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Time in Indiana

Time in Indiana

Map of U.S. time zones, with most of Indiana shaded out, as it was until April 2, 2006.

Map of U.S. time zones between April 2, 2006, and March 11, 2007. On the latter date, Pulaski County, Indiana, was moved to the Eastern time zone. Time in Indiana refers to the controversial time zone division of Indiana, and to the state’s historical response to the innovation of daylight saving time. The official dividing line between Eastern Time and Central Time has, over time, progressively moved west, from the Indiana–Ohio border, to a position where it divided Indiana down the middle, to the Indiana–Illinois border as it is today.

1918–1961. The Standard Time Act of 1918 placed Indiana in the Central Time Zone. However, some communities chose to observe Eastern Time. A further complication was DST, which some communities observed while others did not. local time to noon when the sun is at its highest point in the sky. Up until this time, travel was so slow, the difference in the clock from town to town was irrelevant. However, with the emergence of the railroads, hundreds of miles could now be traveled in a single day. It wasn’t uncommon for a traveler to set his or her watch by the clock at a train station and travel to the next town only to realize their watch was off. Since, in the United States, the sun reaches "high noon" approximately 1 minute later for approximately every 12 miles traveled towards the West, "the time" in every town was different. 1883 The major railroads in the US agreed to coordinate their clocks and begin

History
Before 1883 Before 1883 in the United States, most towns and cities set their own

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Time in Indiana

1961–1967. In 1961, The Interstate Commerce Commission divides Indiana between the Eastern and Central Time Zones. However, uniform observance of the new time zone line never transpired. operating on "standard time" with four "time zones" established across the nation, centered roughly on the 75th, 90th, 105th, and 120th meridians. On November 18, 1883, telegraph lines transmitted GMT to major cities, where each city was to adjust their official time to their proper zone[1]. The state capital in Indianapolis lies at approximately the 86th meridian (U.S. Census Bureau), closer to the center of the Central Time Zone at the 90th meridian than the center of the Eastern Time Zone at the 75th meridian. 1918 Time zones first adopted by the United States Congress with the Standard Time Act of 1918. All of Indiana is located in the Central Time Zone, with the dividing line between Eastern Time and Central time lying on the Indiana–Ohio state line. Daylight saving time (DST) is included in the original Standard Time Act. 1919 Congress repeals daylight saving time from the Standard Time Act of 1918,

1967–1977. From 1967 to 1977, six counties near Chicago, IL and six counties in and around Evansville, IN observed DST in the Central Time Zone; Five counties near Louisville, KY and Cincinnati, OH unofficially observed DST in the Eastern Time Zone; and the other 77 counties in Indiana observed Eastern Standard Time throughout the year. though some communities continue to follow it[1]. 1942–1945 Daylight saving time is once again mandated by Congress to conserve energy during World War II. After the war, the mandate to observe daylight saving time is lifted again[1]. 1949 In a heated rural vs. city debate, the Indiana General Assembly passes a law to put all of Indiana on Central Standard Time and to outlaw daylight saving time. However, the law has no enforcement power, and it is largely ignored by communities who wish to observe Eastern Standard Time[1]. 1957 The Indiana General Assembly passes a law to make Central time the official time zone of the state but to permit any community to switch to daylight saving time during the summer. The law did, however, make it illegal for communities to observe "fast time" during the winter months. Governor

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Time in Indiana

1977–1991. In 1977, Pike County in Southern Indiana moved from the Central Time Zone to the Eastern Time Zone, where they observed Eastern Standard Time throughout the year. Handley vows to enforce the law by withdrawing state aid from communities who attempt to observe "fast time" during the winter, though legal obstacles force the Governor to back down from his stance. Once again, the law is not enforceable, as individual communities continue to observe [1]. whichever time zone they prefer 1961 The Indiana legislature repeals the 1957 law making Central Time the official time of Indiana, which allowed any community to observe DST[1]. The Interstate Commerce Commission divides Indiana between the Central Time Zone and the Eastern Time Zone. The time zone line is not uniformly observed and lack of uniformity of observance of the time zone boundary was compounded by lack of uniform observance of daylight saving time. (See 50 Federal Register 43745 for this account.) 1966 The United States Congress passes the Uniform Time Act of 1966 to specify where and when daylight saving time is applied in the U.S. Previous to this law, each

