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Passover Seder

Passover Seder
Seder goes on until late at night, with the participants reading the Haggadah, studying the meaning of various passages, and singing special Passover songs. The Seder is an intergenerational family ritual. While many Jewish holidays revolve around the synagogue, the Seder is conducted in the family home, although communal Seders are also organized by synagogues, schools and community centers, some open to the general public. It is customary to invite guests, especially strangers and the needy, though very few Jews who are not strictly religious do so. The Seder as family-based ritual is derived from a verse in the Bible: Vehigadta levincha’ bayom hahu leymor ba’avur zeh asah Adonay li betzeyti miMitzrayim "And you shall tell it to your son on that day, saying, ’Because of this God did for me when He took me out of Egypt’" (Exodus 13:8). The words and rituals of the Seder are a primary vehicle for the transmission of the Jewish faith from grandparent to child, and from one generation to the next. Attending a Seder and eating matza on Passover is a widespread custom in the Jewish community, even among those who are not religiously observant. Some Sephardi and Oriental Jews call the service the Haggadah, as it constitutes the act of narrating. The full name for the ceremony is Seder Haggadah, "the order of narration"; the word "Seder" is applicable to any ceremony with a set order, for example Seder Leil Shabbat (the Friday night service) or Seder Rosh Hashanah (the service for the eve of the Jewish New Year).

Passover Seder table The Passover Seder (Hebrew: ‫ ,רֶדֵס‬seðɛɾ, "order", "arrangement") is a Jewish ritual feast held on the first and the second nights of the Jewish holiday of Passover (which begins on the 14th day of Hebrew month of Nisan). In Israel, the Seder is held only on the first night. Most Reform Jews hold only one Seder, also on the first night. According to the Gregorian calendar, the holiday comes out in late March or in April. Families and friends gather around the table on the nights of Passover to read one of the many versions of the Haggadah, the story of the Israelite exodus from Egypt. Seder customs include drinking of four cups of wine, eating matza and partaking of symbolic foods placed on the Passover Seder Plate. With a Haggadah serving as a guide, the Seder is performed in much the same way all over the world. The Seder is integral to Jewish faith and identity. If not for the Exodus, as explained in the Haggadah, the Jewish people would still be slaves in Egypt. Therefore, the Seder is an occasion for praise and thanksgiving and for re-dedication to the idea of liberation. The

The Seder table is traditionally set with the finest place settings and silverware, and family members come to the table dressed in their holiday clothes. There is a tradition for the person leading the Seder to wear a white robe called a kittel.[1][2] For the first half of the Seder, each participant will only need a plate and a wine glass. At the head of the table is a Seder Plate containing various symbolic foods that will be eaten or pointed out


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Passover Seder
struck Egypt at midnight, killing all the firstborn sons in the land, Pharaoh let the Hebrew nation go, effectively making them freedmen for the second half of the night. Thus, Seder participants recall the slavery that reigned during the first half of the night by eating matzo (the "poor man’s bread"), maror (bitter herbs which symbolize the bitterness of slavery), and charoset (a sweet paste representing the mortar which the Jewish slaves used to cement bricks). Recalling the freedom of the second half of the night, they eat the matzo (the "bread of freedom" and also the "bread of affliction") and ’afikoman’, and drink the four cups of wine, in a reclining position, and dip vegetables into salt water (the dipping being a sign of royalty and freedom, while the salt water recalls the tears the Jews shed during their servitude).

A Ukrainian 19th-century lubok representing the Seder table. during the course of the Seder. Placed nearby is a plate with three matzot and dishes of salt water for dipping. Each participant receives a copy of the Haggadah, which is often a traditional version: an ancient text that contains the complete Seder service. Men and women are equally obligated and eligible to participate in the Seder.[2][3] In many homes, each participant at the Seder table will recite at least critical parts of the Haggadah in the original Hebrew and Aramaic. Halakhah requires that certain parts be said in language the participants can understand, and critical parts are often said in both Hebrew and the native language. The leader will often interrupt the reading to discuss different points with his or her children, or to offer a Torah insight into the meaning or interpretation of the words. In some homes, participants take turns reciting the text of the Haggadah, in the original Hebrew or in translation. It is traditional for the head of the household and other participants to have pillows placed behind them for added comfort. At several points during the Seder, participants lean to the left - when drinking the four cups of wine, eating the Afikoman, and eating the korech sandwich.[2]

Table set for the beginning of the Passover Seder, including Passover Seder Plate (front center), salt water, three shmurah matzot (rear center), and bottles of kosher wine. A Hebrew language Haggadah sits beside each place setting.

