How to Remove the Stock Form an Arisaka by cic99420

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Patent Number                                                                  Current US Class
                     Filing DateIssue Date Inventors Assignee Application Number International Class
                     October 19, 2004 6, 2009
                                 January Rainville; Joseph D (Caledonia, NY), Bonkoske; John (Lockport,
                                                         cell power10/968,591429/23
                                                                     system                H01M 8/04
 7473480 Low voltage compressor operation for a fuelGeneral Motors Corporation (Detroit, MI) R (20060101) NY), Log
                     July 23, January 6, 2009 NigelRolls-RoyceGB),(London, GB) Nieves (Madrid, ES), Wright; Gary
 7473482 Fuel cell module 2004              Hart;                     plc Lapena-Rey; H01M
                                                         T. (Derby,10/897,106429/34 ; 429/30 2/00 (20060101); H01M 2
                     March 17, 2006 6, 2009
                                 January Fukuda; Shinsuke (Osaka, JP), Ueda; Hideyuki (Osaka, JP)
 7473483 Direct methanol fuel cell                                  11/377,450429/34 ; JP) H01M 2/00 (20060101); H01M 2
                                                        Panasonic Corporation (Osaka, 429/38; 429/39
                     January 26,January 6, 2009
                                   2005     Yoshimura; Mikiko (Hirakata, JP),(Osaka, JP)Asahi4/86 (20060101); H01M J
                                                        Panasonic Corporation Hori; Yoshihiro (Ikoma, JP), Tsuji; Yoich
                                                                    11/042,322429/42       H01M Glass
 7473486 Catalyst-coated membrane, membrane-electrode assembly, and polymer electrolyte fuel cell Co., Ltd. (Tokyo, 4
                     May 27, 2004January 6, 2009
                                            Eshraghi; Ray R. (Cary, collectors, and method of 15/02 (20060101); H01M
                                                        Microcell Corporation (Raleigh, 228/126; 228/156; 29/623.1; 428/6
                                                                    10/855,927429/235 ; NC) making the same
 7473490 Fuel cell structures and assemblies with channeled currentNC)                     B32B
                     December 19, 20036, cell stacks Texaco Inc. (San Ramon,
                                 January Baker;                     10/740,740320/134
 7474078 Cell maintenance device for fuel 2009 Howard S. (Randolph, MA) CA) H01M 10/46 (20060101)
                     February warm up 2009
                                 January                Nissan Motor Co.,
                                                                    10/510,480431/6 ; 422/198; 5/20 (20060101); H01M 8/
                                                                                           F23N
 7476098 Fuel cell power plant27, 2003 13,Iio; Masatoshi (Yokosuka, JP)Ltd. (Kanagawa, JP)429/20; 429/24; 429/26; 43
                     July 10, 2006
                                 January 13,Edlund; David (Bend, 11/484,514429/20 ; 429/26 8/04 (20060101); H01M 8
 7476455 Portable fuel cell system           2009                   OR)                    H01M
                                                        Protonex Technology Corporation (Southborough, MA)
                     April       January 13,Fujita; Nobuo (Toyota, JP) Kabushiki KaishaH01M 8/00 (20060101)
 7476458 Fuel cell system 21, 2004           2009                   10/828,300429/25 ; 429/22
                                                        Toyota Jidosha                      (Toyota, JP)
                     December 2, 2004 13,Finnerty; Caine (Buffalo, NY)
                                 January     2009       NanoDynamics Energy, electrodes
                                                                    11/002,394429/44 ; 429/30 4/00
                                                                                           H01M
 7476461 Methods for the electrochemical optimization of solid oxide fuel cell Inc. (Buffalo, NY) (20060101); H01M 8
                      controllingJanuary 13,Sonntag; Anton (Kirhheim, systems
                                   2004       of the    NuCellSys 10/973,929324/71.1 Josef (Kirhheim, 429/26 H01M
                                                                    GmbH (Kirchheim/Teck-Nabern, (20060101);
                                                                                           G01N 429/22;
 7477049 Method forOctober 26, the quality 2009 coolant for fuel cell DE), Sonntag; ; 429/13;27/00DE)DE), Urban; Hub
                     June intakeJanuary 20,Shimizu; components 11/172,267180/220 180/68.2(Saitama, JP), Watanabe;
                                  and        2009       Honda (Saitama, JP), Horii; Yoshiyuki 8/04 (20060101)
                                                                    in Co., Ltd. powered H01M
 7478698 Arrangement of 30, 2005 exhaust system MasahiroMotor a fuel cell(Tokyo,; JP)      vehicle
                     June 5, 2007January adapter for combustion tool fuel cell (Glenview, S. (Round Lake, IL),
                                             2009       Illinois Tool Works Inc.
                                                                    11/810,238227/10 ; Eric IL) 227/9
                                                                                           B25C
 7478740 Enhanced fuel passageway and20,Shea; Maureen L. (Wilmette, IL), Gibson; 227/130;1/08 (20060101) Taylor; W
                     December 13, 200420,Bai; cells and flowInc. (Laval, Quebec, ;Jean-Guy429/38 St-Laurent, H01M 8
                                 January     2009       Hyteon, passes
                                                                    11/009,522429/13 429/32; (Ville
 7479333 Fuel cell stack with multiple groups ofDingrong (Dorval, CA), Chouinard; CA)      H01M 8/04 (20060101); CA), El
                      and operation method 2009fuel cell system for water and Schafer; H01M429/13; 429/34
                                 J            of a      General (Robdorf, DE), gas distribution 8/04
                                                                    10/612,380429/17 ; 429/12; (Darmstadt, DE)
                                                                                           Robert
 7479336 Gas controlJuly 2, 2003anuary 20,Willimowski; Peter Motors Corporation (Detroit, MI) (20060101); H01M 2
                     February 17, 2004 using a cathode recycle loop NY)
                                 January     2009       General Motors
                                                                    10/780,488429/17 ; 429/30; 429/34
                                                                                           H01M 8/04
 7479337 Fuel cell shutdown and startup20,Goebel; Steven G. (Victor, Corporation (Detroit, MI) (20060101); H01M 8
                     March
 7479338 Fuel cell system 8, 2005            2009       Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba (Tokyo, JP) 429/26
                                                                    11/073,628429/24 429/13; 8/04 (20060101)
                                                                                           H01M
                                 January 20,Sato; Yuusuke (Bunkyo-ku, JP), Sakaue; ;Eiichi (Shinagawa-ku, JP), Matsuok
                     January 31,cell stack 2009
                                   2005                 Honda Motor Co., Ltd. (Tokyo, JP)
                                                                    JP)                    H01M
 7479339 Vehicle-mounted fuel January 20,Okazaki; Koji (Wako, 11/047,823429/26 ; 429/38 8/04 (20060101); B60L 11
                     January plate for 20,Takeguchi;Panasonic operation of a fuel ; Kazuhito (Osaka, JP), Ohara; Hideo
                                 January       cell,     Shinsuke Corporation (Osaka, 429/22; 8/04 (20060101)
                                                                    10/752,223429/34 JP)
 7479341 Fuel cell, separator 7, 2004 a fuel2009 and method of (Osaka, JP), Hatoh;cell H01M429/32; 429/35; 429/38; 42
 7479342 Fuel cell June 17, 2004             2009        Kenji (Hirakata, JP), Aoyama; Toshiyuki (Settsu, JP), 429/38; 42
                                                                    10/868,778429/34 ; JP) H01M 2/00 (20060101); H01M 2
                                 January 20,Hasegawa; Panasonic Corporation (Osaka, 429/19; 429/22; 429/23;Higashionji
                     August 11, for a fuel-cell vehicle Honda Motor JP), Horii; Yoshiyuki
                                  2005       2009                   11/201,308180/68.2 180/68.1
                                                                                           B60K 11/04 JP)
 7481288 Cooling Arrangement January 27,Makuta; Yohei (Saitama, Co., Ltd. (Tokyo, ;JP) (Saitama, (20060101)
                     December 29, 200627,Jang; Jin-Han (Hwaseong-si, KR) (Seoul, 248/611; 280/831; 280/833
                                 January     2009       Kia Motors11/647,791248/610 ; KR) 13/00 (20060101)
 7481411 Rear impact shock absorbing structure for fuel cell vehicle Corporation           F16M
                     February 19, 2003 27,Jeffcoate; Carol S. (Danbury, CT), Gershun; C09K 252/74; 252/75; 429/120; 4
                                 January     2009       Honeywell 10/370,170252/71 ; 252/73; 5/00 (Southbury,
                                                                    International assemblies
                                                                                           Aleksei NJ)
 7481948 Heat transfer compositions with high electrical resistance for fuel cellInc. (Morristown,V. (20060101) CT), Wo
                     September January
                                 14,         2009       Siemens Aktiengesellschaft (Munich, DE) (20060101); H01M
                                                                      DE), Coerlin; Detlev H01M 361/735; Stenger; Herbert
                                                                                           (Erlangen,
 7482073 Cascade fuel cell system 200127,Bette; Willi (Erlangen,10/381,703429/12 ; 361/733; 8/00DE), 429/34; 429/35 2
                     November 21, 200327,Yoshida; Naohiro (Okazaki, JP), Kurita; ; 429/23; 429/25JP), Yachi; H01M 8
                                 January     2009       Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki KaishaH01M 8/00 (20060101);
                                                                     and control method for(Toyota, cell
                                                                                              (Nagoya,
 7482074 Fuel cell system, mobile unit equipped with the system,10/535,094429/13 Kenji the fuel JP) system Tomonor
                     apparatus 9, fuel 27, 2009 Toru National Institute of of fuel cell H01M 429/20 JP), Nozaki; Ken (
                                 January      fuel       (Tsukuba, 11/008,760429/17 ; Industrial Science and Technology
                                                                    JP), Amano; Masatsugu (Tsuchiura,
 7482075 Reforming December for 2004 cell,Kato; cell and operation method Advanced 423/650; 8/06 (20060101); C01B 3
                     June 10, 2005
                                 January 27,Senner; Ralf (Wiesbaden, DE), Von Helmolt; Rittmar (Mainz, DE) H01M 8
                                             2009       General Motors Corporation (Detroit, MI) (20060101);
                                                                    11/149,688429/17 ; H01M 8/04
 7482076 Fuel cell stack humidification method incorporating an accumulation device429/34; 429/39
                     March 7, method 27,Ueda; Kenichirodischarging Ltd. (Tokyo, JP) (Saitama, JP), Murakami; Yosh
                                 January     2009        fuel (Saitama, JP), Fujii; Yosuke the 8/04 (20060101)
                                                                    11/076,364429/22 ; on  H01M
 7482079 Fuel cell system and 2005 of controlling aHonda Motor Co.process based429/13 fuel cell output voltage
                     August 2, a cooling device
                                 January 27,Heimburger; Stefan (Willstaett-Legelshurst,DE) Heid; Thomas (Renchen-Ul
 7482080 Fuel cell system with 2005          2009                   11/195,244429/22 ; DE), 8/04 (20060101)
                                                                                           H01M
                                                        Robert Bosch GmbH (Stuttgart,429/13; 429/26
                     September January cell2009 plate withElectric Company (Schenectady, NY)
                                 3, 2003       bipolar General filled-in fine scale porosities 2/00 (20060101)
                                                                    10/605,035429/34        Dave
 7482083 Corrosion resistant coated fuel 27,Iqbal; Zafar (Morristown, NJ), Narasimahan;H01M (Flemington, NJ), Guiheen
                     September January fluid guiding element and composited block; 429/35;cells (20060101); H01M 2
                                 29, 2003 2009          Elring Klinger AG
                                                                    10/674,202429/34 DE)   fuel 2/00
 7482084 Fuel cell unit with sheet metal 27,Diez; Armin (Lenningen, DE) (Dettingen, of H01M429/38; 429/39
                     April 26, 2004
                                 January 27, starting Joy A (Coquitlam, CA), St-Pierre; Jean CA) (20060101)
                                             2009       BDF IP Holdings Ltd. (Vancouver, BC, 8/04
                                                                    10/833,228429/34 429/17H01M
 7482085 Apparatus for improving the coldRoberts; capability of an electrochemical ;fuel cell(Vancouver, CA), van der G
                                 20, 2006 2009          Honda Motor Co., Ltd. (Tokyo,429/38 8/02 (20060101); H01M 8
                                                                    11/524,150429/37 ; JP) H01M
 7482087 Fuel cell September January 27,Homma; Hiroki (Asaka, JP), Izumi; Masahiko (Niiza, JP)
 7482089 Fuel cell March 2, 2004             2009       Honda Motor Co., Ltd. (Tokyo,429/30; 429/40
                                                                    10/544,978429/42 ; JP) H01M 4/86 (20060101);
                                 January 27,Shibutani; Tomohide (Sayama, JP), Kakutani; Osamu (Sayama, JP) H01M 8
                     November 12, 200327,Meguriya; Noriyuki (Gunma-ken, JP), Taira;C08LJP)(Gunma-ken, JP) H01M5
                                 January     2009       Shin-Etsu Chemical Co., Ltd. (Tokyo, 83/04 (20060101);
                                                                    10/704,910524/588 ; 429/32; 429/35; 429/36; 429/38; 2
 7482403 Sealing material for polymer electrolyte fuel-cell separator                       Yujiro
                     January 16,January a master control unit and P.Systems, Inc. (Folsom, CA) units
                                   having 2009          Jadoo Power plurality of fuel Bawden, Jr.; Lawrence R. (El
                                                                     a (Folsom, CA),        power
 7482778 Fuel cell power system 2007 27,Arikara; Muralidharan11/654,262320/101cellH01M 10/46 (20060101) Dorad
                      system in February 3,Iwashita; Kanau (Saitama, JP), Takayanagi; 180/218; 180/220
                                  2005       2009
 7484582 SuspensionAugust 11, fuel cell electric vehicle            11/201,298180/65.1 ; Shinji (Saitama, JP)
                                                        Honda Motor Co., Ltd (Tokyo, JP)   B62D 61/02 (20060101); B62K 1
                     January 24,February 2009
                                   2007                 Samsung SDI KR), Choi; Sang 181/224; 181/249; 181/253; Joon
                                                                    11/657,847181/227 F01N 7/08 (20060101); F01N 1/0
 7484590 Fuel cell system with muffler 3,Jeon; In Youl (Suwon-si, Co., Ltd.(KR) ; Hyeon (Suwon-si, KR), Bae;181/2
                     November 8, 2005 3,Margiott; Paul R. (South Windsor, CT), Rohrbach; Carl (Somers, CT), Gorma
                                 February 2009          UTC         11/269,031429/17 ; 429/19 8/04 (20060101)
                                                                                           H01M
 7485380 Fuel cell power plant used as reformate generator Power Corporation (South Windsor, CT)
                     December 28,February 2009          Honda Giken Kogyo Kabushiki (Wako, JP), Watanabe; Kazunori (
