Exploring Wind Energy What Makes Wind History of Wind Energy 5000 BC 500-900 AD 1300 AD 1850 Sailboats used on First windmills First horizontal axis Daniel Halladay and the Nile to indicate developed in windmills in Europe John Burnham build the power of wind Persia Halladay Windmill. Develop US Wind Engine Co. Late 1880s 1888 Early 1900s 1941 1979 Thomas O. Perry Charles F. Brush Windmills in CA In VT, Grandpa’s First wind turbine conducted 5,000 used windmill topumped saltwater Knob turbine rated over 1 MW wind experiments. create electricityto evaporate supplies power to began operating Starts Aerometer Co. in Cleveland, OHponds. town during WWII. 1985 1993 2004 2007 CA wind capacity US WindPower developed Electricity from Wind power provided exceeded 1,000 MW first commercial variable Wind generation 5 percent of speed wind turbine, 33M-VS. cost 3-4.5 cents renewable PkWh energy in US. U.S. Capacity by Energy Source Top Installed Wind Power Capacity THE TOP TWENTY STATES for wind energy potential, as measured by annual energy potential in the billions of kWhs, factoring in environmental and land use exclusions for wind class of 3 and higher. 1 Texas 9,403 11 Wyoming 1,099 2 Iowa 3,604 12 Indiana 1,036 3 California 2,798 13 Oklahoma 1,031 4 Washington 1,849 14 Kansas 1,021 5 Minnesota 1,810 15 Pennsylvania 748 6 Oregon 1,758 16 New Mexico 597 7 Illinois 1,547 17 Wisconsin 449 8 New York 1,274 18 Montana 375 9 Colorado 1,244 19 West Virginia 330 10 North Dakota 1,203 20 South Dakota 313 U.S. Led the World in Wind Capacity 2008 Annual Capacity Cumulative Capacity (2008, MW) (end of 2008, MW) U.S. 8,558 U.S. 25,369 China 6,246 Germany 23,933 India 1,810 Spain 16,453 Spain 1,739 China 12,121 Germany 1,665 India 9,655 France 1,200 Italy 3,731 Italy 1,010 France 3,671 U.K. 869 U.K. 3,263 Portugal 679 Denmark 3,159 Australia 615 Portugal 2,829 Rest of World 3,999 Rest of World 18,106 TOTAL 28,390 TOTAL 122,290 Source: BTM Consult; AWEA for U.S. capacity Online Prior to 2007 Online in 2007 Announced in 2008 U.S. Wind Turbine Manufacturing Annual Installed U.S. Wind Power Capacity Installed Wind Capacities 1999-2008 2009 Total: 34,863 MW 1999 Total: 2,500 MW Why Such Growth? …costs are low! o Increased Turbine Size o R&D Advances o Manufacturing Improvements 1979 2000 2004 2009 40 cents/kWh 4-6 cents/kWh 3- 4.5 cents/kWh 5-7 cents/kWh Changing Perceptions Modern Wind Turbines classes Turbines can be categorized into two based on the orientation of the rotor. Vertical Axis Turbines Advantages Disadvantages o Omni directional o Rotors generally near ground - accepts wind from any where wind is poorer direction o Centrifugal force stresses o Components can be blades mounted at ground level o Poor self-starting capabilities - ease of service o Requires support at top of - lighter weight towers turbine rotor o Can theoretically use less o Requires entire rotor to be use less materials to removed to replace bearings capture the same amount of o Overall poor performance and wind reliability Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines Small (<10kW) Intermediate(10-250kW) oHomes oVillage Power oFarms oHybrid Systems oRemote Applications oDistributed Powers (e.g. water pumping, Telecom sites, ice making) Large (250 kW- 2+ MW) oCentral Station Windfarms oDistributed Power o Schools o328’ base to blade oEach blade is 112’ oSpan greater than 747’ o163.3 tons total oFoundation 20’ deep oRated at 1.5 megawatts oSupply at least 350 homes Large Wind Turbines Wind Turbine Components How A Wind Turbine Operates Wind Farm • Power in the Wind Calculation of Wind Power – - Effect of air density (ρ) – - Effect of swept area (A) – - Effect of wind speed (V) – ½ρAV³= power of wind R Swept Area: A= R² Area of the circle swept by the rotor(m²). Offshore Wind Farms Installation of Wind Turbine Wind Turbine Perspective Workers Blade 112’ long Nacelle 56 tons Tower 3 sections Relative height of tall human structures Where are the winds strongest? Top Twenty States for Wind Energy Potential B kWh/Yr B kWh/Yr 1. North Dakota 1210 • 11. Colorado 481 2. Texas 1190 • 12. New Mexico 435 3. Kansas 1070 • 13. Idaho 73 4. South Dakota 1030 • 14. Michigan 65 5. Montana 1020 • 15. New York 62 6. Nebraska 868 • 16. Illinois 61 7. Wyoming 747 • 17. California 59 8. Oklahoma 725 • 18. Wisconsin 58 9. Minnesota 657 • 19. Maine 56 10. Iowa 551 • 20. Missouri 52 oNo Federal Incentives for Small Wind since 1985 oLarge Wind Supported with Production Tax Credit oRecently Passed- The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 extended many consumer tax incentives originally introduced in the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPACT) and amended in the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 (P.L. 110-343). Another important feature is a 30 percent tax credit for a qualifying wind turbine purchase for a residence or small business. oStates have varying levels of support: NY 50%-70% ME 0% MA 20%-50% oSome states offer buy downs, tax incentives, net metering. Tax Credits and Incentives for Wind Energy Transmission Challenges o 6.5 Million customers o 330+ generating units o Over 8,000 miles of transmission lines o 11 Interconnections o 28,100 MW of capacity o Peak of demand: 22,544 MW Why Wind Energy? o Clean, zero emissions – - NOx, SO2, CO, CO2 – - Air quality, water quality – - Climate Change o Reduce fossil fuel dependence - Energy independence - Domestic energy- national security o Renewable - No fuel-price volatility o Domestic Low Power Net Metering Impacts and Issues oProperty Values oVisual oNoise oBirds and Other Wildlife oLand Use oIn depth study: -The Effect of Wind Development on Local Property Values -25,000 Property Transactions oIn view shed of wind projects oCompared to similar sites -No evidence of reduce value Land Use oLand Conservations oPrimary Impact is Visual Net Impacts oPrimary Impact is visual -Well sited wind power -All other impacts dwarfed by benefits oBalancing local impacts, global/regional benefits Impacts of Wind Power: Noise oModern Turbines are relatively quiet oRule of Thumb: Stay about 3 times a hub’s height away from houses Bird Kill?