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and lacto-ovo vegetarianism includes both eggs and dairy products. Semi-vegetarianism consists of a diet largely of vegetarian foods, but may include fish and sometimes poultry, as well as dairy products and eggs. The association of semivegetarianism with vegetarianism in popular vernacular, particularly pescetarianism (also called pesco-vegetarianism and described as a "vegetarian" diet that includes fish[5][6][7][8]), has led to what vegetarian groups cite as improper categorisation of these diets as vegetarian. The Vegetarian Society, which initiated popular usage of the term vegetarian as early as 1847, condemns the association of semi-vegetarian diets as valid vegetarianism; the organisation points out that the consumption of fish is not vegetarian.[9] The reasons for choosing vegetarianism may be related to one or more of the following: morality, religion, culture, ethics, aesthetics, environment, society, economy, politics, taste, or health. A generic term for both vegetarianism and veganism, as well as for similar diets, is "plant-based diets".[10] Properly planned vegetarian diets have been found to satisfy the nutritional needs for all stages of life, and large-scale studies have shown vegetarianism to significantly lower risks of cancer, ischaemic heart disease, and other diseases.[11][12][13][14]

A variety of fruits and vegetables Vegetarianism is the practice of a diet that excludes meat (including game and slaughter by-products; fish, shellfish and other sea animals; and poultry).[1][2] There are several variants of the diet, some of which also exclude eggs and/or some products produced from animal labour such as dairy products and honey. The vegan diet is a form of vegetarianism which excludes all animal products from the diet, such as meat, poultry, fish, dairy products, eggs, and honey. Those who practice veganism for ethical reasons often exclude animal products from their diet as part of a larger practice of abstaining from the use of animals for any purpose (e.g. leather, fur, etc.), often out of support for animal rights.[3][4] Most vegetarians consume dairy products, and many eat eggs. Lacto-vegetarianism includes dairy products but excludes eggs, ovovegetarianism includes eggs but not dairy,

Terminology and varieties of vegetarianism
Other dietary practices commonly associated with vegetarianism
• Fruitarianism is a diet of only fruit, nuts, seeds, and other plant matter that can be gathered without harming the plant. • Su vegetarianism originating in Buddhism, excludes all animal products as well as the fetid vegetables: onion, garlic, scallions, leeks, or shallots.


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Foods in the main vegetarian diets Diet name Lacto-ovo vegetarianism Lacto vegetarianism Ovo vegetarianism Veganism • Macrobiotic diet is a diet of mostly whole grains and beans. Not all macrobiotics are vegetarians, as some consume fish. • Raw veganism is a diet of fresh and uncooked fruit, nuts, seeds, and vegetables. • Dietary veganism: whereas vegans do not use animal products of any kind, dietary vegans restrict their veganism to their diet.[18] Some vegetarians also avoid products that may use animal ingredients not included in their labels or which use animal products in their manufacturing e.g. cheeses that use animal rennet, gelatin (from animal skin, bones, and connective tissue), some sugars that are whitened with bone char (e.g. cane sugar, but not beet sugar) and alcohol clarified with gelatin or crushed shellfish and sturgeon. Vegetarians who eat eggs sometimes prefer free-range eggs (as opposed to battery farmed eggs). Meat, poultry, fish No No No No Eggs Yes No Yes No Dairy Yes Yes No No


Honey Yes Yes Yes No[15][16][17]

• Flexitarianism—A diet that consists primarily of vegetarian food, but that allows occasional exceptions.

The Vegetarian Society, founded in 1847, claims to have "created the word vegetarian from the Latin ’vegetus’ meaning ’lively’ (which is how these early vegetarians claimed their diet made them feel) ..."[20] However, the Oxford English Dictionary and other standard dictionaries state that the word was formed from the term "vegetable" and the suffix "-arian".[21] The Oxford English Dictionary also gives evidence that the word was already in use before the foundation of the Vegetarian Society: • 1839 - "If I had had to be my own cook, I should inevitably become a vegetarian." (F. A. Kemble, Jrnl. Residence on Georgian Plantation (1863) 251) • 1842 - "To tell a healthy vegetarian that his diet is very uncongenial with the wants of his nature." (Healthian, Apr. 34) But notes that "The general use of the word appears to have been largely due to the formation of the Vegetarian Society at Ramsgate in 1847."

Semi-vegetarian diets
Semi-vegetarian diets primarily consist of vegetarian foods, but make exceptions for some non-vegetarian foods. These diets may be followed by those who choose to reduce the amount of animal flesh consumed, or sometimes as a way of transitioning to a vegetarian diet. These terms are neologisms based on the word "vegetarian". They may be regarded with contention by some strict vegetarians, as they combine terms for vegetarian and non-vegetarian diets. Additionally, many individuals describe themselves as simply "vegetarian" while actually practicing a semi-vegetarian diet.[19] • Semi-vegetarianism—A diet that excludes certain meats, particularly red meat, but allows the consumption of others. • Pescetarianism—A diet that excludes all meat except fish, shellfish, and crustacea. • Pollotarianism (also Poultratarianism slang)—A diet that excludes all meat except poultry and fowl.

The earliest records of vegetarianism as a concept and practice amongst a significant number of people come from ancient India[22] and the ancient Greek civilisation in Southern Italy and in Greece in the 6th century BCE.[23] In both instances the diet was closely connected with the idea of nonviolence towards animals (called ahimsa in India) and was promoted by religious groups and philosophers.[24] Following the Christianisation of the Roman Empire in late antiquity, vegetarianism practically disappeared from Europe.[25] Several orders of monks in medieval Europe restricted or banned the consumption of meat for ascetic reasons, but


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none of them eschewed fish.[26] Vegetarianism re-emerged somewhat in Europe during the Renaissance.[27] It became a more widespread practice in the 19th and 20th centuries. In 1847 the first Vegetarian Society was founded in England;[28] Germany, the Netherlands and other countries followed. The International Vegetarian Union, a union of the national societies, was founded in 1908. In the Western world, the popularity of vegetarianism grew during the 20th century as a result of nutritional, ethical, and more recently, environmental and economic concerns. Today, Indian vegetarians, primarily lacto vegetarians, are estimated to make up more than 70% of the world’s vegetarians. They make up 20–42% of the population in India, while less than 30% are regular meateaters.[29][30][31] Other estimates indicate that contrary to popular belief, India is not a predominantly vegetarian country. But a quarter of the population is reckoned, based on census data, to be vegetarian. The statewise data is as follows:[32] • 69 per cent of Gujarat, • 60 per cent of Rajasthan, • 54 per cent of Punjab-Haryana, • 50 per cent of Uttar Pradesh, • 45 per cent of Madhya Pradesh, • 34 per cent of Karnataka, • 30 per cent of Maharashtra, • 21 per cent of Tamil Nadu, • 16 per cent of Andhra Pradesh, • 15 per cent of Assam, • 6 per cent in Kerala, Orissa and West Bengal Surveys in the U.S. have found that roughly 1–2.8% of adults eat no meat (including poultry or fish).[33][34][35][36] Surveys in the UK have found that roughly 11% of the population are vegetarian.[37]

diseases.[11][12][38] Necessary nutrients, proteins, and amino acids for the body’s sustenance can be found in vegetables, grains, nuts, soymilk, eggs and dairy.[39] Vegetarian diets can aid in keeping body weight under control[40][41] and substantially reduce risks of heart disease and osteoporosis.[42][42][43][43] Non-lean red meat, in particular, has been found to be directly associated with dramatically increased risk of cancers of the lung, oesophagus, liver, and colon.[14][44] Other studies have shown that there were no significant differences between vegetarians and nonvegetarians in mortality from cerebrovascular disease, stomach cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, or prostate cancer, although the sample of vegetarians was small and included ex-smokers who had switched their diet within the last five years.[45] The American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada have stated: "Vegetarian diets offer a number of nutritional benefits, including lower levels of saturated fat, cholesterol, and animal protein as well as higher levels of carbohydrates, fiber, magnesium, potassium, folate, and antioxidants such as vitamins C and E and phytochemicals."[38] Vegetarians tend to have lower body mass index, lower levels of cholesterol, lower blood pressure, and less incidence of heart disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, renal disease, osteoporosis, dementias such as Alzheimer’s Disease and other disorders.[46]