                                                                    11/319,884429/24 ; Kaisha 8/04 (20060101); H01M 8
                                                                                           H01M 429/12
 7485383 Fuel cell power supply 2005 3,Aoyagi; Satoshi (Wako, JP), Saeki; Hibiki320/101;(Tokyo, JP)
7485384               January 25,fuel cell 3,An; Seong-Jin (Suwon-si,the Ltd.
                                    2005         fuel     Samsung SDI KR), Kweon; Ho-Jin (Suwon-si, KR), Kim; Hyoun
                                                                      11/043,395429/26 ; 429/34
                                                                                            H01M
          Cooling apparatus for Februaryand2009 cell system having Co.,same (Suwon-si, KR) 8/04 (20060101); H01M 2
7485385                solid oxide10, 2004 manufacture Jr.; Donald10/939,116429/30 ; Billerica, 8/10 (20060101) NH), G
                                    fuel cell 2009                     A. (Gloucester, MA),H01M MA)The Trustees
                                                                                             Orbeck; Gary
          Process forSeptember February 3,Seccombe, BTU International, Inc. (North 429/40; 429/45 (Windham,of Bost
7485387               April compatible withChou; cell Yuan (Jhongli, TW), Kuo; Chien-Fu (Jhongli, (20060101) Chia-Ch
          Fuel cell module 3, 2007              2009                  11/695,891429/34 429/27 8/02 TW), Shen;
                                                                                            H01M
                                  February 3, a dry Che-Ping Ze Univeersity (Jhongli,; Taoyuan County, TW)
7485388   Fuel cell July 30, 2007               2009      Coretronic 11/829,973429/34 ; 429/13; 429/17;TW), Hsu; H01M 8
                                                                      Corporation (Hsin-Chu, (Hsinchu, 429/39
                                                                                            H01M
                                  February 3,Huang; Jin-Shu (Hsinchu, TW), Lee; Ching-PoTW) 8/00 (20060101); Nien-Hu
7485389               December 15, 2001 2009
                                  February                Daimler AG (Stuttgart, DE) ; 429/34; 429/38
                                                                      10/466,006429/39      H01M 2/14 (20060101)
          Electrochemical fuel cell stack 3,Blank; Felix (Constance, DE), Schmid; Ottmar (Markdorf, DE), Schudy; Mar
7488377               the intake and
                                  February 10, 2009 least one AG (Stuttgart, system B01D 181/403; 417/312;
                                               Schroeter; Daimler gas in fuel cell
                                                                      10/518,36196/380
          Device for April 30, 2003 compression of at Dirk (Winnenden, DE) DE) ; 181/229;46/10 (20060101) 417/90
7488548               August 30, February 10, 2009
                                   2004        Surampudi; Subbarao (Glendora, CA), Frank; Harvey A. CA)
                                                                      10/930,505429/15 ; 429/22; 429/24; 429/30 CA), Naray
                                                                                            H01M 8/04 (Encino,
          Direct methanol feed fuel cell and system California Institute of Technology (Pasadena, (20060101); H01M 8
7488549               April 30, 2004
                                  February 10, 2009 Korea Chungang Educational ;Foundation (Seoul, KR) polymer m
                                               Kim; Keon (Seongbuk-gu, KR), Lee; Heung Chan 8/10 (20060101)
                                                                      10/835,386429/33 521/27of manufacturing the
          Proton conducting polymer, polymer membrane comprising the same, methodH01M(Seongbuk-gu, KR), Hong
7488551               December 28, 2004 electrical Robert H (Vancouver, CA), McKenney; British(20060101) CA)
                                  February Artibise; Ballard plate Systems cell stackH01M 8/02 Columbia,
                                                                      11/023,987429/38 ; 427/115
          Integrated current collector and 10, 2009 componentPower for a fuel Inc. (Burnaby, Frederick D (Seattle, WA),
7488552               May 5, 2006 stack Sohn; Dong-kee (Seoul, Co., Ltd. (Suwon-si, KR)429/34
                                   cell                               11/418,188429/38 ; 429/30; 2/14 (20060101); H01M
                                                                                            H01M
          Direct liquid feed fuel February 10, 2009 Samsung SDIKR), Kang; Sang-kyun (Seoul, KR), Lee; Seung-jae 8
7491454               February 1, fuel cell 17, 2009 Samsung SDI Co., Ltd. (Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do, KR) 429/40
                                    2006       Min;                   11/344,165429/9 ; 429/19; 429/32; 429/34;
                                                                                            H01M 12/00 (20060101); H01M
          All-in-one type hybridFebruary system Myoung-Ki (Suwon-si, KR), Kweon; Ho-Jin (Suwon-si, KR)
7491455               January fuel cell stack 2009Glenn W derived compressor (Detroit, MI)
                                    2004       Skala;     General Motors Corporation ; 429/13
                                                                      10/760,961429/17
          Method to startup a20,February 17,without battery (Churchville, NY) power H01M 8/04 (20060101)
7491456               March and electricityOno; Takashi (Kagoshima, JP), Takahashi; Naruto (Kagoshima, JP), Ikeda; M
                                  February 17, 2009 Kyocera Corporation (Kyoto, ;JP) H01M 8/14 (20060101)
          Fuel cell assembly25, 2004                                  10/809,268429/19 429/24
                                                generation unit used in same
7491457               August       2002        Kearl;     Hewlett-Packard OR), Barnes;Company, L.P. (Houston, TX)
                                                                      10/222,417429/22 ; Ted W. 8/04 (20060101)
                                                                                            H01M
          Fuel cell apparatus 16, February 17, 2009Daniel A. (Philomath,Development 429/26 (Corvallis, OR), Champio
7491459               February 1,February Kusakabe; Hiroki (Sakai, JP), Hatoh; Kazuhito (Osaka, JP), Ohara; Hideo 42
                                    2006                              11/344,095429/30 ; JP)H01M 8/10 (20060101); H01M 8
          Polymer electrolyte fuel cell 17, 2009 Panasonic Corporation (Osaka, 429/13; 429/17; 429/20; 429/26;(Ka
7491460               December February Homma; Honda Motor Co., Ltd. (Tokyo,429/37; 429/38
                                  stack                               11/023,032429/32 ; JP)H01M 8/10 (20060101); H01M 8
          Fuel cell and fuel cell 23, 2004 17, 2009 Hiroki (Asaka, JP), Izumi; Masahiko (Niiza, JP)
7491462               membrane for fuel 17, 2009 (Yokohama, JP), Iijima; Masahiko (Iruma-gun, same, and429/33;
                                   2003        Ito; Naoki Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki KaishaH01M 8/10 the 429/30; manufa
                                                                      10/642,282429/34 264/104; 427/115;
                                                                                              cell using (20060101)
          Electrolyte August 18, Februarycell operable in medium temperature range, ;fuel(Toyota, JP) JP), Aoyama; Satos
7492060               September February 17, 2009 Yung-Ruei (Taoyuan, TW), Institute of Nuclear Energy TW), Chan;
                                  1, 2006 Chang;          Atomic 11/514,344307/82           H02J 1/00 (20060101)
          Fault-tolerant circuit device in fuel cell AC inverter Energy Council -Ho; Yuan-Hsiang (Taoyuan, Research (Ta
7494730               April 15, 2004 cell Imaseki; Honda Motor Co., JP), (Tokyo,429/20; 429/25; 429/26; 429/39
                                   fuel                               10/826,016429/13 ; JP)H01M 8/00 (20060101)
          Apparatus for cooling February 24, 2009 Mitsuharu (Saitama, Ltd. Shimoyama; Yoshiro (Saitama, JP), Koyam
7494731               December 23, 2002 24,
                                  February Hattori; Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki KaishaH01M (Nagoya, JP), Masui; Take
                                                                      10/326,140429/26 ; 429/19; 8/04 (20060101); H01M 8
                                                                                             (Toyota-shi,
          Fuel cell power generation system 2009 Nobuki (Nagoya, JP), Akimoto; Naomichi429/34 JP)Aisin Seiki Kab
7494732               March 29, 2005
                                  February 24, 2009 Corning Incorporated (Corning, Thomas 8/10 (20060101); H01M 4
                                               Roy; sizes             11/095,325429/32 ; NY)H01M D (Big
          Fuel cell device with varied active areaShantanu (New Delhi, IN), Ketcham;429/28; 429/36 Flats, NY), St Juli
7494733               June 10, 2002 polymer fuel MasaakiGiken Kogyo Kabushiki429/44 (Tokyo, Kanaoka; H01M 4
                                    solid      Nanaumi; Honda (Wako, method, and solid (Wako, fuel cell
                                                                      10/480,375429/33 ; Kaisha 8/10 (20060101); Nagayu
                                                                                            H01M
          Electrode structure forFebruary 24, 2009 cell, its production JP), Asano; Yoichipolymer JP), JP)
7494735               August 12, and method 2009 Pinkhas A (Fairport, NY), Rock; Jeffrey429/39
                                   2004        Rapaport; General Motors Corporation (Detroit, MI) (Fairport, NY), Bosco; A
          Fuel cell stack design February 24,of operation                                   H01M 8/04
                                                                      10/917,038429/38 ; 429/32; A (20060101)
7494737               December 8, 2005 24, and Shinichi (Katano, JP), Takebe; Yasuo (Uji, JP), Ohara; Hideo (Katan
                                  February Arisaka; Panasonic 11/296,688429/38 ; JP)        H01M
          Fuel cell having manifold apertures 2009cover plates Corporation (Osaka, 429/32 2/14 (20060101); H01M 8
7494738               July 12, 2006 method 24, 2009 Aisin Seiki11/484,751429/38 ;(Kariya-shi, JP)Toyo Tanso Co.,(Ka
                                                manufacturing the same Kabushiki Kaisha 156/196; 428/408; 429/34
                                                                                             (Kariya, JP), Matsui; Takao Ltd
          Fuel cell separator andFebruary ofTerazawa; Toshihisa (Anjo, JP), Ito; TakashiH01M 8/02 (20060101); B29C 6
7494739                           February Fetcenko; Ovonic A. 11/588,463429/40MI), H01M 4/90 (20060101); (Bloomf
                                                                      (Rochester Hills, ; (Rochester Hills, 429/30; B01J 4
                                                                                            Ovshinsky; Stanford
          Fuel cell October 27, 2006 24, 2009 Michael Battery Company, Inc. 429/12; 429/223; MI) R.429/41;20
7494741               March 23, 2004
                                  February collection layer formed 10/806,160429/44 ; 429/12 Yasunori (Shimosuwa-mach
                                               Miura;     Seiko (Fujimi-machi, JP), Yamazaki;
                                                                       by stacking conductiveJP)
                                                                                              material particles
          Fuel cell with a porous electron 24, 2009 Hirotsuna Epson Corporation (Tokyo,H01M 4/86 (20060101); H01M 4
7497882               April 22, aMarch 3, Ahmed; Khaliq (Rowville, AU)
                                   fuel
          Method of operating 2003 cell 2009                          10/510,08148/197R ; 422/187; 422/188; 422/189; 429/1
                                                                                            C10J 3/46
                                                          Ceramic Fuel Cells Limited (Victoria, AU) (20060101)
7498097               December 22, 2004 thereof
                                  March 3, Ueda;          Panasonic Corporation (Osaka, 427/115; 4/90 (20060101); B05D 5
                                                                      11/019,031429/42 ; JP)H01M 502/101
          Fuel cell and production method2009 Hideyuki (Ibaraki, JP), Akiyama; Takashi (Suita, JP), Yuasa; Kohji (Hi
7501008               January 28,March 10, 2009
                                    2004       Eshraghi; Ray with hydrogen Riley; capacity
                                                          Microcell Corporation (Raleigh, NC) 423/648.1; NC), Lin; 429/
                                                                      10/767,10795/55 ; 420/900; 53/22 (20060101); H01M
                                                                                            B01D
          Hydrogen storage systems and fuel cell systems R. (Cary, NC), storageMichael W. (Morrisville,423/658.2; Jung
7501147               July 11, 2002
                                  March 10, 2009
                                               Machida; Akiyoshi (Sayama, JP)Kabushiki 427/284; 427/287
                                                          Honda Giken Kogyo                 B05D 5/12 (20060101); B05D 5/
          Method of coating fuel cell separator with seal material 10/483,355427/115 ; Kaisha (Tokyo, JP)
7501199               October March            Ohara;     Panasonic Corporation (Osaks, 429/12; 2/14 (20060101) 429/38
                                                                        JP), Murakami; Hikaru
                                                                                            H01M 429/122; 429/247;
          Fuel cell separator 22, 2004 10, 2009 Hideo (Katano,10/970,025429/129 ;JP) (Saijo, JP), Miyoshi; Masaaki
7503948                fuel cell systems 17, 2009
          Solid oxideMay 18, 2004              Hershkowitz; Frank (Liberty Corner, NJ), ; 422/206; 48/197R
                                                          ExxonMobil Research and Engineering 3/32 (20060101); C01BNJ)
                                                                      reforming             C01B Company (Annandale, N
                                  March having temperature swing 10/848,09548/198.7 Berlowitz; Paul J. (Glen Gardner,3/
7504168               March 18, 2003 17, Miyauchi; Shinji (Nara, generating TetsuyaJP)
                                  March         of a      Panasonic Corporation system responsive toHarada; Terumaru (N
                                                                      10/482,083429/24 ; (Aichi, JP), (20060101); H01M 8
                                                                                            H01M 8/04 detection
          Systems for controlling operation2009 fuel cell electricity JP), Ueda;(Osaka, 429/13; 429/22; 429/26 of abnorma
7504169               May         March 17, 2009
          Fuel cell device 18, 2004                       Robert Bosch GmbH (Stuttgart,426/34 8/04 (20060101)
                                                                      10/847,936429/26 ; DE)H01M
                                               Brenner; Frank (Remseck, DE), Saliger; Rainer (Bamberg, DE)
7504172               July 31, 2003
                                  March 17, 2009 John Thomas 10/523,093429/30 ; 429/32; 429/33
                                               Irvine;    The University Court of the University of Shanwen (St Andrews,
                                                                                            H01M 8/12 Andrews(GB)
          Perovskite-based fuel cell electrode and membrane Sirr (Anstruther, Fife, GB), Tao;St. (20060101); H01M 8
7504831               March 18, 2005 17, for fuel Keigo (Ayase,11/083,317324/434 ; 320/101; 324/426; 429/12 H01M
                                  March        Ikezoe;     stack Motor Co., Ltd. (Yokohama-shi, 27/416 (20060101);
                                                                       JP)
          Cell-voltage measuring structure 2009 cellNissan and related method               G01N JP)
7507487               March cell with 24, 2009 Osamu (Gunma, Co., Ltd. (Osaka, JP) 429/39
                                  March        Tajima; Sanyo by a processed water tankH01M 8/04 (20060101)
                                                                      10/221,162429/12 ; 429/26;
          Solid polymer fuel23, 2001 reactant air humidifiedElectricJP), Hamada; Akira (Tochigi, JP)
7507488                method for drying 2009
                                  March 24, Thyroff; Jurgen system shutdown Weispfenning; MI)
                                                          General Motors DE),
                                                                      10/987,132429/13 ; 429/24; 429/26 (Ober-Ramstadt, DE
                                                                                            H01M 8/04
          System andNovember 12, 2004a fuel cell stack at (Harxheim,Corporation (Detroit, Thomas(20060101)
7507489               March 12, March
                                    electrolytic fuel
                                               Toriyama; Thinktank PHOENIX, Ltd. (Tokyo, JP)429/31; 429/32; 429/33
          Honeycomb type solid2004 24, 2009 cell Akira (Tokyo, JP)                          H01M
                                                                      10/528,116429/30 ; 429/26; 8/12 (20060101)
7507490               November 1, 200224, 2009 Teruyuki (Wako,Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha (Tokyo, JP)
                                  March        Ohtani; Honda Giken JP), Tsuji; MakotoH01M 2/00 (20060101)
                                                                                             (Wako, JP),
          Metal separator for fuel cell and its production method 10/496,317429/34 ; 205/57; 429/38 Utsunomiya; Masao
7507491               March 10, 2004 24, 2009
                                  March       Finkelshtain;
                                                          More Energy Ltd. (Yehud,Estrin; H01M(Meuhad, IL),
                                                                      (Shoham, IL), IL) Mark 2/02 (20060101); H01M 2
          Self-contained fuel cell and cartridge therefor Gennadi 10/796,305429/34 ; 429/32; 429/35; 429/38Hashimshon
