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Jackson Public School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction Kindergarten Mathematics Curriculum Subject: Mathematics Introduced Ongoing Mastered X Grade: Kindergarten Competency: 1. Identify and represent relationships among sets of whole numbers up to 20 using manipulatives. Objective: 1a. Count forward to 20 and backward from 10. (DOK 1) Suggested Teaching Strategies/Student Activities: MDE Strategies Display a set of objects to 20 on the overhead. Have students count the objects and write the number the set represents on a dry erase board. Place 0 to 20 objects in a “Guessing Container.” Students estimate how many objects are in the container. Count the objects to compare the estimation with the actual amount and discuss “reasonable estimates.” Additional Strategies: Use twenty sheets of construction paper to create a number line. Die-cut large numerals 1 through 20 to glue onto the construction paper. Tape the sheets together and laminate for durability. Have students walk forward/backward on the number line counting the numbers. Incorporate daily activities for students to utilize the number line. Let students practice counting in a fun way. Select a number between one and twenty. Write the number on the board and have students to complete the following actions: jumping jacks, hopping on one leg, knee-bends, shaking hands with someone nearby, hand clapping, touching toes, nodding heads, etc. Incorporate different actions into daily math lessons. Count the number of days the students have been in school leading up to 100 days of school (make sure the students are recognizing and identifying numbers 0 to 20). Use the calendar and have students count forward and backward. Point to each number to promote number recognition and identification. Have students stand up straight and count from 0-19 as they lower themselves to the floor, have them jump up from the ground when they reach 20. Display large number cards 0-10 and arrange them out of order. Have students assist the teacher in arranging the numbers in order. Require the students to describe and explain where they want to move a number. Ex: “The 0 needs to be in the beginning.” Add more numbers as the year progresses. Print numerals 0 to 20 with a permanent marker on white plastic spoons. Mix up the spoons and insert each spoon into a plastic foam base. Ask students to place them in numerical in order. Let students count forward to 20 and backward from 10. Rote count daily to 20. Assessment Methods: Resources: Pearson Scott Foresman Basal Text Test Generator Counting cubes Student Response Walk-on Number Line Teacher Observation Number Cards (0-20) Teacher-made Test Calendar Hundred Chart 1 Jackson Public School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction Kindergarten Mathematics Curriculum Technology: www.pearsonsuccessnet.com www.uptoten.com (type in “one banana, two banana” in the search box) www.drjean.org (search “math time”) 2 Jackson Public School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction Kindergarten Mathematics Curriculum Subject: Mathematics Introduced Ongoing Mastered X Grade: Kindergarten Competency: 1. Identify and represent relationships among sets of whole numbers up to 20 using manipulatives. Objective: 1b. Create models of sets of objects 0 to 20. (DOK 1) Suggested Teaching Strategies/Student Activities: MDE Strategies Use manipulatives such as bear counters, Unifix cubes, buttons, etc., to build and count sets of 20. Create number spinners or number cubes to 20. Have students spin the spinner, identify the number, and use manipulatives to represent the number. Additional Strategies: Guide students as they count in unison by ones as they snap cubes together, string beads, combine learning links, etc. Let students draw a picture of their model to match the number on Manila paper. Give students a number card with pictures representing numbers from 0 to 20. Have students use manipulatives to create a set of objects that matches the number on the card. Fold a large sheet of Manila paper or a poster board into 20 squares labeling each square with a number (1-20). Have students illustrate a picture/shape/object to represent the number in the square. Alternate: Students can make a number book. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Use the 20-square template or number book and have students glue objects onto the paper (die-cut shapes, cereal, beans) to represent the numbers. Have students trace their hands and number each finger (use feet to go up to 20). Pair students and have one student roll a number cube (or two) and their partner use manipulatives to match the number on the cube. Once the set has been made, have students draw a picture of the set. Assessment Methods: Resources: Pearson Scott Foresman Test Basal Textbook Generator Student Response Number cards Teacher Observation Counting Manipulatives Teacher-made Test Large Manila Paper Manipulatives (die cut shapes, cereal, beans) Unifix Cubes Technology: www.pearsonsuccessnet.com www.abc123kindergarten.com http://www.kidzone.ws/prek_wrksht/math-readiness/counting.htm 3 Jackson Public School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction Kindergarten Mathematics Curriculum Subject: Mathematics Introduced Ongoing Mastered X Grade: Kindergarten Competency: 1. Identify and represent relationships among sets of whole numbers up to 20 using manipulatives. Objective: 1c. Recognize and write numbers to represent quantities 0 to 20. (DOK 1) Suggested Teaching Strategies/Student Activities: MDE Strategies Display a set of objects to 20 on the overhead. Students count the objects and write the number the set represents on a dry erase board. Additional Strategies: Have students choose a number 0 to 20 to write on manila paper. Give students a Ziploc bag of crayons. Tell students to trace the number with different colored crayons to form a rainbow number. Let students share their colorful number with a partner. Give students a sentence strip and have students write their phone numbers on the strip. Give each student 12 counters to use for bingo chips. Create a caller chart with numbers 0 to 9. Students will play phone number bingo to practice recognizing numbers. Students can also practice writing the number words for the numerals in their phone numbers. Provide students with flash