Health benefits and concerns
Vegetarianism is considered a healthy, viable diet. The American Dietetic Association and the Dietitians of Canada have found a properly-planned vegetarian diet to satisfy the nutritional needs for all stages of life, and large-scale studies have shown vegetarianism to significantly lower risks of cancer, ischaemic heart disease, and other fatal A fruit and vegetable stall in Barcelona Western vegetarian diets are typically high in carotenoids, but relatively low in long-chain n-3 fatty acids, and vitamin B12. Vegans can have particularly low intake of vitamin B and calcium if they do not eat enough items such


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as collard greens, leafy greens, tempeh and tofu. High levels of dietary fibre, folic acid, vitamins C and E, and magnesium, and low consumption of saturated fat could all be beneficial aspects of a vegetarian diet.[47][48]

vegetarian and vegan women and children (adult males are rarely iron deficient), however, iron deficiency anaemia is rare.[53][54]

Protein intake in vegetarian diets is only slightly lower than in meat diets and can meet daily requirements for any person, including athletes and bodybuilders.[49] Studies by Harvard University as well as other studies conducted in the United States, Great Britain, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and various European countries, have confirmed that vegetarian diets provide more than sufficient protein intake as long as a variety of plant sources are available and consumed.[50] Proteins are composed of amino acids, and a common concern with protein acquired from vegetable sources is an adequate intake of the "essential amino acids", which cannot be synthesised by the human body. While dairy and egg products provide complete sources for lacto-ovo vegetarians, the only vegetable sources with significant amounts of all eight types of essential amino acids are lupin, soy, hempseed, chia seed, amaranth, buckwheat, and quinoa. It is not necessary, however, to obtain protein from these sources—the essential amino acids can also be obtained by eating a variety of complementary plant sources that, in combination, provide all eight essential amino acids (e.g. brown rice and beans, or hummus and whole wheat pita, though protein combining in the same meal is not necessary). A varied intake of such sources can be adequate.[51]

Vitamin B12
Plants are not generally significant sources of Vitamin B12.[55] However, lacto-ovo vegetarians can obtain B12 from dairy products and eggs, and vegans can obtain it from fortified foods and dietary supplements.[56][57] Since the human body preserves B12 and reuses it without destroying the substance, clinical evidence of B12 deficiency is uncommon.[58][59] The body can preserve stores of the vitamin for up to 30 years without needing its supplies to be replenished.[55] The recommendation of taking supplements has been challenged by studies indicating that exogenous B12 may actually interfere with the proper absorption of this vitamin in its natural form.[60] The research on vitamin B12 sources has increased in the latest years[61] and researchers at Hiroshima University have developed methods for growing plants rich in vitamin B12.

Fatty acids
Fish is a major source of Omega 3 fatty acids, although some plant-based sources exist such as soy, walnuts, pumpkin seeds, canola oil and, especially, hempseed, chia seed, flaxseed, and purslane. Purslane contains more Omega 3 than any other known leafy green. Plant foods can provide alpha-linolenic acid but not the long-chain n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA, which are found in low levels in eggs and dairy products. Vegetarians, and particularly vegans, have lower levels of EPA and DHA than meat-eaters. While the health effects of low levels of EPA and DHA are unknown, it is unlikely that supplementation with alpha-linolenic acid will significantly increase levels.[62] Recently, some companies have begun to market vegetarian DHA supplements containing seaweed extracts. Similar supplements providing both DHA and EPA have also begun to appear.[63] Whole seaweeds are not suitable for supplementation because their high iodine content limits the amount that may be safely consumed. However, certain algae such as spirulina are good sources of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), linoleic acid (LA), stearidonic acid (SDA), eicosapentaenoic acid

Vegetarian diets typically contain similar levels of iron to non-vegetarian diets, but this has lower bioavailability than iron from meat sources, and its absorption can sometimes be inhibited by other dietary constituents. Vegetarian foods rich in iron include black beans, cashews, hempseed, kidney beans, lentils, oatmeal, raisins, black-eyed peas, soybeans, many breakfast cereals, sunflower seeds, chickpeas, tomato juice, tempeh, molasses, and whole-wheat bread.[52] Vegan diets can often be higher in iron than vegetarian diets, because dairy products are low in iron.[48] Iron stores often tend to be lower in vegetarians than non-vegetarians and iron deficiency is thus more common in


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(EPA), docosahexaenoic acid arachidonic acid (AA).[64][65] (DHA), and

with similar methodology which had favourable indication for vegetarianism. The researchers found that a combination of different lifestyle choices could influence life expectancy by as much as 10 years. Among the lifestyle choices investigated, a vegetarian diet was estimated to confer an extra 1–1/2 to 2 years of life. The researchers concluded that "the life expectancies of California Adventist men and women are higher than those of any other well-described natural population" at 78.5 years for men and 82.3 years for women. The life expectancy of California Adventists surviving to age 30 was 83.3 years for men and 85.7 years for women.[75] Adventist health study is again incorporated into meta studies titled "Does low meat consumption increase life expectancy in humans?" published in American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, which made the conclusion that low meat eating (less than once per week) and other life style choices significantly increase the life expectancy, relative to a group with high meat intake.[76] The study concluded that "The findings from one cohort of healthy adults raises the possibility that long-term (≥ 2 decades) adherence to a vegetarian diet can further produce a significant 3.6-y increase in life expectancy." However, the study also concluded that "Some of the variation in the survival advantage in vegetarians may have been due to marked differences between studies in adjustment for confounders, the definition of vegetarian, measurement error, age distribution, the healthy volunteer effect, and intake of specific plant foods by the vegetarians." It further states that "This raises the possibility that a low-meat, high plant-food dietary pattern may be the true causal protective factor rather than simply elimination of meat from the diet." In a recent review of studies relating low-meat diet patterns to all-cause mortality, Singh noted that "5 out of 5 studies indicated that adults who followed a low meat, high plant-food diet pattern experienced significant or marginally significant decreases in mortality risk relative to other patterns of intake." Statistical studies, such as comparing life expectancy with regional areas and local diets in Europe also have found life expectancy considerably greater in southern France, where a low meat, high plant Mediterranean diet is common, than northern France, where

Calcium intake in vegetarians is similar to non-vegetarians. Some impaired bone mineralisation has been found among vegans who do not consume enough leafy greens, which are sources of abundant calcium.[66] However, this is not found in lacto-ovo vegetarians.[67]

Vitamin D
Vitamin D levels do not appear to be lower in vegetarians (although studies have shown that much of the general population is deficient[68][69]). Vitamin D needs can be met via the human body’s own generation upon sufficient and sensible UV sun exposure.[70] Products including milk, soy milk and cereal grains may be fortified to provide a good source of Vitamin D[71] and mushrooms provide over 2700 IU per serving (approx. 3 oz or 1/2 cup) of vitamin D2, if exposed to just 5 minutes of UV light after being harvested;[72] for those who do not get adequate sun exposure and/or food sources, Vitamin D supplementation may be necessary.

A 1999 metastudy[11] compared five major studies from western countries. The study found that the mortality ratio was the lowest in fish eaters (0.82) followed by vegetarians (0.84) and occasional meat eaters (0.84), and was then followed by regular meat eaters (1.0) and vegan (1.0).[73] When the study made its best estimate of mortality ratio with confounding factors considered, the mortality ratio for vegetarians was found to be (0.94).[74] In "Mortality in British vegetarians",[12] it was concluded that "British vegetarians have low mortality compared with the general population. Their death rates are similar to those of comparable non-vegetarians, suggesting that much of this benefit may be attributed to non-dietary lifestyle factors such as a low prevalence of smoking and a generally high socio-economic status, or to aspects of the diet other than the avoidance of meat and fish." The Adventist Health Study is an ongoing study of life expectancy in Seventh-day Adventists. This is the only study among others


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a diet with high meat content is more common.[77] A study by the Institute of Preventive and Clinical Medicine, and Institute of Physiological Chemistry looked at a group of 19 vegetarians (lacto-ovo) and used as a comparison a group of 19 omnivorous subjects recruited from the same region. The study found that this group of vegetarians (lactoovo) have a significantly higher amount of plasma carboxymethyllysine and advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) compared to this group of omnivores.[78] Carboxymethyllysine is a glycation product which represents "a general marker of oxidative stress and long-term damage of proteins in aging, atherosclerosis and diabetes." "Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) may play an important adverse role in process of atherosclerosis, diabetes, aging and chronic renal failure." The researchers theorised that it may be the higher fructose intake of these particular vegetarians (from higher fruit and vegetable intake) that increased their AGEs levels.