7507492               September March cellKweon; Samsung SDI Co., Ltd.
                                  5, fuel      system                 11/514,910429/34 ; 429/30 8/02 (20060101); H01M 8
                                                                                            H01M
          Electronic device having 200624, 2009 Ho-Jin (Suwon-si, KR) (Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do, KR)
7510626               April 9, 2003
                                  March 31, 2009
                                              Hamada; Mitsuo (Aichi, JP), Ohashi; Hidehiko JP) 13/50 (20060101); H01M
                                                          Mitsubishi 10/511,169162/138 ; 162/157.4; JP), Mihara; Kazushig
                                                                      Rayon Co., Ltd. (Tokyo,
                                                                                            D21H
          Carbon fiber paper and porous carbon electrode substrate for fuel cell therefrom (Aichi, 429/42
7510792               January 3, 2005 in-plane
                                  March       Nakanishi; Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki KaishaH01M429/37 JP) JP) H01M 2
                                                          Haruyuki (Susono, JP), Matsumoto; Shinichi (20060101);
          Fuel cell with a tension in an 31, 2009 direction                                  (Toyota-shi,
                                                                      11/026,411429/12 ; 429/34; 8/00 (Fuji,
7510794               March 2, 2004
          Conformable fuel cell March 31, 2009             Shimshon (Niskayuna, NY), Acker; William P. (Rexford, NY), H
                                                                      10/791,101429/34 ; 429/127
                                                                                            H01M
                                              Gottesfeld; MTI MicroFuel Cells, Inc. (Albany, NY)8/02 (20060101); H01M 8
7510795               September March 31, 2009 Masaaki (Utsunomiya, JP), measurement 429/32;side terminal and 42
                                  15, 2004 Sakano; Honda Motor Co., Ltd. (Tokyo,429/26; device(20060101); JP), Ari
                                                                      10/943,073429/34 ; JP)H01M 8/02 429/35; 429/38; 2
          Separator, fuel cell, and connection construction between cell voltage Kikuchi; Hideaki (Kawachi-gun, H01Mfu
7510819               May 18, 2006March 31, 2009 Xin (Houston, TX), Wu; Naijuanand 427/115; (Houston,429/159;(Hous
                                              Chen;       Board patterned electrolyte of Houston 429/100; TX)
                                                                      11/436,392430/320 ; anode TX), Ignatiev; Alex 502/1
                                                                                            B05D 5/12
          Thin film solid oxide fuel cell with lithographicallyof Regents, University(Houston, layers(20060101); H01M 4
7514164               January 6, 2005 fuel cell
                                  April       Walter; Markus least one electrical energy storage device
                                                          Daimler AG (Stuttgart,
                                                                      11/030,533429/9       H01M 16/00
          Fuel cell system including a 7, 2009 stack and at (Dettingen, DE) DE) ; 429/24; 429/26 (20060101); H01M
7514165               May fluid recovery2009
          Fuel cell system 5, 2003                        Plug M. (Fairfield, CT) NY) H01M 8/04 (20060101)
                                                                       Inc. (Latham,
                                  April 7, Walsh; Michael Power10/429,535429/13 ; 429/17; 429/34
7514167               January gas2007 for a fuel
                                     shift    Gorobinskiy; Leonid SDI Co., preparing ;the H01M and a (20060101); B01J 21
                                                          Samsung (Yongin-si, KR)
                                                                      11/655,406429/20 502/80; 8/18
                                                                                            same,
          Catalyst for a water19,April 7, 2009 cell system, a method of Ltd. (Suwon-si, KR)502/84fuel cell system incl
7514169               July        April
          Fuel cell system13, 2005 7, 2009                Nissan Motor Co., JP)
                                                                      11/179,601429/25 ; 180/65.31
                                                                                            H01M JP)
                                              Fukuda; Takashi (Yokohama, Ltd. (Yokohama-shi, 8/04 (20060101); B60K 1
7514170               January       2005      An;         Samsung SDI KR), Kweon; Ho-Jin (Suwon-si, KR),
                                                                      11/041,986429/26      H01M 8/04 (20060101); Hyoun
          Fuel cell system 26,April 7, 2009 Seong-Jin (Suwon-si,Co., Ltd. (Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do, KR)Kim;H01M 8
7514171               June 9, 2006April 7, 2009
                                              Rainville; cell system 11/450,565429/26 ; 429/23 Bruce J. (Palmyra,
                                                          GM Global Technology Operations, Inc. (Detroit, MI)
                                                                                            H01M
          Cathode transient humidity control in a fuel Joseph D. (Caledonia, NY), Clingerman; 8/04 (20060101) NY)
7517599               April       April       Shige;      Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki KaishaH01M 429/23
                                                                      10/822,837429/22 ; Tadaichi (Okazaki, JP), Kajiwara;
                                                                                             (Toyota, JP)Denso Corporation
          Fuel cell system 13, 2004 14, 2009 Masahiro (Toyota, JP), Matsumoto;320/101; 8/04 (20060101); H01M 8
7517601                fuel cell April 14, Yoshikata; Dai Nippon PrintingJP), Sakamoto; Hirotoshi (20060101);JP), Mika
          Solid oxideDecember 9, 2003 2009                            10/730,013429/30 429/127 8/10
                                                                                            H01M
                                                          Kuniaki (Tokyo-to, Co., Ltd.;(Tokyo-to, JP) (Tokyo-to, H01M 8
7517602               December April 14, Homma; Hiroki (Asaka, JP) Ltd. (Tokyo,429/37; 429/39
                                  stack
          Fuel cell and fuel cell 23, 2004 2009                       11/023,033429/32 ; JP)
                                                          Honda Motor Co.,                  H01M 8/10 (20060101); H01M 8
7517605                fuel cell 6, separator
                                  April 14, Komada; Norikazu (Naka-gun, JP), Hoshino;(Tokyo, JP)Kansai Electric Powe
          Solid oxideDecemberand 2006 2009                            Materials Corporation H01M(Naka-gun, JP),
                                                                                             Koji 2/00 (20060101)
                                                          Mitsubishi 11/634,143429/34 ; 429/35; 429/38; 429/39 Akikusa; J
7520916               July swing April
                                   adsorption McElroy; James F.Energy Corporation (Sunnyvale, 53/02 (20060101) LeVa
          Partial pressure 25, 2005 21, 2009              providing hydrogen to Finn;; John E. (Mountain View,95/139; 96/1
                                                                      11/188,12395/96 429/13; 429/19; 95/119; CA),
                                                                                            B01D CA)
                                              system for Bloom (Suffield, CT), a vehicle fuel cell
7521140               April 19, electrokinetic pumpDon W. (Livermore, CA), Paul; (Dubin,H.429/34
                                  April
          Fuel cell system with2004 21, 2009                          10/827,788429/17 ; 429/22; (Livermore, CA), H01M 8
                                                                                            H01M 8/02
                                              Arnold; Eksigent Technologies, LLC Phillip CA) (20060101); Anex; D
7521142               December 22, 2004 Iino;
                                    production process thereof Denko K.K. (Tokyo, JP) H01M 2/00 (20060101)
                                                          Showa       10/582,366429/34 ; 264/241
          Fuel cell separator andApril 21, 2009 Tadashi (Kawasaki, JP), Izumi; Zenichiro (Kawasaki, JP)
7521143               May 10, fuelApril
          Polymer electrolyte 2004cell21, 2009            Tatsuto (Moriguchi, JP), Yamamoto; 8/10 (20060101)
                                                                      10/841,557429/34 ; JP)H01M
                                              Yamazaki; Panasonic Corporation (Osaka, 429/38Yoshiaki (Katano, JP), Kusa
7521144               August 30, April 21, 2009
                                   2005       Shimohira; Asahi Glass Company, Limited429/30; 8/10fuel
                                                           Tetsuji (Yokohama, JP), Kinoshita; Shinji (Yokohama, JP), Waka
                                                                      11/213,888429/35 ; (Tokyo, JP)Panasonic
                                                                                            electrolyte (20060101); H01M 2
          Membrane-electrode assembly for polymer electrolyte fuel cells, and polymer H01M429/33 cell Corporation
7521146               December 27, 2005 2009
                                  April 21, Mason; Richard W. (Rexford, NY), Pomykai; Michael (Scotia, NY), C25B 1
                                                                       Inc. (Latham, NY) H01M 429/34
          Switching modes of operation of a fuel cell Plug Power11/319,044429/39 ; 205/637; 2/14 (20060101); Lang; Ti
7521147               June 21, current collectors
                                  April       Marsacq; Didier (Grenoble,l'Energie Atomique (Paris,(Claix, FR), Roux; Chris
                                                          Commissariat a FR), Laurent; Jean-Yves stack
                                                                      electrode-membrane-electrode FR)
                                                                                            H01M
          Fuel cell comprising2004 21, 2009 integrated in the 10/559,933429/44 ; 429/38 4/86 (20060101); H01M 8
7521149               August 11, April 21, 2009
                                   2004       Medeiros; an ion exchange membrane ; 429/27
                                                                      10/923,610429/105 G. (Barrington, RI), Bessette; Ru
          High efficiency semi-fuel cell incorporating Maria G. (Bristol, RI), Dow; Eric H01M 4/36 (20060101); H01M 4
7524571                controlling28, 2004 fraction
                                    nitrogen Lienkamp; fuel cell 10/952,200429/13
          Method forSeptember April 28, 2009 in a Sebastian (Budenheim, DE) ; 429/22; 429/23H01M 8/00 (20060101); H01M 8
7524572               April 7, 2005 28, integrated combustor and corrugated foil(Sunnyvale, CA) (20060101);(San Fra
                                  April
          Fuel cell system with thermally 2009            Bloom Energy Corporation reformer 8/06
                                                                      11/100,489429/26 429/20
                                                                                            H01M
                                              Venkataraman; Swaminathan (Cupertino,; CA), Lyle; William David H01M 8
7524573               February 23, 2005 periphery seal members
                                  and outer Tomimatsu; Norihiro (Mitaka, JP), Sadamoto; Atsushi (Kawasaki, JP), Harad
          Fuel cell having inner April 28, 2009                       11/062,811429/35 ; 429/34
                                                                                            H01M
                                                          Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba (Tokyo, JP) 2/00 (20060101); H01M 2
7526346               December 10, of28, 2009
                                  April a Kolodziej; General (West Corporation (Detroit, MI)
                                                            stack     11/009,526700/45 ; G05B 320/150; 429/12;
          Nonlinear thermal control2004 PEM fuel cellJason R.Motors Henrietta, NY) 320/101;13/02 (20060101) 429/13;
7527112               March 31, 2006 5, 2009 vehicle, and method of supplying electric (Utsunomiya, JP),
                                  May         cell        Honda Motor Co., JP), (Tokyo, 903/944
                                                                      11/396,194 Saeki; Hibiki 1/00
                                                                                            B60K
          Electric system for fuel cell, fuel Aoyagi; Satoshi (Shimotsuke, Ltd.180/65.8;JP)power (20060101)Ojima; Ku
7527883               February 5,May 5,
                                    2007
          Polymer electrolyte fuel cell 2009              Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha Katoh; JP)Katch; Nobuo JP), Yukawa; H
                                                                      11/702,150429/19 ; 429/2; 429/30;(20060101); JP)Yuk
                                                                                            H01M 8/02 429/34; 429/43
                                              Yamamoto; Noriyuki (Kashiba, JP),(Osaka, Nobuo (Kameoka,(Kyoto,H01M 8
7527885               May system 5, 2009
                                  May
          Fuel cell control29, 2003and method             Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. (Yokohama-shi, 8/04 (20060101)
                                                                      10/491,439429/22 ; 429/25 JP)
                                              Toukura; Nobusuke (Yokosuka, JP)              H01M
7527888               August 26, May fuel cell
                                   2003
          Current collector supported 5, 2009             Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. (Houston,
                                                                      10/648,096429/34      H01M
                                              Thirukk valur; Niranjan (Corvallis, OR) ; 429/30 2/00 (20060101) TX)
7527889               April       May
          Fuel cell stack 30, 2004 5, 2009                Honda Giken Kogyo KabushikiNarutoshi (Utsunomiya, JP), Inai; S
                                                                      10/835,677429/38 ; Kaisha (Tokyo,
                                                                                            H01M 2/14 (20060101)
                                              Komura; Takashi (Iruma-gun, JP), Sugita; 429/34; 429/39 JP)
7531053               August using a 12, 2009 Shinsuki (Chiyoda-ku, JP), Ishikawa; ;Shin (Chiyoda-ku, JP), Takao; Ken
                                  May         Ide;        JFE Steel Corporation(JP)
                                                                      10/509,469148/326 148/325; 148/608; 148/651; 148/6
          Fuel cell produced 7, 2003 metallic material and its method of making             C22C 38/22 (20060101); C21D 8
7531100               August a 2006 12, 2009
                                  May         Peters; using an easily Technology Operations, Inc.13/00 (20060101) Vyas; G
                                                          GM Global11/463,316216/18 216/17; A. (Pittsford, NY),
                                                                       removed Trabold; H01B (Detroit, MI)
          Method of making 9, fuel cell componentScott L (Rochester, NY), mask ; Thomas 216/41; 429/12
7531253                monitoring the 12, 2009
                                  2005        Ramschak; AVL List GmbH
                                                           Erich (Vasoldsberg, AT)
                                                                      11/242,121429/13      H01M
          Method forOctober 4, May operational state of a fuel cell stack(Graz, AT) ; 429/23 8/04 (20060101)
7531257               November 14, 2003 2009
                                  May 12, Sugawara; Tatsuya flow Co., Ltd.JP), Miyano;
                                                          Honda (Utsunomiya, (Tokyo,429/17 8/04 (20060101)
                                                                      10/714,065429/22 ; path
                                                                                            H01M
          Fuel cell system programmed to control reactant gasMotor in a gas circulationJP) Kouji (Utsunomiya, JP), Shim
7531258               November 10, 2004 2009 Kenichiro (Utsunomiya, JP),(Tokyo, JP) Yuji (Shioya-gun, H01M 8
                                  May 12, Ueda;            reaction gas Co., Ltd. Matsumoto; 8/04 (20060101);
                                                                      10/986,552429/22      H01M
          Fuel cell system and method for discharging Honda Motorfrom fuel cell ; 429/13; 429/25; 429/34 JP), Ojima
7531259               June and water management system
                                  May
          Fuel cell cooling28, 2007 12, 2009                          11/823,553429/26 ; CA), Lindstrom; Jeremy S. (Vanco
                                                                                            H01M 8/04 (20060101); H01M 2
                                              Kratschmar; Kenneth W. (Vancouver, BC,429/13; 429/20; 429/24; 429/34; 42
7531260                fuel 3, 2003 12, 2009 Michael J. (Waterhouses, GB), Gardner; Frederick J. (Derby, H01M 2
                                  May         Day;        Rolls-Royce plc (London, oxide H01M 8/10 (20060101);
                                                                      10/405,466429/30 ; fuel cell component
          Solid oxideApril cell component and a method of manufacturing a solidGB) 429/32; 429/33; 429/34 GB), Cass
7531262               July 9, 1996 ay 12, cell
                                  M            Simpson; Maria (Rochester Hills, MI), Duffy; Torrence L. (West
                                                                       08/678,510429/32 ; thereof 8/04 (20060101); H01M 8
                                                                                            H01M
          High-volume-manufacture fuel 2009arrangement and method for production 429/30; 429/34; 429/39Bloomfield,
7531263               April 29, 2005 panelLiu; methanolYa Printed TW), Shang; 429/36;(Taoyuan, TW), Ho;H01M 2
                                  a flat        direct    Nan fuel Hsien,
                                                                       10/908,158429/32 James 429/44
                                                                                            H01M 8/10 (20060101); Shing-F
          Method of fabricating May 12, 2009 Yung-Yi (Taipei cell Circuit Board;Corporation (Taoyuan, TW)Antig T
7531264               June 7, 2004 12, 2009 Dingrong (Dorval, CA), Chouinard; ;Jean-Guy (Ville 429/38; 429/39 El
                                  May          Bai;       Hyteon 10/861,416429/34 429/13; 8/02 (20060101); CA),
          Fuel cell stack with even distributing gas manifolds Inc. (Laval, Quebec, CA)H01M429/35;St-Laurent, H01M 8
7531265                           May 12, Sugiura; Seiji (Utsunomiya, JP), Nanaumi;429/38 8/02 (20060101); H01M 8
          Fuel cell February 17, 2005 2009                             11/061,189429/36 ; Masaaki (Utsunomiya, JP), Shinka
                                                          Honda Motor Co., Ltd. (Tokyo, JP) H01M
7531266                           May 12, Sano;           (Susono, JP), Araki; Yasushi ; 429/26; JP) (20060101); H01M 8
                                                                       10/994,345429/39 (Gotenba, 2/14
                                                                                             (Toyota-shi,
          Fuel cell November 23, 2004 2009 Seiji Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki KaishaH01M429/38 JP)
7532987               August 26, May 12, 2009
                                   2004        Matsubayashi; Shigeaki (Ikoma, (Osaka, 429/12; 429/13; 429/22; 700/288; 1
                                                          Panasonic Corporation
                                                                       10/925,939702/60 ; JP)
                                                                                            G06F 17/00 (20060101); G06F 7
          Fuel-cell power generation system and control method therefor JP), Funakura; Masami (Neyagawa, JP), Ima
7533567               December 3, measuring
                                  May 19, Tung; Chun-Chin (Chupei, TW)
                                                          Syspotek cell11/566,23273/304C G01F 23/26 (20060101)
          Capacitance fuel volume2006 2009 apparatus for fuel Corporation (Chupei, TW)Antig Technology Corporation
7533748               January 20,May for fuel
                                    2005       Miyajima; Kazuyoshi (Utsunomiya, JP), Ishizuka; Ayumu (Utsunomiya, JP),
          Vehicle mounting structure 19, 2009cell                      11/040,360180/68.5 903/908; 903/952
                                                          Honda Motor Co., Ltd. (Tokyo, ;JP)B60K 1/04 (20060101)
7534465               November 4, 2004 for bonding Jun (Kawagoe, Co.,electrolyte layer of a(Fuchu,(20060101); B05D 5
                                  May 19, Sasahara; a separator and JP), Ltd (Tokyo, ;JP)
          Fuel cell assembly and method 2009                           10/985,085427/115 429/36; 8/02 JP), Kubota;
                                                                                            H01M 429/38
                                                          Honda Motor an Suzuki; Toshifumi fuel cell assembly Tadahi
7534511               June of 2006 for improved cold start
                                  May          Lin;       (Vancouver, CA)
                                                                       11/472,819429/13 ; 429/24; Company (Dearborn, MI)
                                                                                            H01M 8/04 (20060101)
          Thermal control 21,fuel cell19, 2009 Bruce Daimler AG (Stuttgart, DE)Ford Motor 429/26
7534512               January       2005       Kim;       Samsung SDI Co., Ltd. (Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do, KR)
                                                                       11/035,887429/26 ; 429/20 (Suwon-si, KR), H01M 8
                                                                                            H01M
          Fuel cell system 18,May 19, 2009 Ju-Yong (Yongin-si, KR), Kim; Hyoung-Juhn8/04 (20060101); Lee; Do
7534513               electrode assembly 2009
                                  May          Nakanishi; Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki KaishaH01M429/40; 429/41; Co., Ltd.
