Capture Systems Analysis Model for Support of the U S DOE Carbon by EIA

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									     Systems Analysis Supporting the
Carbon Sequestration Technology Roadmap

                   Second National Conference on
                       Carbon Sequestration
                             May 6, 2003


                          Scott M. Klara, NETL
                          Jared Ciferno, SAIC
                      Phil DiPietro, Energetics, Inc.
                Sequestration Program Goals
   Develop Technology Options for GHG Management That...

• Are safe and environmentally
  acceptable                                     Cost Performance Goals

• Result in                               Year     COE Penalty          COE Penalty
   − < 10% increase in cost of energy              IGCC Plants           PC Plants
     services (< $10/tonne CO2
     avoided) for capture, transport, &            (% Increase)         (% Increase)
     storage                              2002           30                    80
   − With Measurement, Monitoring &
     Verification protocols for           2007           20                    45
     assurance of permanent storage       2012           10                    20
                                          2015          <10                    10
• Global Climate Change Initiative
   − Contribute to reducing carbon        2018*           0                     0
     intensity by 18% by 2012
   − Provide portfolio of commercially
     ready technologies for 2012            *Cost/Energy offset from sequestering CO2 with
     assessment                             criteria pollutants NOX, SOx, H2S (gasification)
       Why the 10% Increase in COE Goal?
Relate to Compliance Costs Absorbed for Mandated Pollutants

              Coal Plants Absorbed ~ 10% Cost Increase
            in COE & Capital for each Mandated Pollutant

                                        Cost of Environmental Compliance
  ~ 30% Capital Cost
      Impact for                              (Nominal 500MW PC Plant)         ~ 30% COE
     3 Pollutants                                                               Impact for
                                       100%                                    3 Pollutants
               % of Total Plant Cost




                                       80%
                                                                         PM & Ash
                                       60%                               Nox Control
                                       40%                               SO2 Control
                                                                         Base Plant
                                       20%
                                        0%
                                              Capital Cost   COE          Sources: IECM Calculations
                      Objectives
Analyze Detailed Component Costs for Capture & Storage to:

• Determine where the R&D should be focused

• Determine “best case” potential for R&D portfolio

                                      *** CO2 Sequestration Module ***


                           CO2
                                               CO2 Transportation
                         Separation
                                                                       Geologic
                                                                     Sequestration

                                                                      Electric
                                                                      Power
                                                              Generator
                                                                            E
                       Methodology
     Don’t Reinvent the Wheel for Current Technologies
       EPRI                             Alstom
                Literature Search &
     Parsons      Data Collection
                                        SFA Pacific
                                                              Scrubbing

    PC Boiler                               CO2 Capture       Membranes
                Power Plant Module
     Gasifier     Development
                                            CO2 Compression
                                                              Oxy-Fuel



VBA Functions   Spreadsheet Model           Flexible
                  Development



                Model Verification:
                  Do the results      Yes
                                               Assess R & D
                 coincide with the             Technologies
                      Data?
                                  Scenarios
       Many Advanced Integrated Schemes Emerging

Coal Gasification                                Pulverized Coal
CO2 Hydrates                                     Oxygen Combustion
Membranes                                        Membranes
Advanced Scrubbers                               Advanced Scrubbers
Inexpensive Oxygen                               New Sorbents
Chemical Looping                                 Mineral Carbonation
                                                 Chemical Looping

                    Pathways to Zero Emissions
    Producing a concentrated stream of CO2 at high pressure:
    • Improves sequestration economics
    • Reduces energy penalty
       Technology Currently Being Evaluated
                Key Assumptions
Economic Parameters
 Capital Charge Factor (%)          14.5
 Dollars (Constant)                 2001
 Plant Life (Years)                 20
 Coal ($/ton)                       28


System parameters
 Capacity Factor (%)                 65
 % CO2 Capture*                      90
 Pipeline Distance (miles)           50
 Saline Injection Pressure (psia)   1,500