pointed out: Cows that are switched from a grain diet to a forage diet saw, within 5 days, a 1,000 fold decrease in the abundance of strain O157. But until changes like this are made, the source of many E. coli outbreaks will continue to be high-yield (industrial) meat and dairy farms.[83] More likely, rather than change the way cattle are fed or raised on industrial farms there will instead be pressure to find technological solutions like food irradiation, plans for HACCP, or simply cooking burgers longer. Suggestions like this have led some experts, like Professor of Science and Environmental Journalism at UC Berkeley, Michael Pollan, to suggest that "All of these solutions treat E. coli O157:H7 as an unavoidable fact of life rather than what it is: a fact of industrial agriculture."[84] E. coli can be still acquired from any excrement-contaminated food or human commensal bacteria. The recent case of spinach and onions with E. coli contamination in the U.S. shows that vegetarian foods are also susceptible to food safety concerns.[85][86] In 2005, some people who had consumed branded triple-washed, pre-packaged lettuce were infected with E. coli,[87] and in 2007, branded lettuce salad were recalled after they were found to be contaminated by E. coli[88] In fact E. coli outbreaks have also involved unpasteurised apple[89] and orange juice, milk, alfalfa sprouts,[90] and even water.[91] Other food scares Various animal food safety scares over recent years have led to increased numbers of people choosing a semi-vegetarian or vegetarian diet.[92] These scares have included Avian influenza in poultry, foot-and-mouth in sheep, PCBs in farmed salmon, mercury in fish, generally high dioxin concentrations in animal products, and artificial growth hormones, antibiotics or BSE, also known as Mad Cow Disease, in cows. According to various organisations, vCJD in humans is strongly linked with exposure to the BSE agent that has been found in beef.[93] Toxins such as lead and mercury can bioaccumulate in animal products in higher concentrations than what is considered safe.[94] Vegetables and fruits have a risk of being contaminated by pesticide residue or by banned chemicals being used to ripen fruits.[95][96][97] Recent cases of several widespread outbreaks of

Food safety
E. coli Vegetarianism is believed to reduce E. coli infections,[79] and proponents point to the link between E. coli contaminations in food and industrial scale meat and dairy farms. The most recent E. coli outbreak in North America has once again demonstrated this link because the source of this E. coli was traced back to "a large ranch in the Salinas Valley that has a beef cattle operation" about a halfmile from the spinach fields where spinach became contaminated.[80] There are several variants of E. coli and they can be found in a healthy human gut, but the deadly strain, O157:H7 was virtually unheard of until the 1980s. It is believed that this strain evolved in the digestive system of grain fed cattle on large industrial farms.[81] On these farms, grain is used as cattle feed because it is nutrient-packed and increases efficiency. A side effect of feeding grain to cattle is that it increases the acidity of their stomach—and it is in this acidic gut that the deadly O157:H7 thrives. In 2003, an article in the Journal of Dairy Science found that between 30 and 80 percent of cattle carry E. coli O157:H7.[82] In that same journal article, a quick fix was


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salmonella infection, including outbreaks from contaminated peanut butter, frozen pot pies & puffed vegetable snacks also indicate that vegetarian foodstuff is susceptible to contamination.[98]

supermarket samples of cow’s milk, and 75 percent of egg samples to contain the leukemia (cancer) virus.[106] By 1985, nearly 100 percent of the eggs tested, or the hens they came from, had the cancer virus.[105][106] The rate of disease among chickens is so high that the Department of Labor has ranked the poultry industry as one of the most hazardous occupations - not for the chickens but for those who raise, slaughter and process them.[105] 20 percent of all cows are afflicted with a variety of cancer known as bovine leukemia virus (BLV).[105] Studies have increasingly linked BLV with HTLV-1, the first human retrovirus discovered to cause cancer.[105] Scientists have successfully infected human cells with a bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV), the equivalent of the AIDS virus in cows.[105] It is supposed that BIV may have a role in the development of a number of malignant or slow viruses in humans.[105] Due to the intensive mass animal farming for the meat production there is a certain risk for the expanding of virus. The influenza pandemics among farm poultry killed millions of animals in a growing number of countries throughout Asia, Europe and Africa. Sporadic cases of animal influenza viruses to humans have been documentated, also such cases are rare compared to the common human-adapted influenza virus cases that occur each year and during epedemics and pandemics.[112] The first reported infection and isolation of an avian influenza virus from a human was in 1959.[112] In January 1998, a total of 18 human cases of H5N1 influenza were diagnosed, with six associated deaths.[112] In December 1997, additional cases of H5N1 avian influenza were identified in chickens in the live-bird wholesale markets, live-bird retail markets, and farms of Hong Kong.[112] All chickens on Hong Kong farms and in the live-bird markets as well as other bird species in contact with chickens were depopulated between 29 December 1997 and 2 January 1998.[112] The elimination of infected poultry was a major factor in ending the incident, and no new cases of H5N1 influenza were diagnosed in humans after the depopulation of birds and disinfection of poultry facilities.[112]

Medical use
In Western medicine, patients are sometimes advised to adhere to a vegetarian diet.[99] Certain alternative medicines, such as Ayurveda and Siddha, prescribe a vegetarian diet as a normal procedure.[100]

The mainstream scientific consensus is that humans are physiologically best suited to an omnivore diet. The Vegetarian Resource Group, among others, has concluded that humans are naturally omnivores based on the human ability to digest meat, as well as plant foods,[101][102] with the correspondent metabolic tendency to an adaptation that makes them need both animal and vegetable nourishment. Other arguments hold that humans are more anatomically similar to herbivores, with long intestinal tracts and blunt teeth, unlike omnivores and carnivores. Human teeth, including relatively blunt canines, are more similar to those found in animals with herbivore diets than in carnivores and most omnivores.[103] Nutritional experts believe that early hominids evolved into eating meat as a result of huge climatic changes that took place three to four million years ago, when forests and jungles dried up and became open grasslands and opened hunting and scavenging opportunities.[103][104]

Animal-to-human disease transmissions
The consuming of meat can cause a transmission of a number of diseases from animals to humans.[105] The connection between infected animal and human illness is well established in the case of salmonella; an estimated one-third to one-half of all chicken meat marketed in the United States is contaminated with salmonellosis.[105] Only recently, however, have scientists begun to suspect that there is a similar connection between animal meat and human cancer, birth defects, mutations, and many other diseases in humans.[105][106][107][108][109][110][111] In 1975, one study found 75 percent of

Additional reasons for a vegetarian diet

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Various ethical reasons have been suggested for choosing vegetarianism. It has been argued, for example, that the production, slaughtering, and consumption of meat or animal products is unethical. Reasons for this include a belief in animal rights, an aversion to inflicting pain or harm on other sentient beings, or a belief that the unnecessary killing of other animals is inherently wrong. It has also been argued that although production and consumption of meat may be acceptable on its own terms, the methods by which animals are reared in the commercial industry are unethical. The book Animal Liberation by Peter Singer has been very influential on the animal rights movement and specifically ethical vegetarianism and veganism. In developed countries, ethical vegetarianism has become popular particularly after the spread of factory farming, a system of livestock farming where animals are kept indoors throughout the greater part of their lives in conditions of very restricted mobility. Pigs, laying hens, broiler chickens, and veal calves are the animals most often kept under these conditions.[113] Factory farming has reduced the sense of husbandry that used to exist in farming and which has led to animals being treated as commodities. Many believe that the treatment that animals undergo in the production of meat and animal products obliges them to never eat meat or use animal products. Arguments that do not pertain to animal rights exist in many vegetarian philosophies as well. The advance of global warming is one of these key issues in environmental vegetarians. According to a study done by the University of Chicago and reprinted in Time magazine, switching from a meat-eating diet to vegetarianism reduces one carbon footprint by 1.4 times the amount of switching from a Toyota Camry to a Hybrid car. This is because of the vast amount of methane that is put into the air from overbreeding for consumption, methane being a 32% more potent greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide. Shipment of the grain and the cattle itself also plays a part in this issue, being that it takes 8 pounds of grain to get 1 pound of meat. Many vegetarians feel that eating so high up on the food chain plays too large a part in global starvation to justify meat consumption.


Indian cuisine offers a wide range of vegetarian delicacies because Hinduism, practiced by majority of India’s populace, encourages vegetarian diet. Shown here is a vegetarian thali. Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism teach vegetarianism as moral conduct. Buddhism in general does not prohibit meat eating, while Mahayana Buddhism encourages vegetarianism as beneficial for developing compassion. Other denominations that advocate a fully vegetarian diet include the Seventh-day Adventists, the Rastafari movement and the Hare Krishnas.Sikhism does not equate spirituality with diet (see Vegetarianism and Religion).

