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									                                          Review For Exam 1
                                         Biology 211 section 2
                                            SI leader Aubrie




Use the figure above for the next four questions:

1. Which similarly inclusive taxon descended from the same common ancestor as Canidae?
   a. Felidae          b. Mustelidae
   c. Carnivora        d. Canis
   e. Lutra

2. Which is a sister taxon to Taxidae?
   a. Mustelidae        b. Canis
   c. Panthera          d. Lutra

3. What Order is Canis latrans in?
   a. Canis           b. Canidae
   c. Carnivora       d. Cannot answer with information given
Remember: DKPCOFGS

4. Canis lupus and Canis latrans are most closely related because they:
   a. do not share a common ancestor with Panthera leo, Taxidea taxus, or Lutra lutra
   b. are monophyletic
   c. evolved from a common ancestor a long time ago
   d. have the most shared derived characters in common
   e. have the youngest species
5. Three living species X, Y, and Z share a common ancestor T, as do extinct species U and V. A
   grouping that includes species T, X, Y, and Z makes up
   a. a valid taxon b. a monophyletic clade
   c. an ingroup        d. a paraphyletic group
   e. a polyphyletic group

6. Which of these taxonomic units are most equivalent across all eukaryotes?
   a. family          b. species
   c. phyla           d. kingdoms
   e. all are comparable across different lineages

7. Life on Earth is thought to have begun
   a. 540 million years ago
   b. 635 million years ago
   c. 2. 7 billion years ago, when there was enough oxygen in the air
   d. Between 3.5 and 3.9 billion years ago, after Earth cooled and rocks began to form
   e. 4.5 billion years ago, shortly after Earth first formed

8. Cyanobacteria are
   a. photoautotrophs            b. photoheterotrophs
   c. chemoautotrophs            d. chemoheterotrophs

9. According to the hypothesis of endosymbiosis,
   a. The first primitive cells may have originated when a lipid bilayer spontaneously formed around
      abiotically produced polymers
   b. Plants were able to colonize land with fungi as symbionts with their roots
   c. The mitochondria and plastids of eukaryotic cells were originally prokaryotic endosymbionts
      that became permanent parts of the host cell
   d. The infoldings and specializations of the plasma membrane led to the evolution of the
      endomembrane system
   e. The nuclear membrane evolved first, followed by plastids, and then by mitochondria

10. What is NOT a characteristic of prokaryotes?
    a. Microscopic/small        b. Unicellular
    c. No internal structures d. Classified in one domain
    d. All true
Remember: prokaryotes= domain bacteria and archea
11. The core idea that makes sense of the unity and all the diversity of life is
    a. The scientific method b. inductive reasoning
    c. deductive reasoning      d. evolution

12. Why are heterocysts important?
    a. They perform an essential task in soybean production
    b. They decompose the organic waste of the earth , thus cycling nutrients
    c. They fix nitrogen for the cyanobacterial cells in anabaena
    d. They were the first fossils found on Earth
13. A chemoheterotroph
    a. Uses energy from the sun and carbon from organic materials
    b. Uses energy from organic material and its carbon from organic materials
    c. Uses energy from the sun and its carbon from self-synthesized organic compounds
    d. Uses energy from inorganic material and its carbon from self-synthesized organic compounds


14. Genetic variation in prokaryotes may be a result of:
       a. Horizontal gene transfer
       b. Transduction
       c. Conjugation
       d. Transformation
       e. All of the above

15. An endospore performs what essential task in prokaryotes?
       a. Like a tail, it aids in motility using a whiplike motion
       b. It is a sticky polysaccharide layer that helps the cell attach and protects the cell from
          immune systems
       c. It forms when conditions are not favorable so the prokaryote can go into “hibernation”
       d. It is the result of binary fission

16. A theory is _____.
        a. a poorly supported idea that has little backing but might be correct
        b. a well-supported concept that has broad explanatory power
        c. the same thing as a hypothesis
        d. not correct unless it is several years old
        e. a concept that, once established in the scientific literature, can be modified but never
           rejected, even when new scientific methods produce data that don't fit

18. Where is a bacterial cell’s DNA found?
       a. Mitochondria
       b. Nucleus
       c. Peroxisome
       d. Nucleoid region
       e. Capsule

19. Name the correct order of appearance of the following:
       a. Atmospheric oxygen, prokaryotes, land plants, eukaryotes
       b. Prokaryotes, land plants, Atmospheric oxygen, eukaryotes
       c. Eukaryotes, atmospheric oxygen, prokaryotes, land plants
       d. Prokaryotes, Atmospheric oxygen, eukaryotes, land plants
       e. Atmospheric oxygen, prokaryotes, eukaryotes, land plants
20. A plasmid is
        a. a small circular ring of DNA found in eukaryotes
        b. a small circular ring of DNA found in bacteria
        c. can be transferred through conjugation
        d. both a and c
        e. both b and c

21. Deductive reasoning
       a. draws a generalized conclusion after collecting data and observations
       b. proceeds from the general to the specific
       c. is used in discovery science
       c. is better to use than inductive reasoning because it is more scientific

22. Transduction is:
       a. the incorporation of genetic material from its environment by a prokaryote
       b. the exchange of a plasmid with the F-factor from one prokaryote to another
       c. one prokaryote giving genetic material by a prokaryote by means of a sex pilus
       d. a bacteriophage giving a prokaryote foreign genetic material whilst infecting the cell

23. Gram stains:
       a. color the capsule, and can tell us if a bacteria is likely to cause disease
       b. are used to prevent cell to cell bonding
       c. act on the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cells
       d. act on the peptidoglycan layer of archaea cells

24. ______ cells are more likely to cause disease in humans than _______ cells because they are more
antibiotic resistant
        a. gram negative; gram positive
        b. gram positive; gram negative
        c. prokaryotic; eukaryotic
        d. eukaryotic; prokaryotic

25. How is the last name of your Biology professor spelled?
       a. Hoafmockel            b. Hoffmokel
       c. Hofmockel             c. Hofmockal


                  Next SI session is Wednesday, September 8 at 7:10 in 2131 Pearson
                                       Good luck on your exam!

								
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