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Biology Standard Course of Study by fjwuxn

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									Science Strands- Common to all high school science courses

Strands
The strands are: Nature of Science, Science as Inquiry, Science and Technology, Science in
Personal and Social Perspectives. They provide the context for teaching of the content Goals and
Objectives.

Nature of Science

This strand includes the following sections: Science as a Human Endeavor, Historical
Perspectives, and the Nature of Scientific Knowledge. These sections are designed to help
students understand the human dimensions of science, the nature of scientific thought, and the
role of science in society. Biology is rich in examples of science as a human endeavor, historical
perspectives on the development of scientific knowledge, and the nature and role of scientific
knowledge.



                     Strands                              Ideas for integrating these strands




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                                                1
                      Strands                           Ideas for integrating these strands
Science as a Human Endeavor                                Include examples of both individual and
                                                            team contributions to the field of biology.
Intellectual honesty and an ethical tradition are
hallmarks of the practice of science. The practice is
rooted in accurate data reporting, peer review,            Design inquiry activities in which all
and making findings public. This aspect of the              students to collect data and report their
                                                            finding to their peers for review.
nature of science can be taught by designing
instruction that encourages students to work in
groups, design investigations, formulate                   Debate whether scientific peer review
hypotheses, collect data, reach conclusions, and            process is adequate to trust scientists’
present their findings to their classmates.                 information in making policy decisions.


                                                           Assign students to investigate the biology
The content studied in biology provides an                  knowledge needed for diverse
opportunity to present science as the basis for             occupations.
medicine, ecology, forensics, biotechnology, and
environmental studies. The diverse biology
                                                           Invite speakers from local industries and
content allows for looking at science as a vocation.        services to discuss the use of biology
Scientist, artist, and technician are just a few of         principles in their work. (Waste
the many careers in which a biology background is           management, water and air quality,
necessary.                                                  biotechnology, pharmaceuticals, forensics,
                                                            etc)


Perhaps the most important aspect of this strand           Demonstrate using newspaper and
is that science is an integral part of society and is       magazine articles the importance of
therefore relevant to students' lives.                      understanding biology.




July 2007
                                                   2
                                                             The Strands: Nature of Science

                    Strands                           Ideas for integrating these strands
Historical Perspectives                                  Be sure to include examples of both male
                                                          and female scientists from diverse
Most scientific knowledge and technological               backgrounds and cultures.
advances develop incrementally from the labors of
scientists and inventors. Although science history
includes accounts of serendipitous scientific            Study the contributions of key scientists
                                                          and the human drama surrounding their
discoveries, most development of scientific
                                                          accomplishments (This is list is not
concepts and technological innovation occurs in           comprehensive.)
response to a specific problem or conflict. Both               The obscurity of Mendel’s work
great advances and gradual knowledge building in                  until after his death
science and technology have profound effects on                The interpersonal struggles
society. Students should appreciate the scientific                involved in the discovery of DNA
thought and effort of the individuals who
contributed to these advances.
                                                         Modern breakthroughs in gene
                                                          manipulation for therapeutic purposes.




Nature of Scientific Knowledge

Much of what is understood about the nature of           Compare and contrast theories and laws.
science must be explicitly addressed:

                                                         Use the theory of biological evolution for
                                                          further research and as a basis for
All scientific knowledge is tentative, although           prediction on other phenomena (the
many ideas have stood the test of time and are            diversity of species, the genetic
reliable for our use.                                     relationships between species and the
                                                          fossil record) and use the gene theory as
                                                          an explanation for relationships between
                                                          one generation and the next.