The Four Cups
There is an obligation to drink four cups of wine (or pure grape juice) during the Seder. The Mishnah says (Pes. 10:1) that even the poor are obligated to drink the four cups. Each cup is imbibed at a specific point in the Seder. The first is for Kiddush (‫ ,)שודיק‬the second is for ’Magid’ (‫ ,)דיגמ‬the third is for Birkat Hamazon (‫ )ןוזמה תכרב‬and the fourth is for Hallel (‫.)ללה‬ The Four Cups represent the four expressions of deliverance promised by God Exodus 6:6-7: "I will bring out," "I will deliver," "I will redeem," and "I will take." The Vilna Gaon relates the Four Cups to four worlds: this world, the Messianic age,

Themes of the Seder
Slavery and freedom
The rituals and symbolic foods associated with the Seder evoke the twin themes of the evening: slavery and freedom. The rendering of time for the Hebrews was that a day began at sunset and ended at sunset. Historically, at the beginning of the 15th of Nisan at sunset in Ancient Egypt, the Jewish people were enslaved to Pharaoh. After the tenth plague


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the world at the revival of the dead, and the world to come. The Maharal connects them to the four Matriarchs, Sarah, Rebeccah, Rachel, and Leah. (The three matzot, in turn, are connected to the three Patriarchs, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.) The Abarbanel relates the cups to the four historical redemptions of the Jewish people: the choosing of Abraham, the Exodus from Egypt, the survival of the Jewish people throughout the exile, and the fourth which will happen at the end of days. Therefore it is very important.

Passover Seder
something such as celery or cooked potato, which is dipped into salt water (Ashkenazi custom), vinegar (Sephardi custom) or charoset (older custom, still common amongst Yemenite Jews) at the beginning of the Seder. • Z’roa; A roasted shank bone, symbolizing the korban Pesach (Pesach sacrifice), which was a lamb offered in the Temple in Jerusalem and was then roasted and eaten as part of the meal on Seder night. • Beitzah; A roasted egg, symbolizing the korban chagigah (festival sacrifice) that was offered in the Temple in Jerusalem and was then eaten as part of the meal on Seder night.

Seder Plate

Focus on the children
Since the retelling of the Exodus to one’s child is the object of the Seder experience, much effort is made to arouse the interest and curiosity of the children and keep them awake during the meal. To that end, questions and answers are a central device in the Seder ritual. By encouraging children to ask questions, they will be more open to hearing the answers. The most famous question which the youngest child asks at the Seder is the Mah Nishtanah - "Why is this night different from all other nights?" After the asking of these questions, the main portion of the Seder, Magid, gives over the answers in the form of a historical review. Also, at different points in the Seder, the leader of the Seder will cover the matzot and lift his cup of wine; then put down the cup of wine and uncover the matzot—all to elicit questions from the children. In Sephardic tradition, the questions are asked by the assembled company in chorus rather than by a child, and are put to the leader of the seder, who either answers the question or may direct the attention of the assembled company to someone who is acting out that particular part of the Exodus. Physical re-enactment of the Exodus during the Passover seder is common in many families and communities, especially amongst Sephardim. [4] Families will follow the Haggadah’s lead by asking their own questions at various points in the Haggadah and offering prizes such as nuts and candies for correct answers. The afikoman, which is hidden away for the

Traditional arrangement of symbolic foods on a Passover Seder Plate The Passover Seder Plate (ke’ara) is a special plate containing six symbolic foods used during the Passover Seder. Each of the six items arranged on the plate have special significance to the retelling of the story of the Exodus from Egypt. The seventh symbolic item used during the meal—a stack of three matzot—is placed on its own plate on the Seder table. The six items on the Seder Plate are: • Maror and Chazeret; Two types of bitter herbs, symbolizing the bitterness and harshness of the slavery which the Jews endured in Ancient Egypt. For maror, many people use freshly grated horseradish or whole horseradish root. Chazeret is typically romaine lettuce, whose roots are bitter-tasting. Either the horseradish or romaine lettuce may be eaten in fulfillment of the mitzvah of eating bitter herbs during the Seder. • Charoset; A sweet, brown, pebbly mixture, representing the mortar used by the Jewish slaves to build the storehouses of Egypt. • Karpas; A vegetable other than bitter herbs, usually parsley but sometimes


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"dessert" after the meal, is another device used to encourage children’s participation. In some families, the leader of the Seder hides the afikoman and the children must find it, whereupon they receive a prize or reward. In other homes, the children hide the afikoman and the parent must look for it; when he gives up, the children demand a prize (often money) for revealing its location.

