponsoring institution(s). benefit” applies to those students who do Revised September 12, 2007 not have a high school diploma or its 2. Identify educational goals that are consistent equivalent and may affect student financial with the program’s mission and philosophy aid. statements. Student Records 3. Describe the set of organizing principles that explains the selection of the content, scope, Satisfactory records shall be maintained and sequencing of coursework. regarding student admission, enrollment, and achievement. Grades and credits for courses 4. Establish the view of interpreting as it relates shall be recorded on students’ transcripts and to the world rather than the local isolation. maintained according to the sponsoring 5. Represent cultural competence that is not institution’s policies. limited to simple recognition and mention of diverse cultures and groups. SPECIFIC CRITERIA 6. Include the involvement of the local Deaf community. Instruction shall follow a plan that provides E. Curriculum evidence of: Description of the Program 1. Appropriate teaming experiences and curriculum sequencing to develop the 1. Mission competencies necessary for graduation, The statement of the mission of the including appropriate instructional materials, interpreter education program shall be classroom presentations, discussions, consistent with that of the sponsoring demonstrations, community exposure, and institution. supervised practice. 2. Philosophy 2. Clearly written and sequenced course syllabi The statement of philosophy of the program that describe learning, objectives, and shall reflect: competencies to be achieved for both a) A sociolinguistic view of Deaf and didactic and supervised education hearing communities. Efforts should be components. made to establish and maintain an open 3. Frequent documented evaluation of students and continuing dialogue with the various to assess their acquisition of knowledge, members of the Deaf community problem identification, problem-solving skills, representing the diversity within the and interpretation competencies. communities. Diversity within the Deaf community must be recognized as an evolving factor. The opinions and F. Prerequisites information gained through the dialogues should guide the development Language prerequisites shall be specified as a of the curriculum, instruction, and foundation for professional education. practicum. 1. American Sign Language b) Approaches to learning shall identify Students shall possess proficiency in and support the learning needs of a American Sign Language that at least diverse population including traditional enables them to converse in a culturally undergraduates, older students, appropriate and participatory fashion, to students who are parents, students with narrate, and to describe with connected disabilities, students from racial, ethnic, discourse. and religious minorities, male students as a minority in the field, and 2. English international students. Students shall possess proficiency in spoken and/or written English that at least Curriculum Design enables them to communicate in a culturally The curriculum design shall provide the basis for appropriate and participatory fashion, to program planning, implementation, and narrate, and to describe with connected evaluation. It shall: discourse. 1. Support the mission of the interpreter education program. Revised September 12, 2007 G. Content Requirements 5. Human relations; The course of study shall be based on a broad 6. Dynamics of cross-cultural foundation of liberal arts, sciences, professional interaction; education, research, and practicum. It shall 7. Intercultural communication include: knowledge and competency; 1. Liberal arts content that is prerequisite to, or 8. Human services and community concurrent with, professional education and resources; shall facilitate the development of: 9. Certification and licensure; a) Superior oral and written communication 10. Business practices; skills; 11. State and federal legislation; b) Logical thinking, critical analysis, 12. Continuing professional problem-solving, and creativity; development; and c) Knowledge and appreciation of 13. Stress management and personal multicultural features of society; health. d) Ability to make judgments in the context b) Competencies shall include: of historical, social, economic, scientific, and political information; and 1. Language e) An appreciation of the ethnic, cultural, (a) ability to understand the source economic, religious, social, and physical language in all its nuances; and diversity of the population along with the (b) ability to express oneself practical knowledge of its influence and correctly, fluently, clearly, and impact on the profession; with poise in the target 2. Social and behavioral sciences content language. that is prerequisite to, or concurrent with, 2) Message Transfer professional education and shall facilitate the development of knowledge and (a) ability to understand the appreciation of: articulation of meaning in the source language discourse; a) Human behavior in the context of sociocultural systems to include beliefs, (b) ability to render the meaning of ethics, and values; the source language discourse in the target language without b) Minority group dynamics, prejudice, distortions, additions, or class, power, oppression, and social omissions; and change; and (c) ability to transfer a message c) Language and society, bilingualism, from a source language into a language variation, syntax and target language appropriately semantics, cross-cultural from the point of view of style communication, and cross-cultural and culture, and without undue conflict. influence of the source language. 