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									UNICEF PMTCT Communication for Development Planning Framework Worksheets   September 2001



WORKSHEET
1a                     Problem Analysis

Levels of                    Behavioral                Non-behavioral             Sources of
causes                        causes                      causes                 information*


Consequences

(what is the final
result on the
mother & baby?)




Immediate
causes




Underlying
causes




Basic causes
UNICEF PMTCT Communication for Development Planning Framework Worksheets    September 2001



WORKSHEET – PMTCT Example
1a                                    Problem Analysis
This is a generic example of how worksheet 1a could be filled out. Entries will vary according to a
country’s level of experience in implementing PMTCT interventions. Each country should go
through the worksheets using the question guides to assist them in determining their own unique
needs.

Levels of cause              Behavioral                Non-behavioral              Sources of
                              causes                      causes                  information*
Consequence:                                                                  Recent DHS;
                                                                              PMTCT programme
Increased                                                                     evaluation;
incidence of                                                                  AIDS/STD & ANC
HIV+ women                                                                    Unit evaluations &
giving birth to                                                               surveys
HIV+ babies


Immediate             Women not accepting          Inadequate time for        Health worker
causes                HIV testing; community       HWs to provide             interviews; PMTCT
                      not supporting women         sufficient counseling;     related meetings; site
                      to participate in            Shortage of                managers; affiliated
                      PMTCT program                information &              NGOs & CBOs; client
                                                   awareness materials;       exit interviews




Underlying            Religious resistance;        Shortage of staff; Not     Statements from
causes                Not a priority among         enough funding for         local religious
                      community/religious          social services; No        leaders; newspaper
                      leaders; Lack of             mechanism in place to      articles; pilot site
                      involvement of men in        track preg. women &        hospitals and clinics
                      PMTCT programme              ensure they receive
                                                   PMTCT package;
                                                   Transportation issues
                                                   for supplies

Basic causes          Lack of community            Lack of funds; lack of   Community-based
                      involvement in PMTCT         commitment from          PRAs; Government
                      programming                  politicians for adequate budget documents
                                                   resource allocation to
                                                   support the program
UNICEF PMTCT Communication for Development Planning Framework Worksheets   September 2001



WORKSHEET Question Guide
1a                                    Problem Analysis
The following questions are provided to help assist planners in filling in the worksheets for PMTCT
communication development.

Behavioral Causes:
What behaviors are causing increased risk of delivering HIV+ babies?

       What behaviors are women practicing that may be contributing to the problem?
             Are women embarrassed to be seen taking part in PMTCT programs? Why?
             Will they be beaten/harassed if partners find out they were tested? Why?
             Will family/community shun them if they are seen formula feeding? Why?

       What behaviors are men engaging in that may be contributing to the problem?
             Do men have enough/any info on PMTCT and its importance to their families?
             Are men involved in PMTCT activities? If not, why?
             What behaviors can men bring to PMTCT activities that can benefit their partners &
             babies?

       What behaviors are Health Workers doing that may be contributing to the problem?
             Are HWs giving clients the emotional support required before, during & after
             counseling for HIV testing? If not, why?
             Are HWs giving clients the proper information on PMTCT interventions?
             Are HWs spending enough time counseling clients?
             Are HWs respecting client confidentiality in HIV testing?

       What behaviors is the community engaging in that may be contributing to the problem?
             Are communities:
                     providing a supportive environment for HIV+ mothers to replacement feed in?
                     encouraging pregnant women to know their HIV status?
                     shunning HIV+ community members, including women & children?
             If yes or no to the above, why?

Non-Behavioral Causes:
What other non-behavior issues are causing problems?
      Are there social, religious, economic, or logistical barriers that are causing problems?
      Is there sufficient human resources allotted for counseling?
      Are ANC clinics held during times that are convenient for clients?
      Is there enough access to drug therapy (ARV) and formula? Can the client receive ARV &
      formula inconspicuously?
      Is there a venue for counseling men & youth outside of the ANC clinic setting?