                                                          Haruyuki (Susono, JP), Murata; Shigeaki (Numazu, JP), Hayashi;
                                                                       11/597,690429/31 429/12; 8/10 (20060101)
                                                                                              cell
          Membrane June 9, 2005 19, for a tube-shaped fuel cell and tube-shaped ;fuel (Toyota, JP)Tsuchiya 429/44 (
7534514               October membrane fuel
                                  2005         Pristash; David J (Brecksville, OH) OH) H01M429/39
          Polymer electrolyte 3, May 19, 2009cell stack                11/242,239429/32
                                                          Pemery Corp. (Brecksville, ; 429/34; 8/10 (20060101)
7534517               October 27, 2004 2009 Osamu
                                  May 19, Hiroi;          Mitsubishi Denki KabushikiHisatoshi (Tokyo,(20060101)
                                                                       JP), Fukumoto; ; 429/35; 429/36JP),
                                                                                            H01M 2/08
          Fuel cell and method for manufacture thereof (Tokyo, 10/973,401429/34Kaisha (Tokyo, JP) Yoshioka; Shoj
7534518               July 26, 2005electrolyte Ishioka; with improved gas flow sealing 429/30;(Nagoya, JP), Hirai; H01M 2
                                                fuel      Tokai Rubber JP), Mihara; Yasuhiko 429/36;
                                                                       11/188,801429/34     H01M 2/02 (20060101); Ryo (K
          Cell for solid polymer May 19, 2009 cellYutaka (Nagoya,Industries, Ltd. ;(Komaki-shi, JP) 429/38
7534519               September Maysupported
                                  16, 19, Cable; Thomas United11/228,185429/34 Stephen 429/33
                                                          The L. cellStates OH), Sofie; 429/30; W. (Bozeman, MT)
                                                                                            H01M 2/00 (20060101); H01M
          Symmetrical, bi-electrode 2005 2009 solid oxide fuel(Newbury, of America;as represented by the Administrator8
7534520               February 8,May 19, 2009
          Fuel cell system          2006                  Toyota (Mishima, JP), Mizuno;429/12 (Toyota, JP)
                                                                       11/661,249429/34 ; Minobu
                                                                                             (Toyota-shi, JP)
                                               Jufuku; Yasunobu Jidosha Kabushiki KaishaH01M 8/04 (20060101)
7534521               January system of 2009 Liqing Shen-Li High Tech Co., Ltd (Shanghai)429/35
                                    2004       Hu;
          Integral multi-stack31,May 19,fuel cell                       CN), Xia; Jianwei 429/26; (Shanghai, CN) H01M 2
                                                                                            H01M 8/24 (20060101);
                                                           (Shanghai,10/769,502429/38 ; (Shanghai, CN)
7535118               July 23, 2004 19, 2009
                                  May          Ikuma;     The Japan Research Institute, ;Limited (Tokyo, JP)
                                                                       10/898,679307/38 307/17; 1/00 307/52
                                                                                            H02J 307/39;
          Power supply system and fuel cell unit Hitoshi (Tokyo, JP), Inoue; Makoto (Tokyo, JP)(20060101); H02J 3/0
7535194               March 30, as a 19, 2009 which aSanyo Electronic Co., Ltd. (Osaka,(Hirakata, JP), Kurokawa;
                                  May           in         fuel cell and JP), Seo; device are JP)
                                                                       11/392,629320/101       provided in parallel
          Fuel cell system built 2006systemKonoto; Masaaki (Kyoto,an electric KazuhiroH01M 10/46 (20060101) Hiros
7537626               October for a fuel 2009
                                  May 26, Kasuya; onboard a vehicle Ltd. (Tokyo,123/572;45/00 (20060101); F02B 2
                                                          Honda Motor Co.,
                                                                       11/251,17255/434 ; JP)
                                                                                            B01D 48/61; 55/337
          Gas-liquid separator14, 2005 cell system Kuri (Saitama, JP), Ichikawa; Osamu (Saitama, JP)
7537847               June and method for operating same (Toyota, Kabushiki KaishaH01M 8/04 (20060101)
                                  May
          Fuel cell system 9, 2006 26, 2009               Toyota       11/449,729429/13 ; 429/22
                                               Yoshida; Naohiro Jidosha JP)                  (Toyota, JP)
7537848                model based exhaust mixing control in a fuelTechnology DE), Willimowski; Peter (Rossdorf, DE)
                                  May 26, Lienkamp; GM Global11/936,642429/13 ; 429/22; 429/23
          Method forNovember 7, 2007 2009                                cell application   H01M (Detroit, MI)
                                                          Sebastian (Budenheim, Operations, Inc.8/04 (20060101)
7537849                fuel cell assembly 2009
                                  10, 2002 Kelly; Sean M. (Brighton, structural enclosure 429/32; 429/38
                                                          Delphi Technologies, Inc. (Troy, H01M (Geneseo, NY), B60L 11
                                                                       10/238,093429/26 ; 429/19;
                                                                                            MI)
          Solid-oxideSeptember May 26, having a convectively vented NY), Faville; Michael T.8/04 (20060101);Keegan;
7537850               August 7, 2003 control
                                  May          Yamada; Nissan (Miura, JP)
                                                                       10/501,097429/26 ; 429/24; 8/04 (20060101)
                                                                                            H01M JP)
          Fuel cell device and related26, 2009methodKazuhiroMotor Co., Ltd. (Yokohama-shi,429/34
7537851               January 28,May 26, 2009 Dong-Hun (Suwon-si, KR), Kweon; 429/12; 429/20; 429/30; 429/34; 42
                                    2005       Lee;       Samsung SDI Co., Ltd. (Suwon, KR) 8/00 (20060101); H01M 8
                                                                       11/044,220429/26     H01M
          Fuel cell system including separator having cooling water flow channels ; Ho-Jin (Suwon-si, KR), Kim; Ju-Yo
7537854               December 10, 2004 2009 Ui Sik (Yongin-si, KR) Ltd. (Seoul, KR)same (20060101); H01M 8
                                  May 26, Jeon;           Hyundai Mobis Co.,
                                                                       11/008,220429/34 ; 429/35; 8/02
                                                                                            the
          Polymer electrolyte fuel cell and stack therefor, and method of manufacturing H01M429/38; 429/39
7537855               December 30, 2004 2009 Kyu Taek (Gwangmyeong-si, KR), H01M 8/02 (20060101); Lee; Ki
                                  May 26, Cho;            Hyundai Motor Company (Seoul, KR)
                                                                        cell stack
          Unit cell structure comprising composite-gasket for fuel11/028,285429/35 Lim; Tae Won (Seoul, KR), H01M 8
7537856               September May 26, therefor, andCanon Kabushiki KaishaJP), Yanagisawa; Masaru (Tokyo, JP)
                                  22, 2003 Tamamura; fuel supply system therefor ; 429/34 2/00 (20060101)
          Fuel cell, fuel supply apparatus2009                         10/664,873429/38
                                                            Hideo (Kanagawa-ken, (Tokyo,H01M JP)
7538973               March 24, Mayproviding
                                   for         Feliss; Norbert A. Global Storagefuel cell for Karl 33/14 drive andCA),
                                                          Hitachi structure with Technologies Netherlands B.V.(NL)
                                                                       11/388,277360/97.02 G11B A. (Los Gatos, vibration
          Method and apparatus2006 26, 2009 a fluid damping(Sunnyvale, CA), Flechsig; a hard disk(20060101) Gillis
7540343               July 5,     J
          Fuel cell vehicle 2006une 2, 2009               Honda (Shioya-gun, JP), Ono; ;JP)
                                                                       11/428,698180/65.1 180/68.5; 296/193.07
                                                                                            B60K 1/00 (20060101)
                                               Nakashima; Akira Motor Co., Ltd. (Tokyo,Tohru (Kawachi-gun, JP), Tsuruma
7541108               April 20, 2007 2, 2009
          Solid polymer fuel cell June                    Norihiko Corporation (Osaka, 429/30
                                                                       11/914,809429/35 ; JP)
                                                                                            Takashi (Osaka, JP), Kusakabe;
                                               Kawabata; Panasonic(Osaka, JP), Morimoto; H01M 8/02 (20060101); H01M 8
7544219               January 10,June 9, 2009
                                    2006       Song; andLG Chem, 11/328,45829/623.2 ;same 4/82 (20060101); H01M 2
                                                           fuel cell system(Seoul, KR) the 429/36
                                                                       Ltd. employing       H01M
          Gasketed membrane-electrode-assemblySeong-Min (Seoul, KR), Moon; Go-Young (Daejeon, KR), Lee; Won-H
7544429               May 14, 2003 9, 2009
                                  June
          Membraneless and mediatorless microbial fuelHong (Seoul, of Science and429/14; (Seoul, KR), Jang; Jae Kyun
                                               Kim; Byung cell Institute KR), Chang;;InTechnology (Seoul, KR) H01M 4
                                                          Korea        10/514,180429/2     Seop 429/17;(20060101);
                                                                                            H01M 8/16 429/44; 429/45
7544432               December June 9, 2009
                                  stack                   Honda Motor Co., Ltd. (Tokyo,429/37; 429/39
                                                                       11/023,031429/32 ; JP)
                                                                                            H01M 8/10 (20060101); H01M 8
          Fuel cell and fuel cell 23, 2004 Homma; Hiroki (Asaka, JP), Izumi; Masahiko (Niiza, JP), Dan; Koji (Kawago
7544433               November June 9, 2009
                                   polymer Sohma; Hiroshi (Saitama,Co., Ltd. (Tokyo,429/30; 429/40; 429/41; 429/44
                                                          Honda Motor JP), Iguchi; Masaru cell using the same
                                                                       10/714,394429/33 ; fuel 8/10 JP), Kanaoka;
                                                                                            H01M
          Electrode structure for17, 2003 electrolyte fuel cells, and polymer electrolyteJP) (Saitama, (20060101) Nagay
7544434               March 31, power 2009
                                  June         Yamauchi; Kabushiki Kaisha ToshibaJP), ;Takashita;8/04 (20060101)
                                                           Takashi (Kanagawa-ken, (Tokyo, JP) Masahiro (Kanagawa-ken
                                                                       10/401,557429/34 429/12;
                                                                                            H01M
          Direct liquid fuel cell 2003 9,generating device and method of controlling the same 429/17; 429/30
7544436                           12, 2007 Yoshino; Makoto (Kawasaki, JP), Hibino; 429/34 2/00 (20060101); H01M 2
          Fuel cell September June 9, 2009                             11/854,184429/38 ; H01M
                                                          Fujitsu Limited (Kawasaki, JP) Seiji (Kawasaki, JP), Yoshida; Hiro
7544437               August       2001
          Fuel cell structure 16, June 9, 2009            Materials and Separation Technology International Limited (Henle
                                                                       10/362,377429/40 ; 429/30; 4/00Beverley (Bath, GB)
                                                                                             Sowerby; (20060101); H01M
                                               Tennison; Stephen Robert (Addlestone, GB),H01M429/31; 429/34; 429/44 2
7546938               October 6, 2004 16, 2009
                                   for         Panasik; Cheryl L. (Elburn, IL), Tucker; ; 123/46H;(Chicago, IL), Robinson;
                                                          Illinois     10/959,845227/10 Kevin M. 123/46SC; 227/130; 227/
                                                                                            B25C
          Fuel cell compartmentJunecombustion-powered tool Tool Works Inc. (Glenview, IL) 1/08 (20060101); B25C 1/J
7547481               November 20, 2002 2009
                                  June 16,                Honda Giken Kogyo Kabushiki429/23; 429/34 JP)
                                                                       10/300,479429/22 ; Kaisha (Tokyo,
                                                                                            H01M 8/04 (20060101)
          Fuel-circulating fuel cell system Sugawara; Tatsuya (Saitama, JP), Shimanuki; Hiroshi (Saitama, JP)
7547482               December 21, for 2009
                                   June 16, electrochemical fuel R11/019,084429/26
                                                         Daimler cell (Vancouver, CA)       H01M 8/02 (20060101); H01M
          Passive microcoolant loop2004an Gallagher; EmersonAG (Stuttgart, DE)Ford Motor Company (Dearborn, MI)8
7547483               October 5, June 16, 2009 Anthony M. (Richardson, Inc. (Carrollton, TX) (20060101); H01M 8
          Fuel cell device         2004       Chiu;                  10/958,575429/31 ; 429/12; 429/19; 429/34
                                                         STMicroelectronics, TX)            H01M 2/00
7547484                fuel cell tube with 2009
                                   June 16, Crumm; Aaron T. (Ann Arbor, MI), Reilly; Christopher (20060101)
                                                         Adaptive 10/979,017429/31 429/12; 429/30; 429/34; 429/40
                                                                                            H01M
          Solid oxideNovember 1, 2004 internal fuel processingMaterials Inc. (Ann ;Arbor, MI)8/10 J. (Ann Arbor, MI), L
7547485               February 3,and 16, cell
                                    2005
          Power generation unit June fuel 2009           Sony Corporation (Tokyo, JP); 429/10; 429/17; 429/34; 429/39 2
                                                                     11/048,796429/38
                                              Otsuka; Kazuhiko (Saitama, JP)                H01M 2/14 (20060101); H01M
7547486               October 27, 2004
                                   June
          Direct methanol fuel cell 16, 2009             Celgard (Charlotte, NC), Zimmerer; Britta (Amorbach, DE), Huan
                                                                     10/974,490429/42       H01M 4/94 (20060101); H01M 8
                                              Zhang; Zhengming LLC (Charlotte, NC) ; 429/30; 429/44
7547659               October 30,POX reforming gasoline for fuel-cell Ryu; Jong Woo (Seoul,502/415; KR)method of p
                                     2006     Moon;      Korea Institute of powered vehicles applications and a B01J 50
                                                                     11/589,050502/439 ; 502/355; (Seoul, 502/527.12; 20
                                                                                            B01J 23/08 (20060101);
          Structured catalyst for June 16, 2009 ofDong Ju (Seoul, KR), Science and TechnologyKR), Kang; Dong Min (
7547748               April 11, terminal sulfonic Do-yun (Daejeon-si, KR), Jeong; Min-ju (Seoul, KR), Jung; 525/419; 52
                                   June       Kim;       Samsung polymer Ltd. (Suwon, ; 525/359.3;(20060101)
                                                                     12/101,737525/328.8 KR) 8/18 525/384; Myung-sup
                                                                                             fuel
          Polymer comprising 2008 16, 2009 acid group, and SDI Co., electrolyte andC08Fcell using the same
7550018               September June 23, arrangement for a fuel cell stack(Dettingen, Henne; Rudolf (20060101); DE), Arn
                                     sealing Zerfass; Hans-Rainer (Taunusstein,aDE), DE)
          Method of producing a7, 2006 2009                          11/516,96229/623.2 ; H01M
                                                                                            arrangement for a fuel cell stack
                                                         ElringKlinger AG and sealing 429/36 4/82 (Boblingen, H01M 2
7550214               January 30,June 23, 2009
                                    2004      Matoba; Tadashi Motor Co., JP)
                                                         Nissan      10/520,518429/13 ; 429/22; 8/04 (20060101)
                                                                                            H01M JP)
          Fuel cell system and fuel cell operating method (Yokohama, Ltd. (Yokohama-shi,429/24; 429/25
7550217               June solid oxide fuel cell
                                   June
          Stack supported 9, 2004 23, 2009               Saint-Gobain Ceramics & Donahue; William (20060101); MA), 4
                                                                     10/864,285429/31 ; 429/32 8/12 J. (Holliston,
                                                                                            H01M
                                              Kwon; Oh-Hun (Westborough, MA), Plastics, Inc. (Worcester, MA) H01M A
7550219               October 9, 2003
                                   for fuel 2009
          Fuel supply apparatus June 23,cell             Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. (Yokohama-shi, 2/00 (20060101); 429/24;
                                                                     10/510,103429/34 ; 137/111; JP)
