Accounting and Cash Flow by kcw29622

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									Q9-1. In capital budgeting analysis, why do we focus on cash flow rather than accounting
      profit?

A9-1. Accounting numbers may not accurately reflect when revenues are received or when
      payments are made. Net present value focuses on when money is actually received or
      paid and then discounts these cash flows at an appropriate rate to find whether a project
      adds value to a company. This emphasis recognizes that whatever accounting earnings a
      company has, it must generate sufficient cash to pay its bills or it will not stay in business
      very long.

Q9-6. What are the tax consequences of selling an investment asset for more than its book
      value? Does this have an effect on project cash flows that must be accounted for in
      relevant cash flows? What is the effect if the asset is sold for less than its book value?

A9-6. If an investment is sold for more than its book value, then the firm has a capital gain on
      the difference between market price and book value and must pay capital gains taxes on
      that difference. The relevant cash flows are the market price of the investment sale minus
      the additional taxes. If an asset is sold for less than book value, then the company can
      claim a tax credit on the difference between the market price and the book value. This
      credit is the difference between market value and book value times the tax rate. The
      relevant cash flows are the market price of the asset plus the tax credit.

Q9-12. What is the only relevant decision for independent projects if an unlimited capital budget
       exists? How does your response change if the projects are mutually exclusive? How does
       your response change if the firm faces capital rationing?

A9-12. If the capital budget is unlimited, managers should rank the available projects according
       to their PIs and invest in all projects with a PI > 1, respectively all projects with a NPV
       >0. If the projects are mutually exclusive though, managers should chose the one with the
       highest NPV, since the ranking according to PI and NPV may differ due to the scale of
       the projects , and invest in it if there is sufficient capital. If the company faces capital
       rationing, it should invest in the projects based on its PI ranking.

Q9-14. Why isn’t excess capacity free?

A9-14. Excess capacity is not free. It was originally accounted for when the project was first
       chosen – that size equipment that produced the excess capacity was included in those
       project cash flows. If there truly is no use for excess capacity, now or in the future, for
       the original project, then a new project could use that excess capacity at no additional
       charge to the project. However, if using excess capacity for a new project means that the
       original project will have to add more capacity at some time in the future, this should be
       charged to the new project.

P9-6.   Advanced Electronics Corporation is considering purchasing a new packaging machine to
        replace a fully depreciated packaging machine that will last five more years. The new
        machine is expected to have a 5-year life and depreciation charges of $4,000 in year 1;
        $6,400 in year 2; $3,800 in year 3; $2,400 in both year 4 and year 5; and $1,000 in year 6.
        The firm’s estimates of revenues and expenses (excluding depreciation) for the new and
        old packaging machines are shown in the following table. Advanced Electronics is
        subject to a 40 percent tax rate on ordinary income.
                             New Packaging Machine .             Old Packaging Machine .
                                           Expenses                             Expenses
                                          (excluding                           (excluding
               Year         Revenue      depreciation)          Revenue      depreciation)
                  1         $50,000         $40,000             $45,000          $35,000
                  2         $51,000         $40,000             $45,000          $35,000
                  3         $52,000         $40,000             $45,000          $35,000
                  4         $53,000         $40,000             $45,000          $35,000
                  5         $54,000         $40,000             $45,000          $35,000

        a. Calculate the operating cash flows associated with each packaging machine. Be sure
           to consider the depreciation in year 6.
        b. Calculate the incremental operating cash flows resulting from the proposed
           packaging machine replacement.
        c. Depict on a time line the incremental cash flows found in part b.