Passover Seder
blessing recited over the washing of the hands before eating bread at any other time. However, followers of Ramba"m or the Gaon of Vilna do recite a blessing.

Karpas (appetizer)
Each participant dips a vegetable into either salt water (Ashkenazi custom; said to serve as a reminder of the tears shed by their enslaved ancestors), vinegar (Sephardi custom) or charoset (older Sephardi custom; still common among Yemenite Jews). Another custom mentioned in some Ashkenazi sources and probably originating with Meir of Rothenburg, was to dip the karpas in wine.

Order of the Seder

Yachatz (breaking of the middle matzah)
The middle of the matzot on the Seder Plate is broken in two. The larger piece is hidden, to be used later as the afikoman, the "dessert" after the meal. The smaller piece is returned to its place between the other two matzos.

Magid (The telling)
The story of Passover, and the change from slavery to freedom is told. At this point in the Seder, Moroccan Jews have a custom of raising the Seder plate over the heads of all those present while chanting "Bivhilu yatzanu mimitzrayim, halahma anya b’nei horin" (In haste we went out of Egypt [with our] bread of affliction, [now we are] free people). Table set for the Passover Seder

Kadeish (blessings and the first cup of wine)
Kadeish is Hebrew Imperative for Kiddush. This Kiddush is a special one for Passover, it refers to matzot and the Exodus from Egypt. Acting in a way that shows freedom and majesty, most Jews have the custom of filling each other’s cups at the Seder table. The Kiddush is normally said by the father of the house.

Ha Lachma Anya (invitation to the Seder)
The matzot are uncovered, and referred to as the "bread of affliction". Participants declare (in Aramaic) an invitation to all who are hungry or needy to join in the Seder. Halakha requires that this invitation be repeated in the native language of the country.

Mah Nishtanah (The Four Questions)
The Mishna details questions one is obligated to ask on the night of the seder. It is customary for the youngest child present to recite the four questions.[5] Some customs hold that the other participants recite them quietly to themselves as well. In some families, this means that the requirement remains on an adult "child" until a grandchild of the family

Ur’chatz (wash hands)
In traditional Jewish homes, it is common to ritually wash the hands before a meal. According to most traditions, no blessing is recited at this point in the Seder, unlike the


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Passover Seder
A fifth question which is present in the mishnah has been removed by later authorities due to its inapplicability after the destruction of the temple is: 5. Shebb’khol hallelot anu okh’lin basar tsali shaluk umvushal, vehallayla hazze kullo tsali. Why is it that on all other nights we eat meat either roasted, marinated, or cooked, but on this night it is entirely roasted? The four questions have been translated into over 300 languages. [7]

A bronze matzo plate designed by Maurice Ascalon, inscribed with the opening words of Ha Lachma Anya receives sufficient Jewish education to take on the responsibility. If a person has no children capable of asking, the responsibility falls to his wife, or another participant.[6] The need to ask is so great that even if a man is alone at the seder he is obligated to ask himself and to answer his own questions.[6] Ma nishtana ha lyla ha zeh mikkol hallaylot? Why is this night different from all other nights? 1. Shebb’khol hallelot en anu matbillin afillu pa‘am eḥat, vehallayla hazze sh’tei fe‘amim. Why is it that on all other nights we do not dip [our food] even once, but on this night we dip them twice? 2. Shebb’khol hallelot anu okh’lin ḥamets umatsa, vehallayla hazze kullo matsa. Why is it that on all other nights during the year we eat either leavened bread or matza, but on this night we eat only matza? 3. Shebb’khol hallelot anu okh’lin sh’ar y’rakot, vehallayla hazze maror. Why is it that on all other nights we eat all kinds of vegetables, but on this night we eat bitter herbs? 4. Shebb’khol hallelot anu okh’lin ben yosh’vin uven m’subbin, vehallayla hazze kullanu m’subbin. Why is it that on all other nights we dine either sitting upright or reclining, but on this night we all recline?