cards. Have them label and illustrate numbers 0 to 20. Provide students with large sheets of paper (8 ½ x 11) labeled with large numbers. Allow students to glue objects to the number. Have students trace and say the large numbers. Incorporate a “ Number of the Day” into daily math lessons. Put a new number on the board each day. Provide students with Math Journals with pages numbered 0 to 20 (include several pages for each number so students can use the journal all year. Have students write the number of the day in their journals on the correct page. For example if the number is 12, the student will practice writing the number 12 on that page along with a teacher-created activity involving the number twelve. As the year progresses, have students write about their experiences with that particular number. Place sets of manipulatives in Ziploc bags in a center. Number each bag with a permanent marker. Have students count the manipulatives in each bag and write the correct number on an index card. Make sure numbers from Ziploc bags are prewritten on the index cards for self-checking. Provide number cards 0 to 20. The teacher will call out a number and the student will choose the appropriate number card. Using the card as a model, students will write the number on unlined paper or small chalkboard. It is very important to model correct formation of the numbers (begin at the top, left to right, etc.) Assessment Methods: Resources: Pearson Scott Foresman Test Basal Textbook Generator Sentence Strips Student Response Number cards Teacher Observation Magnetic numbers Teacher-made Test Math-U Assessment Technology: www.pearsonsuccessnet.com www.learningpage.com (number tracing/practice sheets) 4 Jackson Public School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction Kindergarten Mathematics Curriculum Subject: Mathematics Introduced Ongoing Mastered X Grade: Kindergarten Competency: 1. Identify and represent relationships among sets of whole numbers up to 20 using manipulatives. Objective: 1d. Compose and decompose two-digit numbers (up to 20) with representations in words and physical models. (DOK 2) Suggested Teaching Strategies/Student Activities: MDE Strategies No strategies provided. Additional Strategies: Use base-ten blocks to model and explain different ways to make (compose) the number 20. For example: (Use two base-ten rods to show the number 20 or use twenty base-ten units to show the number 20. Have students copy the model into a math journal. Also, use a Bridge Map to show the relationship between words and physical models. For example: 2 base-ten rods make 20 just like 20 base-ten units make 20... Give each student a Ziploc bag of beans. Write a number on the board and use the overhead projector to model different ways to break up (decompose) the number in two groups of beans. (For example: the number 15 can be decomposed by putting 8 beans into one group and 7 beans in another group, etc.) Allow students to work in pairs to practice. Have students to copy the model into their math journal. As the year progresses, have students write numbers in word form. Use manipulatives to show students how to make a two-digit number. Write the number 12 on a transparency. Say, “I want to make the number twelve by adding two beans at a time.” Start with two beans or counters. Add counters by 2’s until you reach the number 12. Give students an opportunity to make observations and explain concepts. Assessment Methods: Resources: Math-U Assessment Basal Text Book Student Response Base-Ten Blocks Teacher Observation Numeral Cards Teacher-made Test Number Word Cards Pearson Scott Foresman Ziploc Bags Test Generator Beans Counters Technology: www.pearsonsuccessnet.com www.funbrain.com 5 Jackson Public School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction Kindergarten Mathematics Curriculum Subject: Mathematics Introduced Ongoing Mastered X Grade: Kindergarten Competency: 1. Identify and represent relationships among sets of whole numbers up to 20 using manipulatives. Objective: 1e. Determine “first” through “tenth” (ordinal numbers), “next” and “last” positions. (DOK 1) Suggested Teaching Strategies/Student Activities: MDE Strategies Place ten students in a line and give instructions to particular students (For example: “If you are second in line, pat your head.”) Demonstrate how to find that student using ordinal numbers. Also incorporate the vocabulary (next, last, before, after). After reading a story such as I Know an Old Lady Who Swallowed a Fly by Mary Ann Hoberman to students, chart the sequence of the events using terms first, second, third, last, etc. Additional Strategies: Place a variety of magazines in a center. Have students cut out ten pictures. Let students glue the pictures in a horizontal line onto a large sheet of manila paper. Give students precut words with ordinal numbered words “first” through “tenth” written on strips of paper. Allow students to glue the correct word above the correct picture according to position. The teacher can give directions such as circle the third object, etc. Write each ordinal number “first” through “tenth” on a different colored sheet of construction paper. Laminate and glue word cards to the classroom floor. Incorporate daily activities for students to practice standing in the correct ordinal position. Allow five or more students to play a game of “musical chairs.” Place ordinal numbered word cards on the chairs. Have students walk around the chairs as the music plays. When the music stops, ask students to sit in the closest chair. Then have students take turns describing their position beginning with the student in the first chair. Have students identify steps to simple activities using pictures. (e.g., making a peanut butter and jelly sandwich, morning routine, or getting ready for school). Have students make a Flow Chart describing what happens “first”, “next”, and “last.” Give random students ordinal number cards “first” through “tenth.” Have ten students line up in front of the class. Allow students with cards to give the correct card to each student according to his/her position. Assessment Methods: Resources: Math-U Assessment Basal Text Student Response I Know an Old Lady Who Swallow a Fly by Mary Ann Hoberman Teacher Observation Thinking Maps Teacher-made Test Number Cards Pearson Scott Foresman Technology: Test Generator www.pearsonsuccessnet.com