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					Exploring Wind Energy
What Makes Wind
                           History of Wind Energy
         5000 BC            500-900 AD           1300 AD                1850
    Sailboats used on      First windmills First horizontal axis Daniel Halladay and
    the Nile to indicate    developed in windmills in Europe John Burnham build
     the power of wind          Persia                            Halladay Windmill.
                                                                  Develop US Wind
                                                                      Engine Co.


    Late 1880s             1888      Early 1900s         1941              1979
  Thomas O. Perry Charles F. Brush Windmills in CA In VT, Grandpa’s First wind turbine
  conducted 5,000 used windmill topumped saltwater Knob turbine rated over 1 MW
 wind experiments. create electricityto evaporate  supplies power to began operating
Starts Aerometer Co. in Cleveland, OHponds.        town during WWII.


        1985                  1993                   2004           2007
   CA wind capacity US WindPower developed Electricity from Wind power provided
 exceeded 1,000 MW first commercial variable Wind generation     5 percent of
                    speed wind turbine, 33M-VS. cost 3-4.5 cents  renewable
                                                     PkWh        energy in US.
U.S. Capacity by Energy Source
Top Installed Wind Power Capacity
   THE TOP TWENTY STATES
   for wind energy potential, as measured
   by annual energy potential in the billions of kWhs, factoring in
   environmental and land use exclusions for wind class of 3 and higher.


   1 Texas            9,403               11 Wyoming          1,099
   2 Iowa             3,604               12 Indiana          1,036
   3 California       2,798               13 Oklahoma         1,031
   4 Washington       1,849               14 Kansas           1,021
   5 Minnesota        1,810               15 Pennsylvania       748
   6 Oregon           1,758               16 New Mexico         597
   7 Illinois         1,547               17 Wisconsin          449
   8 New York         1,274               18 Montana            375
   9 Colorado         1,244               19 West Virginia      330
   10 North Dakota    1,203               20 South Dakota       313
U.S. Led the World in Wind Capacity 2008
            Annual Capacity                 Cumulative Capacity
              (2008, MW)                     (end of 2008, MW)
     U.S.                      8,558   U.S.                  25,369
     China                     6,246   Germany               23,933
     India                     1,810   Spain                 16,453
     Spain                     1,739   China                 12,121
     Germany                   1,665   India                   9,655
     France                    1,200   Italy                   3,731
     Italy                     1,010   France                  3,671
     U.K.                        869   U.K.                    3,263
     Portugal                    679   Denmark                 3,159
     Australia                   615   Portugal                2,829
     Rest of World             3,999   Rest of World         18,106
     TOTAL                    28,390   TOTAL                122,290
     Source: BTM Consult; AWEA for U.S. capacity
 Online Prior to 2007   Online in 2007   Announced in 2008



U.S. Wind Turbine Manufacturing
Annual Installed U.S. Wind Power Capacity
Installed Wind Capacities
1999-2008
                                   2009
                            Total: 34,863 MW




          1999
    Total: 2,500 MW
Why Such Growth?
 …costs are low!
                               o Increased Turbine Size
                               o R&D Advances
                               o Manufacturing Improvements




    1979            2000                2004              2009
40 cents/kWh   4-6 cents/kWh      3- 4.5 cents/kWh   5-7 cents/kWh
Changing Perceptions
Modern Wind Turbines classes
Turbines can be categorized into two
based on the orientation of the rotor.
Vertical Axis Turbines

Advantages                       Disadvantages
o   Omni directional             o Rotors generally near ground
    - accepts wind from any        where wind is poorer
    direction                    o Centrifugal force stresses
o   Components can be              blades
    mounted at ground level      o Poor self-starting capabilities
    - ease of service            o Requires support at top of
    - lighter weight towers        turbine rotor
o   Can theoretically use less   o Requires entire rotor to be
    use less materials to          removed to replace bearings
    capture the same amount of   o Overall poor performance and
    wind                           reliability
Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines

     Small (<10kW)                             Intermediate(10-250kW)
     oHomes                                    oVillage Power
     oFarms                                    oHybrid Systems
     oRemote Applications                      oDistributed Powers
     (e.g. water pumping,
     Telecom sites, ice
     making)




                            Large (250 kW- 2+ MW)
                            oCentral Station Windfarms
                            oDistributed Power
                            o Schools
o328’ base to blade
oEach blade is 112’
oSpan greater than 747’
o163.3 tons total
oFoundation 20’ deep
oRated at 1.5 megawatts
oSupply at least 350 homes




  Large Wind Turbines
Wind Turbine Components
How A Wind Turbine Operates
Wind Farm
                            • Power in the Wind
Calculation of Wind Power     – - Effect of air density (ρ)
                              – - Effect of swept area (A)
                              – - Effect of wind speed (V)

                              – ½ρAV³= power of wind
                R
                              Swept Area: A= R²
                              Area of the circle swept by
                                the rotor(m²).
Offshore Wind Farms
Installation of Wind
Turbine
Wind Turbine Perspective
                 Workers             Blade
                                    112’ long



                                Nacelle
                                 56 tons




                            Tower
                           3 sections
Relative height
 of tall human
     structures
Where are the winds strongest?
Top Twenty States for Wind Energy Potential
                  B kWh/Yr                        B kWh/Yr
1. North Dakota    1210      •   11. Colorado     481
2. Texas           1190      •   12. New Mexico   435
3. Kansas          1070      •   13. Idaho        73
4. South Dakota    1030      •   14. Michigan     65
5. Montana         1020      •   15. New York     62
6. Nebraska        868       •   16. Illinois     61
7. Wyoming         747       •   17. California   59
8. Oklahoma        725       •   18. Wisconsin    58
9. Minnesota       657       •   19. Maine        56
10. Iowa           551       •   20. Missouri     52
 oNo Federal Incentives for Small Wind since 1985
 oLarge Wind Supported with Production Tax Credit
 oRecently Passed-
          The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 extended many
 consumer tax incentives originally introduced in the Energy Policy Act of 2005
 (EPACT) and amended in the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 (P.L.
 110-343).
          Another important feature is a 30 percent tax credit for a qualifying wind
 turbine purchase for a residence or small business.
 oStates have varying levels of support:
          NY 50%-70%
          ME 0%
          MA 20%-50%
 oSome states offer buy downs, tax incentives, net metering.



Tax Credits and Incentives for Wind Energy
Transmission
Challenges

o 6.5 Million customers
o 330+ generating
units
o Over 8,000 miles of
transmission lines
o 11 Interconnections
o 28,100 MW of
capacity
o Peak of demand:
22,544 MW
Why Wind Energy?
o Clean, zero emissions
  – - NOx, SO2, CO, CO2
  – - Air quality, water quality
  – - Climate Change
o Reduce fossil fuel dependence
    - Energy independence
    - Domestic energy- national security
o Renewable
    - No fuel-price volatility
o Domestic Low Power
Net Metering
Impacts and Issues
oProperty Values           oVisual
oNoise                     oBirds and Other Wildlife
oLand Use
    oIn depth study:
          -The Effect of Wind Development
          on Local Property Values
          -25,000 Property Transactions
             oIn view shed of wind projects
             oCompared to similar sites
          -No evidence of reduce value
                      Land Use
                oLand Conservations
               oPrimary Impact is Visual



                    Net Impacts
oPrimary Impact is visual
     -Well sited wind power
     -All other impacts dwarfed by benefits
oBalancing local impacts, global/regional benefits
Impacts of Wind
Power: Noise

oModern Turbines are
relatively quiet
oRule of Thumb: Stay
about 3 times a hub’s
height away from houses
Bird Kill?

				
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