Sources of Information:
What are you basing the answers to the above categories on?
      Are you basing your answers on:
              Personal experience?
              Anecdotal evidence?
              Evidence-based research (PRAs, KAPs, FGDs, individual interviews, etc.)?
UNICEF PMTCT Communication for Development Planning Framework Worksheets   September 2001



WORKSHEET
1b                     The Problem Statement
What are people doing, or not doing, that is the problem?




When and where does this usually occur?




Who does the problem affect?




What are the primary effects of the problem?




What are the secondary effects of the problem?




What are the possible causes of the problem?
UNICEF PMTCT Communication for Development Planning Framework Worksheets   September 2001



WORKSHEET
1b                     The Problem Statement
What are people doing, or not doing, that is the problem?

Pregnant women are not accepting VCT on a wide scale and uptake of PMTCT service
interventions is not growing as fast as desired.



When and where does this usually occur?

The problem occurs at the ANCs, where pregnant women are not accepting VCT, the first
step in PMTCT services.



Who does the problem affect?

The problem affects the pregnant woman, her unborn child, her partner & family, and also
her community.



What are the primary effects of the problem?

Parents are placing their baby at risk for HIV infection either: in utero, during delivery or
during breastfeeding.




What are the secondary effects of the problem?

Increased burden on family to care for HIV+ family members.




What are the possible causes of the problem?

Lack of understanding of benefits & importance of VCT; community stigma against
PLWHAs; lack of partner understanding & support; conflicting media messages.
UNICEF PMTCT Communication for Development Planning Framework Worksheets   September 2001



WORKSHEET
2                      Behavior Analysis

    Problem           Consequence           Behaviors to          Barriers to        Factors
    behavior          (what is the final      promote           ideal behavior     encouraging
                      result?)                                                    ideal behavior
UNICEF PMTCT Communication for Development Planning Framework Worksheets           September 2001



WORKSHEET – PMTCT Example
2                                           Behavior Analysis
This is a generic example of how worksheet 3 might be filled out. Entries will vary according to a country’s
level of experience in implementing PMTCT interventions. Each country should go through the worksheets
using the question guides to assist them in determining their own unique needs.



    Problem             Consequence            Behaviors to            Barriers to             Factors
    behavior           (what is the final        promote             ideal behavior          encouraging
                       result?)                                                             ideal behavior
Pregnant women         May pass HIV to        Accept VCT &          Partner, family,       Community takes
not accepting VCT      her baby               related PMTCT         community not          responsibility to
                                              package services      supportive, afraid     support and
                                                                    of PLWHA               encourage all
                                                                                           women know their
                                                                                           status and
                                                                                           participate in
                                                                                           PMTCT services


Men not supportive     Women do not           Men interested &      Community              Give men special
of pregnant            accept VCT or          involved in           stigmas; lack of       role to play in
partners knowing       don’t return for       protection of         information,           PMTCT services.
her HIV status         results of HIV         family unit by        awareness &            Empower them
                       test                   supporting            understanding of       with the
                                              partner & self to     PMTCT issues &         information to
                                              accept VCT &          how they affect        make informed
                                              related PMTCT         men, their             decisions &
                                              services              children and their     support their
                                                                    families               partners



HIV+ mothers           Infants may            Mothers commit        Community              Develop
engaging in mixed      become infected        to either 100%        stigma against         community
feeding                with HIV via           exclusive             replacement            capacity to
                       breast milk            replacement           feeding – seen as      support families
                                              feeding OR 100%       confirmation of        affected by HIV,
                                              exclusive             HIV status.            including support
                                              breastfeeding w/      Cultural norms on      for mothers to
                                              rapid weaning         infant feeding         choose the
                                              after x mos.          practices              exclusive infant
                                                                                           feeding method of
                                                                                           choice
UNICEF PMTCT Communication for Development Planning Framework Worksheets          September 2001



WORKSHEET – Question Guide
2                                       Behavior Analysis
The following questions are provided to help assist planners in filling in the worksheets for PMTCT
communication development.