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                                                                   The Strands: Nature of Science
                     Strands                            Ideas for integrating these strands
Science as Inquiry                                         Because of the importance of science as
Inquiry should be the central theme in biology. It is       inquiry this aspect has been integrated
an integral part of the learning experience and             into Goal 1: The learner will develop
may be used in traditional class problems and               abilities necessary to do and understand
                                                            scientific inquiry.
laboratory work. The essence of the inquiry
process is to ask questions that stimulate students
to think critically and to formulate their own             This idea should be integrated into the
questions. Observing, classifying, using numbers,           entire course and not just taught as a
plotting graphs, measuring, inferring, predicting,          separate “lab introduction” unit.
formulating models, interpreting data,
hypothesizing, and experimenting all help students
                                                           Traditional labs such as dissection and
to build knowledge and communicate what they                observation of plant and animal cells could
have learned. Inquiry is the application of creative        lead to open-ended explorations such as
thinking to new and unfamiliar situations.                  the study of a particular animal’s anatomy
                                                            in relationship to its environment and
                                                            behavior, or the effect of changing
                                                            environmental conditions on the growth of
Classical experiments confirming well-accepted              yeast (or other) cells.
scientific principles may be necessary to reinforce
understanding and to teach safe and proper use of
laboratory techniques and instruments, but they            There is the potential for many inquiries
                                                            such as: “Does the earthworm respond to
should not be the whole laboratory experience.
                                                            light?” “Why?” “Does temperature affect
Instead, they should be a prelude to open-ended             the metabolic activity of yeast?” “Why?”
investigations in which the students have the
chance to pose questions, design experiments,              Students should design solutions to
record and analyze data, and communicate their              biological problems that interest them.
findings



Having students involved in research (beyond the
typical “science fair project”) contributes
immensely to their understanding of the process
of science and to their problem-solving abilities.



A solid conceptual base of scientific principles, and
knowledge of science safety, is necessary for
inquiry. Adherence to all science safety criteria and
guidelines for classroom, field, and laboratory
July 2007
experiences is imperative. Contact the Science
                                                   4
Section at DPI for information and professional
development opportunities regarding North
Carolina specific Science Safety laws, codes, and
                     Strands                           Ideas for integrating these strands
Science and Technology                                    Provide opportunities for students to
It is impossible to learn science without developing       utilize technology to collect and analyze
some appreciation of technology. Therefore, this           data in laboratory settings.
strand has a dual purpose: (a) developing students'
knowledge and skills in technological design, and
                                                          Allow students to brainstorm ways that
(b) enhancing their understanding of science and           technology can be used to enhance
technology.                                                scientific study in the future.


                                                          Discuss the limitation of technology in
The methods of scientific inquiry and technological        scientific study
design share many common elements including
objectivity, clear definition of the problem,
identification of goals, careful collection of
observations and data, data analysis, replication of
results, and peer review. Technological design
differs from inquiry in that it must operate within
the limitations of materials, scientific laws,
economics, and the demands of society. Together,
science and technology present many solutions to
problems of survival and enhance the quality of
life. Technological design is important to building
knowledge in biology. For example, electron
microscopes, graphic calculators, personal
computers, and magnetic resonance images have
changed our lives, increased our knowledge of
biology, and improved our understanding of the
universe.




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                     Strands                            Ideas for integrating these strands
Science in Personal and Social                             Design scientific resolutions for local or
Perspectives                                                global challenges.
This strand helps students in making rational
decisions in the use of scientific and technological
                                                           Encourage debate about these resolutions
knowledge. "Understanding basic concepts and
                                                            and their consequences.
principles of science and technology should
precede active debate about the economics,
policies, politics, and ethics of various science and      Study issues such as nutrition, exercise,
technology-related challenges. However,                     rest, and substance abuse from the
understanding science alone will not resolve local,         perspective of an organism’s needs and
                                                            responses.
national, or global challenges. (NSES, p. 199). The
NSES emphasizes that "students should
understand the appropriateness and value of basic          Develop the ability to assess the carrying
questions 'What can happen?' - 'What are the                capacity of a given environment and its
odds?' and 'How do scientists and engineers know            implied limits on population growth, as
what will happen?'" (NSES, p. 199). Students                well as how technology allows
should understand the causes and extent of                  environmental modifications to adjust its
                                                            carrying capacity.
science-related challenges. They should become
familiar with the advances that proper application
of scientific principles and products have brought         Make decisions based on evidence in the
to environmental enhancement, better energy                 areas of environmental stewardship and
use, reduced vehicle emissions, and improved                economic realities.
human health.




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                                                 6
         Biology Standard Course of Study/
         Content Description and Suggested Activities

                                                                                                          Goal 1

Goal 1: Learner will develop abilities necessary to do and understand scientific inquiry.
Goal 1 addresses scientific investigation. These objectives are an integral part of each of the other goals. Students must be
given the opportunity to design and conduct their own investigations in a safe laboratory. The students should use questions
and models to formulate the relationship identified in their investigations and then report and share those findings with
others.