http://www.internet4classrooms.com/skills_1st.htm 6 Jackson Public School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction Kindergarten Mathematics Curriculum Subject: Mathematics Introduced Ongoing Mastered X Grade: Kindergarten Competency: 1. Identify and represent relationships among sets of whole numbers up to 20 using manipulatives. Objective: 1f. Develop multiple representations for addition (combining of sets) and subtraction (take-away, missing addend, comparison). (DOK 2) Suggested Teaching Strategies/Student Activities: MDE Strategies Model a story problem using Goldfish, Cheerios, or Fruit Loops. Model story events by adding or subtracting the appropriate number of objects. Tell “People Problems,” (such as “There Were Five Children Playing Ring-Around-the-Rosies. One child came to join them. How many children are playing? There are four girls standing. The girl with pigtails sat down. How many girls are left standing?” etc.) Students act out story and the teacher writes the corresponding addition or subtraction equation, discussing the meaning of the operations. Provide students with a two-column work mat and five Unifix cubes of one color and five Unifix cubes of another color to work guided addition problems. The teacher rolls a 0 to 5 number cube. The students build the first addend on the left side of the work mat with one color. The teacher records the first addend. The teacher rolls the number cube again. The students build the second addend on the right side of work mat with the other color. The teacher records the second addend. The students find the sum of the two addends. The teacher will record the sum, completing the equation. Repeat. Provide students with a work mat and ten unifix cubes of the same color to work guided subtraction problems. The teacher rolls a 5 to 10 number cube. The students build the minuend on the work mat. The teacher records the minuend. The teacher rolls a 0 to 4 number cube. The students take away the subtrahend, covering it with their hand. The teacher records the subtrahend. The students count what is not covered/taken away to find the difference. The teacher records the difference, completing the equation. Repeat. Additional Strategies: Provide students with a half sheet of Manila paper. Write a subtraction equation at the bottom of the paper. Have students glue real objects (toothpicks, beans, macaroni, etc.) to show the equation. For example, students will glue on 5 pieces of macaroni and circle two of them for the equation 5-2=3. Give students a starting number. Then give the answer. Students should be able to tell you if you added or subtracted to reach the answer. To make the activity more challenging, have students tell how much was added or subtracted from the original number. Examples: I started with 10. I have 15 for an answer. What did I do? (Add five) … I started with 12. I have 9 for an answer. What did I do? (Subtract three). Teacher should provide manipulatives for student work. Assessment Methods: Resources: Math-U Assessment Basal Text Student Response Unifix cubes Teacher Observation Number cubes Teacher-made Test Number cards Pearson Scott Foresman Manipulatives (toothpicks, beans, popcorn, etc.) Test Generator Technology: www.pearsonsuccessnet.com 7 Jackson Public School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction Kindergarten Mathematics Curriculum Subject: Mathematics Introduced Ongoing Mastered X Grade: Kindergarten Competency: 1. Identify and represent relationships among sets of whole numbers up to 20 using manipulatives. Objective: 1g. Apply mathematical language by telling when a certain number is “too many,” “not enough,” “just right,” “more than,” “less than,” or “equal to” for a given situation. (DOK 1) Suggested Teaching Strategies/Student Activities: MDE Strategies After counting sets of objects, compare the sets using the terms too much, not enough, just right, or more than, less than, and equal to. Additional Strategies: Work with small groups of students. Give students pictures of dogs, etc. and doghouses, etc. Have student match each dog to a doghouse. Ask students to explain if there are “too many, not enough, just right, more than, less than, or equal to” for the given pictorial situation. Give students various sizes of paper fish and a quantity of goldfish crackers in a Ziploc bag. Have students experiment with covering the paper fish with their crackers. Lead students into a discussion using mathematical language to answer guiding questions. Write mathematical words on an enlarged Circle Map and hang inside the classroom. Incorporate daily activities for students to use the correct mathematical language to describe various situations. Give each student a square grid with the numerals 1 to 20 in consecutive order and a box of crayon. Allow a student to pick a number. Ask questions using mathematical language. For example, if a student picks the number 15, ask, “Can you color a number that is more than 15?” Use two number cubes to help students apply mathematical language correctly. Make two columns on the board. Roll the first cube and record the number in the first column. Roll the second number cube and record the number in the second column. Have students compare the numbers using the appropriate mathematical language. Assessment Methods: Resources: Math-U Assessment Basal Text Student Response Counting Manipulatives Teacher Observation Number cards Teacher-made Test Number Cubes Pearson Scott Foresman Various Die-cuts Test Generator Thinking Maps Technology: www.pearsonsuccessnet.com http://www.education-world.com/a_tsl/archives/06-1/lesson004.shtml http://www.internet4classrooms.com/skills_k_math.htm 8 Jackson Public School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction Kindergarten Mathematics Curriculum Subject: Mathematics Introduced Ongoing Mastered X Grade: Kindergarten Competency: 2. Identify, describe, and reproduce patterns using concrete objects. Objective: 2a. Describe a rule for sorting objects. (DOK 2) Suggested Teaching Strategies/Student Activities: MDE Strategies Provide students with sorting trays and a variety of objects (pattern blocks, buttons, shells, etc.). Students sort by attribute and explain reasoning. Encourage students to sort in more than one way. Read Gray Rabbit’s Odd One Out by Alan Baker. Discuss how objects are sorted and why one object did not belong. Present a bag