3. Professional education that will enable 3) Methodology students to develop and apply knowledge (a) ability to use different modes of and competencies in interpretation. interpreting (i.e., simultaneous Knowledge areas shall include: or consecutive), ability to 1. Theories of interpretation and choose the appropriate mode in translation; a given setting; and 2. Historical foundations of the (b) ability to use different target profession; language forms, ability to choose the appropriate form 3. Interpreter role and responsibilities; according to audience 4. Professional ethics; preference. Revised September 12, 2007 4) Subject matter b) Directed observation in selected aspects of the interpreting service provision (a) breadth of knowledge allowing process shall be required. Those interpretation of general experiences should be designed to discourse within several fields; enrich didactic coursework. These (b) sufficient specialized knowledge experiences should be provided at of one (1) or two (2) disciplines appropriate times throughout the allowing interpretation of more program. specialized discourse within c) In-depth experiences in delivering these disciplines; and interpreting services shall be required. 5) Techniques and logistics, such as These experiences are not intended to ability to manage the physical emphasize unsupervised performance. setting and ability to select and use 1) The practicum should provide appropriate equipment. experiences with various groups Note: The competencies in b. (1-5) across the life span, various were first discussed and described language preferences, and various by Roda Roberts (1992). service-delivery models reflective of current practices in the profession. 2) The practicum shall be supervised 4. Research by qualified personnel. a) Necessity for and values of research on 3) To ensure continuity of application interpretation and interpreter education; of academic concepts, the b) Essential components of a research practicum shall be completed within protocol; a reasonable time frame. c) Analysis of studies related to 4) The student’s practicum shall be interpretation; and formally evaluated and documented by the practicum supervisor in d) Application of research results to accordance with program interpretation practice. guidelines. This evaluation shall be shared with the student. 5. Practicum a) Supervised practicum shall be an H. Program Evaluation integral part of the educational program. The experience shall provide the The interpreter education program shall have a student with the opportunity for carrying continuing system for reviewing the out professional responsibilities under effectiveness of the educational program appropriate supervision and especially as measured by student achievement professional role modeling. and shall prepare timely self-study reports to aid the staff, the sponsoring institution, and the 1) Objectives for each phase of the accrediting agencies, where applicable, in practicum shall be collaboratively assessing program qualities and needs. developed and documented by the program faculty, practicum Outcomes supervisor, and student. Programs shall routinely secure sufficient 2) The ratio of program faculty to qualitative and quantitative information regarding students shall ensure proper the program graduates to demonstrate an supervision in and frequent ongoing evaluation of outcomes consistent with assessment of achieving the the graduate competencies specified by the objectives. educational program. 3) Practicum shall be conducted in 1. This data should be routinely documented settings equipped to provide and analyzed. application of principles learned in 2. Sources of data should include but not be the curriculum and appropriate to limited to: the learning needs of the student. Revised September 12, 2007 a) Surveys of graduates and employers on such matters as employment settings, type and scope of practice, salary, job satisfaction, and adequacy of the educational program in addressing education and skills. b) Interviews with program graduates and employers of graduates, e.g., satisfaction with graduates’ skills; satisfaction with own skills upon entry into employment. c) Data on the evaluation of student performance on state and national certification examinations. Results of Ongoing Program Evaluation The results of ongoing evaluation shall be appropriately reflected in the curriculum and other dimensions of the program. In particular, the program shall systematically use the information obtained in its evaluation to foster student achievement. Program evaluation should be a continuing systematic process and should include: 1. Internal and external curriculum validation in consultation with employers, faculty, mentors, students, and graduates; 2. Follow-up studies of students’ employment and performance on state and national examinations; 3. Review of admissions policies and procedures; and 4. Examination of curriculum design to assure integration of program’s mission and philosophy. References Roberts, Roda P. 1992. “Student Competencies in Interpreting: Defining, Teaching, and Evaluating.” In E. A. Winston (Ed.), Student Competencies: Defining, Teaching, and Evaluating. Proceedings of the Ninth National Convention, Conference of Interpreter Trainers, Denver 1992. Revised September 12, 2007
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