          Objective                               Content Description                            Suggested Activities

1.01 Identify biological            Develop questions for investigation from a given     Activities for this goal will be
     problems and questions          topic or problem.                                    embedded within the other goals.
     that can be answered
     through scientific
     investigations.


1.02 Design and conduct                                                                   Student design of an experiment
scientific investigations to
answer biological questions.



 Create testable                                                                         Qualitative and quantitative lab
  hypotheses.                                                                             investigations and experiences
 Identify variables.
 Use a control or
                                    Distinguish and appropriately graph dependent
  comparison group when
                                     and independent variables.
  appropriate.
 Select and use appropriate
  measurement tools.
 Collect and record data.
 Organize data into charts
  and graphs.
 Analyze and interpret data.
 Communicate findings.
                                    Discuss the best method of graphing/presenting
                                     particular data.




                                    Report and share investigation results with
                                     others.
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                                                              7
1.03 Formulate and revise           Use questions and models to determine the            Content rich inference vs.
scientific explanations and          relationships between variables in investigations.   observation activity (eg: "Animal
models of biological                                                                      Responses to Environmental
phenomena using logic and                                                                 Stimuli")
evidence to:

   Explain observations.
   Make inferences and
    predictions.
   Explain the relationship
    between evidence and
    explanation.


1.04 Apply safety procedures        Predict safety concerns for particular experiments   Safety activity
in the laboratory and in field      Relate biological concepts to safety applications
studies:                             such as:
                                         o Disease transmission
    Recognize and avoid                 o Nutrition
     potential hazards.                  o Animal care
 Safely manipulate
     materials and equipment
     needed for scientific
     investigations.
1.05 Analyze reports of                 Read a variety of reports of scientific             Case Studies from recent
scientific investigations from           research.                                           literature in both academic
an informed scientifically
                                                                                             (Science, Scientific American)
literate viewpoint including
considerations of:                                                                           and popular (Newsweek, USA
      Appropriate sample.                                                                   Today) publications.
      Adequacy of
          experimental
          controls.
      Replication of
          July 2007
                                                              8
    findings.
   Alternative
    interpretations of the
    data.




    July 2007
                             9
                                                              Goal 2
 Goal 2: Learner will develop an understanding of the physical, chemical and
 cellular basis of life.


            Objective                        Content Description                            Suggested Activities

 2.01 Compare and contrast           Examine the role and importance of
 the structure and functions of       organic molecules to organisms.
 the following organic               Examples to investigate include starch,           Testing for bio-molecules:
 molecules:                           cellulose, insulin, glycogen, glucose,            starch, lipids, sugars, and
                                      enzymes, hemoglobin, fats, DNA and RNA.           proteins
        Carbohydrates.               (Distinguish among mono, and
                                      polysaccharides - concept not terminology)
        Proteins.
                                     Interpret results of tests for starch (iodine),
        Lipids.
                                      lipids (brown paper), monosaccharides
        Nucleic Acids.
                                      (Benedict’s Solution), and protein
                                      (Biuret’s).
                                     Emphasis should be on functions and
                                      subunits of each organic molecule. For
                                      example, enzymes are proteins composed
                                      of long chains of amino acids that are
                                      folded into particular shapes and that
                                      shape determines the specific reaction that
                                      the enzyme will catalyze. (The terms
                                      condensation reaction, dehydration
                                      synthesis and hydrolysis have been
                                      deliberately excluded.)


 2.02 Investigate and describe
 the structure and function of
 cells including:                    Structure and function of: nucleus, plasma        Creation of cell models
                                      membrane, cell wall, mitochondria,
                                      vacuoles, chloroplasts, and ribosomes.
                                      Students should be able to identify these
                                      cell organelles.                                  Microscope experience
        Cell organelles.
                                     Proficient use and understanding of light
                                      microscopic techniques. Students should
                                      determine total power magnification as
                                      well as steps in proper microscope usage.         Cell surface area to volume
                                     Hierarchy of cell organization: Cells             activity
                                      tissuesorgans organ systems.
                                     Structure of cells as it relates to their
                                      specific functions.
                                     Students should view a variety of cells with
                                      particular emphasis on the differences
                                      between plant and animal cells.
                                     Chemical signals may be released by one
                                      cell to influence the activity of another cell.
                                      For example, a nerve cell can send a
                                      message to a muscle cell or to another a

