Kinds of Nouns
A noun names a person, place, thing, or idea.
There are two basic kinds of nouns: proper noun and common noun.
A proper noun names a specific person, place, thing, or idea.
A common noun names any person, place, thing, or idea.
Common nouns can be either concrete or abstract.
Concrete nouns name things that you can see or touch.
Abstract nouns name ideas, qualities, or feelings that cannot be seen or touched.
Ex. Kinds of Nouns
Common Nouns Proper Nouns
idea inventor Thomas Edison
progress city Chicago, Illinois
time calendar Monday
culture trumpet African American
Compound nouns are nouns that are made up of two or more words.
Ex. Compound Nouns
One Word doorknob, highchair, strongbox, bookmark
Hyphenated age-group, runner-up, great-grandmother
More than one word dining room, motion picture, maid of honor
Most nouns can be singular or plural.
Ex. Forming Plural Compound Nouns
To Make Plural Examples
One Word Add -s to most words. necklaces, leftovers
Add –es to words that end
In ch, sh, s, or x. strongboxes, churches
Hyphenated Make the most important runners-up,
part of the word plural. great-grandmothers
More that one word Make the most important music boxes, dining
part of the word plural. rooms, maids of honor
A possessive noun names who or what owns or has something.
Ex. Forming Possessive Nouns
Nouns To Form Possessive Examples
Most singular Add an apostrophe a girl-a girl’s coat
nouns and –s (‘s) Bob-Bob’s bat
Singular nouns Add an apostrophe Joe Ives-Joe Ives’s bat
ending in –s and –s (‘s) Alexis-Alexis’s book
Plural nouns Add an apostrophe boys-boys’ shoes
ending in -s (‘) the Smiths-the Smiths’ house
Plural nouns not Add an apostrophe children-children’s toys
ending in –s and –s (‘s) women-women’s club
Distinguishing Plurals, Possessives, and Contractions
It can be easy to confuse plural nouns and possessive nouns.
Ex. Plural and Possessive Nouns
Plural Noun The scientists met. more than one scientist
Plural The scientists’ discovery the discovery of the
Possessive Noun was important. scientists
Singular The scientist’s photograph the photograph of one
Possessive Noun is in the newspaper. scientist.
A contraction is a word made by combining two words into one by leaving out one or more
Ex. Possessive Nouns and Contractions
Possessive Elaine’s invention is good. the invention by Elaine
Plural Elaine’s going to the store. Elaine is going
A collective noun names a group of individuals.
committee audience swarm club
family team crowd orchestra
flock class jury herd
Every collective noun can have either a singular meaning or a plural meaning.
Ex. The whole flock enters the meadow through a gate. [a unit, singular]
The flock enter by different gates. [ individual members, plural]
When the collective noun is a single unit, use a singular verb. When the collective noun refers to
the individual members of the group, use a plural verb. If you can substitute the word it for the
collective noun(and any words that describe it), the collective noun is singular. It you can
substitute they, the collective noun is plural.
Ex. The family begins its trip. [it, singular]
The family eat their sandwiches. [they, plural]
An appositive is a noun placed next to another noun to identify it or add information about it.
Ex. Nicolas-Francois Appert, a chef, made an important discovery.
An appositive phrase is a group of words that includes an appositive an other words that describe
Ex. An expert on food, Appert worried about food spoilage.
An appositive phrase can come at the beginning, middle, or end of a sentence, as long as it
appears next to the noun it identifies.