Problem Behaviors:
What are the problem behaviors associated with PMTCT?

        Are pregnant women not accepting the PMTCT service package?
               Are women receiving quality counseling about VCT & its benefits to one’s family?
               Do most women understand the various infant-feeding options?

        Are HWs providing quality counseling services?
              Do they have time to provide counseling services in a quality manner?
              Are they offering the complete package of infant feeding options to HIV+ women?

        What behaviors are men doing that may affect PMTCT services?
               Are men included in the PMTCT awareness campaign?
               Are men seen as equal partners in the PMTCT programme?
               Are men providing support to their pregnant partners in knowing their HIV status?

        What are communities doing that may affect PMTCT?
               Do communities engage in behaviors that stigmatize HIV+ pregnant women?
               Are HIV+ women & children supported by families & community?

Consequence:
How does the problem show itself in the target groups that are engaging in these behaviors?
      Is there an increase in the number of births of HIV+ babies?
      Are women refusing to be tested &/or not returning for results? Why?
      What’s happening to the infants after they’re born? Are they being fed properly?

Behaviors to promote:
What positive behaviors is the programme trying to address and encourage?
       Is there a need to increase VCT acceptance, among whom?
       Is there a need to increase safe adoption of exclusive infant feeding methods by all mothers?
       Is there a need to increase the participation of men in the PMTCT programme?
       Is there a need to create a support system for HIV+ parents and their children?

Barriers to ideal behavior:
What are the barriers/problems people face in adopting the proposed behaviors?
       What is preventing parents from seeking and accepting VCT at the clinics/hospitals?
       Why are so many women practicing mixed feeding?
       Why does the community shun HIV+ parents & their children?
       Why are men not more supportive of their partners to participate in PMTCT services?

Factors encouraging ideal behavior:

What factors will encourage ideal behaviors?
       Can communities play a more active role in supporting HIV+ parents & children? How?
       Do communities need to build capacity to provide support to HIV+ parents & children? What could
       they provide and how can we asssist them in identifying ways they can support PLWHAs?
       Can men play a more active role in prevention of PMTCT? How?
UNICEF PMTCT Communication for Development Planning Framework Worksheets   September 2001



WORKSHEET
3                      Target Audience Analysis

                                               TARGET AUDIENCES
 Problem        Behavior Change Communication                       Social           Advocacy
 behavior                                                         Mobilization

                   Primary target            Secondary              Partners          Partners
                      audience                 target
                                              audience
UNICEF PMTCT Communication for Development Planning Framework Worksheets           September 2001



WORKSHEET – PMTCT Example
3                                        Target Audience Analysis
This is a generic example of how worksheet 4 could be filled out. Entries will vary according to a country’s
level of experience in implementing PMTCT interventions. Each country should go through the worksheets
using the question guides to assist them in determining their own unique needs.

                                                     Target Audiences
 Problem           Behavior Change Communication                        Social                 Advocacy
 behavior                                                             Mobilization

                     Primary target             Secondary                Partners               Partners
                        audience                  target
                                                 audience
Pregnant         Pregnant women (all         Male partners,         Health workers;        GOV, MoH, District
women not        ages)                       mother-in-laws,        community & CBOs       counsels, famous
accepting VCT                                community                                     local personality



HIV+ mothers     Pregnant women; health      In-laws, community     CBOs, religious        MoH, District
using mixed      workers                                            groups, village        Counsels, District
feeding                                                             committees, village    health centers,
                                                                    elders. womens         famous local
                                                                    groups                 personality

Men not          Men                         Parents (& in-laws),   Sports groups,         Famous sports &
supporting                                   community leaders      religious groups       music
women to find                                & other influential                           personalities, local
out their HIV                                community                                     leaders
status during                                members
pregnancy


Health           Health workers involved     MoH decision           Health worker          MoH, MCH/FP
workers not      in PMTCT                    makers, HW peers       professional groups,   units, psych
providing                                                           psych support          divisions (for HW
quality HIV                                                         groups, CBO            support)
counseling                                                          volunteers

Communities      General community           Influential local      CBOs, religious        Govt, District
not being                                    leaders                groups, sports         counsels, famous
supportive &                                                        groups, social         local personalities
accepting of                                                        groups
HIV+ parents
& children
UNICEF PMTCT Communication for Development Planning Framework Worksheets   September 2001



WORKSHEET – Question Guide
3                                     Target Audience Analysis
The following questions are provided to help assist planners in filling in the worksheets for PMTCT
communication development.