July 2007
                                                             10
                                       nerve cell.
                                      role of receptor proteins
         Cell specialization.        hormones
                                   




          Communication
           among cells within an
           organism.
 2.03 Investigate and analyze
 the cell as a living system
 including:                           Examples for exploration should include        An osmosis lab / diffusion
                                       regulation of temperature, pH, blood           lab
                                       glucose levels and water balance.
                                      Discussion should include active vs. passive
       Maintenance of                 transport, diffusion, osmosis, and the
        homeostasis.                   porous nature of the semi-permeable
                                       plasma membrane. (Pinocytosis,
                                       phagocytosis, endocytosis, and exocytosis
                                       have been deliberately excluded)
                                      Given different types of cells, students       Inquiry Support Activities:
         Movement of                  should be able to predict any changes in
          materials into and           osmotic pressure that may occur as the cell    Osmosis and the Egg
          out of cells.                is placed in solutions of differing
                                       concentrations. (Emphasis is on the            How do biological
                                       processes, not terminology such as             materials respond to
                                       hypertonic, isotonic, hypotonic, turgor        acids and bases? (Buffer
                                       pressure)
                                                                                      lab)
                                      Examine ATP as the source of energy for
                                       cell activities.
                                      Students will describe how cells store and
                                       use energy with ATP and ADP molecules.

                                                                                      Activities that demonstrate
                                                                                      when food is burned energy
                                                                                      is given off (such as burning
                                                                                      a peanut or cheese doodle)


         Energy use and
          release in
          biochemical
          reactions.



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 2.04 Investigate and describe   Instruction should include investigation of:           Inquiry Support Activity:
 the structure and function of                                                          Properties of Enzymes
 enzymes and explain their                  Enzymes as proteins that speed up
                                             chemical reactions (catalyst).
 importance in biological
                                          Enzymes as re-usable and specific.
 systems.
                                          Enzymes as affected by such factors as
                                             pH, and temperature.
                                     Students should understand that enzymes are
                                     necessary for all biochemical reactions and have

                                     a general understanding of how enzymes work.




 2.05 Investigate and analyze    The emphasis should be placed on investigation of:     Inquiry Support Activity:
 the bioenergetic reactions:                                                            Yeast Fermentation
                                         Overall equations including reactants and
                                          products and not on memorizing
                                          intermediate steps of these processes.
        Aerobic respiration           Factors which affect rate of photosynthesis     Inquiry activities which
        Anaerobic respiration            and or cellular respiration.                  allow students to
                                       Comparison and contrast of these                investigate factors affecting
                                          processes with regard to efficiency of ATP
                                                                                        rate of photosynthesis
                                          formation, the types of organisms using
                                          these processes, and the organelles           and/or cellular respiration
        Photosynthesis                   involved.
                                               o Anaerobic respiration should
                                                   include lactic acid and alcoholic
                                                   fermentation.
                                 Instruction should include the comparison of
                                 anaerobic and aerobic organisms.

                                 (Glycolysis, Kreb’s Cycle, and Electron Transport
                                 Chain have been deliberately excluded)

                                  (Students are not required to distinguish between
                                 light dependent and light independent parts of
                                 photosynthesis)




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                                                                                                                          Goal 3

 Goal 3: Learner will develop an understanding of the continuity of life and the
 changes of organisms over time.


            Objective                            Content Description                          Suggested Activities

  3.01 Analyze the molecular     Instruction should include:
  basis of heredity including:
                                    Structure of DNA as compared to RNA                  Investigation of replication,
                                    Complementary base pairing                           transcription and
                                    Understanding that the sequence of nucleotides       translation using models.
                                     in DNA codes for proteins – the central key to
                                     cell function and life.

                                                                                          Inquiry Support Activity:
                                    How the process allows daughter cells to have
                                     an exact copy of parental DNA.                       What are the effects of
                                    Understanding of the semi-conservative nature        various mutations on
                                     of the replication process. (nature of the
        DNA Replication             process, not the term semi-conservative)             protein synthesis?
                                    Mutations as a change in the DNA code.
                                    The position of replication within the cell cycle.
                                    The importance of relatively weak hydrogen
                                     bonds.