Some major paths of Hinduism hold vegetarianism as an ideal. There are three main reasons for this: the principle of nonviolence (ahimsa) applied to animals;[114] the intention to offer only "pure" (vegetarian) food to a deity and then to receive it back as prasad;[115] and the conviction that non-vegetarian food is detrimental for the mind and for spiritual development. Nonviolence is a common concern of all the vegetarian traditions in Hinduism; the other two aspects are relevant for those who follow special spiritual paths. However, the food habits of Hindus vary according to their community and according to regional traditions. Hindu vegetarians usually eschew eggs but consume milk and dairy products, so they are lacto-vegetarians. Milk and milk products are vital in the traditional food habits of India.

Followers of Jainism are most commonly lacto-vegetarians. No products obtained from dead animals are allowed. Jains hold vegetarianism as the ideal diet in a similar fashion


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to Hindu traditions but with emphasis on their principle of all-round non-violence (ahimsa). This is for them an indispensable condition for spiritual progress.[116][117] Some particularly dedicated individuals are fruitarians.[118] Honey is forbidden, because its collection is seen as violence against the bees. Some Jains do not consume plant parts that grow underground such as roots and bulbs, because tiny animals may be killed when the plants are pulled up.[119]

Rarionwalay[125]. etc)abstain from the consumption of meat and eggs.[126] Mainstream "amritdhari" Sikh’s (i.e. those that follow the Sikh Rehat Maryada (The Official Sikh Code of Conduct),[127] ), are not compelled to be meat free. In the case of meat, the Sikh Gurus have indicated their preference for a simple diet and depending on what one sees as a simple diet could be meat or vegetarian. Passages from the Guru Granth Sahib (the holy book of Sikhs, also known as the Adi Granth) says that fools argue over this issue. Guru Nanak said that any consumption of food involves a drain on the Earth’s resources and thus on life.[128] The tenth guru, Guru Gobind Singh, prohibited the Sikhs from the consumption of halal or Kutha (any ritually slaughtered meat) meat because of the Sikh belief that sacrificing an animal in the name of God is mere ritualism (something to be avoided).[120]


A number of medieval scholars of Jewish religion (e.g. Joseph Albo) regard vegetarianism as a moral ideal, not because of a concern for the welfare of animals, but because of the fact that the slaughter of animals might cause the individual who performs such acts to develop negative character traits, viz., meanness and cruelty. Therefore, their concern was with regard to possible harmful effects upon human character rather than with animal welfare. Indeed, Rabbi Joseph Albo maintains that renunciation of the consumption of meat for reasons of concern for animal welfare is not only morally erroneous but even repugnant.[129] One modern-day scholar who is often cited as looking upon vegetarianism with extreme favour is the late Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook. It is indeed the case that in his writings, Rabbi Kook speaks of vegetarianism as an ideal, and points to the fact that Adam did not partake of the flesh of animals. In context, however, Rabbi Kook makes those comments in his portrayal of the eschatological (messianic) era. He regards man’s moral state in that period as being akin to that of Adam before his sin and does indeed view renunciation of enjoyment of animal flesh as part of the heightened moral awareness which will be manifest at that time. Rabbi Kook is emphatic in admonishing that vegetarianism not be adopted as a norm

A vegetarian dinner at a Japanese Buddhist temple Theravadins consider that taking of life and eating meat which is killed on their behalf to be the same. If Buddhist monks "see, hear or know" a living animal was killed specifically for them to eat, they must refuse it or else incur an offense. Buddha did not make any comment discouraging them to eat meat (except specific types, such as human flesh) nor did he make any rule or prohibition in his religion on any thing. Killing of any creature however great or small is an offense (against the first precept). In Mahayana Buddhism, there are several Sanskrit texts where the Buddha instructs his followers to avoid meat. Mahayana Buddhism advises monks to be strictly vegetarian and it is recommended for laypeople, but not required.

Followers of the Sikh religion do not have a preference for meat or vegetarian consumption for Sikhs.[120][121][122][123] . Although many Sikhs do eat meat, some initiated Sikhs or "amritdharis" that belong to Sikh Sects (eg Akhand Kirtani Jatha, Namdhari,[124]


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of human conduct prior to the advent of the eschatological era.[129] According to some Kabbalists, only a mystic, who is able to sense and elevate the reincarnated human souls and "divine sparks", is permitted to consume meat, though eating the flesh of an animal might still cause spiritual damage to the soul. A number of Orthodox Jewish vegetarian groups and activists promote such ideas and believe that the halakhic permission to eat meat is a temporary leniency for those who are not ready yet to accept the vegetarian diet.[130] Having ties with both ancient Judaism and Christianity members of the ancient Essene religious group practiced strict vegetarianism sharing a similar belief with the Hindus’/ Jains’ idea of Ahimsa or "harmlessness".[131] Translation of the Torah’s Ten Commandments state "thou shall not murder."[132][133] Many argue that this can also be taken as meaning not to kill at all, animals nor humans, or at least "that one shall not kill unnecessarily," in the same manner that onerous restrictions on slavery in the bible have been interpreted by modern theologians as to suggest banning the practice.[134] It is written in the Torah, in the book of Devarim "When YHVH your God enlarges your border, as He has promised you, and you will say: ’I will eat meat’, because your being desires to eat meat; you may eat meat, after all that your being desires."

treatment of animals. Vegetarianism has been practiced by some influential Muslims including the Indian theologian, female mystic and poet Râbi‘ah al-‘Adawîyah of Basrah, who died in the year 801, and the Sri Lankan sufi master Bawa Muhaiyaddeen who established The Bawa Muhaiyaddeen Fellowship of North America in Philadelphia.[139] Muslims have the freedom of choice to be vegetarian for medical reasons or if they do not personally like the taste of meat. However, the choice to eat vegetarian can be controversial. Although the number of Muslim vegetarians today is increasing, individual adherents tend to keep quiet about it.[140] In January 1996, The International Vegetarian Union announced the formation of the Muslim Vegetarian/Vegan Society.[141] Many Muslims who normally eat meat will select vegetarian options when dining in non-halal restaurants. This way they can be certain to observe dietary restrictions.

Within the Afro-Caribbean community, a minority are Rastfarian and follow the dietary regulations with varying degrees of strictness. The most orthodox eat only Ital or Natural foods, the matching of herbs or spice with vegetable is the result of long and skillfully laid down tradition originating from the African ancestry and cultural heritage of Rastafari. [142] Processed and preserved foods are excluded, since food additives are believed to pollute the body and soul. Most Rastafarians are vegetarian. Utensils made from natural material such as stone or earthenware are preferred.

While vegetarianism is not a common practice in current western Christian thought and culture, the concept and practice have substantial scriptural and historical support. According to the Bible, in the beginning, humans and animals were vegetarian.[135] Immediately after the Flood, God permitted the eating of meat,[136]; however, some maintain that God permitted the consumption of meat temporarily because all plants had been destroyed as a result of the flood.[137] Some Christians believe that the Bible explains that, in the future, humans and animals will return to vegetarianism.[138]

Many who practice a faith that falls under the Neopagan umbrella also practice vegetarianism. Since Neopaganism generally emphasises the sanctity of Earth and Nature, a vegetarian diet is sometimes adopted out of concern for the environment and/or animal welfare.[143]

See also: Islam and animals Islam allows the consumption of meat, if the meat is "halal". The choice to live vegetarian is a personal decision only, supported by a general religious philosophy stressing kind

Environmental vegetarianism is based on the belief that the production of meat and animal products for mass consumption, especially through factory farming, is environmentally unsustainable or otherwise harmful. Recent


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research strongly supports these concerns. According to a 2006 United Nations initiative, the livestock industry is one of the largest contributors to environmental degradation worldwide, and modern practices of raising animals for food contributes on a "massive scale" to air and water pollution, land degradation, climate change, and loss of biodiversity. The initiative concluded that "the livestock sector emerges as one of the top two or three most significant contributors to the most serious environmental problems, at every scale from local to global."[144] In addition, animal agriculture has been pointed out as one of the largest sources of greenhouse gases–responsible for 18 percent of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions as measured in CO2 equivalents. By comparison, all of the world’s transportation (including all cars, trucks, buses, trains, ships, and planes) emits 13.5 percent of the CO2. Animal farming produces 65 percent of human-related nitrous oxide and 37 percent of all human-induced methane. The habitat for wildlife provided by large industrial monoculture farms is very poor, and modern industrial agriculture has been considered a threat to biodiversity compared with farming practices such as organic farming, permaculture, arable, pastoral, and rainfed agriculture. Animals fed on grain, and those that rely on grazing need far more water than grain crops.[145] According to the USDA, growing the crops necessary to feed farmed animals requires nearly half of the United States’ water supply and 80 percent of its agricultural land. Additionally, animals raised for food in the U.S. consume 90 percent of the soy crop, 80 percent of the corn crop, and a total of 70 percent of its grain.[146] When tracking food animal production from the feed trough to consumption, the inefficiencies of meat, milk and egg production range from 4:1 up to 54:1 energy input to protein output ratio. This firstly because the feed first needs to be grown before it is eaten by the cattle, and secondly because warmblooded vertebrates need to use a lot of calories just to stay warm (unlike plants or insects).[147] An index which can be used as a measure is the efficiency of conversion of ingested food to body substance, which indicates, for example, that only 10% is converted to body substance by beef cattle, versus 19–31% by silkworms and 44% by German cockroaches.[147] Ecology professor David

