Kendra’s Livestock News
June 9, 2010 PLANTS POISONOUS TO LIVESTOCK
UPCOMING DATES: I have had some recent questions about poisonous weeds. Most of the
time these plants taste or smell bad to the animal. However, if the animal is
August 18-21, 2010 desperate for something to eat, a poisonous plant may taste pretty good. Animals
Butler County Fair can also accidentally eat a poisonous plant when grazing or eating grains. Some
Poplar Bluff, MO poisonous plants can still be toxic in the hay bale. This makes it all the more
worthwhile to monitor your pastures and fields and kill plants that could be
September 1, 2010 harmful.
There are several poisonous plants common to Missouri. Jimsonweed,
Enrollment Deadline for May
snow-on-the-mountain, croton, buttercup and wild indigo are typically found in
2011 Show-Me-Select Sale open pastures. Shady areas normally house plants like white snakeroot, bracken
fern, pokeweed, and buckeye. Creeks and ditches serve as growing areas for
September 2-4, 2010 water and poison hemlock, black nightshade, and horsetail. Fields that have
Reynolds County Fair been cultivated can accommodate cocklebur, jimsonweed, milkweed, pigweed
Redford, MO and johnsongrass in them. Wild cherry, perilla mint (purple mint), milkweed,
and pokeweed are found along fence and hedgerows.
September 8-11, 2010 Several signs associated with the consumption of toxic parts of plants are
Ripley County Fair difficult breathing, dilation of the pupils, poor appetite, staggering, weakness,
Doniphan, MO convulsions, paralysis, diarrhea, vomiting, excessive salivation, high fever,
bloat, and possibly death. Horses tend to have more problems with toxicity due
September 11-18, 2010 to the fact that they cannot vomit. If you suspect any of your animals consumed
SEMO District Fair a poisonous plant call a veterinarian immediately. If the animal has died the
stomach contents need to be analyzed to determine which type of plant was
Cape Girardeau, MO
eaten. Inspect your pastures and fencerows for suspicious plants and have them
identified by your local extension office or the Weed Identification Service at
September 24-25 the University of Missouri. It is best to remove your livestock from the infected
Wayne County Fair area until all of the poisonous plants have been destroyed. Eradicate the toxic
Silva, MO plants by mowing or spraying with the recommended herbicide.
For more information on poisonous plants and their effects on livestock contact
Sept. 30—Oct. 2, 2010 your local University Extension office and ask for MU Guide G4970.
Madison County Fair
Wayne Co. University of
Perilla Mint White Snakeroot Black Cherry
P. O. Box 200
Greenville, MO 63944
(573) 224-5600 ext. 8
Buttercup Black Nightshade Jimsonweed
HOT HAY MINERALS FOR CATTLE
Supplementing cattle with minerals can improve
This time of year, farmers often know the hay production including weight gain, disease resistance,
they are baling is wetter than they’d like, but they are milking ability, and return to estrus. It is very hard to
taking a chance, hoping to save a better-quality product determine if there is a mineral deficiency because most are
versus letting the rain cause the crop to deteriorate in the slight deficiencies. Signs you may see if cattle are deficient
field. Unfortunately, moist hay can quickly become hot may be poor conception rates, reduced milk production,
hay which can ignite through spontaneous combustion. poor weight gains, weak calves, and poor overall health.
Most farmers strive to bale hay that is field dried Remember, lack of minerals may not be the only thing
to 20 percent or less in moisture. At this moisture contributing to these problems, as it could be a
content, the baled hay can cure properly and maintain combination of nutrition, weather, disease, etc.