of objects (For example, a bag filled with a paintbrush, a crayon, a marker, a pencil, and a container of play dough). The students determine how the bag was sorted and which item does not belong (For example: The play dough does not belong). Repeat with other bags of objects. Read Shoes by Elizabeth Winthrop. Discuss the different kinds of shoes in the book. Have each student take off a shoe. Sort the shoes by attribute (For example, shoes with laces and shoes without laces, etc.). Ask each student to bring a favorite fruit to school. Discuss and sort fruit. Additional Strategies: Read The Button Box by Margarette Reid. Give groups of students a Ziploc bag of assorted buttons. Have students do an open sort with the buttons. Discuss the various attributes students used to sort. Make sure students can verbalize the rule that was used to sort the buttons. Engage students in a conversation about the importance of establishing a rule when sorting objects. Use real-life examples such as: sorting clothes to wash, cooking dinner, cleaning the house, etc. Allow students time to verbalize their thoughts. Have students to sort toys. Ask students to bring in a stuffed animal they can leave at school for a few days. As a group, make a list of attributes that describe the collection of animals (size, color, type of animal, length of tail etc.). Select one or two attributes for use in sorting. Then ask the animal’s owner to place his or her animal with the correct group. Read and Sort. Read aloud your favorite edition of Goldilocks and the Three Bears. On a second reading, have students look for all the objects in the story that come in three sizes: small for Baby bear, medium sized for Mama bear, and large for Papa bear. Gather sets of small, medium, and large objects and place them at a center so students can sort them independently. Have students to orally describe a rule for sorting objects. Assessment Methods: Resources: Math-U Assessment Basal Text Student Response The Button Box by Margarette Reid Teacher Observation Gray Rabbit’s Odd One Out by Alan Baker Teacher-made Test Goldilocks and the Three Bears Pearson Scott Foresman Sorting Objects Test Generator Flashcards (small, medium, large) Magnetic/Foam Numbers Buttons Technology: www.pearsonsuccessnet.com http://mathforum.org/geometry/rugs/resources/act/ 9 Jackson Public School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction Kindergarten Mathematics Curriculum Subject: Mathematics Introduced Ongoing Mastered X Grade: Kindergarten Competency: 2. Identify, describe, and reproduce patterns using concrete objects. Objective: 2b. Identify, reproduce, and extend repeating patterns in visual, auditory, and physical contexts. (DOK 2) Suggested Teaching Strategies/Student Activities: MDE Strategies Lead students in a game of “Pattern Copy Cat.” The teacher will play a simple pattern with rhythm sticks and have students echo. The teacher will clap a simple pattern and have students echo. Create “People Patterns” using students. Discuss patterns and what would come next if the pattern was continued (for example: boy, boy, girl, boy, boy, girl, boy, boy, girl…). Provide pattern starter cards and a variety of manipulatives such as (cereal, Unifix cubes, buttons, bottle tops, etc). The students will model, discuss, and extend a pattern. Additional Strategies: Engage students in a writing activity – After creating patterns with die-cuts or sticky dots, students will dictate a simple patterned text to the teacher. Bind this into a book for your class library. Suggested text pattern: My pattern has 3 dots. I put 1 blue dot. I put 2 red dots. Provide a variety of dried spices, such as thyme, ginger, cloves, cinnamon, oregano, and mint. Students can glue small amounts onto construction paper to create an “aroma pattern.” Extend vocabulary by describing the “smell trail” of each pattern. Have students work with a partner to extend the pattern. Create snap, clap, stomp patterns. Have students to identify, reproduce, and extend the patterns. Use cereal (Fruit Loops, etc.) to create a color pattern. Have students work with a partner to reproduce and extend the pattern. Provide students with Unifix cubes. Make a pattern and have the students continue the pattern. Use students daily to create patterns. Each day when students gather on the floor, choose a student to seat a particular group of classmates according to a pattern of his/her choice. The student may choose to seat his/her classmates in a pattern according to the color of clothing each child is wearing. When everyone has been seated, have children guess what pattern was created. Allow students time to reproduce and color the pattern on manila paper. Assessment Methods: Resources: Math-U Assessment Basal Text Student Response Sorting Objects Teacher Observation Pattern Cards Teacher-made Test Rubber stamps/Ink pads Pearson Scott Foresman Cereal Test Generator Unifix cubes Manila Paper Technology: www.pearsonsuccessnet.com http://mathforum.org/geometry/rugs/resources/act/ 10 Jackson Public School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction Kindergarten Mathematics Curriculum Subject: Mathematics Introduced Ongoing Mastered X Grade: Kindergarten Competency: 2. Identify, describe, and reproduce patterns using concrete objects. Objective: 2c. Identify and describe qualitative changes (such as temperature changes – it feels hotter). (DOK 1) Suggested Teaching Strategies/Student Activities: MDE Strategies No strategies provided. Additional Strategies: Ask students to describe the weather on the way to school (in terms of hot, cold, warm, chilly, etc.) Record students responses. Ask students to predict what the weather will be like in the afternoon and record their predictions. Allow students to observe the weather and compare their observation to their predictions. Model for students the wording you would like them to use in their responses. For example, “It was chilly this morning, and I predicted it would be hot this afternoon. It is actually cooler than I thought it would be. It feels warm outside, not hot.” Show students a pitcher of water and a pitcher of ice cubes. Have students describe which one is colder and tell why? Leave both pitchers setting out overnight and have students to compare the temperatures the next day. Allow students time to discuss observations. Show students pictures of different weather scenes. Have