Chapter 12 War of 1812
Leading a divided and apathetic nation to war with weak
military force and unimpressive treaty of Ghent, the US
emerged from war with:
The American army was:
1 badly organized
2 poorly disciplined
3 ill-trained, (leaders to old to lead and no economic
Summer 1812- 3 point planned invasion of Canada:
"On to Canada" slogan.
.Niagara Falls- Van Rensselaer, Smythe
.Lake Champlain- Dearbom
All these attacks faced serious resistance and either failed
in retreat or the troops never engaged the enemy.
British Gen. Isaac Brock was in charge.
The American army would never again pose a serious
threat to Canada.
American Honor was redeemed at sea.
The USS Constitution (Old Ironsides) defeated the British
Guerriere. These were a source of pride to the American
navy . P. 235 Picture
They were isolated and insignificant as military conflicts
and did not alter the course of war.
After 6 months of fighting Canada was still in British hands
and the US had lost some territory in the NW .
The Election of 1812 was close to a war referendum.
Dewitt Clinton (F) challenged Madison (J) 128-89.
Federalist support increased in Congress 24 of 48
Pennsylvania's 25 votes made the difference. (map 237)
In 1813 the British blockaded the entire us coast (except for
Americans were unable to break this blockade which
caused an economic disaster.
American manufacturing increased to meet needs as a
direct result of the blockade. IR received an additional
Sept-1813-0liver Hazzard Perry managed to establish
control of the Great Lakes with a victory over the British at
Put-in-Bay. Message to Harrison:
" We have met the enemy and they are Ours"
Oct-1813 W.H. Harrrison (inspired) defeated the
retreating British during the Battle of the Thames. Indian
allies were left to fend for themselves and Tecumseh was
killed during the battle.
Fall-1813 Creek War (southeast) took place. Red Eagle
(Creeks) against Andrew Jackson (Tennessee militia)
@ Horseshoe Bend, the Creeks lost 2/3 of their lands.
On the whole the campaigns of 1813 produced a stalemate.
No death crushing blows.
Jan- 1814-Napoleon was defeated in Europe at Waterloo.
British turned full military attention to America.
Three different planned invasions of American soil:
.General Prevost 11,000 march out of Canada on the
Lake Champlain route.
.General Ross 4,000 (diversionary force attack) on
the Chesapeake Bay
.General Packenham 7,500 attack on the Gulf Coast
July 1814-Prevost's army defeated the Americans at
Lundy's Lane but encountered defeat at Plattsburg
Sept. thanks to Captain Macdonough.
Prevost retreated back to Canada.
Aug.1814-Ross landed in the Chesapeake and routed the
American army under (Winder) at Bladensburg.
The British the marched on Washington DC and burned
The attack on Fort McHenry near Baltimore was
unsuccessful and the British broke off the engagement.
Here (FS Key) wrote the Star Spangled- Banner
Dec. 1814-Packenham arrived the Bayou country.
Jan 8 1815, he engaged General Jackson Battle of New
Orleans 2,100 British Killed, 500 prisoners
General Andrew Jackson emerged as a National Hero
(Jackson lost 8 men, 13 wounded)
During the Plattsburg engagement, treaty talks began with
the British. Henry Clay, J.Q. Adam’s (Gallatin, Bayard,
Russell) met with Lord Gambier and Lord Goulbum.
England demanded: that the -US cede the NW as Indian
land and a buffer between the US and Canada.
(The defeat at Plattsburg softened the British position).
Dec. 24, 1814 The Treaty of Ghent was signed.
No mention of impressments, no concession on trade rights
and all lands were restored.
Hartford Convention- Dec.1814- Federalist meeting to
possibly secede or revise the constitution out of opposition
to the war.
.States may decide the constitutionality of acts of
.3/5 clause was to be repealed
.2/3 vote of Congress was necessary to add new
states or declare war
.limit the President to one single term of office
.limit Congress' authority to restrict trade
.prohibit naturalized citizens from holding political
These resolutions gave the Federalist party a black eye in
the national picture with Jackson’s victory at New Orleans
and the treaty of Ghent ending the war all at the same time.
This was the death dirge of the party. The Federalists
participated in the election of 1816 to their disgrace.
Monroe won over Rufus King-183 to 34.
Significance of the War of 1812
.US gained foreign respect
.Turning point in American foreign relations for the
policy of "isolationism "
.War produced a feeling of Nationalism (Uncle
Sam) and the era of Good Feeling
.Westward expansion resulted with the Indian
.War brought about the development of Industrial
Growth and development of the nation
.Collapse of the Federalist party
Rush Bagot Agreement reached in 1817 –called for
mutual ownership of the Great Lakes region.
1818 Treaty Line -established the 49th parallel as the
boundary between Canada and US
1842 Webster-Ashburton Treaty- settled conflicts over
territory in Maine (Aroostook Valley)
1846 Treaty line extended the 49th all the way to the
Nationalism- most impressive by product of the War. This
was most evident in the court decisions as well as politics.
Washington Irving and James F. Cooper- captured
nationalism in their novels.
1815 North American Review Magazine began
The American System (Henry Clay)
The Bank of the United States was revived, new 20
The Tariff of 1816 was passed to protect Infant
American industries with a tax rate of 20- 25%
Program of internal improvement projects to tie the
Madison vetoed the Bonus Bill to spend federal money for
roads even if they were interstate connected.
New England opposed internal improvements as it
would drain away needed labor for industry and population
Panic of 1819 (S) [First in a series of 20 year cycle of
Deflation, depression, bankruptcy, bank failure,
Blame placed on the BUS for over speculation in
*Imprisonment for debt was banished resulting from this
Land Act 1820- sell 80 acres @ $1.25 per acre, building
Ohio Fever westward expansion.
Tallmadge Amendment would admit Missouri as a slave
state into the Union but stipulated that after 20 years the
slaves were to be free. Tallmadge proposal was rejected.
Missouri Compromise (S) by Henry Clay- allowed
Missouri (slave state) to enter with the territory of Maine as
a (Free state) to maintain a political balance.
No slavery above the line 36-30. (map page 246)
Jefferson called this A FIREBELL IN THE NIGHT
Marshall- Supreme Court (N) Established the power of the
Federal Government at the expense of the states.
Served the court for 35 years and was involved in over 500
McCulloch v. Maryland 1819 decided the
constitutionality of the Bank of the United States.
"The Power to Tax is the Power to Destroy" led to
declaring a state law unconstitutional
1821 Cohen v Virginia- right of the Supreme Court to
review the decisions of state supreme courts.
1824 Gibbons v Ogden-another blow at States rights
declaring a state law unconstitutional.
“Only the Federal government may regulate interstate
1810 Fletcher v Peck ruled that States may not impair a
contract-protecting private property- clear sign for the
Supreme Court to declare state laws unconstitutional.