Problem Behaviors:

Review your answers on worksheet 3, BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS. Make sure these are the behaviors
you want to address - They should be based on participatory research.

Behavior Change Communication:

PRIMARY TARGET AUDIENCE:
(Who is performing the negative behavior?)

       1.      Who should be participating in the PMTCT programme?
               (This question helps identify primary target audiences, meaning those people who
               need/should participate in the PMTCT programme).

SECONDARY TARGET AUDIENCE:
(Who can influence the primary audience in changing harmful behaviors & supporting long term
change?)

       2.      Who are the people who can influence the primary target audience?
               (This question helps identify the secondary target audiences)

Social Mobilization:

       3.      What groups can inform, influence, persuade & support the primary target
               audience (to participate in and/or support PMTCT services)?

               Who can convince them?
               (This question helps identify another type of secondary audience, “motivators”)

       4.      Who can influence the acceptance of the PMTCT programme within the
               community?
               (This can help identify social mobilization partners, & in some cases, advocacy
               partners)

       5.      What organizations or individuals are interested, or might be interested, in
               participating in disseminating PMTCT information throughout our
               communities?
               (This question helps identify CBOs & locally based groups that can assist with social
               mobilization)

Advocacy:

       6.      Who can influence acceptance of the programme at national, provincial,
               disctrict & community levels?
               (This question helps identify key advocacy partners)
 UNICEF PMTCT Communication for Development Planning Framework Worksheets   September 2001



 WORKSHEET
 4                      Communication Channel Analysis

Target          Group             Where does         Who does          Who else      Channels to
audience        affiliation       the target         the target        can           be used in
                (religious,       audience           audience          influence     PMTCT
                social,           spend a lot        consult on        the target    communi-
                economic)         of time at?        health            audience in   cation
                                                     issues?           health-
                                                                       related
                                                                       matters?
 UNICEF PMTCT Communication for Development Planning Framework Worksheets             September 2001



 WORKSHEET – PMTCT Example
 4                               Communication Channel Analysis
 This is a generic example of how worksheet 5 could be filled out. Entries will vary according to a country’s
 level of experience in implementing PMTCT interventions. Each country should go through the worksheets
 using the question guides to assist them in determining their own unique needs.

Target             Group              Where does          Who does             Who else           Channels to
audience           affiliation        the target          the target           can                be used in
                   (religious,        audience            audience             influence the      PMTCT
                   social,            spend a lot         consult on           target             communi-
                   economic)          of time at?         health               audience in        cation
                                                          issues?              health-
                                                                               related
                                                                               matters?
Pregnant women     Church groups,     Market areas, in    ANC staff,           Religious          Videos @ ANCs,
                   other women’s      family ward,        mother-in-law,       leaders, CBOs,,    group
                   orgs,              waiting at ANC,     partner?, other      famous local       discussions w/
                                      workplace           women                personalities      poster, 1:1
                                                          neighbors?                              couseling @ ANC
                                                                                                  w/ flipchart &
                                                                                                  related brochure,
                                                                                                  radio messages
                                                                                                  to reinforce

Men                Church groups,     Local bars/bottle   Other men –          CBOs, religious    Videos @ church
                   sports groups      stores, discos,     male friends or      leaders, mother,   or local hang-out,
                                      sports fields,      relatives            sports             radio messages
                                      general                                  personalities,     to reinforce &
                                      community                                famous music       inform, brochures
                                                                               personalities      used w/
                                                                                                  CBO/village
                                                                                                  counselors