quality. With moisture content higher than 20%, hay The hot, dry summer months cause a reduction of
under storage conditions will generate more heat than the mineral content of pastures prompting cattle to eat
can safely be dissipated into the atmosphere. As more supplemental mineral. The main mineral that is
temperatures rise, dangers of spontaneous combustion probably lacking in summer is phosphorus. This will
change as the pasture situation changes. Cooler, wetter
increase. Farmers need to be diligent in checking their
weather will improve pastures and most likely decrease
hay, especially if they know they baled hay that was
mineral intake. Be sure your animals are not eating mineral
wetter than normal. Smoldering hay gives off a strong, because they need energy or protein. If your pastures are
pungent odor. This odor is an indication that a fire is poor, try supplementing the cattle with some corn or by-
occurring. If even the slightest smell is present, farmers products to get them through the hot summer. Molasses in
should take temperature readings of the stack. the mineral may also increase intake because it tastes good
Reaching inside a hay stack will give an initial to the animal.
clue. If it feels warm or hot to the touch, that’s a good Most commercial mineral mixes available to
indication that problems may exist. Knowing the producers are adequate for grazing cattle. The animal
temperature of the hay is the only real way of should eat on average 2-4 ounces per head per day.
determining how serious the potential fire problem is However, to get the best buy for your money you should
before flames ignite. pay attention to what types of mineral compounds are used
Hay temperature and related actions: because some are more available to the animal than others.
Temperature 125 degrees F — No action needed. Typically the most deficient minerals are phosphorus,
Temperature 150 degrees F — Entering the danger zone. copper, and zinc so choose the most available form of
Temperatures should be checked twice daily. If possible, these. Copper compounds with the highest bioavailability
stacked hay should be disassembled to allow more air to are copper sulfate and copper chloride. Zinc oxide is the
move around heated bales for cooling. most available source of zinc with zinc sulfate and zinc
Temperature 160 degrees F — Reaching the danger zone. carbonate being moderately available. Bone meal is a
Temperature should be checked every two hours. If good source of phosphorus with dicalcium phosphate
possible, stacked hay should be disassembled to allow being moderate. Look for a mineral that is not readily
more air to move around heated bales for cooling. soluble in water. Minerals that get wet can dissolve in
Temperature 175 degrees F — Hot spots or fire pockets are water and run out of the feeder. Trace mineral mixes with
likely. If possible, stop all air movement around hay. tetracycline added can help with diseases such as pinkeye.
Alert fire service of a possible hay fire incident. However, it should be pointed out that this medication will
Temperature 190 degrees F — Remove hot hay. This not prevent pinkeye but may speed up the healing process
should be done with the assistance of the fire service. The or reduce the severity of the infection, which in turn
fire service should be prepared for hay to burst into reduces the spread of the disease by flies.
flames as it contacts fresh air. Minerals are a very important part of your cow’s
diet and should always be provided in some form whether
Keeping a watchful eye on heating hay can save it be in a complete ration, mixed with supplements, or fed
your barn or storage building. Checking the temperature free choice. If you analyze your grass, hay and feed you
of suspected or hot hay can help you make critical can determine the exact requirement of your animals.
decisions. If you see the temperature rising toward the Commercial mineral mixes work well however, you can
150 degree range, you might consider moving the hay to formulate your own mineral mix, and figure the cost of
a remote location, away from any buildings or feeding minerals using downloadable spreadsheets
combustible material. Use caution when moving heated available on the University Extension Agriculture
bales, because they can burst into flames when they are Electronic Bulletin Board web site
exposed to fresh air. Wetting hot bales down before http://agebb.missouri.edu under file sharing.
moving them can help control this hazard.
PINKEYE Pinkeye continued………
The summer months seem to be the worst A good fly control program is a must. You can use
time for pinkeye. In 1993, it was estimated that U.S.
spray insecticides, dust bags or back rubs, insecticide-
producers lost $150 million due to pinkeye because impregnated ear tags, larvacides in feed, or fly traps.
of reduced weight gain, milk production and Grass, weed and brush control by grazing, mowing, or
blindness. spraying reduces pollen dust and mechanical irritation
that increase the incidence of pinkeye. Breeds of
Causes: animals with little pigmentation around the eyes are
Pinkeye is most often caused by the bacteria more susceptible to pinkeye that animals with darker
Moraxella bovis also known as M. bovis. Other eyelids. Vaccinating against pinkeye along with IBR
causes of pinkeye are the virus IBR (infectious and BVD viral diseases can reduce incidences of
bovine rhinotracheitis), BVD and other bacteria.
pinkeye in herds.