1991–2006. In 1991, Starke County in Northern Indiana received approval to move to the Eastern Time Zone, where they observed Eastern Standard Time throughout the year. state was permitted to decide where and when daylight saving time took place. However, with the new Federal Law, authority over time zones was shifted to the Department of Transportation. 1967 Having the state split in two time zones was inconvenient and so, Governor Roger D. Branigin petitioned the United States Department of Transportation (DOT) to place all of Indiana back in the Central Time Zone. 1967–1969 The Department of Transportation conducts several hearings in response to Governor Branigan’s petition. Citizens of Northwest and Southwest Indiana appear to favor location in the Central Time Zone with observance of DST, while other citizens favor location in the Eastern Time Zone with no observance of DST. The Department of Transportation divides Indiana between the Central Time Zone and the Eastern Time Zone. Six counties near Chicago (Lake, Porter, LaPorte, Jasper, Newton and Starke) and six counties near Evansville, Indiana (Posey, Vanderburgh, Warrick,

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Time in Indiana

2006–March 2007. On April 2, 2006, eight counties moved from Eastern time to Central time (Starke, Pulaski, Knox, Daviess, Martin, Pike, Dubois, and Perry Counties), and the entire state began observing DST. Spencer, Gibson and Pike) were placed in the Central Time Zone in observance of DST. The remainder of the state was placed on Eastern Standard Time, throughout the year. The state was given dispensation by the Department of Transportation to exempt parts of itself from DST. Most portions of the state that were in the Eastern Time Zone did not observe DST. However, some counties (namely Floyd, Clark and Harrison, which are near Louisville, Kentucky, and Ohio and Dearborn, which are near Cincinnati, Ohio) unofficially observed DST due to their proximity to the major cities of Louisville and Cincinnati, and those cities’ observance of DST. 1968 While the Department of Transportation was considering where the time zone line should be, several broadcast companies filed a federal lawsuit to compel the Department to enforce the observance of daylight saving time in Indiana. The Department was ordered to stop informing Indiana residents

March 2007, to November 2007. On March 11, 2007, Pulaski County returned to the Eastern Time Zone. that the Uniform Time Act will not be enforced and to provide a plan for the enforcement of daylight saving time in Indiana. See Time Life Broadcast Company, Inc. v. Boyd, 289 F. Supp. 219 (S.D. Indiana, 1968) (Time Life being the then-owner of WFBM-TV (Channel 6) in Indianapolis). 1972 The Indiana General Assembly overrides a veto from Governor Whitcomb to place the Northwest and Southwest corners of Indiana in the Central Time Zone on daylight saving time, and to place the rest of the state on Eastern Standard Time, upon Federal approval(See IC 1-1-8.1). Congress approves an amendment to the Uniform Time Act of 1966 (15 U.S.C. 260-67) to permit a state that lies in two time zones to exempt part of the state from daylight saving time, and President Richard Nixon signs it into law. Indiana enacts the statute, officially placing Northwest and Southwest Indiana in the Central Time Zone, in observance of daylight saving time and the rest of the state in the Eastern Standard Time throughout the year. It should be noted that several Eastern

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Time in Indiana
Gibson) from the Central Time Zone to the Eastern Time Zone. The Department of Transportation denies the request, finding that the change would not serve the convenience of commerce. (See 50 Federal Register 25856; 50 Federal Register 28959; 50 Federal Register 43745) 1986–1987 Jasper County and Starke County petition the Department of Transportation to be moved from the Central Time Zone to the Eastern Time Zone. The Department of Transportation denies the petitions of both counties. (See 51 Federal Register 43644 and 52 Federal Register 10119) 1991 Things began to change in the 1990s, as Indiana’s convoluted time zone situation was seen as impeding the state’s economic growth. Interstate travel and commerce were difficult as people wondered, "What time is it in Indiana?"[2] In 1991, Starke County petitions the Department of Transportation to be moved from the Central Time Zone to the Eastern Time Zone. The Department of Transportation grants the petition. Starke county is moved from the Central Time Zone to Eastern Time Zone effective October 27, 1991. (See 56 Federal Register 13609 and 56 Federal Register 51997) 2005 On April 29, 2005, with heavy backing from Governor Daniels’ economic development plan, and after years of controversy, the Indiana legislature passed into law that on April 2, 2006, the entire state of Indiana would become the 48th state to observe daylight saving time. The bill was also accompanied by Senate Enrolled Act 127[3], which required Governor Daniels to seek Federal hearings from the United States Department of Transportation on whether to keep Indiana on Eastern Time with New York and Ohio or whether to move the entire state back to Central Time with Chicago[1]. 2006 As a result of a review by the Department of Transportation, eight counties were moved from the Eastern Time Zone to the Central Time Zone, effective April 2, 2006. These were Starke and Pulaski Counties in the northwest; and Daviess, Dubois, Knox, Martin, Perry and Pike Counties in the southwest. Pulaski and Martin counties, however, reconsidered their bids to join the Central Time Zone and decided to formally petition to be in the Eastern time zone. Pulaski County Commissioners and County Council both voted