Pimentel has claimed, "If all the grain currently fed to livestock in the United States were consumed directly by people, the number of people who could be fed would be nearly 800 million."[148] To produce animal based food seems to be, according to these studies, typically much less efficient than the harvesting of grains, vegetables, legumes, seeds and fruits. However, this would not apply to animals that are grazed rather than fed, especially those grazed on land that could not be used for other purposes. Nor would it apply to cultivation of insects for food (called entomophagy), which may be more environmentally sustainable than eating food coming from cattle farming.[147] Meat produced in a laboratory (called in vitro meat) may be also more environmentally sustainable than regularly produced meat.[149] According to the theory of trophic dynamics, it requires 10 times as many crops to feed animals being bred for meat production as it would to feed the same number of people on a vegetarian diet. Currently, 70 percent of all the wheat, corn, and other grain produced is fed to farmed animals.[150] This has led many proponents of vegetarianism to believe that it is ecologically irresponsible to consume meat.[151] Rearing a relatively small number grazing animals is often beneficial, as observed by the Food Climate Research Network at Surrey University, which reports, "A little bit of livestock production is probably a good thing for the environment".[152] “ The UN Food and Agriculture Organ- ” ization (FAO) has estimated that direct emissions from meat production account for about 18% of the world’s total greenhouse gas emissions. So I want to highlight the fact that among options for mitigating climate change, changing diets is something one should consider. — Rajendra Pachauri[153], Chairman, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change In May 2009, Ghent was reported to be "the first [city] in the world to go vegetarian at least once a week" for environmental reasons, when local authorities decided to implement a "weekly meatless day". Civil servants, elected councillors other public officials and local politicians would eat vegetarian one day per week, in recognition of the United


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Nations’ report. Posters were put up by local authorities to encourage the population to take part on vegetarian days, and "veggie street maps" were printed to highlight vegetarian restaurants. In September 2009, schools in Ghent are due to have a weekly veggiedag ("vegetarian day") too.[154]

third world countries who follow a de facto vegetarian diet due to the high price of meat.

Some vegetarians choose to be so in part because they find meat and meat products aesthetically unappetising. The Whole Earth Vegetarian Catalogue’s ’49 good reasons for being a vegetarian’ says that one reason for being a vegetarian is that "Decaying animal parts, whether in a freezer case or served in restaurants, can never be as aesthetically pleasing to the senses as the same foods made from wholesome vegetable sources. Only habit can allow one not to perceive this: a change in diet makes this self evident." The metaphor by Douglas Dunn is that if one gives a young child an apple and a live chicken, the child would instinctively play with the chicken and eat the apple, whereas if a cat were presented with the same choices, its natural impulse would be the opposite.[163] Though this may be considered a flawed comparison, as cats are carnivores and not omnivores, it has been noted that comparatively omnivorous human-like species such as chimpanzees’ offspring may not instinctively kill such hunted prey as Senegal Bushbabies when presented with one and banana or other fruit either, despite hunting and eating them.[164] The comparison may also suffer from the "Appeal to nature" logical fallacy. In a similar assertion, Scott Adams, who is also a vegetarian, once wrote humorously: "I point out that a live cow makes a lion salivate, whereas a human just wants to say ’moo’ and see if the cow responds."[165] However, this does not mean that humans naturally find eating meat unappetising simply because they can interact with other animals without regarding them as food: this same non-predatory inter-species interaction can be seen in chimpanzees, which have been seen toying with other animals without regarding them as prey and even rarely socialising with other species.[166] In the therapy of some health disorders and/or food intolerances vegetarian diets are considered a necessary element.[99]

Labour conditions
Some groups promote vegetarianism as a way to offset poor treatment and working conditions of workers in the contemporary meat industry. These groups cite studies showing the psychological damage caused by working in the meat industry, especially in factory and industrialised settings, and argue that the meat industry violates its labourers’ human rights by delegating difficult and distressing tasks without adequate counselling, training and debriefing.[155][156][157][158] However, the working conditions of agricultural workers, particularly non-permanent ones, remain poor and well below conditions prevailing in other economic sectors.[159] Accidents, including pesticide poisoning, among the farmers and plantation workers contribute to increased health risks, including mortality.[160] In fact, according to the International Labour Organization, agriculture is one of the three most dangerous jobs in the world.[161]

Similar to environmental vegetarianism is the concept of economic vegetarianism. An economic vegetarian is someone who practices vegetarianism from either the philosophical viewpoint concerning issues such as public health and curbing world starvation, the belief that the consumption of meat is economically unsound, part of a conscious simple living strategy or just out of necessity. According to the WorldWatch Institute, "Massive reductions in meat consumption in industrial nations will ease their health care burden while improving public health; declining livestock herds will take pressure off rangelands and grainlands, allowing the agricultural resource base to rejuvenate. As populations grow, lowering meat consumption worldwide will allow more efficient use of declining per capita land and water resources, while at the same time making grain more affordable to the world’s chronically hungry."[162] Economic vegetarians also may include people from

People may choose vegetarianism because they were raised in a vegetarian household or because of a vegetarian partner, family


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the phytoestrogens contained. Proponents of this theory claim that diets high in isoflavones promote earlier onset of female puberty and delayed male puberty.[169] However, a 2001 study conducted by the University of Pennsylvania found no significant differences in the later onset of puberty between infants raised on soy-based formula and cow milk formula.[170]

Country-specific information

Taiwanese Buddhist cuisine member, or friend. A predominantly and traditionally vegetarian society also facilitates the continuance of such a tradition. Limited vegetarianism appears to be an appealing alternative for young people in Western societies. In 2007 an experiment, originating at the University of Michigan Medical School, intending to study how memes spread led to an included attempt to encourage limited vegetarianism. It has been the meme itself that has brought life to the concept of "Vegetarian Wednesday." The idea is that those choosing to adopt this limited vegetarian diet would consume their normal daily food except for Wednesday of each week when they would maintain a vegetarian diet.

Labeling used in India to distinguish vegetarian products (left) from non-vegetarian ones (right). Vegetarianism is viewed in different ways around the world. In some areas there is cultural and even legal support, but in others the diet is poorly understood or even frowned upon. In many countries food labelling is in place that makes it easier for vegetarians to identify foods compatible with their diets. In India, not only is there food labelling, but many restaurants are marketed and signed as being either "Vegetarian" or "NonVegetarian". People who are vegetarian in India are usually Lacto-vegetarians, and therefore, to cater for this market, the majority of vegetarian restaurants in India do serve dairy products while eschewing egg products. Most Western vegetarian restaurants, in comparison, do serve eggs and egg-based products.