students describe specific activities that would suggest the weather is cool, cold, warm, and hot, etc. Record details on the board. Visit the same location on the playground four times during the school year. Discuss seasonal temperatures using vocabulary such as it feels hotter, colder, etc. Show students pictures of the four seasons. Students will observe the changes in the pictures and then dress a cutout doll appropriately for a field trip outside. Have students discuss why they chose to dress a particular doll in a certain way. Have students stand in the sun for several minutes. What do they feel? Have students orally describe what they feel. Have students brainstorm what they could do to be cooler. (If possible, try the students’ suggestions.) Using an umbrella, box, or paper, let students try standing in the shade. Ask students to describe what they feel. Is it different in the shade? What happened when the cover was over their heads? Why? What heats our earth? What is happening in the fall? Record student observations on a class language experience chart for comparison with other seasons. Assessment Methods: Resources: Math-U Assessment Weather Flashcards Student Response Pictures of seasons and activities Teacher Observation Exploration kit with materials to help investigate the four seasons Teacher-made Test Weather chart and Symbols Pearson Scott Foresman Technology: Test Generator www.mathcentral.uregina.ca http://www.cstone.net/~bcp/K/KMrSci.htm 11 Jackson Public School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction Kindergarten Mathematics Curriculum Subject: Mathematics Introduced Ongoing Mastered X Grade: Kindergarten Competency: 2. Identify, describe, and reproduce patterns using concrete objects. Objective: 2d. Identify and describe quantitative changes (such as temperature increases five degrees). (DOK 1) Suggested Teaching Strategies/Student Activities: MDE Strategies No strategies provided. Additional Strategies: Monitor and record the temperature each day in the morning and afternoon (use the weather channel or weather.com). Discuss the degree difference from morning to afternoon, between days of the week (e.g., Mondays and Tuesdays), between a certain day in the month (every Monday in August and September) etc.) Work with students in a small group to monitor and chart the qualitative differences in students’ body temperatures. Discuss health-related issues such as colds, flu, etc. that may effect the average (body) temperature, fevers, etc. Make a meter high thermometer out of heavy cardboard and red ribbon. Use it daily in your classroom. Graph temperatures over a designated period of time. Temperature can be observed hourly over a single day, or at the same time of the day for a week or a month. Read 50 Below Zero by Robert Munsch to help students become familiar with temperature. Show students a copy of a power bill. Discuss the methods of heating a home-gas, oil, electric, wood, etc. Discuss with students how the change in temperature affects how we heat our home and the amount we pay for power bills. Be sure to discuss the pattern of paying higher electric bills in the summer, etc. Place a thermometer in the sun on the playground, in shade on the playground, and in classroom. Have students to read the thermometers every two hours for a day. Record and discuss results. Extend the activity by placing objects such as plastic spoons, containers of waters, metal spoons, balloons, paint, clay, etc. in the sun and shade. Create a class “Sun” and “Shade” Tree Map to chart the differences. Show students pictures of different weather scenes. Discuss how a temperature change would have an effect on what is happening in the picture. Use pattern blocks to show how quantities of the pattern will change by adding more blocks to the pattern. Assessment Methods: Resources: Math-U Assessment 50 Below Zero by Robert Munsch Student Response Weather Channel Teacher Observation Thermometer-for outside temperature Teacher-made Test Thermometer-for taking students temperatures Pearson Scott Foresman Weather Flashcards Test Generator Pattern Blocks Technology: www.mathcentral.uregina.ca http://www.cstone.net/~bcp/K/KMrSci.htm 12 Jackson Public School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction Kindergarten Mathematics Curriculum Subject: Mathematics Introduced Ongoing Mastered X Grade: Kindergarten Competency: 3. Identify and classify two-dimensional shapes. Objective: 3a. Recognize and describe open and closed figures. (DOK 1) Suggested Teaching Strategies/Student Activities: MDE Strategies Students trace a pattern of a shape using inside stencils. The students count and write the number of sides on the shape. Repeat with other shapes. Cut out shapes to make a mobile. Model open and closed figures using a piece of yarn. (Open means ends of yarn do not touch. Closed means ends of yarn touch.) Additional Strategies: Draw or place a picture of a bear on the overhead projector or chalkboard. Select a student to draw a shape around the bear. Ask students if the bear could walk out of the shape. If the answer is yes, the shape is an open figure. If the bear cannot walk out, the shape is a closed figure. Choose 2 to 4 more students to repeat the activity. Provide students with one red and one green pipe cleaner, two bear counters, and two index cards labeled “OPEN” and “CLOSED.” Have students make an open figure using the green pipe cleaner, and place the card with the word “OPEN” with this figure. Ask students to place a bear in each shape that they have made and demonstrate if the bear can “walk” out of the figure. At this time relate the colors of the pipe cleaners to the colors on a traffic light. Red means stop (you can’t get out.) Green means go (you can get out.) Let students practice using the pipe cleaners to create open and closed figures. Create a large red and green figure to hang in the classroom to use as a review. Collect a variety of open and closed figures. Give students two Popsicle sticks. One with an open figure taped to it and one with a closed figure taped to it. Tell students you are going to draw a figure on the board. Have students raise the correct Popsicle stick to matches the figure drawn on the board. For example if you draw an open figure, students should raise the Popsicle that has the open figure on it. Using large pretzels show students a whole (unbroken) pretzel