Factors that increase the incidence of pinkeye are
excessive UV light, flies, dust, and plant material.
These factors serve as a means of transmitting the SMS SALE REPORT
bacteria from an object to an animal or from animal
to animal, and may irritate the eye drawing flies or The spring calving Show-Me-Select Heifer
the bacteria itself. Flies are the most harmful when it sale was held on May 1st with excellent results.
comes to pinkeye, because they feed on the eye and Fifteen consignors enrolled 188 heifers which sold in
nose secretions of an infected animal and then 85 lots. The average for the sale was $1,328. AI
transmit the bacteria to an uninfected animal. bred heifers averaged $132 more than natural bred
Research has shown that face flies can remain heifers indicating buyers were looking for quality
infected with M. bovis for up to three days following and genetics. Heifers consigned to the sale were
feeding on infected material. enrolled in September of 2009 and went through a
management program before qualifying for the sale.
Signs and Symptoms: If you are interested in enrolling heifers for the May
The first, most common signs of pinkeye are 2011 sale the deadline is September 1.
excessive watering of the eye and squinting due to
pain. As the disease progresses the cornea becomes
cloudy or white. An ulcer will most likely develop
in the center of the eye if left untreated. In extreme
cases the cornea ruptures and the eye fluid will leak
out. Temporary blindness usually occurs if the eye
clouds over and a white spot may remain on the eye
causing sight problems. Young animals are the most The May grazing school held in Park Hills was
susceptible to pinkeye because older animals tend to a great success. If you missed it there are others that
build up a resistance to the disease. However, have seats available. Below is a list of the closest
animals can become infected more than once so it is schools. If none of these fit your schedule, you can
still important to take preventative measures in cattle visit http://agebb.missouri.edu/mfgc/schools.htm for
of all ages. a complete list.
Treatment: DATE LOCATION CONTACT
There are several ways to treat pinkeye. Studies have
shown that M. bovis is very sensitive to injectible July 19- Sarah Kenyon
medicines containing oxytetracyclines, ceftofur, Alton
21 (417) 778-7490
penicillin, and sulfonamides. Feed additives
containing oxytetracylines also have been shown to July 28- Sandy Wooten
reduce treatment time and severity of the disease. Houston
30 417-967-2028 ext. 4
Catch the problem early and treat it to prevent
permanent damage of the eye. Sept 30- Crawford Co. Ext.
Oct 1 573-775-2135
P.O. Box 200
Greenville, MO 63944
SOUTHEAST MISSOURI MARKET REPORTS
Goats May 21st Sheep May 21st
Cattle June 4 Southeast Fruitland Fruitland
Steers Heifers Selection 1 31-38 lbs. 125-136 cwt.
300-400 lbs. $109-135 300-400 lbs. $113-126 cwt. 50-65 lbs. $158-165 cwt. 46-56 lbs. 150-160 cwt.
400-500 lbs. $112-119 400-500 lbs. $101-119 cwt. Selection 2 53-65 lbs. $162-170 cwt.
40-48 lbs. 147.5-157 cwt. 62-75 lbs. $138-150 cwt.
500-600 lbs $105.50-119 500-600 lbs. $98-113 cwt.
50-63 lbs. 150-156 cwt.
600-700 lbs. $102-112 600-700 lbs. $95-107 cwt.
700-800 lbs. $101-106.75 700-800 lbs. $88-94.75 cwt.
47-52 lbs 125-135 cwt
Market reports can be found at www.ams.usda.gov
University of Missouri, Lincoln University, Missouri Department of Agriculture, and Local Extension Councils Cooperating
Equal opportunity is and shall be provided to all participants in Extension programs and activities, and for all employees and applicants for employment
on the basis of their demonstrated ability and competence without discrimination on the basis of their race, color, religion, sex, sexual orientation,
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