                                 The recognition of protein synthesis as a process of:

                                    Transcription that produces an RNA copy of
                                     DNA, which is further modified into the three
                                     types of RNA
                                    mRNA traveling to the ribosome (rRNA)
                                    Translation - tRNA supplies appropriate amino
                                     acids
                                    Amino acids linked by peptide bonds to form
                                     polypeptides which are folded into proteins.
                                    Use of a codon chart to determine the amino
                                     acid sequence produced by a particular
                                     sequence of bases.
      Protein Synthesis
     (transcription and
                                    All (with a few exceptions) of an organism’s
     translation)
                                     cells have the same DNA but differ based on the
                                     expression of genes.
                                      differentiation of cells in multicellular
                                          organisms
                                      cells responding to their environment by

July 2007
                                                                13
                                           producing different types and amounts of
                                           protein.
                                          advantages (injury repair) and
                                           disadvantages (cancer) of the
                                           overproduction, underproduction or
                                           production of proteins at the incorrect
                                           times.




         Gene Regulation


 3.02 Compare and contrast        Instruction should include:
 the characteristics of asexual
 and sexual reproduction.                  Recognizing mitosis as a part of asexual    Inquiry Support Activity:
                                            reproduction and meiosis as a part of
                                            sexual reproduction.                        Cell Cycle
                                         Similarities and differences between
                                            mitosis and meiosis including replication
                                            and separation of DNA and cellular
                                            material, changes in chromosome number,
                                            number of cell divisions, and number of
                                            cells produced in complete cycle.           Investigation involving
                                         Putting mitosis diagrams in order and         mitosis/ meiosis simulations
                                            describing what is occurring throughout
                                            the process.
                                  Students are not expected to memorize the names of
                                  the steps or the order of the step names.

                                          The sources of variation including:
                                               o Crossing over.
                                               o Random assortment of
                                                  chromosomes.
                                               o Gene mutation
                                               o Nondisjunction
                                               o Fertilization




July 2007
                                                                 14
 3.03 Interpret and predict    Instruction should include:
 patterns of inheritance.
                                       Identifying and determining genotypes and        Inquiry Support Activity:
                                        phenotypes.
                                       Recognition that phenotype is the result of      Genetics of Parenthood
                                        both genotype and the environment.
                                       A discussion of Mendel’s experiments and
                                        laws.
                                       Interpreting karyotypes (gender,
                                        chromosomal abnormalities)
                                       Understanding that dominant traits mask
                                        recessive alleles.
                                       There are a variety of intermediate
                                        patterns of inheritance, including
                                        codominance and incomplete dominance.
        Dominant, recessive            While teachers should not necessarily
         and intermediate               expect students at this level to distinguish
         traits.                        between these forms of intermediate
                                        inheritance on a biochemical level they
                                        should be able to solve problems involving
                                        apparently intermediate phenotypes. The
                                        following discussion is included to help
                                        teachers with understanding these
                                        frequently confused terms.
                                             o Incomplete dominance (also called
                                                  partial dominance) results in the
                                                  blending of traits. (Usually results
                                                  from an inactive or less active
                                                  gene so the heterozygous
                                                  phenotype appears intermediate.
                                                  E.g. Pink flowers)
                                             o Co-dominant alleles result in the
                                                  expression of both traits. (two
                                                  different proteins are produced
                                                  and both are detected e.g. roan
                                                  cows and AB blood type.)
                                       Autosomal inheritance patterns and
                                        characteristics of sickle cell anemia, cystic
                                        fibrosis, and Huntington’s disease


                                       Solving and interpreting co-dominant
                                        crosses involving multiple alleles.
                                   
                                                                              A B
                                        A, B, AB and O blood types (alleles: I , I ,
                                        and i).
                                       Determining if parentage is possible based
                                        on blood types.