A 1992 market research study conducted by the Yankelovich research organisation claimed that "of the 12.4 million people [in the US] who call themselves vegetarian, 68 percent are female while only 32 percent are male."[167] Some studies show that vegetarian women are much more likely to have female babies. A study of 6,000 pregnant women in 1998 "found that while the national average in Britain is 106 boys born to every 100 girls, for vegetarian mothers the ratio was just 85 boys to 100 girls."[168] Catherine Collins of the British Dietetic Association has tried to dismiss this as a "statistical fluke".[168] There is some speculation that diets high in soy, due to high isoflavone content, can have a feminising effect on humans due to

See also
• • • • • • Vegetarian cuisine List of diets List of vegetarians Veganism Veganarchism Vegetarian or vegan cat food

[1] "The Vegetarian Society - Definitions Information Sheet". The Vegetarian


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Society. Vol. 70, No. 3, 516S-524S, September definitions.html. Retrieved on 1999 2008-09-03. full/70/3/516S [2] "Vegetarian". Compact Oxford English [12] ^ Key, Timothy J, et al., "Mortality in Dictionary. British vegetarians: review and concise_oed/vegetarian?. Retrieved on preliminary results from EPIC-Oxford" 2008-06-15. "a person who does not eat American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, meat for moral, religious, or health Vol. 78, No. 3, 533S-538S, September reasons. [’meat’ is defined as ’the flesh 2003 of an animal as food’]" full/78/3/533S [3] "Memorandum of Association of the [13] "Vegetarian Diets". American Dietetic Vegan Society" (PDF). About Us. Vegan Association and Dietitians of Canada. Society. 1979-11-20. 1. ada/hs.xsl/ downloads/ArticlesofAssociation.pdf. advocacy_933_ENU_HTML.htm. Retrieved on 2007-02-22. Retrieved on 2007-12-29. [4] Stepaniak, Joanne (2000). Being Vegan. [14] ^ "Meat can raise your lung cancer risk, McGraw-Hill Contemporary. too". MSNBC. 2007-12-11. pp. 2,6,17,148–150. ISBN 978-0737303230. 22199057/. Retrieved on 2007-12-29. [5] "Vegetarian Meal Planning". [15] Vegan Action FAQ: Is Honey Vegan? [16] Why Honey is Not Vegan servlet/ [17] What is Vegan? Satellite?cid=1125410052737&pagename=B_EXTRANET_HEALTH_INFORMATION%2FFlexMember [18] "International Vegetarian Union (IVU)". Retrieved on 2008-09-01. Retrieved on 2007-06-27. [6] Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, 2 (6th [19] Gale, Catharine R; Ian J Deary, Ingrid ed.), Oxford: Oxford University Press, Schoon, G David Batty, G David Batty 2007, p. 3506 defines "vegetarian" (2006-12-15). "IQ in childhood and (noun) as "A person who on principle vegetarianism in adulthood: 1970 British abstains from animal food; esp. one who cohort study". British Medical Journal avoids meat but will consume dairy produce and eggs and sometimes also 333 (7581): 245. doi:10.1136/ fish (cf. VEGAN noun)." bmj.39030.675069.55. PMID 17175567. Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, 2 (5th abstract/ ed.), Oxford: Oxford University Press, bmj.39030.675069.55v1?hrss=1. 2002, p. 3511 has the same definition. Retrieved on 2006-12-16. [7] Bryant A. Stamford, Becca Coffin (1995). [20] Vegetarian Society, News 2000 The Jack Sprat Low-Fat Diet. University [21] OED vol. 19, second edition (1989), p. Press of Kentucky. p. 328. ISBN ISBN 476; Webster’s Third New International 081310856X, 9780813108568. Dictionary p. 2537; The Oxford [8] Merriam-Webster defines "Pescetarian" Dictionary of English Etymology, Oxford as a vegetarian whose diet includes fish. 1966, p. 972; The Barnhart Dictionary of "Pescetarian". Merriam-Webster. Etymology (1988), p. 1196; Colin, The Heretic’s Feast. A History bin/ dictionary?book=Dictionary&va=pescetarian. of Vegetarianism, London 1993, p. 252. [22] Spencer, Colin: The Heretic’s Feast. A Retrieved on 2008-08-22. History of Vegetarianism, London: [9] "VEGETARIANS DO NOT EAT FISH!" Fourth Estate 1993, p. 69–84. ISBN The "fish campaign" webpage of the 1-85702-078-2. Vegetarian Society [23] Spencer p. 33–68. [10] IPBN [24] Indian emperor Ashoka has asserted [11] ^ Key, Timothy J, et al., 1999 "Mortality protection to fauna , from his edicts we in vegetarians and nonvegetarians: could understand, i.e. "Twenty-six years detailed findings from a collaborative after my coronation various animals analysis of 5 prospective studies" were declared to be protected -- parrots, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition,


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mainas, //aruna//, ruddy geese, wild ducks, //nandimukhas, gelatas//, bats, queen ants, terrapins, boneless fish, //vedareyaka//, //gangapuputaka//, //sankiya// fish, tortoises, porcupines, squirrels, deer, bulls, //okapinda//, wild asses, wild pigeons, domestic pigeons and all four-footed creatures that are neither useful nor edible. Those nanny goats, ewes and sows which are with young or giving milk to their young are protected, and so are young ones less than six months old. Cocks are not to be caponized, husks hiding living beings are not to be burnt and forests are not to be burnt either without reason or to kill creatures. One animal is not to be fed to another." —Edict of Ashokaon Fifth Pillar Religious Vegetarianism From Hesiod to the Dalai Lama, ed. Kerry S. Walters and Lisa Portmess, Albany 2001, p. 13–46. [25] Passmore, John: The Treatment of Animals, in: Journal of the History of Ideas 36 (1975) p. 196–201. [26] Lutterbach, Hubertus: Der Fleischverzicht im Christentum, in: Saeculum 50/II (1999) p. 202. [27] Spencer p. 180–200. [28] Spencer p. 252–253, 261–262. [29] Indian consumer patternsPDF (484 KB) [30] Agri reform in India [31] Diary and poultry sector growth in India [32] Changes in indian menu over the ages [33] Vegetarian Resource Group, 1997, How Many Vegetarians Are There? in Vegetarian Journal, Sep/Oct 1997, Volume XVI, Number 5 [34] Vegetarian Resource Group, 2000, How Many Vegetarians Are There? in Vegetarian Journal, May/June 2000 [35] Vegetarian Resource Group, 2003, How Many Vegetarians Are There? [36] "How Many Vegetarians Are Vegetarian?", Vegetarian Journal, 2006, Issue Four [37] Survey looking into ’Attitudes towards purchasing organic foods and vegetarianism by demographic sub group, 1992, by Mintel, London [38] ^ American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada (2003). "Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: Vegetarian diets" (PDF). Journal of the American Dietetic Association 103 (6): 748–65. doi:10.1053/jada.2003.50142.

Vegetarianism Retrieved on 2008-12-30. [39] Soymilk at [40] Rosell, M (2006). "Weight gain over 5 years in 21 966 meat-eating, fish-eating, vegetarian, and vegan men and women in EPIC-Oxford". International Journal of Obesity 30 (30): 1389–1396. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0803305. (BBC story on paper [1]) [41] BBC NEWS Health | Rejecting meat ’keeps weight low’ [42] ^ BBC NEWS Health | Vegetarian diet ’cuts heart risk’ [43] ^ BBC News HEALTH | Veggie diet ’protects heart’ [44] "A Prospective Study of Red and Processed Meat Intake in Relation to Cancer Risk". PLoS Medicine. ?request=get-document&doi=10.1371/ journal.pmed.0040325&ct=1. Retrieved on 2008-04-21. [45] "Mortality in vegetarians and nonvegetarians: detailed findings from a collaborative analysis of 5 prospective studies - Key et al. 70 (3): 516S American Journal of Clinical Nutrition". 516S#T7. Retrieved on 2008-06-23. [46] Mattson, Mark P. (2002). Diet-Brain Connection: Impact on Memory, Mood, Aging and Disease. Kluwer Academic Publishers. ISBN 978-1402071294. [47] Timothy J Key, Paul N Appleby, Magdalena S Rosell (2006). "Health effects of vegetarian and vegan diets". Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 65: 35–41. doi:10.1079/PNS2005481. [48] ^ Davey GK, Spencer EA, Appleby PN, Allen NE, Knox KH, Key TJ (2003). "EPIC-Oxford: lifestyle characteristics and nutrient intakes in a cohort of 33 883 meat-eaters and 31 546 non meateaters in the UK". Public Health Nutrition 6: 259–69. doi:10.1079/ PHN2002430. [49] Peter Emery, Tom Sanders (2002). Molecular Basis of Human Nutrition. Taylor & Francis Ltd. p. 32. ISBN 978-0748407538. [50] Brenda Davis, Vesanto Melina (2003). The New Becoming Vegetarian. Book Publishing Company. pp. 57–58. ISBN 978-1570671449.