Mother-in-laws     Church groups,     Market areas, in    Health workers,      Health workers,    Videos @ ANCs
                   BCW & other        family ward,        neighbors,           relatives, co-     w/ daughter-in-
                   women’s orgs       waiting at ANC,     friends, relatives   workers            law, group
                                      workplace                                                   discussions w/
                                                                                                  poster, 1:1
                                                                                                  couseling w/
                                                                                                  CBO or religious
                                                                                                  volunteers using
                                                                                                  flipchart & related
                                                                                                  brochure, radio
                                                                                                  messages to
                                                                                                  reinforce

Community          Churches,          Churches,           Health workers,      Health workers,    Videos, posters &
                   women’s            markets, bars,      relatives &          religious          brochures at
                   groups, sports     sports areas,       friends              leaders, CBOs,     churches,
                   groups,            local wards &                            trusted            meeting places,
                   community          neighborhoods                            community          1:1 counseling
                   groups                                                      members,           using flipcharts &
                                                                               relatives,         take-away
                                                                               famous local       brochure.
                                                                               personalities
UNICEF PMTCT Communication for Development Planning Framework Worksheets        September 2001



WORKSHEET – Question Guide
4                              Communication Channel Analysis
Target Audience:

Go back to Worksheet 3 and review the primary and secondary target audiences you identified during that
process. List them in the Target audience column on Worksheet 4.

Group Affiliation:

What groups do your target audiences belong to?
       Women’s groups
       Religious groups
       Community based organizations (CBOs)
       Sports teams / groups
       Youth groups

Where does the target audience spend a lot of their time?

Do your target audiences spend time in:
       The workplace
       At home or in immediate neighborhood
       Churches, mosques, other religious places
       Sports venues (local sports fields, etc.)
       Marketplaces
       Bars, discos, etc.

Who does the target audience consult on heath issues?

Your target audiences get health information from:
        Health workers?
        Friends & family?
        Churches, mosques, religious groups?
        CBOs & community workers & volunteers?

Who Can Influence Your Target Audience:

Who else can influence the target audience in health-related matters?
       Health workers?
       Friends & family?
       Churches, mosques, religious groups?
       CBOs & community workers & volunteers?
       Famous local & regional spokespersons from sports, music & entertainment

Communication Channels for PMTCT:

Print, mass media (TV, video & radio), groups communication (group discussions, community interventions,
workshops), 1:1 communication (counselling, interpersonal communication – IPC) with print materials as
support.
UNICEF PMTCT Communication for Development Planning Framework Worksheets    September 2001
WORKSHEET
5                                                     Research Plan

                                                           Supplementary research plan
      Necessary information                 Research methods                     Research         Time Frame   Source of funds
            required                                                       institutions/centres
UNICEF PMTCT Communication for Development Planning Framework Worksheets         September 2001
WORKSHEET
5                                                       Research Plan
This is a generic example of how a PMTCT research plan might be filled out. Each country will need to define their own research needs so results will vary depending
on existing research and in country research capacity.


                                                                        Research plan
      Necessary information                   Research methods                       Research                      Time Frame                Source of funds
            required                                                           institutions/centres

 Information regarding community           Rapid KAP survey                 Local university social           2 months
 & health worker perceptions on                                             research unit, MoH social
 infant feeding practices, VCT,                                             research unit, local
 ARV, care & support of HIV+                                                NGOs/CBOs
 community members, stigma


 Community capacity and ideas                                               Local CBOs/NGOs
                                           Participatory rapid                                                1 month
 for providing a more supportive
                                           appraisal with key
 environment for PLWHAs within
                                           community members
 a community context



 Identification of key areas where         Mapping survey                   UNICEF & local social             2-3 weeks
 PMTCT should be initially                                                  research centres
 focused
PMTCT Communication for Development Planning Framework Worksheets                August 2001