  *Most Cases
         Status of Current “Best Case” Technologies
                    Using State-of-the-Art Scrubbing Technologies
      • 5 to 30% Parasitic energy loss

      • 30 to 100% Increase in capital cost

      • 25 to 100% Increase in cost of electricity
      Effect of CO2 Capture on Capital Cost                   Effect of CO2 Capture on Cost of Electricity
         (% Increase Resulting From CO2 Capture)                   (% Increase Resulting From CO2 Capture)

100                                                      80
                                                   100
80                                                                                                            72
                               87                        60
                                                                                        60
60
                                                         40
40

           33                                            20          29
20


  0                                                       0
        IGCC                 PC                NGCC               IGCC              NGCC                     PC
        Analyses Allows Us To Dissect Economics
                       Where Should R&D Best Focus?

        10                                     •   Capital Cost Decrease

                            9.16               •   Steam Stripping
         8                                         Efficiency
                                       7.6
         6                                             GOAL 20%
                                                     Increase in COE
c/kWh           5.31
         4                                     •   Loading/Unloading
                                                   Efficiency
         2
                                               •   Improved Capacity

         0
             No Capture   Current   Advanced
               PC with Amine Scrubbing
         Pulverized Coal Scenarios


• Current Scrubbing - Chemical Absorbents (MEA)


• Advanced Scrubbing


• Oxy-Fuel Combustion


• Oxygen Transport Membrane
                                          Marching Toward The Goals - PC Power
                                                         Plant
                                          100                         Driving
                                                100                             Down
                                                                                     Costs
$/tonne CO2 Avoided
                      % Increase in COE




                                           80          84

                                                                 71                  72
                                           60
                                                                          57                59

                                           40                                                         43
                                                                                                             34
                                                                                                                   2012
                                           20                                                                      Goal


                                            0
                                                O2 Comb.        OTM Comb.        Current Scrubbing   Adv. Amines


                                                      % Increase in COE                   $/tonne CO2 Avoided
                                          Marching Toward The Goals - PC Power
                                                  Plant O2 Combustion
                                          100                           Driving
                                                                                  Down
                                                                                       Costs
$/tonne CO2 Avoided




                                                  89
                      % Increase in COE




                                           80

                                                         67        70
                                           60                              61        60

                                           40                                              44        42    40
                                                                                                                       2012
                                           20                                                                          Goal


                                            0
                                                  Cryogenic     Cryogenic/NZE      O2 Membranes        O2
                                                                                                  Membranes/NZE

                                                       % Increase in COE                  $/tonne CO2 Avoided

                                           NZE: Near Zero Emissions (i.e. Sequestration of > 90% of Flue Gas Stream)
                 IGCC Scenarios

• Current Scrubbing - Physical Absorbents (Selexol)


• Oxygen Transport Membranes


• CO2 Hydrates


• Dry Regenerable Sorbents



                                    Tampa Electric Co.
                                 IGCC Polk Power Station
                           Marching Toward The Goals - IGCC Power
                                           Plant
                                          30
                                                29                          Driving
                                                                                      Down
                                                                                           Costs
$/tonne CO2 Avoided




                                                                26
                      % Increase in COE




                                                      24
                                          20                         22
                                                                              19
                                                                                   16
                                                                                           14      13
                                                                                                                         2012
                                          10                                                              12    11
                                                                                                                         Goal




                                           0
                                                Current       Regenerable    Hydrates*      OTM          OTM + H2
                                               Scrubbing       Sorbents

                                           *64% CO2 Removal           % Increase in COE            $/tonne CO2 Avoided
                 Future Work

• Continuous feedback loop with emerging R&D


• Add new technologies as appropriate (e.g.
 chemical looping, mineralization)

• Mesh R&D technology pathways directly to
 program goals

• Develop “dynamic” documentation on results
 and methodology

								
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