A9-6.
        a.
        New Machine                0         1       2       3       4       5       6
        Sales                            $50,000 $51,000 $52,000 $53,000 $54,000 $      0
        – Expenses                         40,000 40,000 40,000 40,000 40,000           0
        – Depreciation                      4,000   6,400   3,800   2,400   2,400   1,000
        Taxable income                    $ 6,000 $ 4,600 $ 8,200 $10,600 $11,600 $–1,000
        – Taxes (40%)                       2,400   1,840   3,280   4,240   4,640    –400
        Earnings                          $ 3,600 $ 2,760 $ 4,920 $ 6,360 $ 6,960 $ –600
        Inc. opr CFs (Earn + Depr)        $ 7,600 $ 9,160 $ 8,720 $ 8,760 $ 9,360 $ 400

        Old Machine                  0       1       2       3       4       5                  6
        Sales                            $45,000 $45,000 $45,000 $45,000 $45,000                    0
        – Expenses                         35,000 35,000 35,000 35,000 35,000                       0
        – Depreciation                          0       0       0       0       0                   0
        Taxable income                   $10,000 $10,000 $10,000 $10,000 $10,000                    0
        – Taxes (40%)                       4,000   4,000   4,000   4,000   4,000                   0
        Earnings                          $ 6,000 $ 6,000 $ 6,000 $ 6,000 $ 6,000                   0
        Inc. opr CFs (Earn + Depr)       $ 6,000   $ 6,000   $ 6,000   $ 6,000   $ 6,000            0


        b. Incremental operating cash flows

                           Year 0           1         2         3         4         5        6
        New Machine                      $7,600    $9,160    $8,720    $8,760    $9,360    $400
        – Old Machine                     6,000     6,000     6,000     6,000     6,000        0
        Difference                        $1,600     $3,160    $2,720       $2,760       $3,360   $400


        c.
                 $1,600      $3,160       $2,720      $2,760       $3,360        $400



                     1          2            3           4           5               6


             End of Year

P9-8.   Identify each of the following situations as involving sunk costs, cannibalization, and/or
        opportunity costs. Indicate what amount, if any, of these items would be relevant to the
        given investment decision.
        a. The investment requires use of additional computer storage capacity to create a data
            warehouse containing information on all of your customers. The storage space you
            will use is currently leased to another firm for $37,500 per year under a lease that can
            be canceled without penalty by you at any time.
        b. An investment that will result in producing a new lighter weight version of one of the
            firm’s best-selling products. The new product will sell for 40% more than the current
            product. Because of its high price, the firm expects the old product’s sales to decline
            by about 10% from its current level of $27 million.
        c. An investment of $8 million in a new venture that is expected to grow sales and
            profits. To date you have spent $135,000 researching the venture and performing
            feasibility studies.
        d. Subleasing 100 parking spaces in your firm’s parking lot to the tenants in an adjacent
            building that has inadequate off-street parking. You pay $20 per month for each
            space under a non-cancelable 50-year lease. The sublessee will pay you $15 per
            month for each space. You have advertised the spaces for over a year with no other
            takers and you do not anticipate needing the 100 spaces for many years.
        e. The firm is considering launching a completely new product that can be sold by your
            existing sales force, which is already overburdened with a large catalog of products
            to sell. On average, each sales rep sells about $2.1 per year. You expect that given the
            extra time involved in selling the new product, your sales reps will likely devote less
            time to selling existing products. Although you forecast that the average sales rep
            will sell about $300,000 of the new product annually, you project a decline of about
            7% per year in existing product sales.

A9-8. a. $37,500 per year till the lease would have expired by itself is the opportunity cost to
         the investment and it is relevant to the investment decision

        b. Cannibalization of the existing product by the new, light-weight products. $2.7
           million of lost revenue from cannibalization is relevant to the investment decision.

        c. Sunk costs of $135,000 on research. Even if you do not make the investment in the
           new venture the sunk costs have already been spent and there will be no way to
           recover them, therefore they are not relevant to the investment decision.
        d. (20  15) = 5  100 = $500 sunk cost per month since the lease is noncancelable.

        e. Cannibalization of the existing products by the new one, no matter that they are not
           related but because the sales force will be overburdened and therefore invest less time
           in selling the existing products. The relevant cash flow that should be considered is
           0.07*2.1 = $0.147 loss in sales of existing products.