                                              Uozumi; Tetsuo (Kanagawa-ken, JP)             H01M 137/114; 429/22; G05D 1
7550222               September June a 2009 Gayatri (Rochester Hills, MI), Trabold; Thomas A.
                                   28, 2006 Vyas;        GM and hydrophilic coating
                                                                      Technology Operations, Inc.2/00 (20060101); H01M 2
                                                                                            H01M (Detroit, MI)
          Fuel cell component having23,durable conductiveGlobal11/536,061429/34 ; 429/38; 429/39 (Pittsford, NY), Ab
7553566               September June 30, 2009 Willi (Erlangen,10/381,465429/12 ; 29/745; 29/746; 429/10; 429/32; 43
          Fuel cell module         14, 2001 Bette;                     DE), Lersch; Josef (Heroldsbach, DE), Mattejat; Arno
                                                                                            H01M 8/00
                                                         Siemens Aktiengesellschaft (Munich, DE) (20060101)
7553567               August        2003
          Fuel cell system 27, June 30, 2009             Nissan Moto Co.,
                                                                     10/525,509429/12 ; 429/22; 8/00 (20060101); H01M 2
                                                                                            H01M
                                              Morita; Koji (Yokohama, JP) Ltd. (Kanagawa, JP) 429/34; 429/39
7553568               November 19, 2004 solid
                                   June 30, Keefer; Bowie G. systems(Vancouver, ; 429/17; 429/20;CA)
                                                         Keefer; Bowie
                                                                     10/993,902429/13       H01M 8/00 429/25
          High efficiency load-following 2009 oxide fuel cell (Vancouver, CA) British Columbia,(20060101); H01M 8
7553569               April gas control for a fuel
                                   June       Schaefer; system
                                                         GM Global11/106,334429/13 ; 429/17; 8/00 (20060101)
                                                                      Technology Operations, Inc.( (Russelsheim, DE), Rohw
                                                                                             Rainer
          Dynamic cathode14, 2005 30, 2009 cell Robert (Darmstadt, DE), Pechtold;H01M429/22; 429/34; 429/38; 42
7553571               April 15, for a 30, 2009
                                   June       Becerra; Juan J.Gillette Company DeFilippis;H01M S. (Delmar, NY)
                                                         The (Altamont, NY), (Boston, MA)    Michael
          Management system 2003 fuel cell and method thereof 10/414,509429/22 ; 429/12 8/04 (20060101); H01M 8
7553572               July and fuel 30, 2009
                                   June       Komachiya; Masahiro 11/185,742429/22 429/19; 429/23; 429/24; 429/26
                                                         Hitachi, (Hitachinaka,             H01M 8/04 (20060101); JP)
          Fuel cell device 21, 2005 cell management system Ltd. (Tokyo, JP) JP), ;Yamauchi; Hiroshi (Hitachi,H01M 8
7553575               January 28,June 30, and
                                    2003      Zhang; Jianbo (Yokosuka, JP), Miyazawa;204/196.03; 204/409; 429/13; 429/2
                                                                     10/352,116429/34 ; Atsushi 8/02 (20060101);
                                                                                            H01M
          Fuel cell humidification system2009 method Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. (Kanagawa, JP) (Yokosuka, JP) G01N 1
7553576               April cell June
          Separator for fuel22, 2003 30, 2009            Honda (Sayama, JP), Kawachi; Shinya (Sayama, JP),
                                                                     10/511,220429/35 ; Kaisha (Tokyo,
                                                                                            H01M 8/02 (20060101)
                                              Kimura; Mikihiko Giken Kogyo Kabushiki429/38; 429/39 JP) Andou; Keis
7553577               December 20, 2005 2009
                                   June 30, Nakamura; molding rubber Corporation (Osaka, JP) 2/08 (20060101)
                                                          Yuzo Polymer packing
                                                                     11/311,366429/35 ; 427/115; 429/30;
                                                                                            H01M
          Sealing structure of fuel cell and process for Tigers (Kobe, JP), Takao; Haruhito (Kobe, JP) 429/36; 429/38
7553578               June 22, electrode 2009 with3M Innovative Properties Company (Saint Paul, MN) MN), Yand
                                   June       Wald;       sealing (Lakeland,
                                                                     11/425,807429/36 Jimmy Minh (Saint Paul,
                                                                                            H01M
          Fuel cell membrane 2006 30,assembly David Allen surfaces MN), Le; ; 429/41 8/24 (20060101)
7553579                fuel 4, 2003 30, floating Steven (Calgary, CA), Tang; Zheng (Calgary, CA) 429/36; 429/39
                                   June       Couse;                 10/249,397429/38 ; 429/34; 429/35;
                                                                                            H01M 2/14 CA)
          Solid oxideApril cell stack with 2009 cellsVersa Power Systems Ltd. (Calgary, Alberta, (20060101); H01M 2
7553580               May 10, 2006fuel cell,Cho; Sung-Yong (Suwon-si, KR), and membrane-electrode 204/294; 429/30
                                    a           a        Samsung SDI Co., Ltd. (Suwon-si, KR) 4/86 (20060101) compr
                                                                     11/431,977429/44 ; 204/252; 204/283; assembly
                                                                                            H01M
          Electrode substrate forJune 30, 2009method for preparing the same, Lee;aJong-Ki (Suwon-si, KR), Eun; Yeong
7553793               September June 30, 2009
                                   20, 2006 Taniwaki; Kazuhiro (Toyota, JP)
                                                         Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki KaishaB01J 37/34 (20060101); B01J 20
                                                                                             (Toyota-shi, JP)
          Method and system for recovering catalyst for fuel cell 11/791,962502/185 ; 148/103; 148/105; 148/108; 148/5
7556872               August 26, July 7, 2009 akatsu; process forKosan Co., hydrogen 252/373; 8/04 (20060101); C01B 3
                                    2003      T          Idemitsu producing Ltd. (Tokyo,H01M 423/648.1; 423/651; 423/6
                                                                      JP), Takegoshi; Gakujifuel
                                                                                              (Chiba, system
          Adsorbent for removing sulfur compound, Kozo (Chiba,10/526,397429/19 ; and JP) cell JP)
7556873               March        July       H          Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.
                                                                     10/550,609429/26 ; 429/38
                                                                                            H01M
          Fuel cell system 10, 2004 7, 2009 igashi; Shugo (Yokohama, JP) (Kanagawa, JP) 8/04 (20060101)
7556874               August 27, July 7, 2009 reault; Richard D. (North Kingstown, RI) H01M429/24;
                                    2003      B          cooling 10/649,244429/26 ; 429/13; 8/04 (20060101); H01M
          Fuel cell temperature control by evaporative UTC Power Corporation (South Windsor, CT) 429/25; 429/38 8
7556875               July generation system ukai; Yuji (Osaka, Corporation (Osaka, 429/12 to heat anode stream off-g
                                   July       M          an off-gas heating heat exchanger used 8/00 (20060101)
                                                                     10/891,320429/26 JP)   H01M
          Fuel cell power 14, 2004 7, 2009 including PanasonicJP), Ukai; Kunihiro ;(Nara, JP), Maenishi; Akira (Osaka,
7556877               July fuel cell
                                   July       S          Mitsubishi 10/624,840429/34Kaisha (Gunma,(20060101)
                                                                     Pencil Kabushiki ; 429/12; 429/44JP), Yamada; JP)
                                                                                            H01M 8/04
          Direct methanol23, 2003 7, 2009 uda; Yoshihisa (Gunma, JP), Osada; Takahiro (Shinagawa-Ku, Tokyo,Kunita
7556878               April 21, 2006 7, 2009buka; Shigeo (Ebina, 11/815,165429/34 ; portion Kangawa, JP)
                                   July       I          Nissan including Ltd. density 429/32; 8/10JP),
                                                                     JP), Kushibiki; Keiko H01M
                                                                                            (Fujisawa, (20060101); Tatsuya
          Fuel cell with separator and porous support memberMotor Co. high (Yokohama-shi, 429/38 Yaguchi; H01M 2
7556879               May 28, fuel 7,
                                   July       Y          Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. (Kanagawa, JP)429/25; 429/26
                                                                     10/519,554429/38 ; 429/24; 2/14 (20060101); H01M 8
                                                                                            H01M
          Polymer electrolyte 2003cell 2009 oshizawa; Koudai (Yokosuka, JP), Iwasaki; Yasukazu (Yokohama, JP)
7556880               September July2007 Herman; fuel cell S (Albany, OR), Champion; David L.P. 429/34; 429/38; 4
                                   12, 7, 2009           Hewlett-Packard Development Company, (Lebanon, OR), H01M
                                                                     11/900,788429/40       H01M 4/86 (20060101); Mardilo
          Compositional and structural gradients for Gregory electrode materials ; 429/12; 429/13; (Houston, TX) 50
7557532               October 2, July 7, 2009 a fuel cell
                                   2006       L                      11/541,066320/101 ; 429/13 10/44 (20060101); H01M
                                                                                            H01M
          Voltage supplying apparatus using iu; Ching-Hsiung (Tainan City, TW), Chen; Jiann-Fuh (Yongkang City, TW
7559389               October 2, July
                                   2003
          Fuel cell equipped vehicle 14, 2009             Masayoshi10/528,558 180/65.1; H01M 8/04 (20060101)
                                                                       (Toyota, JP)          (Toyota-shi, JP)
                                              Yamashita;Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha180/68.4; 180/68.5
7559393               May 31, 2005 14, 2009
                                   July       Horii;     Honda Motor Co., Ltd. (Tokyo, Junya 13/06 (20060101); B60K 9
                                                                     11/139,621180/89.2 180/65.21; 180/65.22; 903/908;
                                                                                            B60K
          Exhaust structure for fuel cell vehicles Yoshiyuki (Saitama, JP), Watanabe;;JP) (Saitama, JP), Shimizu; Ma6
7560179               March 20, 2003 14, for
                                   July       Tahara; Masahiko (Kanagawa, JP)
                                                         Sony        10/478,393429/12       H01M 323/299; 429/13
          Fuel cell apparatus and method2009controlling fuelCorporation (Tokyo, JP); 320/137; 8/00 (20060101)
7560181               August 6, 2007 14, operating the same Electronics Co., Duk-jin (Yongin-si, 429/26
                                   July       Lee;       Samsung 11/834,197429/12 ; 429/13; 429/24;
                                                                                            H01M 8/00 (20060101); Tae-wo
          Fuel cell system and method of2009 Hyun-chul (Yongin-si, KR), Oh;Ltd. (Suwon-si, KR) KR), Song;H01M 8
7560182               November 19, 2004and method for fuel(Utsunomiya, JP),(Tokyo,429/22; 429/25; 429/34
                                   July 14, Ueda; Kenichiro cell 10/993,715429/13 ; JP)
          Reaction gas supply apparatus 2009                                                H01M (Yuki, JP), Yoshikawa; S
                                                         Honda Motor Co., Ltd. Ojima; Kuniaki 8/04 (20060101)
7560186               November 23, 2004 ofFukuma; Honda (Saitama, Ltd. (Tokyo,429/12; 429/22
                                   July 14,     fuel                 10/997,615429/34 ; JP) H01M (Saitama, JP)
          Exhaust gas disposal apparatus2009 cell KazunoriMotor Co.,JP), Ogawa; Takayuki8/04 (20060101); H01M 2
7560187               November 8, 2004 2009
          Fuel cell stack                                Toyota (Toyota, JP)
                                                                     10/578,928429/37 ; 429/38
                                                                                             (Toyota, JP)
                                   July 14, Inagaki; ToshiyukiJidosha Kabushiki KaishaH01M 8/02 (20060101); H01M 8
7563523               June 24, 2003 21, 2009
                                  July        Keretli; and (Le Mesnil(Boulogne,same; 429/17; 429/19; 429/20; 429/24; 42
                                                         Renault s.a.s. St-Denis, Billancourt, FR)
                                                                     10/517,610429/12      H01M Marielle (Saclay, FR)
          Fuel cell start-up method, fuel cell systemFahrivehicle equipped with FR), Marchand;8/04 (20060101); H01M 8
7563524               November 21, 20032009
          Fuel cell system                               Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Masato JP) 429/26; JP), Hirazawa; Hi
                                                                     10/717,625429/12 ; 429/13; 8/04 (20060101)
                                                                                           H01M
                                  July 21, Matsuoka; Kei (Kawasaki, JP), Akita; (Tokyo, (Yokohama,429/34
7563526               August 11, July 21, 2009
                                   2003       Takahashi; Nissan Motor Co., CT) (Kanagawa-Ken,8/18 (20060101); 429/22
                                                         Shinichi (Vernon, Ltd.
                                                                     fuel cells            H01M JP)
          Fuel cell system and method for removal of water from 10/637,660429/21 ; 204/DIG.4; 429/12; 429/19;H01M 2
7563527               June 29, 2004 21, turbine Kazuo (Kobe,10/553,692429/22 429/26 8/04JP), JP)
                                  July        Tanaka; Kawasaki JP), Harada; Eiichi (Kakogawa, (20060101)
                                                                                           H01M
          Fuel cell-atmospheric-pressure 2009 hybrid system Jukogyo Kabushiki ;Kaisha (Kobe-shi, Shoji; Takatoshi (
7563528               March 2, method of scavenging same Motor Co., Ltd. (Tokyo,429/12 8/00 JP), Yoshida; Hirom
                                  July        Inai;      Honda       11/071,678429/22 ; JP)H01M
          Fuel cell system and 2005 21, 2009 Shigeru (Saitama, JP), Hayashi; Katsumi (Saitama, (20060101); H01M 8
7563530               April 9, 2004 21, fuel Hae-Kyoung (Suwon-si, Ltd. (Suwon, KR) 8/04 (20060101); KR) 3
                                  July        Kim;
          Fuel amount control system for2009 cell                    10/820,822429/25 ; Kyoung-Hwan (Suwon-si, G01N
                                                                                           H01M
                                                         Samsung SDI Co., KR), Choi; 324/649; 324/717; 429/22; 73/61.41
7564211               March 23, 2004 21, 2009
                                  July         system and electric power JP) (Yokohama-shi, 10/44 (20060101)
                                                         Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.