                                       Recognizing that some traits are controlled
                                        by more than one pair of genes.
                                       This pattern of inheritance is identified by
                                        the presence of a wide range of
                                        phenotypes (consider examples of skin and
                                        hair color).
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                                                              15
                                An understanding of human sex
                                 chromosomes.
                                Solving crosses involving sex linked traits
                                 (examples: color-blindness and
                                 hemophilia.)
                                Understand why males are more likely to
                                 express a sex-linked trait.


                                The importance of the genes being on
                                 separate chromosomes as it relates to
                                 meiosis.
                                How the process of meiosis leads to
                                 independent assortment and ultimately to
                                 greater genetic diversity.

       Multiple alleles.
                                Given certain phenotypes suggest an
                                 appropriate test cross to determine the
                                 genotype of an organism.


                                Identify the genotypes of individuals from a
                                 given pedigree. (students should be able to
                                 interpret pedigrees which show phenotype
                                 not genotype)


                                Solving and interpreting problems featuring
       Polygenic traits.        monohybrid crosses. (Parental, F1, F2
                                 generations)
                                Determining parental genotypes based on
                                 offspring ratios.




       Sex linked traits.




July 2007
                                                       16
        Independent
         assortment.




        Test cross.




        Pedigrees.




        Punnett squares.


  3.04 Assess the impacts of    Instruction should include:
  genomics on individuals and
  society.                                                                             Electrophoresis lab or
                                                                                       simulation.
        Human genome
         project.
                                        The reasons for establishing the human
                                         genome project.                               Inquiry Support Activity:
                                        Recognition that the project is useful in
                                         determining whether individuals may carry     Genetic Detective
                                         genes for genetic conditions and in
                                         developing gene therapy.


                                        Gel electrophoresis as a technique to
                                         separate molecules based on size.
        Applications of            (Students are not expected to know the steps of
         biotechnology.             gel electrophoresis in order or great detail.
                                    They should be able to interpret the results and
                                    have a general understanding of what takes
                                    place during the process.)

July 2007
                                                              17
                                      Uses of DNA fingerprinting
                                      Applications of transgenic organisms
                                       (plants, animals, & bacteria) in agriculture
                                       and industry including pharmaceutical
                                       applications such as the production of
                                       human insulin.
                                      Ethical issues and implications of genomics
                                       and biotechnology. (stem cell research and
                                       genetically modified organisms)


  3.05 Examine the            Instruction should include:                             Inquiry Support Activity:
  development of the theory
  of evolution by natural             Historical development of the theory of        Fishy Frequencies
                                       evolution by natural selection.
  selection including:
                                   Biogenesis in contrast to abiogenesis with
                                       emphasis on the experiments used to
       Development of the
        theory.                        support both ideas.
                                   Early atmosphere hypotheses and
                                       experiments.
       The origin and             How the early conditions affected the type
        history of life.               of organism that developed (anaerobic and
                                       prokaryotic).
                                   Evolution of eukaryotic and aerobic
                                       organisms.
                                   Fossils– relative and absolute dating
                                       methods
                                   A discussion of what can be inferred from
                                       patterns in the fossil record.
                                   Biochemical similarities.
       Fossil and                 Shared anatomical structures.
        biochemical           (Patterns in embryology and homologous and
        evidence.             analogous vocabulary are intentionally excluded)



                                      How variations provide material for natural
                                       selection.
                                      The role of geographic isolation in
                                       speciation.
                                      The importance of the environment in
                                       selecting adaptations.

       Mechanisms of
        evolution.                    Discuss the evolutionary selection of
                                       resistance to antibiotics and pesticides in
                                       various species.




July 2007
                                                             18
       Applications
        (pesticide &
        antibiotic resistance).




July 2007
                                  19
                                                                                                                        Goal 4



 Goal 4: Learner will develop an understanding of the unity and diversity of life.


            Objective                                Content Description                       Suggested Activities

 4.01 Analyze the classification   Students should learn about the changing nature of
 of organisms according to         classification based new knowledge generated by
 their evolutionary                research on evolutionary relationships.                   Use dichotomous keys to
 relationships.                                                                              identify organisms.