and trace the pretzel showing all pieces connected. Then show students pretzels that are broken and trace them pointing out how the pretzel is not complete, it is open. Use the pretzels to discuss open and closed figures. Provide students with a variety of broken and whole pretzels. Have students sort the pretzels into two piles, open and closed. Observe students and allow them to eat their pretzels. Assessment Methods: Resources: Student Response Shapes Teacher Observation Stencils Teacher-made Test Pretzels Pearson Scott Foresman Pipe Cleaners Test Generator Technology: http://www.learnnc.org 13 Jackson Public School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction Kindergarten Mathematics Curriculum Subject: Mathematics Introduced Ongoing Mastered X Grade: Kindergarten Competency: 3. Identify and classify two-dimensional shapes. Objective: 3b. Identify two-dimensional figures such as the square, rectangle, triangle, and circle. (DOK 1) Suggested Teaching Strategies/Student Activities: MDE Strategies Provide students with string. The students work together to create different two-dimensional shapes. Discuss how the shapes were created and their characteristics. Have students explore the environment to find examples of squares, rectangles, circles, and triangles. Discuss the characteristics of each shape. Additional Strategies: Place different sizes of two-dimensional shapes in a Math Center. Have students match the shapes to the correct name. Students can make a book or collage with the shapes. Take students on a walk around the school to find examples of two-dimensional shapes in the environment. Record these examples on a Tree Map. Use a Double Bubble Map to compare and contrast two-dimensional shapes. Use a Bridge Map to relate two-dimensional shapes. The relating factor could be “reminds me of.” For example, “A circle reminds me of the sun just like a rectangle reminds me of the door, etc.” Provide students with different sized jar lids, pencils, scissors and paper. Have students trace, cut, and paste circles to create a collage. Provide tracing frames of two-dimensional shapes. Allow students to use colored pencils or markers to make designs using the frames. Feely Box - place an assortment of shapes in a box. Have students feel the shapes (without looking at them) while trying to identify them. Have students make a “Celebrity Square” puppet. Give students art materials to make and decorate the puppet (e.g., Popsicle sticks, construction paper, yarn, square die-cuts, eyes, etc.) Encourage students to use small paper squares to add facial features the square. Teach students this sung to the tune of “Clementine” I have four sides…All the same size…And my shape is called a square…I can be so very useful…And I’m seen most everywhere! Assessment Methods: Resources: Math-U Assessment Basal Textbook Student Response Attribute/Pattern Blocks Teacher Observation Thinking Maps Notebook Teacher-made Test Shapes Pearson Scott Foresman Technology: Test Generator www.pearsonsuccessnet.com http://www.enchantedlearning.com/themes/shapes.shtml http://www.fastq.com/~jbpratt/education/math/shapes.html 14 Jackson Public School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction Kindergarten Mathematics Curriculum Subject: Mathematics Introduced Ongoing Mastered X Grade: Kindergarten Competency: 3. Identify and classify two-dimensional shapes. Objective: 3c. Demonstrate an understanding of positional words (e.g., in, above, below, over, under, beside, etc.). (DOK 1) Suggested Teaching Strategies/Student Activities: MDE Strategies Play “Simon Says” using a theme related object such as a block. Students follow directions with positional words to manipulate object. (For example, “Put the block over your head.” “Put the block behind your back.”; etc.) Additional Strategies: Make a class Big Book incorporating Shared Writing. Students should describe positions shown (e.g., Joshua, Mary and Crystal are on top of the jungle gym). Take students on the school playground. Allow students to demonstrate the use of positional words (e.g., standing beside the slide, sitting in the swing). Have students draw pictures describing their position on the playground. Ask each student to demonstrate positional words using common school supplies (e.g., put your red crayon on your head). Use different objects in the classroom and let student demonstrate their understanding of positional words: “in, above, below, over, under, beside, etc.” (e.g., place a square under the table, go stand beside your friend, place your hands above the table, etc.) Read Goldilocks and the Three Bears. Create a class Tree Map of positional words. After reading the story, take students on a picture walk of the story. Have students point out objects in the story using positional words. (e.g., I see a small bowl “on the table”) Record statements under the correct column on the Tree Map. Ask questions such as: Did Goldilocks eat porridge that was under the bowl? Did she eat porridge that was beside the bowl? Where was the porridge that she ate? Let students draw a picture of the correct answer. Assessment Methods: Resources: Math-U Assessment Goldilocks and the Three Bears Student Response Basal Text Teacher Observation School Supplies Teacher-made Test Various Classroom Objects Pearson Scott Foresman Technology: Test Generator www.pearsonsuccessnet.com http://www.glc.k12.ga.us/seqlps/sudisplay.asp?SUID=242 http://www.internet4classrooms.com/skills_k_math.htm 15 Jackson Public School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction Kindergarten Mathematics Curriculum Subject: Mathematics Introduced Ongoing Mastered X Grade: Kindergarten Competency: 4. Identify measurable attributes of objects. Objective: 4a. Measure the length, weight, and capacity of objects using nonstandard units. (DOK 2) Suggested Teaching Strategies/Student Activities: MDE Strategies Explore measuring the length of objects using non-standard units of measurement (such as unifix cubes, popsicle sticks, tiles, etc). Help students align non-standard units correctly to measure. Students will place units end to end, not overlapping units, and leaving no gaps. Using adding machine tape, measure the height of all students. Arrange the lengths in order from shortest to tallest. Investigate and compare the weights of objects (such as feather, block, box of crayons, pencil, glue, etc.) using