November 2007. On November 4, 2007, Knox, Daviess, Martin, Pike and Dubois Counties returned to the Eastern Time Zone. Perry and Starke Counties remain on Central Time. Indiana counties (Ohio and Dearborn counties, near Cincinnati, Ohio and Floyd, Clark and Harrison counties, near Louisville, Kentucky) chose to unofficially observe daylight saving time, despite the Indiana statute requiring them to remain on Eastern Standard Time throughout the year. 1977 Pike County requests to be moved from the Central Time Zone to the Eastern Time Zone. The Department of Transportation grants the request. 1981 Starke County requests to be moved from the Central Time Zone to the Eastern Time Zone. The Department of Transportation did not find a sound reason to change Starke County from the Central Time Zone to the Eastern Time Zone. (See 46 Federal Register 23500; 46 Federal Register 51786) 1985 The Indiana General Assembly (Senate Concurrent Resolution 6 from 1985) requests the Department of Transportation to move the five counties in Southwest Indiana (Posey, Vanderburgh, Warrick, Spencer, and

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unanimously on February 6, 2006, to declare home rule and stay on Eastern Time if a federal agency did not grant an appeal to change the time-zone ruling. However, the county conceded on March 27, 2006, officially accepting Central Time and switching time zones on April 2, 2006[4]. After some residents pledged to unofficially continue observing Eastern Time, the county changed work hours for most county employees so that they were in sync with Eastern Time work hours[5]. Dubois, Daviess, Knox, and Pike Counties also decided to ask the federal government to return them to the Eastern Time Zone, the former voting to do so on April 27, 2006[6]. The confusion involving the time status of these counties led to them being dubbed the "seesaw six." St. Joseph, Marshall and Fulton Counties overtly expressed interest in making another attempt to be changed to Central Time as of the end of 2006"[7]. 2007 On February 9, 2007, it was officially reported that the Department of Transportation had approved Pulaski County’s returning to Eastern Time. The change went into effect on March 11, 2007, the date when daylight saving time resumed[8]. On September 20, 2007, DOT approved a petition from the five southwestern counties Daviess, Dubois, Knox, Martin and Pike to return to the Eastern Time Zone. The change went into effect when daylight saving time ended on November 3, 2007. A petition from Perry County to move to the Eastern Time Zone was denied[9]. With the exception of Perry and Starke counties, all counties that were moved to the Central Time Zone in 2006 were moved back to the Eastern Time Zone in 2007.

Time in Indiana
want them home by dinner, and when the sun is up later in the evening, farmers miss out on recreational activities that only happen late. When the sun is still up at 8:30 or 9pm, the farmer is still in the field, while others have been off work for hours.[10] Opponents of putting the entire state on one time zone often cite out-of-state cities as their reason of opposition. For example, counties in Northwestern Indiana border and commute to and from the metropolis of Chicago, Illinois for business and pleasure. Chicago is on Central Time. Counties in the southeastern corner of the state are suburbs of cities such as Cincinnati, Ohio and Louisville, Kentucky, who both observe Eastern Time. In the southwestern corner of the state, Evansville, Indiana serves as the central hub of a tri-state area that includes southern Illinois and western Kentucky (both on Central Time). Supporters of daylight saving time (DST) and a common time zone in Indiana often claim Indiana must adopt the time-keeping system of the rest of the nation to preserve business. It is believed that Indiana businesses have lost hours of productive time with out-of-state colleagues because the time quirks are just too confusing to keep track of on a daily basis[11]. The confusion caused to outsiders featured prominently in the plot of an episode of The West Wing in which presidential aides unfamiliar with Indiana’s non-observance of DST miss their return flight to Washington, D.C. on Air Force One and express consternation with the variances in the state’s time measurement.[12] Detractors of daylight saving time point out that scientific studies assessing the impact of the time policy change to DST in Indiana have identified a significant increase in energy usage and spending on electricity by Indiana households. Indiana households paid an additional $8.6 million in electricity bills according to University of California, Santa Barbara economics professor Matthew Kotchen and Ph.D. student Laura Grant[13], while supporters of Daylight Saving Time point to studies such as Professor Kotchen, the Department of Transportation and organizations such as the California Energy Commission claim that the United States saves approximately 1% of energy when Daylight Saving Time is being observed.[14] Another wrinkle in the issue is that many businesses in Indiana prefer Eastern time to