         The historical
          development and          History of classification system
                                                                                             Activities might include
          changing nature of
                                           Originally two kingdoms (plants and animals).    student-created keys
          classification
                                            More kingdoms added as knowledge of the          based on observable
          systems.                                                                           characteristics (e.g.
                                            diversity of organisms increased.
                                                                                             symmetry)
                                        Development of the seven level classification
                                            system (KPCOFGS) and binomial
                                            nomenclature
                                       (The intention is that students understand that
                                       classification systems are changed as new
                                       knowledge is gathered. Currently, the thinking is 3
                                       Domains with 6-7 kingdoms)



                                   Basis of classification system

                                              Evolutionary phylogeny, DNA and
                                               biochemical analysis, embryology,
                                               morphology
                                              Interpret phylogenetic trees.


                                     Only basic differences and similarities should be
                                     detailed.
         Similarities and
          differences between                 Membrane bound organelles – none in
          eukaryotic and                       prokaryotes.
          prokaryotic                         Ribosomes in both.
          organisms.                          Contrasts in chromosome structure.
                                              Contrasts in size.


                                    Compare:

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                                              Cellular structures.
                                              Unicellular vs. Multicellular.
        Similarities and                     Methods of making/getting food and
         differences among                     breaking down food to get energy.
         the eukaryotic                       Reproduction.
         kingdoms: Protists,
         Fungi, Plants, and
         Animals.                 Use dichotomous keys to identify organisms.


         Classify organisms
          using keys.
 4.02 Analyze the processes by    Teachers should help students compare and contrast       Observe representative
 which organisms                  how the organisms listed accomplish the essential life   organisms from the
                                                                                           specified groups.
 representative of the            functions specified below. The focus is on physiology
 following groups accomplish      rather than on the names of parts.                       Inquiry Support
 essential life functions                                                                  Activity:
 including:                                Transport – how organisms get what they        Organism Newspaper
                                              need to cells; how they move waste from      Project
        Unicellular protists,                cells to organs of excretion.
         annelid worms,                    Excretion – how organisms get rid of their
         insects, amphibians,                 waste and balance their fluids (pH, salt
         mammals, non-                        concentration, water).
         vascular plants,                  Regulation – how organisms control body
         gymnosperms and                      processes – hormones, nervous system.
         angiosperms.                      Respiration – how organisms get oxygen from
                                              the environment and release carbon
                                              dioxide back to the environment and how
        Transport, excretion,                plants exchange gases.
         respiration,                      Nutrition – how organisms break down and
         regulation, nutrition,               absorb foods.
         synthesis,                        Synthesis – how organisms build necessary
         reproduction, and                    molecules.
         growth and                        Reproduction – sexual versus asexual, eggs,
         development.                         seeds, spores, placental, types of
                                              fertilization.
                                           Growth and development – metamorphosis,
                                              development in egg or in uterus, growth
                                              from seed or spore.


 4.03 Assess, describe and
 explain adaptations affecting
 survival and reproductive                                                                 Investigation that includes
                                                                                           the observation of
 success.                                                                                  structural adaptations

        Structural
         adaptations in plants
         and animals (form to
                                    Focus should be on structural adaptations from
         function).
                                    organisms that are listed in 4.02, particularly:

                                             Feeding adaptations.
                                             Adaptations to ensure successful

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                                            reproduction.
                                           Adaptations to life on land.
         Disease-causing
          viruses and
          microorganisms.            Instruction should include:

                                           Structure of viruses.
                                           Mutation of viruses and other
                                            microorganisms.
                                           Variety of disease causing (pathogenic)
                                            agents (viruses, bacteria) including:
                                             HIV
                                             Influenza
                                             Smallpox
                                             Streptococcus (strep throat)


                                     Emphasis should be on the relationship between
                                     angiosperms and their pollinators.

         Co-evolution.


 4.04 Analyze and explain the        Focus should be on the interactive role of genetics       Use of case studies to
 interactive role of internal and    and the environment in determining a specific             analyze the role of
 external factors in health and      response including:                                       genetics and environment
 disease:                                                                                      in human health.
                                           Sickle cell anemia and malaria
         Genetics.                        Lung/mouth cancer and tobacco use
                                           Skin cancer, vitamin D, folic acid and sun
                                            exposure
                                           Diabetes (diet/exercise and genetic
                                            interaction).
                                           PKU and diet




                                      Instruction should include basic understanding of:

                                           Function and relationship of T-cells, B-cells,
         Immune response.                  antibodies/antigens. (Overview only of
                                            different types and roles of T and B cells: role
                                            of memory cells, B cells make antibodies,
                                            some T cells help B cells make antibodies,
                                            other T cells kill infected cells.)
                                           Passive and active immunity.
                                           Vaccines.