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[51] VR Young and PL Pellett (May 1994). "Plant proteins in relation to human protein and amino acid nutrition" (PDF). Am. J. Clinical Nutrition (59): 1203S–1212S. PMID 8172124. 1203S.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-12-30. [52] // Health Issues // Optimal Vegan Nutrition [53] Annika Waldmann, Jochen W. Koschizke, Claus Leitzmann, Andreas Hahn (2004). "Dietary Iron Intake and Iron Status of German Female Vegans: Results of the German Vegan Study". Ann Nutr Metab 48: 103–108. doi:10.1159/000077045. [54] Krajcovicova-Kudlackova M, Simoncic R, Bederova A, Grancicova E, Magalova T (1997). "Influence of vegetarian and mixed nutrition on selected haematological and biochemical parameters in children". Nahrung 41: 311–14. doi:10.1002/food.19970410513. [55] ^ Mozafar, A. (1997), "Is there vitamin B12 in plants or not? A plant nutritionist’s view", Vegetarian Nutrition: an International Journal (1/2): 50–52 [56] ALGAE from STANDARD TABLES OF FOOD COMPOSITION IN JAPAN Fifth Revised and Enlarged Edition 2005 [57] Vegans (pure vegetarians) and vitamin B_12 deficiency [58] Herrmann W, Schorr H, Obeid R, Geisel J (2003). "Vitamin B-12 status, particularly holotranscobalamin II and methylmalonic acid concentrations, and hyperhomocysteinemia in vegetarians". Am J Clin Nutr 78: 131–6. [59] Antony AC (2003). "Vegetarianism and vitamin B-12 (cobalamin) deficiency". Am J Clin Nutr 78: 3–6. [60] Herbert, V. (1988), "Vitamin B12: Plant sources, requirements, and assay", American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 48: 852–858 [61] "Ch05". food/8F052e/8F052E05.htm. Retrieved on 2008-06-23. [62] Rosell MS, Lloyd-Wright Z, Appleby PN, Sanders TA, Allen NE, Key TJ (2003). "Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in plasma in British meat-eating, vegetarian, and vegan men". Am J Clin Nutr 82: 327–34. [63] "Water4life: health-giving vegetarian dietary supplements".

Vegetarianism Retrieved on 2008-05-17. [64] Babadzhanov, A.S., et al. "Chemical Composition of Spirulina Platensis Cultivated in Uzbekistan." Chemistry of Natural Compounds. 40, 3, 2004. [65] Tokusoglu, O., Unal, M.K. "Biomass Nutrient Profiles of Three Microalgae: Spirulina platensis, Chlorella vulgaris, and Isochrisis galbana." Journal of Food Science. 68, 4, 2003. [66] Calcium and Milk: Nutrition Source, Harvard School of Public Health [67] P Appleby, A Roddam, N Allen, T Key (2007). "Comparative fracture risk in vegetarians and nonvegetarians in EPICOxford". European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 61: 1400. doi:10.1038/ sj.ejcn.1602659. [68] "Vitamin D myths, facts and statistics". 003069.html. Retrieved on 2008-04-23. [69] "Many vitamin D deficient in winter". United Press International. 2008/02/21/ many_vitamin_d_deficient_in_winter/ 5452/. Retrieved on 2008-04-23. [70] "Every person needs sunlight exposure to create vitamin D, obesity impairs Vitamin D absorption". 003838.html. Retrieved on 2008-04-22. [71] "Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Vitamin D". National Institutes of Health. Archived from the original on 2007-09-10. 5Rl5u0LB5. Retrieved on 2007-09-10. [72] "Bringing Mushrooms Out of the Dark". MSNBC. April 18, 2006. 12370708. Retrieved on 2007-08-06. [73] "Mortality in vegetarians and nonvegetarians: detailed findings from a collaborative analysis of 5 prospective studies - Key et al. 70 (3): 516S American Journal of Clinical Nutrition". 516S/T7. Retrieved on 2008-06-23. [74] "Mortality in vegetarians and nonvegetarians: detailed findings from a collaborative analysis of 5 prospective studies - Key et al. 70 (3): 516S American Journal of Clinical Nutrition".


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 516S/T8. Retrieved on 2008-06-23. [75] TODAY - July 26, 2001 [76] Does low meat consumption increase life expectancy in humans?—Singh et al. 78 (3): 526—American Journal of Clinical Nutrition Abstract [77] Trichopoulou, et al. 2005 "Modified Mediterranean diet and survival: EPICelderly prospective cohort study", British Medical Journal 330:991 (30 April) full/bmj;330/7498/991 News story based on this article: Science Daily, April 25, 2005 "Mediterranean Diet Leads To Longer Life" 2005/04/050425111008.htm [78] "Advanced Glycation End Products and Nutrition". PHYSIOLOGY RESEARCH. 2002/issue3/krajcovic.htm. Retrieved on 2008-04-11. [79] Sande, Libby (2006-09-25). "Vegetarianism reduces E. coli infections". USA Today. veggie_diet_red.html. Retrieved on 2007-04-28. [80] Sander, Libby (2006-10-13). "Source of Deadly E. Coli Is Found". New York Times. 13/us/13spinach.html. Retrieved on 2006-10-13. [81] Pollan, Michael (2006-10-17). "The Vegetable-Industrial Complex". New York Times. 2006/10/15/magazine/15wwln_lede.html. Retrieved on 2006-10-17. [82] Callaway, T. R.; Elder, R.O.; Keen J.E.; Anderson, R.C.; Nisbet, D.J. (2003). "Forage Feeding to Reduce Preharvest Escherichia Coli Populations in Cattle, a Review". Journal of Dairy Science 86: 852–860. [83] Plank, Nina (2006-09-21). "Leafy Green Sewage". New York Times. opinion/21planck.html. Retrieved on 2006-09-21. [84] Pollan, Michael (2006-10-17). "The Vegetable-Industrial Complex". New York Times. 2006/10/15/magazine/15wwln_lede.html. Retrieved on 2006-10-17.

[85] "E. Coli Outbreak". NBC News. 2006-09-15. index.cfm?page=nbcstories.cfm&ID=3034. Retrieved on 2006-12-13. [86] Taco Bell removes green onions after outbreak Dec. 6, 2006 MSNBC [87] FDA targets lettuce industry with E. coli guidance [88] Dole Lettuce Recalled in U.S., Canada By Lisa Leff Associated Press [89] Apple Cider & E. coli Food Safety Update Retrieved July 26, 2007 [90] Raw Sprouts pose Salmonella and E. coli 0157 risk, says FDA Medical Reporter Retrieved July 26, 2007 [91] E. coli: Dangers of eating raw or undercooked foods [92] [93] WHO 2002 "Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease" , Fact sheet N°180 factsheets/fs180/en/ [94] Graham Farrell and John E. Orchard, Peter Golob (2002). Crop Post-Harvest: Science and Technology: Principles and Practice: v. 1. Blackwell Science Ltd. p. 29. ISBN 978-0632057238. [95] DO YOU KNOW WHAT YOU’RE EATING? [96] " Artificial ripeners used for mangoes". convergence/ndtv/ story.aspx?id=NEWEN20070013183. Retrieved on 2008-06-23. [97] "The Hindu Business Line : Something is rotten in fruit trade". 2005/05/16/stories/ 2005051600881500.htm. Retrieved on 2008-06-23. [98] CDC: U.S. Food Safety Hasn’t Improved CBS News April 11, 2008 [99] ^ L M Tierney, S J McPhee, M A Papadakis (2002). Current medical Diagnosis & Treatment. International edition. New York: Lange Medical Books/ McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-137688-7. [100] iwari, Maya. 1995. Ayurveda: A Life of T Balance. Rochester, VT: Healing Arts Press. "Ayurveda recommends small portions of organic meat for the Vata type. The rules of hunting and killing the animal, practiced by the native peoples, were very specific and detailed. Since we are no longer observing these, I do not recommend the use of any animal meat as food, not even for the Vata types."