P9-12. Speedy Auto Wash is contemplating the purchase of a new high-speed washer to replace
       the existing washer. The existing washer was purchased two years ago at an installed cost
       of $120,000; it was being depreciated under MACRS using a 5-year recovery period. The
       existing washer is expected to have a usable life of five more years. The new washer
       costs $210,000 and requires $10,000 in installation costs; it has a 5-year usable life and
       would be depreciated under MACRS using a 5-year recovery period. The existing washer
       can currently be sold for $140,000 without incurring any removal or cleanup costs. To
       support the increased business resulting from purchase of the new washer, accounts
       receivable would increase by $80,000, inventories by $60,000, and accounts payable by
       $116,000. At the end of five years, the existing washer is expected to have a market value
       of zero; the new washer would be sold to net $58,000 after removal and cleanup costs
       and before taxes. The firm pays taxes at a rate of 40 percent on both ordinary income and
       capital gains. The estimated profits before depreciation and taxes over the five years for
       both the new and the existing washer are shown in the following table.

                              Profits before Depreciation and Taxes
                     Year                New Washer             Existing Washer
                      1                     $86,000                 $52,000
                      2                     $86,000                 $48,000
                      3                     $86,000                 $44,000
                      4                     $86,000                 $40,000
                      5                     $86,000                 $36,000

        a. Calculate the initial cash outflow associated with the replacement of the existing
           washer with the new one.
        b. Determine the incremental cash flows associated with the proposed washer
           replacement. Be sure to consider the depreciation in year 6.
        c. Determine the terminal cash flow expected at the end of year 5 from the proposed
           washer replacement.
        d. Depict on a time line the relevant cash flows associated with the proposed washer-
           replacement decision.

A9-12. a.

        Cost of new washer                                              $210,000
        + Installation cost                                               10,000
        Total installed cost                                                         $220,000
        Proceeds from sale of existing washer                           $140,000
        Less tax on sale of existing washer:
           Sale Price                                     $140,000
           – Book Value (1– .20 – .32)  $120,000           57,600
          Gain on sale of existing washer                 $ 82,400
   Tax rate                                             .40
  Tax on sale of existing washer                                  32,960
After tax proceeds from sale of existing washer                            (107,040)
+ Initial working capital investment
Increase in current assets:
  Accounts receivable                               $ 80,000
  Inventories                                         60,000
  Total current assets increase                                 $140,000
Less increase in current liabilities:
  Accounts Payable                                  $116,000
  Total current liabilities increase                             116,000
Initial working capital investment                                            24,000
INITIAL CASH OUTFLOW                                                        $136,960

b.
      5-Year          Installed
     MACRS %            Cost       Depreciation
        20           $120,000      $ 24,000.00
        32            120,000        38,400.00
                                                       Note that the first 3 years of
        19.2          120,000        23,040.00         depreciation have already been taken
        11.52         120,000        13,824.00         on the existing washer.
        11.52         120,000        13,824.00
         5.76         120,000         6,912.00
                         Total     $120,000.00


Existing Washer:      Year:        1         2           3          4          5
Sales – Expenses (PBOT)         $52,000   $48,000     $44,000    $40,000    $36,000
– Depreciation                   23,040    13,824      13,824      6,912          0
Taxable income                  $28,960   $34,176     $30,176    $33,088    $36,000
– Taxes (40%)                    11,584    13,670      12,070     13,235     14,400
Earnings                        $17,376   $20,506     $18,106    $19,853    $21,600
Inc. opr CFs (Earn + Depr)      $40,416   $34,330     $31,930    $26,765    $21,600


      5-Year          Installed
     MACRS %            Cost       Depreciation
        20           $220,000      $ 44,000.00
        32            220,000        70,400.00
        19.2          220,000        42,240.00
        11.52         220,000        25,344.00
        11.52         220,000        25,344.00
        5.76          220,000        12,672.00
                             Total       $220,000.00