The Four Sons
The Haggadah speaks of "four sons"—one who is wise, one who is wicked, one who is simple, and one who does not know to ask. Each of these sons phrase the question, "What is the meaning of this service?" in different ways. The Haggadah recommends answering each son according to his question, using one of the three verses in the Torah that refer to this father-son exchange. The wise son, who inquires "What is the meaning of the statutes and laws that God has commanded you to do?", is answered with "You should reply to him the laws of pesach: one may not eat any dessert after the paschal sacrifice.", which seems at first glance to be a nonsequitur. This has been interpreted, however, as the son who already knows the facts becoming impatient with their recitation and wishing to skip over them to a deeper analysis; the answer is that it is absolutely required to retell the facts of the story publicly, for the edification of all attendees, whatever their level of knowledge.[8] The wicked son, who asks his father the seemingly similar, "What is this service to you?", in fact differentiates himself by the disinterested vagueness of his question, and is thus seen to be isolating himself from the Jewish people, standing by objectively and watching their behavior rather than participating. Therefore, he is rebuked by the explanation that "It is because God acted for my sake when I left Egypt." (This implies that the Seder is not for the wicked son because the wicked son would not have deserved to be freed from Egyptian slavery.) Where the four sons are illustrated in the Haggadah,


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Passover Seder

this son has frequently been depicted as 6. Sh’chin (boils)—An epidemic of boils wearing stylish contemporary fashions. afflicted the Egyptians The simple son, who asks, "What is this?" 7. Barad (hail)—Hail rained from the sky is answered with "With a strong hand the 8. Arbeh (locusts)—Locusts swarmed over Almighty led us out from Egypt, from the Egypt house of bondage." 9. Choshech (darkness)—Egypt was covered And the one who does not know to ask is in darkness told, "It is because of what the Almighty did 10. Makkat Bechorot (killing of the firstfor me when I left Egypt." born)—All the first-born sons of the Some modern Seders have taken to referEgyptians were slain by God ring to the "Sons" as "Children", and some With the recital of the Ten Plagues, each parhave added a fifth child. The fifth child can ticipant removes a drop of wine from his or represent the children of the Shoah who did her cup using a fingertip. Although this night not survive to ask a question or to Jews who is one of salvation, the Sages explain that one have drifted so far from Jewish life that they cannot be completely joyous when some of do not participate in a Seder. [1][2] For the God’s creatures had to suffer. A mnemonic former, tradition is to say that for that child acronym for the plagues is also introduced: we ask "Why?" and, like the simple son, we "D’tzach Adash B’achav", while similarly have no answer. spilling a drop of wine for each word. At this part in the Seder, songs of praise "Go and learn" are sung, including the song Dayeinu, which Four verses in Deuteronomy (26:5-8) are proclaims that had God performed any single then expounded, with an elaborate, traditionone of the many deeds performed for the Jewal commentary. ("5. And thou shalt speak and ish people, it would have been enough to obsay before the Lord thy God: ’A wandering ligate us to give thanks to Him. Aramean was my father, and he went down Kos Sheini (Second Cup of Wine) into Egypt, and sojourned there, few in number; and he became there a nation, great, Magid concludes with the drinking of the Semighty, and populous. 6. And the Egyptians cond Cup of Wine. dealt ill with us, and afflicted us, and laid upon us hard bondage. 7. And we cried unto Rohtzah (ritual washing of the Lord, the God of our fathers, and the hands) Lord heard our voice, and saw our affliction, The ritual hand-washing is repeated, this and our toil, and our oppression. 8 And the time with all customs including a blessing. Lord brought us forth out of Egypt with a strong hand and an outstretched arm, and Motzi Matzo (blessings over the with great terribleness, and with signs, and matzot) with wonders.") The Haggadah explores the meaning of Lifting all three matzot, we recite the regular those verses, and embellishes the story. This blessing for bread, then release the bottom telling describes the slavery of the Jewish matzo and recite the special blessing for the people and their miraculous salvation by mitzvah of matzo. We then eat a portion of God. This culminates in an enumeration of matzo from the top two matzot while leaning. the Ten Plagues: (We can add more from other matzot as ne1. Dam (blood)—All the water was changed cessary for all the people at the table but we to blood leave the third matzah for the Korech.) 2. Tzefardeyah (frogs)—An infestation of The size of this portion of matzo should be frogs sprang up in Egypt no less than one half of a hand matzo or two3. Kinim (lice)—The Egyptians were afflicted thirds of a machine matzo. Ideally it should by lice be eaten within two minutes and not more 4. Arov (wild animals)—An infestation of wild than eighteen minutes. animals (some say flies) sprang up in In the days of the Temple in Jerusalem, a Egypt third blessing would be said at this time, ash5. Dever (pestilence)—A plague killed off the er kidishanu b’mitzvotov v’tzivanu l’echol et Egyptian livestock hazevach (who has sanctified us with His