                                                                     10/544,022320/101 ; 429/23; JP)
                                                                                           H01M 429/9
          Electric power generation controlKazama; Isamu (Yokosuka,generation control method for fuel cell
7566510               September July20062009
                                  13, 28, Song; Rak-Hyun (Taejon, KR), Shin;Research (Taejon, (20060101); Tak-Hy
                                                         solid Institute of Energysealing method 429/35the Lim;
                                                                      fuel cell and Dong-Ryul (Taejon, KR),
                                                                                           H01M using
          Sealing element for anode-supported tubular Koreaoxide11/520,364429/31 ; 427/115; 8/10KR) same B05D 5
7566512               April fuel July 28, method
                                  cell        Bednarz; Marc (Ottobrunn,
                                                         MTU CFC 10/512,537429/39 ; 429/35; 429/38 DE)
                                                                     Solutions Steinfort; Marc (Aidlingen,
                                                                                           H01M DE)
          Molten carbonate23, 2003 and 2009 for production thereofDE), GmbH (Ottobrunn,8/02 (20060101); H01M 2
7566513               November 22, 2006a multi-layer cathode Electric of a solid electrolyte(Nagano,(Nagano, JP), Tokutak
                                  July 28, Katagiri; Fumimasaformed Industries Co., 429/46 4/90 (20060101)
          Solid electrolyte fuel cell with 2009                      11/602,975429/41 ; Ltd. and electrode
                                                                                           H01M
                                                         Shinko (Nagano, JP), Suganuma; Shigeaki JP) admixture
7566514               October inJuly cell Lee;
                                    2003                 Samsung SDI Co., KR), Pak; ;Chan-ho (Seoul, KR) Chang; Hyuk
                                                                     10/685,797429/44 204/283; 4/44 KR),
                                                                                           H01M 204/284; 204/293;
          Catalyst for cathode16, fuel28, 2009 Sung-hoon (Kyungki-do, Ltd. (Suwon, Kyungki-Do,(20060101) 429/30
7569081                convertingAugust 4, Schukar; Gary William (North Oaks, Company (Saint 271/5;MN) (Coon29/411
                                    a fuel
          Method forMarch 9, 2004 cell2009               web to precisely positioned membrane 4/82 Russell
                                                                     10/797,75829/623.1 198/449; Paul, 271/9.04; Rapid
                                                                                           H01M John
                                              membrane 3M Innovative Properties MN),; Mlinar;sheets(20060101); H01M 6
7569289               December August cathode Didier (Grenoble, FR), Nayoze; Christine 2/00 (20060101); H01M 8
                                   magnetic Marsacq; Commissariat a  10/535,402429/10 ; 429/30 (Fontaine, FR), Roux; Ch
                                                                                           H01M
          Fuel cell comprising a2, 2003 4, 2009 with static pumpingl'Energie Atomique (Paris, FR)
7569290               May methanolAugust cell and method for making the same Shang; 429/13;(Taoyuan, TW), Chen; Yi-C
                                              Liu;       Nan Ya Printed Circuit
                                                                     10/908,301429/12 James 429/32; 429/36; 429/44 8
                                                                                           H01M 4/86 (20060101); H01M
          Flat panel direct 6, 2005 fuel4, 2009 Yung-Yi (Taipei Hsien, TW), Board;Corporation (Luchu, Taoyuan, TW)
7569291               February 14, for 4, 2009
                                  August      Levandoski; Michael Paul (Bristol, CT), Sarazin; Robert Michael (East Grand
                                                         Henkel Corporation (Rocky ; 29/623.1; 429/34
                                                                     11/056,107429/12      CT)
          Method and composition2005bonding and sealing fuel cell components Hill, H01M 2/00 (20060101); H01M 2
7569292                fuel cell August 4, 2009
          Solid oxideMarch 4, 2005                       Kenichi (Fukuoka, JP)
                                                                     11/071,112429/12 ; 429/13; 429/30; 429/31; 429/33
                                              Hiwatashi; Toto Ltd. (Fukuoka, JP)           H01M 8/00 (20060101)
7569293               October 15, 2002 4, 2009 III; Nuvera Fuel Cells, MA) reformer systems (20060101)
                                  August      Cross,     of integrated fuel cell-fuel ; 429/19; 2/02
                                                                     10/272,458429/13       MA)
          Methods and systems for efficient operation James C. (Melrose, Inc. (Billerica,H01M429/22
7569295               March 2, 2004 display control
                                              Ninomiya; Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba (Tokyo, JP) 429/22; 700/286 G05D 3
          Fuel cell unit and stateAugust 4, 2009 method              10/790,240429/23 ; 429/12; (Hiratsuka, JP)
                                                                                           H01M
                                                         Ryoji (Tachikawa, JP), Shibuya; Nobuo 8/04 (20060101);
7569296                operating vehicle-mounted
                                    2005      Okazaki; cell (Wako, JP)
                                                         Honda Motor Co., Ltd. (Tokyo, JP) H01M 8/12 (20060101); H01M 8
          Method forJanuary 31,August 4, 2009 fuelKoji stack 11/048,682429/24 ; 429/13; 429/22; 429/26
7569297               December 16, 2005 2009 Richard I. (Champaign, IL), York; 429/12; 429/33; 429/46
                                  August 4, Masel;       The         of Trustees of the ; Cynthia 8/10 (20060101); H01M
                                                                                           H01M of Illinois (Urbana, Wasz
          Fuel cell membranes and crossover prevention Board 11/303,505429/30 UniversityA. (Newington, CT),IL) 6
7569298               June 5, 2002August 4, 2009
                                               cell      Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki KaishaH01M 2/08 (20060101); F16J 15
                                                                     10/161,617429/35 ; Yoshio
                                                                                            (Toyota-shi, JP)
          Separator seal structure for a fuel Kato; Chisato (Aichi-ken, JP), Kiyokawa; 277/628(Nagoya, JP), Akiyama; Sh
7569299               July 25, 2006 gasket Thompson;GM Global11/459,660429/35 membrane(Geneseo, NY)
                                  cell        for         Eric L. (Honeoye, NY),Operations, W. (Detroit, MI)
                                                                      Technology Fly;      H01M contamination
          Multi-component fuel August 4, 2009low temperature sealing and minimalGerald Inc.2/08 (20060101)
7569300               November 4, separator therefor Jun (Kawagoe, Co., Ltd (Tokyo, 429/34;(Fuchu,(20060101); H01M 8
                                  August      Sasahara; Honda Motor JP), Suzuki; Toshifumi 429/38 JP), Kubota; Tadahi
          Fuel cell assembly and a 2004 4, 2009                      10/986,322429/39 ; JP)H01M 2/18
7569301                           August
          Fuel cell February 15, 2005 4, 2009            Honda Motor Co., Ltd. (Tokyo,429/34; 429/38
                                                                     11/058,009429/39 ; JP)H01M 2/00 (20060101); H01M 2
                                              Sugiura; Seiji (Utsunomiya, JP), Goto; Shuhei (Utsunomiya, JP)
7569302               November 3, 2003 4, 2009
                                  August      Tanaka; Panasonic Corporation (Osaka, 429/42; 429/44
                                                                     10/700,098429/40 JP)  H01M 4/86 (20060101); H01M 4
          Fuel cell for generating electric power Aoi (Osaka, JP), Mino; Norihisa; (Osaka, JP), Hojo; Nobuhiko (Neya
7569509                producing August 4, 2009 cell Tsuguhiro (Tokyo, JP) (Yokohama-shi, JP) (20060101); B01J 23
          Method forApril 18, 2005             fuel                  11/587,803502/185 ; 429/40; 429/41; 429/42; 429/43; 4
                                  catalyst forOonuma; Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.               B01J 23/00
7572529               September August 11, Kato; Hideo (Utsunomiya, temperatures, ;andH01M 8/00 designing fuel cell sta
                                  7, 2004       fuel     Honda subzero JP), Inai; Shigeru (Shioya-gun,
                                                                     10/935,809429/13 JP)   method of (20060101); H01M 2
          Method and system for starting up2009 cell stack at Motor Co., Ltd. (Tokyo,429/24; 429/38 JP), Hayashi; Katsu
7572532               March 21, 2005 electrode containing (Karlsruhe, DE), Boehm; Emmanuelle (St Subin de H01M 4
                                  August       2009      Electricite 10/599,132429/30 ; 136/236.1; 136/238; 423/21.1; 423/
                                                                     material              C01F 17/00 (20060101); Medox,
          Oxide material and a fuel cell 11, Stevens; Philippe said de France (Paris, FR)Centre National de la Recherche (P
7572533               April 15, 2007
                                  August cell and method of making the TW), Shang; 429/36 8/02 (20060101); H01M S
                                               2009      Nan Ya Printed Circuit
                                                                     11/735,483429/32 Shi-Shyan (Luchu, Taoyuan, TW)
                                                                                           H01M
          Flat panel direct methanol fuel11, Liu; Yung-Yi (Taipei Hsien, same Board;Corporation James (Taoyuan, TW), 8
7572534               September August assembly
                                  20, 2004 2009          3M H. (Cottage Grove, MN), ;Hamrock; 8/10 (20060101)
                                                                     10/945,178429/33 429/40; 429/41; J. (Stillwater, MN)
                                                                                           H01M Steven MN)
          Fuel cell membrane electrode 11, Frey; Matthew Innovative Properties Company (Saint Paul,429/46
7572537               December 9,for the same
                                     2003      2009      Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki KaishaH01M 2/00 JP), Kawatsu; Shigey
                                                                     10/730,017429/34 ; 429/143; 429/38; 429/39
                                                                                            (Toyota-shi, JP)
          Fuel cell and separatorAugust 11, Iwase; Masayoshi (Anjo, JP), Hamada; Hitoshi (Susono, (20060101); H01M 2
7572538                           4, 2003      2009      Honda Giken Kogyo Sugiura;; Seiji (Utsunomiya, JP),
                                                                     10/656,481429/35 Kaisha (Tokyo,
                                                                                           H01M 2/08 (20060101); H01M 4
          Fuel cell September August 11, Fujii; Yosuke (Tochigi-ken, JP), Kabushiki429/38; 429/44 JP) Sugita; Nar
7572539               August fuel cell
                                   2004        2009       Susumu (Nara, JP), Matsumoto; H01M 2/08 (20060101)
                                                                     10/920,546429/35 ; JP)Toshihiro (Osaka, JP), Tomizawa
          Polymer electrolyte18, August 11, Kobayashi;Panasonic Corporation (Osaka, 429/34; 429/36; 429/38; 429/39
7572540               December 6, 2006 11, Yang; Yoo Hyundai Motor Company (Seoul, KR) Bum (Seoul, KR), Kim;
                                  August       2009        of metal-separator for fuel Kum; Young
                                                                     11/635,362429/38 ; 429/35
          Structure for improving laminating efficiencyChang (Gyeonggi-do, KR), cell H01M 2/14 (20060101); H01M 2
7572541                           August 11, 2009        Kabushiki Kaisha
                                                                     11/285,666429/42 ; 429/44; 4/86
                                                                                           H01M
          Fuel cell November 22, 2005 Arimura; Tomoaki (Ome, JP) Toshiba (Tokyo, JP) 568/6 (20060101)
7575611               August 8, 2007 fuel cell system UltraCell Corporation (Livermore, CA) 422/189; 422/190; 422/191
                                   in a        2009                  11/835,74748/61 ; Kenneth (Livermore, CA),
                                                                                           B01J
          Fuel processor for use August 18, Brantley; Jennifer (Dublin, CA), Newell; 422/188; 7/00 (20060101) Sopchak
7575821               June 11, 2002
                                  August 18, Wei; Chang preform 10/166,909429/12 ; 427/115;NY) (Niskayuna, B05D
                                               2009      General Electric Company (Niskayuna, 8/00
                                                                                           H01M 429/40
          Interconnect supported fuel cell assembly and (Niskayuna, NY), Browall; Kenneth Walter (20060101); NY) 5
7575823               September August 18, 2009 method and fuel11/220,861429/13 ; generation (20060101); H01M 2
                                  7, 2005      drive     Yasunari (Hannou, JP) (Tokyo, JP) 8/00
                                                                      container for        H01M
          Fuel cell system, fuel cell system Kabasawa; Casio Computer Co., Ltd.power429/30; 429/34
7575824               July 26, 2006
                                  August performance by removing at leastNM),metal; 205/704 8/00 Alamos, NM), cell e
                                               2009      Los (Los Alamos, one Choi; LLC contaminant from a C25F 7/
                                                                     11/493,259429/13 Jong-Ho Alamos, NM)
                                                                                           H01M
          Method of improving fuel cell18, Kim; Yu SeungAlamos National Security, oxide (Los(Los (20060101);fuel Zelen
7575827                coatings 2006 fuel2009 electrodes Technologies, Inc. (WhiteMI) 2/02 (20060101)
                                  August        cell     Delphi      11/386,930429/34 ; 429/12; MI), Mantese; 429/38
                                                                                            Lake,
          ConductiveMarch 22,for PEM 18, Hogan, legal representative; Jeannine (Troy, H01M429/32; 429/35; Joseph V. (
                    Abstract
         Field of Search                   Claim 1
                                           1. A fuel cell system comprising: a system stack that produces stack power when supplie
         429/22, 23 An apparatus and method for operating a fuel cell power fuel cellutilizing a low voltage power source and syste
                    A H01M 2/02 (20060101); H01M comprises a plurality of fuel cells (36). Each fuel oxide fuel cells, each fuel
                                           1. A solid oxide fuel cell module
H01M 2/00 (20060101); solid oxide fuel cell module (30)8/10 (20060101) comprising a plurality of solid cell (36) comprises a first
                     39                    1. A fuel methanol secures comprising: a to the catalyst layer, reliably with a first sid
         429/38, 30,For give a direct methanoldirectcell which fuel cellthe fuel supply membrane electrode assemblydischarge gener
                    An object of the presentA
                                           1. invention is to provide a catalyst-coated membrane ion conductive polymer electrolyte
H01M 4/86 (20060101); H01M 4/96 (20060101)catalyst-coated membrane comprising a hydrogen suitable for achieving a polymer el
                    The present invention1. A fibrous channeled metallongitudinal axis and comprising a surface channels metal p
                                             relates to a article having a clad
B32B 15/02 (20060101); H01M 2/16 (20060101); H01M 2/18 (20060101) fiber comprising one or more metal core, a firstthat exte
                    A method and apparatus for maintaining the cells of a fuel cell stack are disclosed. The apparatus includes a fu
                                             429/17, cell maintenance
         320/129, 134-136, 139, 101, 1411. A fuel 13 324/430-433 device, comprising: a switch; a pulse generator capable of puls
                    In a fuel cell power plant, carbon monoxide contained in reformate use with fuel cell power reformer (3) by
                                           1. A 422/198
         431/6, 7, 11, 326, 328 429/20, 26, 24 warm up device for a catalytic reactor forgas whichais produced by aplant which com
                    A H01M 8/06 (20060101)portable fuel cell described capable the following components a nominal a V of D
                                           1. A
H01M 8/04 (20060101); self-contained portable fuel cell system issystem comprising of economically generatingarranged in 12lightwe
                     34, 36, trap having a1. A fuel cell system comprising: a fuel cell; a gas of a passage for at least one of supplyi
         429/12, 13,A water 38, 25, 22, 17 discharge valve is disposed in a gas flow passage flow fuel cell system. It is judged wheth
                    427/115 502/101          provides oxide oxide fuel cell which anode, cathode, a cathode, and an wherein at le
         429/44, 45 The present invention1. A solid a solidfuel cell comprising ancontainsaan anode, and an electrolyte,electrolyte, w
                    A method 8/04 (20060101)
                                           1. A method for determining for fuel cell systems, it cell system which comprises a mon
G01N 27/00 (20060101); H01M for controlling the quality of the coolantcoolant quality of a fuel being proposed to measure and load
                    An arrangement of 1. A fuel cell powered vehicle, comprising: a cell powered is operable to generate powe
         180/219, 220, 229, 68.1, 68.2 intake and exhaust system components in a fuelfuel cell whichvehicle makes it easier to inst
                    A                      1. A combustion nailer and              having an comprising: a combustion nailer having a t
         227/10, 9, 11 combustion nailer is configured for use with a fuel cell assembly, internal metering valve and a reciprocating
                    There is 8/24 (20060101)method of flowing an through a fuel cell stack having a plurality of fuel cells, the m
                                           1. A
H01M 8/04 (20060101); H01Mdescribed a method of flowing reactantsanode reactant and a cathode reactant through a fuel cell stack
                     25, 34                1. A fuel cell system comprising: at least one cathode section having an inlet and an outle
         429/12, 17,A gas control and operation method of a fuel cell system for improved water and gas distribution is disclosed. T
                     30                      for method a fuel cell system. A recirculation loop coupled to a at least cathode ensure
         429/13, 17,A method and device1. Aoperatingof transiently operating a fuel cell system made up of fuel cellone fuel cell co
                     26, 39                1. A fuel cell a fuel comprising: one or of one or more fuel of the discharging flow pat
         429/13, 17,A fuel cell system is provided withsystem cell stack composedmore fuel cells, eachcells, a fuel cells having an a
                    Vehicle-mounted fuel1. A vehicle-mounted fuel more cooling cells and an air a plurality of power generating
                                             cell
H01M 8/04 (20060101); B60L 11/18 (20060101)stack includes one or cell stack system, comprising:allocation mechanism. Via the alc
                    A                        stack of unit plate for fuel cell, a hydrogen-ion conductive polymer electrolyte membr
H01M 8/04 (20060101) fuel cell includes a1. A separatorcells, eachaincluding: the separator plate comprising: an anode-side face havi
                    A H01M 2/14 (20060101); H01M comprising: a fuelH01M 8/12 (20060101); and depressions formed its su
                                           1. anode cell 8/04 anode-side cell body including an anode having an anode-side
H01M 2/00 (20060101); fuel cell body has an A fuel having an(20060101);separator with projectionsH01M 8/18 (20060101) onsepara
                    To 65.3, an electric 1. A 68.2, 68.4, 68.6 heat with a simple structure when the electric pump reactive co
                                            pump from generating
         180/65.1, 220, inhibit65.5, 65.6, 68.1, fuel-cell vehicle for traveling by electric power generated by supplyingisa used in a gas
                    A 612, 613, shock absorbing structure for absorbing structure for a fuel cell vehicle,784, 124.109 a front abs
                                           1. A rear 280/833, 831, fuel 832, 834, 835, 836, 837, 838, 839, comprising: 180/69.4 26
         248/610, 611,rear impact230.1, 312, 312.1impact shock a 830, cell vehicle. The shock absorbing structure appropriatelytank
                    T                        relates generally to heat transfer compositions. More particularly, the present invention
C09K 5/00 (20060101) he present invention1. A heat transfer composition, comprising: (a) from about 20% to about 80% by weight ro
                     18, 12 204/196.09, 253, 267, 270cascaded fuel cell block,735, essentially second stage operation. the first sta
                                           1. A fuel a system, 701 361/434, for 733, and
         429/34, 38,A fuel cell installation includescell 206/722,comprising: a first stage;730 awaste gas-free succeeding An installat
                     13                    1. A fuel cell fuel cell stack with air or hydrogen when supplied driving a compressor or
         429/23, 25,A fuel cell system FC replenishes asystem that generates electric power by temporarily with hydrogen and oxyg
                     20 reforming method for reforming apparatustype fuel cell comprising: a reforming reactor configured to reform
         429/13, 17,In a 423/650, 651      1. A a high temperature for fuel cell in which dimethyl ether is used as fuel gas, and a g
                     34-39                   stack humidification is provided incorporating the two openings for fuel device. and ou
         429/13, 17,A method of fuel cell1. A method for operating a fuel cell having at leastuse of an accumulationgas inletThe me
                                           1. fuel cell, fuel supply device, a gas cell; a fuel supply device detecting device and a
         429/13, 22 A fuel cell system has aA fuel cellasystem comprising: a fuel discharge valve, a voltagefor supplying a fuel gas
                    A                      1. fuel cell for for generating electric current and/or thermal heat, a cooling providing a
H01M 8/04 (20060101) fuel cell system has aA methodunit operating a fuel cell system, comprising the following steps: device provi
         429/34                             coated fuel fuel cell and method comprising: a same plate; an electrically conductive cor
                    A corrosion resistant 1. A coated cell platebipolar plate of making the metal are embodied in a metal plate provi
                     38, 39, to 37         1. cell cell comprising a cathode-anode-electrolyte unit unit, contact plate which is in el
         429/34, 35,In order 36,create a fuel Fuel unit, unit, comprising: a cathode-anode-electrolyteand a a contact plate in electrical
                                           1. An electric power generation system comprising: (a) fuel cell and connectable to of
         429/34, 17 An electric power generation system has elements that improve the cold startacapability stackfreeze tolerance an
                     39                    1. A fuel electrode assemblies and a electrolyte electrode assemblies and a pair of electro
         429/37, 38,A fuel cell includes electrolyte cell including a plurality of pair of separators sandwiching the electrolyte separat
                     38-42, 22, 25         1. A fuel cell comprising: an electrolyte membrane disposed to layer thickness directed
         429/12, 30,A fuel cell is provided having a positive electrode layer (13) and a negative electrodehave a (14) disposed on thh
                                           1. A fuel-cell, including a plurality of polymer electrolyte fuel-cell separators a molecule
         524/588 A sealing material comprising (A) an organopoly-siloxane containing at least two alkenyl groups inused in a sta
                    A 114, 116, 132 module is 18 power system comprising: (a) power of fuel cell power a power conditioni
                                           1. A fuel cell
         320/101, 107,fuel cell power 429/12, 13,provided. The module comprises a plurality production unit, (b)units, coupled to on
                    To 65.6, 218-220, 227 A suspension system in a fuel cell a shock absorber and various accessories in a fuel c
                                           1.