Controversy
The Indiana time zone debate remains controversial. Many argue that the entire state should move to Central Time, while many others believe the state should return to the non-observance of DST. This controversy is deeply rooted in Indiana. With a large agricultural heritage, many farmers oppose DST because their days are controlled by the sun; not the clock. During daylight saving time, the sun rises an hour later, costing farmers sixty minutes of valuable morning productivity. Farmers are often dependent on young children whose parents

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Central time because it is the time zone of Wall Street, despite its geographic location over 700 miles east of Indianapolis. This complicates matters because in the western Indiana counties where Eastern time is observed (South Bend and Fowler down to Terre Haute and Vincennes), around the summer solstice, the sun neither sets until after 9:20 pm, nor does it reach solar noon until almost 2:00 pm[15]. During the winter months when standard time is observed, school buses in western regions lose a valuable hour of the sun’s rays as they pick up children in the morning due to the unnatural geographic location of this Eastern-time-zoned region. Another notable observation is that schools in the Eastern Time Zone of Indiana tend to have far more 2-hour delays, mainly due to the fact that sunlight is required for many road de-icing components to work. With the sun rising as late as 8:20 am in some areas, available sunlight is inadequate to safely thaw the roads for school buses to pick up all their passengers on time. The argument is that if the same area were in its geographically-natural Central time zone, the sun would be up an hour sooner, and it would have an additional hour to thaw the roads every morning.[16].

Time in Indiana

[5] Coyne, Tom (April 1, 2006), "Some counties resisting zone change", South Bend Tribune, http://www.southbendtribune.com/apps/ pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20060401/News01/ 604010303, retrieved on 2006-11-25. [6] "Dubois wants Eastern time", South Bend Tribune, April 28, 2006, http://www.southbendtribune.com/apps/ pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20060428/News01/ 604280365, retrieved on 2006-11-25. [7] Smith, Mike (April 22, 2006), "Time debate just keeps ticking on", South Bend Tribune, http://www.southbendtribune.com/apps/ pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20060822/News01/ 608220312, retrieved on 2006-11-25. [8] United States Department of Transportation (2007-02-09). Document OST-2006-26442-109. Press release. http://dms.dot.gov/search/ document.cfm?documentid=450729&docketid=2644 Retrieved on 2007-02-19. [9] Corbin, Bryan (September 21, 2007), "Five Counties to Return to EST: Perry County petition is denied", Evansville Courier & Press, http://www.courierpress.com/news/2007/ sep/21/five-counties-to-return-to-estperry-county-is/, retrieved on 2006-10-25. [10] Clewly, Robin (March 31, 2001), What • Time in the United States time is the noon meeting?, Wired • List of counties in Indiana [11] Davey, Monica (November 13, 2005), A time-honored debate in Indiana: to spring forward, fall back or neither, The New York Times, [1] ^ The Indianapolis Star (2005-04-30). A http://www.nytimes.com/2005/11/13/ Brief History of Time (in Indiana). Press national/13indiana.html, retrieved on release. http://www2.indystar.com/ 2007-11-25 library/factfiles/history/time/. [12] Maureen Groppe. "’President’ to tackle [2] "What Time is it in Indiana?", Monroe Indiana time zone issue," Greater County Community School Corporation, Lafayette Journal and Courier, http://www.mccsc.edu/time.html#what, September 15, 2002. retrieved on 2006-11-25. [13] Lahart, Justin (February 27, 2008), [3] "Senate Bill 0127", State of Indiana, Daylight saving wastes energy, study http://www.in.gov/apps/lsa/session/ says, The Wall Street Journal, billwatch/ http://online.wsj.com/public/article/ billinfo?year=2005&request=getBill&docno=127, SB120406767043794825.html, retrieved retrieved on 2006-11-25. on 2008-04-01 [4] Coyne, Tom (March 28, 2006), [14] Daylight Saving Time - Saving Time, "Pressured, Pulaski shifts to Central", Saving Energy South Bend Tribune, [15] www.srrb.noaa.gov http://www.southbendtribune.com/apps/ [16] Shatz, Amy (October 19, 2005), Central, pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20060328/News01/ not eastern! Indiana sports guy tackles 603280393, retrieved on 2006-11-25. time zones; after Daylight Saving shift,

See also

References

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Mr. Sagarin asks Hoosiers to keep sync with sun, The Wall Street Journal (Eastern Edition). New York, NY. Pg. A1

Time in Indiana

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time_in_Indiana" Categories: Geography of Indiana, Seasonal time shifting, Time in the United States This page was last modified on 16 May 2009, at 13:17 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers

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