WORKSHEET                      Objectives, Communication Indicators
6                              Strategy & Activities
Objectives            Outcome               Strategies              Activities              Process
                     indicators                                                           indicators &
                                                                                            means of
                                                                                           verification
                                                                                             (MOV)
  PMTCT Communication for Development Planning Framework Worksheets                                           August 2001

  WORKSHEET – PMTCT Example
  6                                                  Objectives, Communication Indicators,
                                                     Strategy & Activities
  This is meant only as an example of how Worksheet 6 might be filled out. Country specific issues will guide the development of this
  portion of the communication strategy. The example list of activities for each strategy will no doubt be longer & more comprehensive.
   Objectives                    Outcome                    Strategies                         Activities                     Process
                                indicators                                                                                  indicators &
                                                         The objectives will be        The strategies will include the        means of
What do we ultimately         We will know if the        achieved through the               following activities:
 want to achieve?            objectives have been         following strategies:
                                                                                                                             verification
                              successfully met if:                                                                         The activities will be
                                                                                                                         monitored & evaluated by
                                                                                                                                looking at:
To reduce                By the end of 2002:         Advocacy: Create                 Advocacy:                          Advocacy packages
                                                                                      -  Develop advocacy                developed & pre-tested
mother-to-child-                                     support for national
                         -      x % all              PMTCT programme                     packages for decision
transmission of                                                                          makers at all levels            # of advocacy
HIV from x% to                  pregnant ANC         through targeted                                                    packages used
                                attendees will       knowledge &
y% by the end of                                                                      -    Hold awareness                # of awareness
                                know that it is      awareness activities                  raising seminars &
2002                            important to         aimed at prominent
                                                                                                                         sessions held
                                                                                           briefings for national,
                                know one’s HIV       members of Govt,                      district & community          # of leaders reached
                                status to            national & district                   level leaders
                                protect their        levels.
                                unborn child                                          Social Mobilization:
                                                                                                                         # of meetings held
                                (knowledge).                                          -   Facilitate community
                                                                                          meetings to identify           # of CBO/NGOs
                                                                                          realistic, sustainable         identified & confirmed
                         -      x % of               Social Mobilization:                 ways in which                  as partners
                                communities          Increase community’s                 communities can
                                will declare why     access to correct                    create supportive              # of workshops held
                                VCT & PMTCT          information on PMTCT                 environments; identify
                                                                                                                         # of communities
                                services are         services, and assist                 CBOs & religious
                                                                                                                         assisted
                                important for        communities in                       groups to work with
                                the health &         developing/provide
                                well-being of        supportive environment           -    Hold 2-day workshops
                                their                for HIV+ women & their                to assist communities
                                                                                           in developing existing
                                communities          families who participate              community-based
                                (attitude).          in PMTCT program                      support networks.
                                                     services.
                                                                                      BCC:
                         -      x % of pregnant      BCC:                             -  Conduct KAP survey              Survey results finalized
                                women will           By providing improved               to identify key                 and results circulated
                                accept VCT&          counseling support                  communication needs
                                                                                         of HWs and                      Presentation of results
                                PMTCT                materials for HWs
                                                                                         community (including            to national and local
                                services and         involved in the PMTCT                                               players
                                                                                         pregnant women, men
                                adhere to            program;                            & key family
                                PMTCT                                                    members). Use KAP
                                protocol             By using community-                 as baseline for
                                (behavior &          based interventions to              communication
                                practices).          reduce stigmas                      programming and re-
                                                     associated with PMTCT               do at end of 2002 to
                                                     program, aimed at                   determine program
                                                     women and the general               success.
                                                     community. By
                                                                                      -    Use community                 Revised messages,
                                                     increasing the role of                surveys/research to           materials & activities
                                                     men in VCT & PMTCT                    address existing              available, based on
                                                     services.                             myths, misconceptions         qualitative research
                                                                                           & barriers that lead to       results
                                                                                           stigmatization of
                                                                                           PMTCT participants –
                                                                                           include general
                                                                                           knowledge of
                                                                                           men/partners and their
                                                                                           perceptions of PMTCT
                                                                                           interventions.
PMTCT Communication for Development Planning Framework Worksheets         August 2001