New Washer:           Year:              1          2         3            4             5
Machine cost
  – Sales-Expenses (PBDT)            $86,000    $86,000     $86,000   $ 86,000
                                                                         $86,000
Depreciation                          44,000     70,400      42,240     25,344
                                                                          25,344
Taxable income                       $42,000    $15,600     $43,760   $ 60,656
                                                                         $60,656
– Taxes (40%)                         16,800      6,240      17,504     24,262
                                                                          24,262
Earnings                             $25,200    $ 9,360     $26,256   $ 36,394
                                                                         $36,394
Inc opr. CFs (Earn + Depr)           $69,200    $79,760     $68,496   $ 61,738
                                                                         $61,738
+ Working capital recovery                                              24,000
+ Terminal value                                                        39,869
Cash flow                            $69,200 $79,760 $68,496 $61,738 $125,607

c. Terminal value of new washer in year 5
Sale price                                   $58,000
– Book value                                  12,672 (year 6 depr)
Gain on sale                                 $45,328
– Taxes (40%)                                 18,131
Terminal value (sale price – taxes)          $39,869


Incremental cash flows:

           Year:     0                  1            2           3                4              5
New washer                           $69,200      $79,760     $68,496          $61,738       $125,607
Existing washer                       40,416       34,330      31,930           26,765         21,600
Difference       -$136,960           $28,784      $45,430     $36,566          $34,973       $104,007

d.
                   $28,784      $45,430          $36,566      $34,973            $104,007


      0              1               2              3                4              5



     $136,960
     End of Year
P9-15. Pointless Luxuries Inc. (PLI) produces unusual gifts targeted at wealthy consumers. The
       company is analyzing the possibility of introducing a new device designed to attach to the
       collar of a cat or dog. This device emits sonic waves that neutralize airplane engine noise,
       so that pets traveling with their owners will enjoy a more peaceful ride. PLI estimates that
       developing this product will require up-front capital expenditures of $10 million. These
       costs will be depreciated on a straight-line basis for five years. PLI believes that it can
       sell the product initially for $250. The selling price will increase to $260 in years 2 and 3
       before falling to $245 and $240 in years 4 and 5, respectively. After five years the
       company will withdraw the product from the market and replace it with something else.
       Variable costs are $135 per unit. PLI forecasts sales volume of 20,000 units the first year,
       with subsequent increases of 25 percent (year 2), 20 percent (year 3), 20 percent (year 4),
       and 15 percent (year 5). Offering this product will force PLI to make additional
       investments in receivables and inventory. Projected end-of-year balances appear in the
       following table.

                                  Year 0        Year 1     Year 2     Year 3     Year 4     Year 5
         Accounts                     $0       $200,000   $250,000   $300,000   $150,000        $0
         receivable
         Inventory                         0    500,000    650,000    780,000    600,000            0

        The firm faces a tax rate of 34 percent. Assume that cash flows arrive at the end of each
        year, except for the initial $10 million outlay.
        a. Calculate the project’s contribution to net income each year.
        b. Calculate the project’s cash flows each year.
        c. Calculate two NPVs, one using a 10 percent discount rate and one using 15 percent.
        d. A PLI financial analyst reasons as follows: ―With the exception of the initial outlay,
            the cash flows from this project arrive in more or less a continuous stream rather than
            at the end of each year. Therefore, by discounting each year’s cash flow for a full
            year, we are understating the true NPV. A better approximation is to move the
            discounting six months forward (e.g., discount year-1 cash flows for six months,
            year-2 cash flows for 1.5 years, and so on), as if all the cash flows arrive in the
            middle of each year rather than at the end.‖ Recalculate the NPV (at 10% and 15%)
            maintaining this assumption. How much difference does it make?

A9-15. a and b.

                                      Year:       1          2          3          4            5
        Units sales                                20,000     25,000     30,000     36,000     41,400
         Price/Unit                                 $250       $260       $260       $245       $240
        Revenue                                $5,000,000 $6,500,000 $7,800,000 $8,820,000 $9,936,000
        – Variable cost ($135/unit)             2,700,000 3,375,000 4,050,000 4,860,000 5,589,000
        – Depreciation ($10 million  5)        2,000,000 2,000,000 2,000,000 2,000,000 2,000,000
        Net income                             $ 300,000 $1,125,000 $1,750,000 $1,960,000 $2,347,000
        After-tax income
                                               $ 198,000 $ 742,500 $1,155,000 $1,293,600 $1,549,020
        (net income  1 – .34)
        + Depreciation                          2,000,000 2,000,000 2,000,000 2,000,000 2,000,000
        Operating CF                           $2,198,000 $2,742,500 $3,155,000 $3,293,600 $3,549,020
        Working capital*                      –700,000   –200,000   –180,000    330,000    750,000
        Cash flow                           $1,498,000 $2,542,500 $2,975,000 $3,623,600 $4,299,020
        c and d.