                                    Teachers should emphasize aspects of nutrition that

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                                  contribute to:

                                          Optimal health.
                                          Poor nutrition (obesity, malnutrition and
                                           specific deficiencies.)


                                    Teachers should focus on the general life cycle (not
        Nutrition.                 specific details), vector, symptoms, and treatments
                                    for: Malarial parasite (Plasmodium)



                                    Understand effects of environmental toxins

                                          Lead
                                          Mercury


        Parasites.




        Toxins.


 4.05 Analyze the broad
 patterns of animal behavior as
 adaptations to the                 Taxes and instincts, including:                        Inquiry Support Activity:
 environment.
                                          suckling (instinct)                             Animal Responses to
                                          insects moving away from or toward light        Environmental Stimuli
        Innate behavior.
                                           (taxis)
                                          migration, estivation, hibernation


                                    Focus should be on various types of learned
        Learned behavior.
                                    behavior including:

                                       Habituation
                                       Imprinting
                                       Classical conditioning (e.g. Pavlov’s dog –
                                         stimulus association)
                                       Trial and error (focus on concept of trial and
                                         error learning not term operant
                                         conditioning).


                                    Focus should be on communication, territorial
                                    defense, and courtship, including:

                                       Communication within social structure using
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                              pheromones (ex: bees and ants).
                            Courtship dances.
       Social behavior.    Territorial defense (ex: Fighting Fish).




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                                                                                                                    Goal 5

 Goal 5: Learner will develop an understanding of the ecological relationships
 among organisms.


            Objective                             Content Description                           Suggested
                                                                                           Activities/Resources

 5.01 Investigate and analyze   Students should be able to identify and describe        Inquiry Support Activity:
 the interrelationships among   symbiotic relationships
 organisms, populations,                                                                Campus Field Study
 communities and ecosystems             Mutualism
                                        Commensalism
                                        Parasitism


                                Students should be able to identify and predict
                                patterns in Predator /prey relationships.



                                Use field ecology techniques such as sampling and
                                quadrant studies to determine species diversity and
        Techniques of field    changes over time.
         ecology


                                Explain how abiotic and biotic factors are related to
                                one another and their importance in ecosystems.
        Abiotic and biotic
         factors

                                Analyze how limiting factors influence carrying
        Carrying capacity
                                capacity (e.g. food availability, competition, harsh
                                winter).



                                Interpret population growth graphs.



 5.02 Analyze the flow of
 energy and the cycling of
 matter in the ecosystem.




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       Relationship of the
        carbon cycle to
        photosynthesis and       Investigate the carbon cycle as it relates to
        respiration              photosynthesis and respiration.




       Trophic levels-
        direction and
        efficiency of energy
        transfer

                                 Analyze food chains, food webs, and energy pyramids
                                 for direction and efficiency of energy transfer.



5.03 Assess human population                                                             Inquiry Support Activity:
and its impact on local
ecosystems and global                                                                    Environmental Factors
environments:                                                                            that Affect the Hatching
                                                                                         of Brine Shrimp
       Historic and potential
                                 Instruction should include:
        changes in population
                                  Analyze human population growth graphs
                                   (historical and potential changes) .(See 5.01)
       Factors associated
                                  Factors influencing birth rates and death rates.
        with those changes.
                                  Effects of population size, density and resource
                                   use on the environment.
                                  Discussion of human impact on local ecosystems:
                                        Acid rain
                                        Habitat destruction
                                        Introduced non-native species.
                                  How changes in human population affects
                                   populations of other organisms.




                                 Discussion of factors that influence climate:
                                     greenhouse effect (relate to carbon cycle and
                                                    human impact on atmospheric CO2)
                                     natural environmental processes (e.g. volcanoes)
       Climate Change.


                                 Investigation of the direct and indirect impact of
                                 humans on natural resources (e.g. deforestation,
                                 pesticide use and bioaccumulation research )




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      Resource use             Examples of sustainable practices and stewardship.




      Sustainable practices/
       stewardship.




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