WORKSHEET
7                      Message Concepts

 Target         Behaviors to         Factors          Commun-       Appeal &       Message
Audiences         promote          influencing         ication        tone          areas &
                                     behavior         approach                     concepts
                                    adoption
 PMTCT Communication for Development Planning Framework Worksheets                      August 2001

 WORKSHEET – PMTCT Example
 7                                         Message Concepts
Target           Behaviors to         Factors                Commun-      Appeal &              Message
Audiences        promote              influencing            ication      tone                  areas &
                                      behavior               approach                           concepts
                                      adoption

Pregnant women   Accept VCT           Requires support       Informing,   Positive,             Address social
                 & PMTCT              from partners,         educating,   emotional,            norms & benefits:
                 services, if HIV+.   family &               persuading   individual            “Good parents
                                      community.                                                protect their
                                                                                                children before,
                                                                                                during & after birth.
                                                                                                Reduce the
                                                                                                chances of passing
                                                                                                HIV to your baby –
                                                                                                PMTCT is there to
                                                                                                help you.”

Men              Support &            Requires more          Informing,   Positive,             Address social
                 encourage            involvement in         educating,   emotional,            norms & benefits:
                 partners relatives   PMTCT                  persuading   individual            “Fatherhood is the
                 to seek VCT &        programme.                                                biggest
                 PMTCT if needed.                                                               responsibility of
                                                                                                your life! Protect
                                                                                                your baby against
                                                                                                HIV by knowing
                                                                                                your HIV status.
                                                                                                There’s help now
                                                                                                and your local ANC
                                                                                                services can tell
                                                                                                you how to keep
                                                                                                your baby healthy
                                                                                                & safe.”

Communities      Be supportive of     Requires               Informing,   Positive, rational,   Address social
                 HIV+ parents &       knowledge and          educating,   collective & direct   norms &
                 children,            tools to provide       empowering                         community
                 encourage VCT &      support to HIV+                                           responsibility:
                 PMTCT services       parents &                                                 “Protecting our
                                      children.                                                 children is a
                                                                                                community
                                                                                                responsibility.
                                                                                                Support the use of
                                                                                                our local PMTCT
                                                                                                services – Because
                                                                                                we’re all in the fight
                                                                                                against HIV
                                                                                                together!”

Health workers   Provide high         Requires enough        Informing,   Positive, rational,   Provide
                 quality PMTCT        time to provide        educating,   collective & direct   encouragement:
                 counseling for       individual attention   empowering                         “You CAN make a
                 pregnant women.      to pregnant                                               difference! Fight
                                      women; requires                                           PMTCT by taking
                                      emotional support                                         time to counsel
                                      from professional                                         pregnant women.
                                      association.                                              Talk…listen… give
                                                                                                information clearly
                                                                                                & simply and
                                                                                                together we can
                                                                                                fight MTCT.”
PMTCT Communication for Development Planning Framework Worksheets                August 2001

WORKSHEET
8                      Plans for Materials Development
                                                              Materials to develop
    Strategy               Target
                         audiences           Mass media             Group settings     One-on-one


Advocacy




Social
Mobilisation




Behavior
Change
Communication




Training
PMTCT Communication for Development Planning Framework Worksheets                   August 2001



WORKSHEET – PMTCT Example
8              Plans for Materials & Activities Development
                                                      Materials & Activities to develop
    Strategy               Target
                         audiences           Mass media             Group settings        One-on-one


Advocacy              High ranking         Radio messages       Seminars & group       Courtesy calls by
                      Govt. officials                           meetings               influential PMTCT
                                                                                       supporters
                                                                                       (including
                                                                                       PLWHAs)



Social                Community            Radio messages       Small group            Household &/or
Mobilisation                               on PMTCT             meetings w/ CBO        individual
                                           benefits             peer counselors        meetings w/ peer
                                                                                       counselors