a balance scale. Allow students to compare the weight of classroom objects (For example, a pencil and a book). Additional Strategies: Provide paper clips and assorted small objects found in the classroom. Have students measure the lengths of the objects by placing paperclips end to end. Students may also use learning links or Unifix cubes to measure. Give students a copy of construction paper and a pair of scissors to trace and cut out their footprint. Have students measure different areas record answers on a chart. For example have students measure of a rug or table. After students have recorded the data, use a large class Tree Map to record and discuss data. Pair and provide students with Unifix cubes or learning links. Have partners measure and record the length of each other’s arm, hand, fingers, etc. Give students a teacher created chart to record results. Stock the math center with a supply of milk or juice cartons that are the same size (quart or larger) and paper and canvas grocery bag. Have each shopper who visits the center estimate how many cartons the paper bag will hold. Instruct students to count as she fills the paper bag. Encourage students to predict which bag will hold more: the paper or the canvas. Have students fill the canvas bag and compare the results during small group time with the teacher. Place a balance scale in a measurement center. Put various objects in the center for students to weigh. For example, students can put a rock on rock one side of the scale. Then have students put paper clips on the other side to determine how many paper clips weigh the same as the rock. Make sure students have paper to record results. Assessment Methods: Resources: Math-U Assessment Basal Text Student Response Various Math Center measuring materials Teacher Observation Paperclips Teacher-made Test Learning Links Pearson Scott Foresman Unifix Cubes Test Generator Balance Scale 16 Jackson Public School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction Kindergarten Mathematics Curriculum Technology: www.pearsonsuccessnet.com 17 Jackson Public School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction Kindergarten Mathematics Curriculum Subject: Mathematics Introduced Ongoing Mastered X Grade: Kindergarten Competency: 4. Identify measurable attributes of objects Objective: 4b. Determine and describe comparisons of length (longer, shorter, the same, mass (heavier, lighter, the same), and capacity (holds more, less, or about the same) using different-shaped or congruent containers, objects or figures. (DOK 2) Suggested Teaching Strategies/Student Activities: MDE Strategies At the sand table, explore and compare how much different containers hold using the term “more,” “less,” and leaving no gaps. Use a small scoop to fill assorted containers with rice. Compare the number of scoops using terms “more,” “less,” and “about the same.” Additional Strategies: Give students rulers and challenge them to find things in the room that are longer, shorter, or the same. Give students a Tree Map to record findings. Measure each student on a growth chart and display it in the classroom. Have students predict what their height will be next time they get measured using terms (taller, the same). Measure students throughout the year and discuss results. Provide different shaped and sized containers and rice/sand. Have students explore and discover with containers, which will hold more, less, or about the same. Show pictures of different kinds of vehicles, such as bicycles, sports cars, sedans, vans, buses, trains, subways, airplanes, boats, and ships. Ask the students to make comparisons by asking which vehicle can hold more people than a bicycle, etc. Collect a variety of objects. Have students compare and discuss the objects using terms “longer, shorter, the same.” Provide a balance scale and assorted classroom objects. Have students compare two objects using terms heavier/lighter. Assessment Methods: Resources: Math-U Assessment Basal Text Student Response Variety of Containers (cups, bowls, etc.) Teacher Observation Variety of Materials (rice, sand, etc.) Teacher-made Test Scale/Balance Scale Pearson Scott Foresman Transportation Picture Cards Test Generator Classroom Objects Positional Flashcards Thinking Maps Technology: www.pearsonsuccessnet.com 18 Jackson Public School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction Kindergarten Mathematics Curriculum Subject: Mathematics Introduced Ongoing Mastered X Grade: Kindergarten Competency: 4. Identify measurable attributes of objects Objective: 4c. Recognize the clock (analog and digital) and calendar as measurements of time. (DOK 1) Suggested Teaching Strategies/Student Activities: MDE Strategies Use a large Judy Clock to discuss how an analog clock is divided into minutes and hours and how the minute and hour hand work to tell time. Simulate clockwise motion. Provide students with a blank clock face with missing numbers. Provide students with number pieces. Students will fill in the numbers correctly. Have students identify the minute and hour hands. Additional Strategies: Provide teacher-made cards with a clock and a picture representing the beginning, the middle, and end of the school day. At the appropriate time of the day, post the correct card and briefly discuss the time to emphasize that we do certain things at certain times. Create a large Double-Bubble Map comparing and contrasting an analog and digital clock as measurements of time. Given a laminated paper clock, students will use a wipe off crayon to mark time to the hour stated by the teacher. Read The Grouchy Ladybug, by Eric Carle have students make and set paper clocks to different times to match the times in the story. Create an “It’s About Time” math station. Cut and laminate small clocks and timecards. Have students match digital and analog clocks with timecards. Use a calendar daily to measure units of time. Refer to classroom calendar to ask students questions about the days of the week and the months of the year. Brainstorm a class list of why keeping up with time is important. For example: Keeping up with time is important because it lets us know when it is time to go to bed, school, cafeteria, etc. Assessment Methods: Resources: Math-U Assessment Basal Text Student Response The Grouchy Ladybug by Eric Carle Teacher Observation Calendars Teacher-made Test Digital/Analog Clocks Pearson