         180/65.1, 65.3,provide a suspension system that can efficiently lay outelectric vehicle provided with a fuel cell mounted in
                    A 253, 279, 257, with A muffler to reduce429/34, 13, an while generator air to a fuel cells disclosed. One th
                                           1. a fuel cell system noise generated
         181/227, 224,fuel cell system 222, 258, 249, 268, 269 comprising: 26 electric supplying configured to generate electricity em
                     20, 30, 33, 34        1. a method power plant a provide power electricity, end-use heat and fuel cell power
         429/17, 19,A method for operating A fuel cell for operatingto fuel cell end-useplant, comprising: operating aend-use reforma
                    320/101 700/295-2981. A fuel cell cell and a capacitor which fuel cell; reacting gas supply means for controls
                                             49/12, a fuel
         429/12, 24 A fuel cell power supply has 24 power supply comprising: aare connected parallel to each other, and supplyi
                                           1. A cooling apparatus for a a housing for providing a space for receiving an electricity g
         429/26, 34 A cooling apparatus of a fuel cell system includesfuel cell, comprising: a housing for receiving an electricity ge
                     40                     provides a for manufacturing a solid oxide fuel cell, the method comprising the at a co
         429/30, 45,The present invention1. A methodmethod for conveniently manufacturing a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC)followin
                     42, 38, 164            provides a fuel cell comprising: a hollow enclosure having an cell module includes an
         429/27, 44,The present invention1. A fuel cell modulemodule compatible with a dry cell. The fuelinternal space, said hollow
                                           at A fuel cell, comprising: at assembly (MEA), a pipe, a pump and a having: an anode la
         429/12-46 A fuel cell including 1. least a membrane electrodeleast one membrane electrode assembly, linkage arrangemen
         429/34                            1. cell stack includes fuel cell stack comprising: a membrane electrode assembly; and a d
                    An electrochemical fuelAn electrochemical a membrane electrode assembly and a distributor plate. The distribu
                    A device for 96/380, in and compressing at least one gas in 902 at least one has a compressor for the gas con
                                            383, 384, for sucking 403 417/312, a fuel cell system
         55/385.1, 385.3, DIG.17sucking 1. A device386 181/229,in and compressing429/12, 34 gas in a fuel cell system which ha
                     22, 24, 30, 34         acid methanol fuel cells include comprising: a fuel cell stack, including an anode, ruthen
         429/13, 15,Improvements to non1. A direct fed methanol system, new formulations for materials. The platinum and a catho
                    A 538 429/30, 33, 314, 317 521/27 a repeating unit for a by cell, having a repeating unit given by formula
                                           polymer having
         525/390, 471,proton conducting 1. A proton conducting polymer givenfuelformula (1) below is provided. ##STR00001## (
                    427/115                 collector and electrical collector and electrical component plate for a fuel cell stack, a pr
         429/38, 44 An integrated current1. An integrated current component plate for a fuel cell stack is disclosed, comprising com
                                           1. cell stack has feed fuel cell stack membrane a plurality of stacked membrane electrod
         429/12-46 A direct liquid feed fuelA direct liquid a structure in whichcomprising electrode arrays (MEAs), each having an
                    A 34                   1. A hybrid fuel cell system comprising: a fuel fuel containing hydrogen, fuel; an oxygen
         429/9, 19, 32,hybrid fuel cell system includes a fuel supply unit for supplying a supply unit for supplying aan oxygen supp
                                           1. A method of fuel cell start-up for a fuel compressor power is provided. The method inc
         429/13, 17 A method of providing fuel cell start-up without battery derived cell system having a hydrogen source connecte
                     30, 34, 36, 38, 22, 24, 26 housing defining which has a housing defining an electricity generation combustion
                                           1. A
         429/12, 13,A fuel cell assembly has afuel cell assembly,an electricity generation/combustion chamber, and electricity gene
                    A                      including fuel cell blocks electrically re-configurable in at least two arrangements by a co
H01M 8/04 (20060101) fuel cell apparatus 1. A fuel cell control module comprising circuitry programmed to re-configure connection
                     38, 13, 17, 20, 32, 34, A cell of the present invention is equipped a cell comprising: a MEA having a hydr
                                           1. fuel
         429/30, 26,The polymer electrolyte39 polymer electrolyte fuel cell equipped with:with a cell having an membrane electrode
                     38, 39                1. A fuel electrode assemblies and a electrolyte electrode assemblies and separators sandw
         429/32, 37,A fuel cell includes electrolyte cell including a plurality of pair of separators sandwiching the electrolyte electro
                                           1. A electrolyte membrane that allows an operating temperature of a solid polymer a den
         429/33, 34 The invention provides an fuel cell, comprising: an electrolyte membrane having a substrate formed from memb
         307/82                            1. A fault-tolerant circuit device in a fuel cell inverter for comprising: if an inverter unit
                    A fault-tolerant device is kept functioning in an alternating-current AC inverter,fuel cell even a plurality of inver
                     13, 26, 20            1. An apparatus for cooling a fuel cell, which generates power by gas, in which a cooling
         429/39, 34,An apparatus for cooling a fuel cell, which generates power by supplying air and a fuel supplying air and a fuel
                    In H01M 8/06 (20060101)fuel system that includes fuel cell that generates power by generates power by an
                                           1. A
H01M 8/04 (20060101); a fuel cell power generation cell power generationasystem comprising: a fuel cell thatan electrochemical reac
                     32                    1. of the invention fuel cell device comprises: a cells, each fuel cells, each of fuel cell
         429/26, 38,According to one aspectA fuel cell deviceacomprising: a plurality of fuel plurality of of said pluralityof the plura
                    An electrode structure having a pair structure for a polymer electrolyte fuel cell comprising a pair of electrode
                                           1. An H01M 4/96 (20060101)
H01M 8/10 (20060101); H01M 4/92 (20060101); electrodeof electrode catalyst layers and a polymer electrolyte membrane held betw
                    A                      stack has at least two segments a fuel cells each having reactant gas fuel cell The reacta
H01M 8/04 (20060101) hydrogen fuel cell 1. A fuel cell stack comprising: offirst fuel cell segment and a second passages.segment se
                                            is intended comprising: an anode; a cathode; an electrolyte membrane interposed betwe
         429/38, 32 The present invention1. A fuel cellto enable efficient assembly of a fuel cell stack without causing any damage
                    428/408 156/196        1. A method cell separator, includes cell separator, comprising the steps of: preparing a fi
         429/38, 34 A method of manufacturing a fuel of manufacturing a fuel the steps of: preparing a first sheet, which is formed
                    A 335, 337, 349, 350, 351, fuel cell 439 429/12, 30, 40,comprising 223
                                           1. A fuel cell, comprising: a anode 41, 44, 45, hydrogen oxidation finely divided met
         502/327, 332,fuel cell. The anode of the355, 415, comprisesan hydrogen oxidationa catalyst comprising acatalyst, said cataly
                                            which has a comprising: first substrate provided with a and an path to collection lay
         429/12, 44 To provide a fuel cell1. A fuel cell,reaction layerahaving good reaction efficiencygas flowelectron supply a first
                    A 105, 107, generating hydrogen of generating 214R, system,197FM fuel cell system, which fuel which is esse
                                            93-95, 209, for use in a fuel cell 214A, which
         48/75, 102R, method of111-112,1. A method 211-213, 215, hydrogen for use in a comprises processing a comprises proces
                    502/101 427/115        1. A fuel cell an organic fuel such as using a fuel and an oxidant comprising: a hydrogen
         429/42, 45 In order to prevent the crossover offor generating electricitymethanol in a fuel cell and to exhibit excellent elec
         429/31                             relates to a and dispensing dispensing system, which comprising a carrier material for a
                    The present invention1. A storage gas storage and system for storing and dispensing a target gas, comprising: (a
                    A 287, 356, coating1. A method 39 coating sealant on a separator path and a water flow path on a separato
                                            a liquid sealant
         427/115, 284,method for421.1 429/35, 36, 38,for (61) at aaperiphery of a gas flowfor a fuel cell, comprising the steps of: pr
                    A 122, 38, 12          1. A fuel cell separator comprising a flow path surface forming portion to form a cooling
         429/129, 247,mold for a use of making a fuel cell separator comprises: a first flow path formed thereon having an oxidizin
                    The 422/206             provides an improvement electrical energy comprising: (a) reforming a hydrocarbon con
         48/197R, 198.7 present invention1. A method for producing in the process of producing energy from fuel cells. A cyclic ref
                     26, 22                 practiced upon the occurrence of system, comprising: a fuel cell configured to allow the
         429/20, 24,It has heretofore been1. A fuel cell electricity generatingabnormalities on the equipment to make tentative condi
                    A                       a fuel cell, a hydrogen storage, a fuel cell; a hydrogen storage; and hydrogen burner su
H01M 8/04 (20060101) fuel cell device has1. A fuel cell device, comprisingand a hydrogen burner supplied fromasaid hydrogen stora
                                            provides a for a solid oxide fuel cell, a solid at least a cell, wherein the is a double per
         429/12-46 The present invention1. An anodematerial suitable for use in whereinoxide fuel part of the anode material is of a
                    A 433, 434 320/101,1. A cell-voltage a fuel cell structure for a a plurality of in which plurality of unit cells
                                            162, 164 429/12
         324/426, 430,cell-voltage measuring structure for measuring stack, in whichfuel cell stack unit cells,ahaving conductive sep
                     39                    1. A solid polymer type used for cooling of a solid polymer type fuel performing power
         429/12, 26,A water tank 21 for stocking processed water fuel cell comprising: a fuel-cell main body forcell 6, etc., cooling
                     24, 26                 for fuel cell system stack after a fuel cell stack including cathode flow channels and p
         429/13, 22,A system and method1. A drying a fuel cellcomprising: stack shutdown. In one embodiment, a cooling fluid isan
                    A                      1. A honeycomb type solid-oxide fuel cell formed of any of a efficiency material, excell
H01M 8/12 (20060101) SOFC type fuel cell being small in size and large in output while providing goodsolid-oxide and being a fuel
                    A 34                   1. A production method for a metallic separator projecting from matrix surface is preven
         429/129, 143,metallic separator in which falling off of the conductive inclusions for a fuel cell byapress-forming, comprisin
                     36, cell including 1. A refillable fuel cell comprising: a casing; second surface, at first surface and a second
         429/34, 35,Fuel 32, 46, 27, 12 a casing, a cathode having a first surface and a a cathode having aleast part of the second su
                    There 30, 34           electronic device including an electronic device main body and a fuel fuel cell body whic
         429/9, 13, 22, 25,is provided an 1. An electronic device comprising: an electronic device main body; a cell main main body
                    A 146, 157.4, paper 1. A porous carbon electrode substrate for a fuel cell 1.05 or more, and a fiber paper havi
                                           including
         162/138, 145,carbon fiber 152 429/42, 43 carbon fibers having a surface area ratio of comprising a carbon porous carbon e
                    A H01M 2/00 (20060101); H01M 2/02 (20060101); H01M 8/10small a tension The fuel cell is assembled wit
                                            diffusion layer formed a a sheet having a (20060101)
H01M 8/00 (20060101); fuel cell includes a1. A fuel cell including indiffusion layer wherein thickness.is a pulling force applied direc
                    A                      1. is provided which cell, comprising: (A) a membrane electrolyte intimately interfacing
         429/34, 127 conformable fuel cellA conformable fuelincludes a basic structure that provides flexibility while providing a
                    In H01M 2/14 (20060101); H01M 8/10 a(20060101) an electrically conductive portion portion made from
                                           1. a separator for fuel which
H01M 8/02 (20060101); this fuel cell, among Apair of separators in cell comprising an electrically conductivewhich is comprising an e
                    A thin film solid oxide fuel cell (TFSOFC) having a film solid oxide fuel cell, a porous cathode is provided. c
                                           1. A
B05D 5/12 (20060101); H01M 4/88 (20060101) method for forming a thin porous metallic anode andcomprising: a. supplying a thinT
                    A 320/101              1. A fuel cell system comprising: fuel cell stack; at least one electrical energy storage de
         429/9, 24, 26 fuel cell system includes a fuel cell stack and at leastaone electrical energy storage device that can be electric
                     34                     are method for recovering fluid within a fuel cell system. The fluid comprising: providi
         429/13, 22,A system and method1. A provided for fluid collection from a fuel cell system, said methodcollection device inc
                    429/19, 20             1. A water reformer of a fuel cell system of a fuel cell system, comprising: a supporter i
         502/80, 84 The water gas shift catalyst for agas shift catalyst for a reformerwhere a supporter includes a clay and ZnO fille
                    A fuel                 1. A fuel supply cycle for supplying water the fuel cell stack through piping; n numbers
         429/25 180/65.3 cell system has: a watercell system mounted on a vehicle, to a system comprising: a fuel cell stack: a wa
         429/26                            1. A fuel cell having comprising: stack having at least one electricity generator electric
                    A fuel cell system includes a stack system, an electricityagenerator for receiving fuel and air to generate for rece
                     23, 13, 22            1. A fuel cell system comprising: fuel by-pass a a cathode input line (WVT) device dur
         429/26, 34,A fuel cell system that selectively causes cathode inputaair to cell stack; water vapor transfer providing cathode
                    The measurement precision of a current detector of
         320/101, 104, 138, 140 318/139, 812 429/19, 23, 180, 13, 22 the fuel cell in a fuel cell system is improved. Where the fu
                    A
         429/30, 127 fuel cell including at least one single cell C having an electrolyte 3, a fuel electrode 5, and an air electrode 7
                     38, 39
         429/32, 37,A fuel cell includes an electrolyte electrode assembly and a pair of separators sandwiching the electrolyte elect
                    A
H01M 2/00 (20060101) solid oxide fuel cell is formed by arranging a fuel electrode layer and an air electrode layer on both surfaces
                     139 96/121, 126 429/12, 13, 19
         95/96, 119,A method of operating a fuel cell system includes providing a fuel inlet stream into a fuel cell stack, operating
                     22-24, 30, 34
         429/12, 17,A fuel cell system having a fuel cell, the fuel cell having a membrane-electrode assembly; a fuel reservoir cont
                    264/241, 320
         429/34, 38 A fuel cell separator having a surface layer on one side or both sides thereof. The surface layer includes at leas
                     34, 38, 39
         429/32, 33,A polymer electrolyte fuel cell including a plurality of membrane electrode assemblies and a plurality of condu
                     30
         429/35, 33,The present invention provides a membrane-electrode assembly for polymer electrolyte fuel cells and a polyme
                    205/637
         429/34, 39 A technique that is usable with a fuel cell stack includes routing an anode exhaust of the fuel cell stack to an an
                     44
         429/38, 39,The invention relates to a fuel cell with a stack comprising an electrolytic membrane (4), with front and rear fa
                    A H01M 4/48 (20060101); that incorporates ion exchange membranes to create separate compartments for the
H01M 4/36 (20060101); new semi-fuel cell designH01M 6/20 (20060101)
                     23 700/271, between 702/64, 65
         429/13, 22,A correlation 298, 281 a variance in a voltage output of fuel cell(s) of a fuel cell stack and a level of nitrogen in
         429/26, 20 A fuel cell system includes a fuel cell stack, a reformer which is thermally integrated with the fuel cell stack. T
         429/34, 35 A fuel cell formed by arranging a plurality of unit cells, wherein each unit cell comprises a membrane electrode
                    A temperature control scheme for a fuel cell stack thermal