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[101] w [117]Spiritual Traditions and Vegetarianism" " [102] w at the Vegetarian Society of Colorado [103] Milton, Katarine, "A hypothesis to ^ website. explain the role of meat-eating in human [118] atthews, Warren: World Religions, 4th M evolution",Evolutionary Anthropology: edition, Belmont: Thomson/Wadsworth Issues, News, and Reviews Volume 8, 2004, p. 180. ISBN 0-534-52762-0 Issue 1, 1999, Pages: 11–21 [119]Jainism" at " [104] BC A [120] "Misconceptions About Eating Meat ^ [105] Hill, John Lawrence (1996). The case ^ Comments of Sikh Scholars," at The for vegetarianism. Rowman & Littlefield. Sikhism Home Page p. 89. ISBN 0847681386. [121] ikhs and Sikhism by I.J. Singh, S, Delhi ISBN XR1T9788173040580 Throughout Sikh pXFwC&printsec=frontcover#PPA89,M1. history, there have been movements or Retrieved on 2009-04-26. subsects of Sikhism which have espoused [106] Stanley, Tyler. Diet by Design. TEACH ^ vegetarianism. I think there is no basis Services, Inc.. p. 14. ISBN 1572580968. for such dogma or practice in Sikhism. Certainly Sikhs do not think that a books?id=MdS3x6Vn2q4C&printsec=frontcover#PPA14,M1. achievements in spirituality vegetarian’s Retrieved on 2009-04-26. are easier or higher. It is surprising to [107] rash, Agatha; Calvin Trash (1982). T see that vegetarianism is such an Nutrition For Vegetarians. Seale, important facet of Hindu practice in light Alabama: New Lifestyle Books. of the fact that animal sacrifice was a pp. 82-85. significant and much valued Hindu Vedic [108] rash, Agatha; Calvin Trash (1982). T ritual for ages. Guru Nanak in his Nutrition For Vegetarians. Seale, writings clearly rejected both sides of Alabama: New Lifestyle Books. p. 84. the arguments - on the virtues of [109] ski, Frank (1992). Don’t Drink Your O vegetarianism or meat eating - as banal Milk. Brushton, New York: TEACH and so much nonsense, nor did he accept Services Inc.. pp. 48-49. the idea that a cow was somehow more [110] helton, Herbert (1984). The Science S sacred than a horse or a chicken. He also and Fine Art of Food and Nutrition. refused to be drawn into a contention on Oldsmar, Florida: Natural Hygiene Press. the differences between flesh and p. 148. greens, for instance. History tells us that [111]Aflatoxins" (1990). Health Protection " to impart this message, Nanak cooked Branch Issues. Ottawa, Ontario: Health meat at an important Hindu festival in Canada, May. pp. 2-3. Kurukshetra. Having cooked it he [112] Brown, Corrie (2000). Emerging ^ certainly did not waste it, but probably diseases of animals. ASM Press. served it to his followers and ate himself. pp. 116-117. ISBN 1555812015. History is quite clear that Guru Hargobind and Guru Gobind Singh were books?id=yKgsMbsxtfEC&printsec=frontcover#PPA116,M1. and avid hunters. The accomplished Retrieved on 2009-04-26. game was cooked and put to good use, to [113]actory farming: Definition and Much f throw it away would have been an awful More from waste. [114] ähtinen, Unto: Ahimsa. Non-Violence in T [122] uru Granth Sahib, An Analytical G Indian Tradition, London 1976, p. Study by Surindar Singh Kohli, Singh 107–109. Bros. Amritsar ISBN :8172050607 [115] ahabharata 12.257 (note that M The ideas of devotion and service in Mahabharata 12.257 is 12.265 according Vaishnavism have been accepted by Adi to another count); Bhagavad Gita 9.26; Granth, but the insistence of Vaishnavas Bhagavata Purana 7.15.7. on vegetarian diet has been rejected. [116]Vegetarianism Good For The Self And " [123] History of the Sikh People by Dr. A Good For The Environment" at The Jain Gopal Singh, World Sikh University Study Circle Press, Delhi ISBN 13:


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9788170231394 However, it is strange that now-a-days in the CommunityKitchen attached to the Sikh temples, and called the Guru’s Kitchen (or, Guruka-langar) meat-dishes are not served at all. May be, it is on account of its being, perhaps, expensive, or not easy to keep for long. Or, perhaps the Vaishnava tradition is too strong to be shaken off. [124] egetarianism and Meat-Eating in 8 V Religions April/May/June, 2007 Hinduims Today [125] hilosophy of Sikhism by Gyani Sher P Singh (Ph.D), Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee. Amritsar As a true Vaisnavite Kabir remained a strict vegetarian. Kabir far from defying Brahmanical tradition as to the eating of meat, would not permit so much, as the plucking of a flower (G.G.S. pg 479), whereas Nanak deemed all such scruples to be superstitions, Kabir held the doctrine of Ahinsa or the non-destruction of life, which extended even to that of flowers. The Sikh Gurus, on the contrary, allowed and even encouraged, the use of animal flesh as food. Nanak has exposed this Ahinsa superstition in Asa Ki War (G.G.S. pg 472) and Malar Ke War (G.G.S. pg. 1288) [126]Langar," at " [127]The Sikh Code of Conduct] at [2] [ [128] he Sikhism Home Page T [129] J. David Bleich - Contemporary ^ Halakhic Problems [130]udaism & Vegetarianism J [131]They Shall Not Hurt Or Destroy" and " the Essenes [132]udaism and Vegetarianism: Schwartz J Collection - Thou Shalt Not "Kill" or "Murder"? [133] xodus 20 / Hebrew - English Bible / E Mechon-Mamre [134]ewish philosophy of vegetarianism J article by Philip L. Pick [135] enesis 1:29–30, "And God said, Behold, G I have given you every herb bearing seed, ... and every tree, in which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat, and to every beast of the earth, ... I have given every green herb for meat." [136] enesis 9:3, "Every moving thing that G liveth shall be meat for you; even as the green herb have I given you all things." [137] ttp:// h

[138]saiah 11:7–9, "The cow and the bear I shall feed; their young ones shall lie down together: and the lion shall eat straw like the ox, ... they shall not hurt nor destroy in all my holy mountain: for the earth shall be full of the knowledge of the Lord." [139] egetarian quotations from Bawa V Muhaiyaddeen Retrieved 5/16/2008 [140] uslims can’t be vegetarian? Retrieved M 5/16/2008 [141]VU News - Islam and Vegetarianism I [142] sborne, L (1980), The Rasta Cookbook, O 3rd Ed. Mac Donald, London. [143] eo-Pagan: Definition and Much More N from [144] EAD digital library: Livestock’s long L shadow - Environmental issues and options [145] irby, Alex for BBC NEWS 2004 Hungry K world ’must eat less meat’ 3559542.stm [146] esterby, Marlow and Krupa, Kenneth S. V 2001 Major Uses of Land in the United States, 1997 Statistical Bulletin No. (SB973) September 2001 sb973/sb973.pdfPDF (333 KB) [147] Peterson, Mark (2008-05-29), "Eating ^ Bugs", TIME, magazine/article/ 0,9171,1810336,00.html, retrieved on 2008-11-14 [148] ornell Science News, Aug. 7, 1997 C Aug97/livestock.hrs.html [149] lsson, Anna (2008-07-08), "Comment: O Lab-grown meat could ease food shortage", New Scientist, mg19926635.600-comment-growing-m, retrieved on 2008-11-17 [150] d Ayres, E reports/v21/health/meat_mag.html "Will We Still Eat Meat?" Time], 8 Nov. 1999 [151] co-Eating: Eating as if the Earth E Matters (it does!) veg/ [152] hy eating less meat could cut global W warming Guardian [153]Shun meat, says UN climate chief", " BBC, September 7, 2008 [154]Belgian city plans ’veggie’ days", Chris " Mason, BBC, May 12, 2009


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[155] orker Health and Safety in the Meat W [166] ttp:// h and Poultry Industry [167]The gender gap: if you’re a vegetarian, " [156] ood Safety, the Slaughterhouse, and F odds are you’re a woman. Why?". Rights Vegetarian Times. 2005-02-01. [157] ttp:// h contentPages/docs/ mi_m0820/is_n210/ai_16019829. meatCultureLiteratureReviewV81.pdfPDF (618 KB)—Positive 2007-10-27. Retrieved on Safety Culture The key to a safer meat [168] ’More girl babies’ for vegetarians ^ industry [169]exual development damage due to soya s [158] actory Farming—Making People Sick F [170] niversity of Pennsylvania, Center for U [159] orking conditions in agriculture W Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics; International Labour Organization Strom BL, Schinnar R, Ziegler EE, [160] orking conditions in agriculture Berne W Barnhart KT, Sammel MD, Macones GA, Declaration Stallings VA, Drulis JM, Nelson SE, [161] orld Development Report 2008: W Hanson SA. (2001-08-15). Exposure to Agriculture for Development, Published soy-based formula in infancy and by World Bank Publications pg 207 endocrinological and reproductive [162] orldwatch Institute, News July 2, 1998, W outcomes in young adulthood. Journal of United States Leads World Meat the American Medical Association. pp. Stampede 807–814. 11497534. http://jama.amapress/news/1998/07/02 [163] unn, Douglas. 1999 "Eating Without D Retrieved on 2008-07-11. Killing: Vegetarian Health without animal cruelty" • Vegetarian and Vegan Information [164] ews Service: Iowa State University N • Resources for Vegetarian [165]Favorite Scott Adams Quotes". " • Vegetarian Restaurant Wiki • The Ethical Vegetarian Retrieved on 2008-06-23.

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