Behavior              Pregnant women       Radio messages       Group pre-             HW counseling
Change                                                          counseling (prior      sessions, peer
Communication                                                   to individual          counseling
                                                                counseling)            sessions

                      Men                  Radio messages       Small group            Peer counseling
                                                                meetings w/ peer       sessions
                                                                educators

                      Communities          Radio messages       Small group            Peer counseling
                                                                meetings w/ peer       sessions
                                                                educators &
                                                                influential
                                                                community
                                                                members

                      Health workers                            HW support             Peer support
                                                                groups & case          sessions, 1:1
                                                                sharing                sessions w/
                                                                                       managers

Training              Health workers                            Train to lead pre-     Improve 1:1 IPC
                                                                counseling             skills
                                                                sessions

                      Community-                                Train to lead peer     Train/improve IPC
                      based peer                                education              skills
                      educators                                 sessions in
                                                                community
PPMTCT Communication for Development Planning Framework Worksheets         August 2001

WORKSHEET
9                      Communication Dissemination Plan
     Strategy             Target                      Communication Activities           Educational    Materials       How will
    component           audiences                                                         materials    distribution   materials be
                                              Mass               Group     One-to-one                    strategy     used in field

Advocacy




Social
mobilization




Behavior
change
communication




Training
PPMTCT Communication for Development Planning Framework Worksheets                          August 2001



WORKSHEET – PMTCT Example
9                                                  Communication Dissemination Plan
     Strategy                    Target                       Communication Activities                       IEC materials              Materials              How will
    component                  audiences                                                                                               distribution          materials be
                                                      Mass               Group              One-to-one                                   strategy            used in field
Advocacy                    Govt. officials at    Radio messages    Seminars & group      Courtesy calls     Public officials info   Brochures via          Radio messages
                            national & district                     meetings                                 brochure & key          seminars &             aired at key times to
                            levels                                                                           media messages          meetings               maximize listeners

                                                                                                             Community-based         Info via radio         Brochures& video to
                                                                                                             video or PLWHAs                                be used in group
                                                                                                             video allowing                                 meetings and 1:1
                                                                                                             PLWHAs &/or                                    meetings
                                                                                                             community to
                                                                                                             express what type
                                                                                                             of support they need
                                                                                                             from govt. levels
Social                      General community,    Radio messages,   Group meetings w/     Peer educators     Peer educator           Via existing org’s     With small groups or
                            CBOs & others         call-in shows,    pregnant women,       Community health   **flipcharts &          like YWCA &            individual sessions
mobilization                                      newspaper         men, etc.,            workers            brochures               Catholic Youth
                                                                    traditional theatre                      (general, *pregnant     group peer
                                                                    (led by peer                             women & men)            educators
                                                                    educators)
Behavior                    Pregnant women                          Group pre-            1:1 counseling     *PMTCT mothers          Given during           HW will use flipchart
                                                                    counseling            sessions           brochure                PMTCT counseling       and give woman
change                                                              sessions,                                                        sessions               similar take-away
communication                                                                                                                                               brochure
Training                    Health workers (HW)                                                              **Flipcharts & take     Via in service         HWs will use
                                                                                                             away materials for      counseling trainings   flipcharts during
                                                                                                             *women                                         counseling sessions
                                                                                                                                                            & give women take
                                                                                                                                                            away materials to
                                                                                                                                                            assist in decision
                                                                                                                                                            making.

                            Peer educators &                                                                 **Flipcharts & take     Via peer / education   Peer educators &
                            CHWs                                                                             away materials for      trainings              CHWs use flipcharts
                                                                                                             men, women &                                   in small groups &
                                                                                                             general                                        1:1 & leave
                                                                                                                                                            brochures with
                                                                                                                                                            clients.
* Denotes same materials.
PMTCT Communication for Development Planning Framework Worksheets                 August 2001



WORKSHEET
10                     Training Plans - Communication
Target groups             Training           Duration of              Officer           Sources of
 to be trained            content             training              responsible           funds

								
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