                                                                                    NPV at   NPV at
                           1           2           3            4          5         10%      15%
        Year-end PV
        @ 10%       $1,361,818 $2,101,240 $2,235,162 $2,474,968 $2,669,353 $ 842,541         $-609,607
        Mid-year PV
        @ 10%       $1,428,287 $2,203,799 $2,344,257 $2,595,768 $2,799,641 1,371,752            70,074
                                         Difference with mid-year discounting $ 529,211      $ 679,681

P9-18. You have a $10 million capital budget and must make the decision about which
       investments your firm should accept for the coming year. Projects 1,2 and 3 are mutually
       exclusive and Project 4 is independent of the three of them. The firm’s cost of capital is
       12 percent.

                                   Project 1        Project 2           Project 3      Project 4
        Initial cash outflow     −$4,000,000      −$5,000,000        -$10,000,000    -$5,000,000
        Year 1 cash inflow         1,000,000        2,000,000           4,000,000      2,700,000
        Year 2 cash inflow         2,000,000        3,000,000           6,000,000      2,700,000
        Year 3 cash inflow         3,000,000        3,000,000           5,000,000      2,700,000

        a. Use the information on the three mutually exclusive projects to determine which of
           those three investments your firm should accept on the basis of NPV?
        b. Which of the three mutually exclusive projects should the firm accept on the basis of
           PI?
        c. If the three mutually exclusive projects are the only investments available, which one
           do you select?
        d. Now given the availability of Project 4—the independent project, which of the
           mutually exclusive projects do you accept? (Note: Remember there is a $10 million
           budget constraint.) Is the NPV or PI the better technique in this situation? Why?

A9-18. a. Project 1: NPV = -4,000,000 + 1,000,000/(1.12) + 2,000,000/(1.12)2 +
       3,000,000/(1.12)3
                         = -4,000,000 + 892,857 + 1,594,387 + 2,135,383
                         = $622,627

            Project 2: NPV = -5,000,000 + 2,000,000/(1.12) + 3,000,000/(1.12)2 +
            3,000,000/(1.12)3
                             = -5,000,000 + 1,785,714 + 2,391,581 + 2,135,383
                             = $1,312,948

            Project 3: NPV = -10,000,000 + 4,000,000/(1.12) + 6,000,000/(1.12)2 +
            5,000,000/(1.12)3
                             = -10,000,000 + 3,571,428 + 4,783,163 + 3,558,972
                             = $1,913,563



        * Year-to-year change in investment in A/R and inventories
    Project 3 has the highest NPV and should be accepted.

b. Project 1: PI = 4,622,627/4,000,000 = 1.155
   Project 2: PI = 6,312,678/5,000,000 = 1.263
   Project 3: PI = 11,913,563/10,000,000 = 1.192

    Project 2 has the highest PI and should be accepted

c. Project 3 should be selected because it is a large-scale project and is the one that will
   most enhance shareholder value.

d. Project 4: NPV = -5,000,000 + 2,700,000/(1.12) + 2,700,000/(1.12)2 +
   2,700,000/(1.12)3
                    = - 5,000,000 + 2,410,714 + 2,152,426 + 1,921,844
                    = -5,000,000 + 6,484,984
                    = $1,484,984

    Project 4: PI = 6,484,984/5,000,000 = 1.297

    With the availability of the independent Project 4, Project 2 should be selected from
    the mutually exclusive ones. If we compare the projects on the base of NVP, Project
    3 has the highest. However it will exhaust all the available 10,000,000 due to its
    scale. Therefore, in this case PI is a better measure and Project 4 has the highest PI of
    all four projects, while Project 2 has the highest PI of the three mutually exclusive
    projects. By using the PI measure, the company will maximize the total NPV
    available to shareholders, since both projects require initial outlay of 5,000,000,
    which is possible with the current 10,000,000 budget requirement.

								
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