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commandments and commanded us to eat the Paschal sacrifice.) To charoset, then the charoset is shaken off and the maror is eaten as a symbol of former slavery. The amount eaten is required to be a kazayis or kayazit (literally meaning the mass of an olive [3]), or greater.

Passover Seder

Kos Shlishi (the Third Cup of Wine)
The drinking of the Third Cup of Wine. Note: The Third Cup is customarily poured before the Grace after Meals is recited because the Third Cup also serves as a Cup of Blessing associated with the Grace after Meals on special occasions.

Koreich (sandwich)
The matzo and maror are combined, similar to a sandwich, and eaten. This follows the tradition of Hillel, who did the same at his Seder table 2000 years ago (except that in Hillel’s day the Paschal sacrifice, matzo, and maror were eaten together.)

Kos shel Eliyahu ha-Navi (cup of Elijah the Prophet)
In many traditions, the front door of the house is opened at this point. Psalms 79:6-7 is recited in both Ashkenazi and Sephardi traditions, plus Lamentations 3:66 among Ashkenazim. Most Ashkenazim have the custom to fill a fifth cup at this point. This cup is traditionally called the Kos shel Eliyahu ("Cup of Elijah"). Traditionally, Elijah the Prophet visits each home on Seder night as a foreshadowing of his future arrival at the end of the days, when he will come to announce the coming of the Jewish Messiah. Some Jewish feminists place a Cup of Miriam filled with water beside the Cup of Elijah. The Passover Seder is traditionally connected with the Messianic age.

Shulchan Orech (the meal)

Hallel (songs of praise)
The entire order of Hallel which is usually recited in the synagogue on Jewish holidays is also recited at the Seder table, albeit sitting down. The first two Psalms, 113-114, are recited before the meal. The remaining Psalms of the Hallel proper, Psalms 113-118, are recited after the Grace after Meals, followed by Psalm 136. Following Psalm 136, the Nishmat, a portion of the morning service for Shabbat and festivals, is traditionally recited. There is a divergence concerning the paragraph Yehalleluha which normally follows Hallel. Ashkenazim recite it immediately following the Hallel proper, i.e. at the end of Psalm 118. Sephardim recite it at the end of Nishmat. Afterwards the Fourth Cup of Wine is drunk and a brief Grace for the "fruit of the vine" is said.

A Seder table setting The festive meal is eaten. Traditionally it begins with the hard-boiled egg on the Seder plate.[9]

Tzafun (eating of the afikoman)
The afikoman, which was hidden earlier in the Seder, is traditionally the last morsel of food eaten by participants in the Seder. Each participant receives an olive-sized portion of matzo to be eaten as afikoman. After the consumption of the afikoman, traditionally, no other food may be eaten for the rest of the night. Additionally, no intoxicating beverages may be consumed, with the exception of the remaining two cups of wine. In some families, the children steal the afikoman and ask for a reward for its return.

The Seder concludes with a prayer that the night’s service be accepted. A hope for the Messiah is expressed: "L’shanah haba’ah b’Yerushalayim! - Next year in Jerusalem!" Jews in Israel, and especially those in

Bareich (Grace after Meals)
The recital of Birkat Hamazon.


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Jerusalem, recite instead "L’shanah haba’ah b’Yerushalayim hab’nuyah! - Next year in the rebuilt Jerusalem!" Although the 15 orders of the Seder have been complete, the Haggadah concludes with additional songs which further recount the miracles that occurred on this night in Ancient Egypt as well as throughout history. Some songs express a prayer that the Beit Hamikdash will soon be rebuilt. The last song to be sung is Chad Gadya ("One Kid Goat"). This seemingly childish song about different animals and people who attempted to punish others for their crimes and were in turn punished themselves, was interpreted by the Vilna Gaon as an allegory to the retribution God will levy over the enemies of the Jewish people at the end of days. Following the Seder, those who are still awake may recite the Song of Songs, engage in Torah learning, or continue talking about the events of the Exodus until sleep overtakes them.