Scott Foresman Judy Clocks Test Generator Picture Cards Technology: www.pearsonsuccessnet.com 19 Jackson Public School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction Kindergarten Mathematics Curriculum Subject: Mathematics Introduced Ongoing Mastered X Grade: Kindergarten Competency: 4. Identify measurable attributes of objects Objective: 4d. Determine attributes of objects that can be compared, such as length, area, mass or volume/capacity. (DOK 1) Suggested Teaching Strategies/Student Activities: MDE Strategies No strategies provided. Additional Strategies: Display three student backpacks (pick ones with size difference). Have students predict which bag will hold more (books, blocks, blankets, etc.). Check the students’ predictions by filling backpacks. Explain to students the reason one backpack can hold more than another. For example, the blue backpack is longer than the red backpack so it will be able to hold things that are longer. Display three different shaped containers (jar, box, cups, etc.) using manipulative fill each container. Allow students to examine the containers and predict which container holds the most. Discuss why the containers hold different quantities. Create a class vocabulary chart with appropriate vocabulary to use when determining attributes of objects (e.g., longer, shorter, heavier, lighter, holds more, holds less, further, lower etc.) Make sure students understand that the same objects can observed differently according to different attributes (For example, a long glass is taller that an short glass, but may not necessarily hold more water than the shorter glass. Assessment Methods: Resources: Math-U Assessment Basal Text Student Response Backpacks Teacher Observation Containers (jar, box, cups, etc.) Teacher-made Test Manipulatives (books, blocks, blankets, etc.) Pearson Scott Foresman Test Weather Cards (multiple sets) Generator Chart Paper Technology: www.pearsonsuccessnet.com http://lessonplancentral.com/lessons/Math/Measurement/index1.htm 20 Jackson Public School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction Kindergarten Mathematics Curriculum Subject: Mathematics Introduced Ongoing Mastered X Grade: Kindergarten Competency: 5. Collect, organize, and interpret data. Objective: 5a. Collect and organize data by counting and using tally marks and other symbols. (DOK 1) Suggested Teaching Strategies/Student Activities: MDE Strategies Chart the weather each day of the week with calendar math. Use symbols to represent the weather of the day to create a pictograph. Discuss patterns and trends in weather. Additional Strategies: Give groups of students a set of plastic zoo animals. Ask the students to graph the zoo animals on a plastic floor mat according to species. Use a set of overhead shapes on the projector. Model for students how to organize the shapes to create a class-size graph. Use tally marks to represent each shape. Let students help create the graph by writing tally marks on the chart to represent a particular shape. Use tally marks to represent each day of school until students reach 100 days in school. Make a bead graph to represent schools days. Each day a student will add a bead to a string when there are 10 beads on the string start a new string. Work up to 100 days (10 sets of 10) then count by 10’s. Count the Letters in your name: Staple one strip of tagboard to the bottom of an index card. Have several index cards labeled with numbers. Prepare a clothespin labeled with each student’s name. Have the students count the letters in the name and clip the name to the tagboard that corresponds with the number they counted. Chart the weather each day. Make a chart that has a picture to describe the weather (sunny, cloudy, rainy, etc.) in one column. In another column record the weather each day by placing a tally mark on the row next to the picture that describes the weather. Assessment Methods: Resources: Math-U Assessment Basal Text Student Response Calendars Teacher Observation Plastic Zoo Animals Teacher-made Test Chart Paper Pearson Scott Foresman Overhead Pattern Blocks/Shapes Test Generator Plastic Floor Mat Tag Board Technology: www.pearsonsuccessnet.com 21 Jackson Public School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction Kindergarten Mathematics Curriculum Subject: Mathematics Introduced Ongoing Mastered X Grade: Kindergarten Competency: 5. Collect, organize, and interpret data. Objective: 5b. Describe data by using mathematical language such as more than, less than, etc. (DOK 1) Suggested Teaching Strategies/Student Activities: MDE Strategies Provide index cards, a graphing grid, and different types of apples for the students. Ask the students to illustrate their favorite apple on an index card. Arrange the cards on the graphing grid. Ask leading questions such as, “which group has more?” and “which group has the least?” Additional Strategies: Give students a copy of a “Favorite Foods” graph. Model for students how to describe data using mathematical language such as more than, less than, etc. Have students use post- it notes to create bar graphs about a classroom topic or book read aloud. Ask students questions about the graph. Read several stories to students and have students create a class bar graph showing their favorite stories. Ask students to make a sentence explaining each response (i.e., more students liked The True Story of the Three Little Pigs.) List the months of the year on a large chart. Allow each child to put their name (use cupcakes, balloons, etc.) under the month in which their birthday occurs. Discuss which month has the most birthdays and which month has the fewest birthdays. Extension-Do the same activity with the days of the week (what day will the students’ birthday fall on. Show students a tally chart about different animals in a zoo. Have students to describe the data using mathematical language such as more than, less than, etc. Record students’ responses on the board. Assessment Methods: Resources: Math-U Assessment Basal Text Student Response The True Story of the Three Little Pigs Teacher Observation Graphing Materials (Die-cuts) Teacher-made Test Various Manipulatives Pearson Scott Foresman Test Generator Technology: www.pearsonsuccessnet.com http://www.tooter4kids.com/free_worksheets_and_awards.htm http://www.hubbardscupboard.org/math.html http://www.internet4classrooms.com/kplus_subjects.htm 22