Passover Seder
Judaism. Additional readings may be from the Berit Chadashah (Hebrew for New Covenant), Messianic prophecies such as those found in Isaiah, or prayers containing Messianic elements.[12] Additionally, the Tzafun and the Kos Shlishi are sometimes done in conjunction with communion, citing that Yeshua instituted communion right after dinner, which is where the eating of the afikoman and drinking of the third cup takes place in a traditional Seder.[13] There are various Messianic Haggadahs used to perform a Seder in the traditional family setting, at a Messianic Congregation, at a church for explaining Passover to gentiles, or in a public setting for all to attend. However, many Jews believe this is blasphemous and deceptively tries to mislead Jews into converting to Christianity.[14]

Christian Seders
See also: Passover in the Christian tradition Many Christians, and Evangelical Protestants in particular, have recently taken great interest in performing seders according to the ancient rubric. Many churches host Seders, usually adding a Christian (Messianic Passover) message, and many times inviting Messianic Jews to lead and teach on it. Many Christians cite to the meal as a way to connect with the heritage of their own religion and to see how the practices of the ancient world are still relevant to Christianity today.[15]

Non-Traditional Seders
Public Seders
The group of people who hold a Passover Seder together is referred to in the Talmud (tractate Pesachim) as a chavurah (group). In the Far East, for example, Chabad-Lubavitch emissaries regularly conduct Seders for hundreds of visiting students, businesspeople and Jewish travelers. The Chabad Seder in Katmandu regularly attracts more than 1,200 participants.[10] In 2006, the Federation of Jewish Communities of the CIS and Baltic Countries organized over 500 public Seders throughout the Former Soviet Union, led by local rabbis and Chabad rabbinical students, drawing more than 150,000 attendees in total.[11] In Israel, where permanent residents only observe one Seder, overseas students learning in yeshivas and women’s seminaries are often invited in groups up to 100 for "secondday Seders" hosted by outreach organizations and private individuals.

Interfaith Seders
A number of congregations hold interfaith Seders where Jews and non-Jews alike share in the story and discuss common themes of peace, freedom, and religious tolerance. During the American Civil Rights movement of the 1960s, interfaith Seders energized and inspired leaders from various communities who came together to march for equal protection for all. Today, many Unitarian Universalist congregations (a liberal religion that encompasses many faith traditions) hold annual interfaith community Seders.[16] A number of Interfaith Passover Seder Haggadahs have been written especially for this purpose.

Messianic Seders
Many Messianic Jews celebrate Passover, observing all or most of the traditional observances, but adding additional readings or sacraments found in Christianity and Messianic

Seders in the White House
The staff of the Office of the President of the United States have held seders since at least the Clinton administration of the late 1990s.[17] On April 7, 2009 President Obama added a second-night seder to his official


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schedule, to be observed April 9, 2009.[17] This is the first time that a sitting president is known to have hosted and observed a seder at the White House.[17]

Passover Seder
[10] "chabad of Eugene - Passover Seder". seder.htm. Retrieved on 2008-09-29. [11] "FJC: 150,000 celebrate Passover at FJC sponsored Seders in the FSU". 2004-04-16. newsArticle.asp?AID=130381. Retrieved on 2008-09-29. [12] The Connection Between The Passover Seder and The Lord’s Supper [13] A MESSIANIC PASSOVER HAGGADAH [14] Why is this haggadah different from others? Well, it’s got Jesus [15] "WorldWide Religious News-Some Jews see trespass in Christian Seders". article.php?idd=21173&sec=35&con=4. [16] UUA: Beliefs Within Our Faith [17] ^ Obama to host Seder Thursday night

[1] Mishnah Berurah, 472:13 [2] ^ Eider, Shimon. Halachos of Pesach. Feldheim publishers. ISBN 0-87306-864-5. [3] sefer hachinuch, mitzvah 21 [4] Sephardic Passover Customs [5] "Judaism 101: Pesach Seder: How is This Night Different". seder.htm. Retrieved on 2008-09-21. [6] ^ Talmud Bavli, Pesachim, 116a [7] "300 Ways to Ask The Four Questions". Retrieved on 2008-09-22. [8] The Wise Son [9] " 11. Shulchan Orech - set the table". library/howto/wizard.asp?AID=117122. Retrieved on 2008-09-22.

See also
• Judaism • Jewish cuisine

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