         700/299, 38, 44, 45 429/20-26, 12-13, 19 320/101, 150 903/908, 944 sub-system in a fuel cell system that uses a non-line
                    An 65.8, 65.2 429/9, a 13, 22 and an electric storage 116, 118 903/944, 903
         180/65.3, 65.1,electric system has12,fuel cell307/43, 45, 64 320/104, device which are connected in parallel to each other w
                    A H01M 8/06 (20060101); H01M 8/10 a housing provided 8/16 (20060101)
H01M 8/02 (20060101); polymer electrolyte fuel cell includes (20060101); H01M with an anode-side supply inlet for supplying a ma
         429/22, 25 When an electric power generation demand occurs for a fuel cell stack 1, an electric power stored in a battery 8
H01M 2/00 (20060101)Subject matter describes a current collector for a fuel cell stack, wherein the current collector physically suppor
         429/38, 39 A fuel cell stack is provided with an outlet side oxygen-containing gas communication hole. First and second o
                    An inexpensive metallic 69
         148/326, 325, 651, 653, 608 420/40,material for interconnects of solid-oxide fuel cells, a fuel cell using the metallic materi
                     18, 41, 56 429/12, 34
         216/13, 17,A method of making a fuel cell component using a mask, which is removed after further processing to yield a s
                     23, 90, 537
         429/13, 22,The invention relates to a method for monitoring the operational state of a fuel cell stack comprising a plurality
         429/17, 22 A fuel cell system includes a fuel cell for generating power by being supplied with a fuel gas and an oxidizing
                     25, 13
         429/22, 34,A fuel cell system includes: a fuel cell in which electrical power generation is performed through chemical reac
                     20, 38, 34, 39, 13
         429/26, 24,A fuel cell system includes a fuel cell stack, a reservoir, a water management circuit, a cooling circuit and a fan
                     33
         429/30, 12,A solid oxide fuel cell component (12) comprises a plurality of solid oxide fuel cells (24) arranged in spaced ap
                     30, 32, 33
         429/34, 39,A fuel cell which is producible in high volume has electrolyte, positive electrode and negative electrode compo
                     44
         429/32, 36,A flat panel direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) includes an integrated cathode electrode plate, a set of membran
                     36, 37, 38, controlling fluid flow to a stack of fuel cell flow field plates comprises providing in each fuel cell
         429/34, 35,A method of39
         429/38, 36 A fuel cell includes a membrane electrode assembly and first and second metal separators. The first metal sepa
                     39
         429/26, 38,In a fuel cell, a porous portion is formed in a separator. At a surface of the porous portion opposite to a surface
                     63
         702/60, 61,A fuel-cell power generation system includes a fuel-cell power generator, a power measurement section for me
         73/304C A capacitance fuel volume measuring apparatus for a fuel cell is disclosed. The apparatus utilizes two electrode
                    A vehicle mounting structure for 429/34, 35, 37
         180/65.1, 65.3, 291, 292, 68.5 903/908, 952 a fuel cell includes a fuel cell box which accommodates a fuel cell stack insid
                    427/115
         429/36, 38 In a fuel cell assembly (1) comprising an electrolyte layer (2) having a frame (21) and an electrolyte (22) retain
         429/24, 26 Improvements in startup time for an electrochemical fuel cell system from freezing and sub-freezing temperatu
         429/26, 20 A fuel cell system includes a reformer for generating hydrogen gas from fuel containing hydrogen using a chem
                     41, 44, 12
         429/31, 40,A membrane electrode assembly (11) for a tube-shaped fuel cell, which is provided with a tube-shaped solid el
                     39
         429/13, 34,A fuel cell includes a stack of electrolyte membranes joined to one another to form an interior space and an ext
                     36, 38, 30, 39 502/101
         429/34, 35,A fuel cell includes a solid polymer electrolyte membrane and cathode and anode catalyst layers held between
                     35, 36, 38, 39, a
         429/30, 34,A cell for use in37 solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell, including a membrane electrode assembly including a fue
                     34, 45 427/115
         429/30, 33,The present invention is a symmetrical bi-electrode supported solid oxide fuel cell comprising a sintered monol
                    A
H01M 8/04 (20060101) fuel cell system according to the present invention comprises fuel cell stacks for generating electrical power
                     38
         429/26, 35,The invention discloses an integral multi-stack system of fuel cell. The system includes at least one pair of fuel
                     39, 17, provided a power supply system for supplying power to a plurality of loads includes: a fuel cell for ge
         307/52, 38,There is 29
                    A 116, 141 429/12, the present invention includes a fuel cell stack, a fuel feeder that provides the fuel cell sta
         320/101, 110,fuel cell system of18, 23
                    A gas-liquid separator for a fuel cell system onboard a vehicle includes an upper chamber, a lower chamber, a
         55/337, 434 48/61 123/572
                     22, 25
         429/13, 17,A fuel cell system of the present invention comprises a fuel cell which is supplied with a fuel gas and an oxidiz
                    A                        for fuel cell system comprising: a compressor in a fuel cell cathode side an an anode s
H01M 8/04 (20060101) system and method1. A controlling a bleed valve and a fuel cell stack including a system duringand anode exha
                     17, 19, 20, 22, fuel cell system, the fuel 38, generating electric powertail gas combuster, oxygen with 701/22
                                           1. A 31, 32, system for 39, 45, 62, 69, reformer, by combination 62/3.7 exchangers, and
         429/13, 16,In a solid-oxide 24, 26, 30,fuel cell 34, 35,cell stacks, the fuel 23 320/101 180/65.3, 65.1 of heat 123/696 hydrog
                    A                      1. A fuel cell device comprising: a fuel cell cooled by tank 5 is solution; a water storage
H01M 8/04 (20060101) fuel cell device and related control method are disclosed wherein a water antifreezedisposed downstream of a
                    The present invention1. A fuel cell 8/04 (20060101); H01M having haselectricity generator, that the electricity
                                             is a          system comprising: a stack that an an electricity generator, includes
H01M 8/00 (20060101); H01M 8/02 (20060101); H01M system, including a stack 8/06 (20060101); H01M 8/10 (20060101) separg
                    A H01M 8/04 fuel cell A the present invention includes a plurality of stacked a plurality of stacked unit cells,
                                           1. of
H01M 8/02 (20060101); stack for the (20060101)stack for a polymer electrolyte fuel cell, comprising: unit cells each of which include
                                           1. fuel cell stack comprises fuel cell of beads and a support which a separator mountab
         429/35, 34 A composite gasket for A unit cell structure for a two rows stack comprising an MEA and can improveplate loca
                     17                    1. for supplying fuel to for fuel cells, a fuel supply unit and fuel suction unit. When t
         429/12, 13,A fuel supply apparatusA fuel supply system a fuel cell has the system comprising:aawatercell that generates po
                    A                      1. A shock resistant information storage of retrieval device comprising: a disposed drive
G11B 33/14 (20060101) shock and vibration resistant hard disk drive has a plurality andfluid damping isolation devices hard disk betw
                    A fuel cell vehicle includes: a vehicle body; a floor panel provided in the vehicle body that has a floor tunnel th
                                           1. A fuel cell 65.3, 65.5, 68.5
         296/193, 193.07 248/430 297/344.1 180/65.1, vehicle, comprising: a vehicle body; a floor panel provided in the vehicle bo
                                           1. A polymer electrolyte fuel means for integrating an MEA and a pair of separators asse
         429/30, 35 It is an object of the present invention to provide a cell comprising: a frame-integrated membrane electrodeand r
                     30 present              relates to a gasketed membrane-electrode assembly comprising gaskets arranged on each
         429/35, 36,The 29/623.2invention1. A gasketed membrane-electrode assembly comprising: a membrane-electrode assembly
                    Disclosed is mediator-less microbial fuel 242, comprising cathode fuel cell comprising a compartment, wit
                                           1. A membrane-less cell 275.1
         429/2, 12, 17, 67-70, 13a204/403.09, 403.1, 412, 415,and mediator-lessamicrobialcompartment, an anodecathode compartm
                     38, 39                1. A fuel cell comprising a plurality a electrolyte electrode assemblies and a pair of elect
         429/32, 37,A fuel cell includes an electrolyte electrode assembly and of pair of separators sandwiching the electrolyte separ
                     40, 41, 44              provides an comprising a pair for polymer electrolyte fuel cells, inexpensive, and exhibi
         429/33, 30,The present invention1. A fuel cell electrode structure of electrode catalyst layers, each containing a catalyst sup
         429/34                            1. power generating device of the invention device comprising: an electromotive force sec
                    A direct liquid fuel cell A direct liquid fuel cell power generating comprise an anode electrode, a cathode electr
                                           1. A fuel cell comprising: an generated gas ejection part having a bundle made up of holl
         429/34, 38 A direct methanol type fuel cell is provided with a air electrode supplied with oxygen gas; a fuel electrode supp
                     38, 30, 31, 40, 44 1. A fuel uses a first sheet of a plurality of first hollow an electrolyte from a second she
         429/12, 34,An improved fuel cell structurecell which comprises carbon fibres separated by electrically conductive gas perme
                    A housing 10, power tool having a power source, includes power source, comprising: a fuel attachment con
                                           1. A
         123/495 429/34 227/9,for a 130, 156 housing for a power tool having a a fuel cell chamber configured forcell chamberto th
                     17, 19, 20, 22, 1 26, 34,fuel-circulating fuel cell system comprising: fuel cell that is supplied with generate
                                            a A 38 48/127.9 180/65.3
         429/12, 13,A fuel cell stack23,in 1. fuel-circulating fuel cell system is supplied withafuel and an oxidizing agent to fuel and
         429/26                           1. A and sub-freezing startup electrochemical fuel cell system having an may be observe
                    Improvements in freezing cooling subsystem for antime for an electrochemical fuel cell system electrochemical
                                          1. A a housing containing first processor that generates fuel shell section containing a e
         429/34, 12 A fuel cell device includesfuel cell comprising: a a fuelcylindrically configured outer gas and a fuel cell having f
                     30, 34, 40           1. A solid oxide fuel cell comprising: electrolyte a fuel reforming catalytic substrate posi
         429/31, 12,A solid oxide fuel cell comprises a tube forming an anode, a first tube;and cathode, and a catalytic substrate is p
                     34, 38, 39             is to provide a power unit, comprising: a power in equalizing flow rates composed of a j
         429/10, 17,The present invention1. A power generation generation unit successful generation cell which is of fluids flowing
                     44                   1. A has proton conducting membrane (PCM), catalyst in contact with the PCM, a ga
         429/30, 42,A direct methanol fuel celldirectamethanol fuel cell comprising a protonaconductive membrane a catalyst juxtap
                    The present 439, 527.12, 527.19 of preparing a structured catalyst for reforming a method of preparing the sa
                                            relates to a
         502/300, 355, 327, 415,invention1. A method structured catalyst for reforming of gasoline andgasoline for fuel-cell powered
                    359.3, 384, invention is related to electrolyte obtained by cross linking the polymer having a has a high havin
         525/328.8, The present 419, 420 1. A polymer a polymer comprising terminal sulfonic acid groups, which substituent ionic
                    A method is provided1. A producing an electrically electricallysealing arrangement for a fuel cell stack which co
         29/623.2 429/36 427/115            for method of producing an insulating insulating sealing arrangement for a fuel cell stac
                    A                     1. A fuel cell system comprising: a fuel catalytic combustor 7 combusting an oxidant gas
H01M 8/04 (20060101) fuel cell system and related method are disclosed having a gas supply unit supplying fuel gas;mixed gas betw
                     40                   1. An integrated solid oxide fuel cell stack comprising: a first anode layer; first electroly
         429/30-33, The disclosure is directed to a solid oxide fuel cell stack. The solid oxide fuel cell stack includesaat least two so
                     22, 38                with differences in specification a fuel cell; a in parallel between a hydrogen storage un
         429/34, 24,Three ejectors 5, 7, 91. A fuel cell system comprising: are connectedhydrogen supply source supplying hydroge
                    A fuel                1. A product comprising: a fuel cell binary and ternary nitrides and plate and of elemen
         427/115, 126.1 cell component having a coating thereon includingcomponent comprising a bipolaroxynitridesan electrica
                     37, 745-746, 754-774, 10fuel cell module, comprising: a fuel cells which collectively fuel a fuel cell stack fo
                                          1. A 29/745-746 439/754-774
         429/12, 32,A fuel cell module includes a number of series-connected plurality of series-connected formcells combined toin
                     34, 39               1. A fuel cell stack (1) provided with a polymer electrolyte membrane (2), an electrodes,
         429/12, 22,A fuel cell assembly has afuel cell assembly comprising: a fuel cell having first and second oxygen air electrod
                     19, 25, 20, 24, 34 1. A method for operating an as solid oxide fuel cell systems and molten carbonate temp
         429/13, 17,Enhanced high temperature fuel cell systems, such electrical current generation system comprising a highfuel c
                     22, 34, 39           1. A at least one flow restricting device to having stoichiometric quantity of cathode rea
         429/13, 17,A fuel cell system utilizes method of operating a fuel cell systemvary the at least one fuel cell stack and at least
                                          1. A fuel system, comprising: fuel processing system including a fuel cell for converting
         429/12, 22 A fuel cell system includes a fuel cell, a fuel supplyasystem, and a fuel cell control system. The fuel cell conve
                     26, 23, 24, 34       1. A fuel cell device having a fuel reform unit, material feed unit, a cooling water suppl
         429/22, 19,A fuel cell device including a fuel cell stack unit, a material feed unitafor feeding fuel of hydrocarbon system, a
                     22, end of           1. A (32) facing a cathode (33B) of a fuel cell (36) forming a fuel cell fuel cells are stacke
         429/12, 13,One 38, 39 an air passage fuel cell power plant, comprising: a fuel cell stack wherein plural stack (6) is connec
                    A                     1. A fuel cell separator comprising: a metal central part; a resin 31) for guiding reaction
H01M 8/02 (20060101) fuel cell separator is provided which has in a peripheral part (30) gas passages (31,frame part surrounding thg
                     36, 38 427/115       1. A process crosslinked rubber layer is fabricated by cell, comprising: coating a coating
         429/35, 30,A fuel cell separator unit having a for producing a sealing structure of a fuelcoating a rubber-containing rubber-
                                            provides a of making a gasketed fuel cell membrane electrode assembly comprising: a)
         429/36, 41 The present invention1. A methodmethod of making a gasketed fuel cell membrane electrode assembly by simu
                     38, 39               1. A planar fuel a fuel cell unit consisting oxide fuel cell stack, stacked holder plate and u
         429/34-36, A solid oxide fuel cell stack includes cell unit for use in a solid of a fuel cell framed by a cell between upper an
                     34, 35, 36, 38, 39, 40, 44 204/283, including a diffusion layer, a first microporous layer having a thickness
                                          1. An fuel cell substrate
         429/30, 33,An electrode substrate for aelectrode294, 252 for a fuel cell, comprising: a diffusionlayer that embeds into theb
                    A method for recovering amethod for a 138 241/24.14, 24.25 a fuel cell, comprising: a collection step in 514,
                                          1. A 392 423/22, fuel cell includes collection step in which a catalyst is collected by a
         502/5, 21, 185 420/435, 466 75/10.67,catalystfor recovering a catalystafor 209/12.1, 213, 214 148/103, 105, 108, 513, whic
                    The present invention 654, 648.1 for producing removing sulfur compounds, which adsorbent can effectively r
                                            provides an adsorbent for hydrogen, comprising: desulfurizing a hydrocarbon fuel by con
         502/400 423/650, 651, 652, 653,1. A process252/373 429/17, 19
                                          1. A fuel cell system, comprising: a laminate of unit cells, each unit cell of the unit a coo
         429/26, 38 Coolant passages (11a, 11b) are provided in unit cells (17a, 17b) which form a laminate (170)comprising cells
                     13, 30, 38           1. In cells, of fuel cells, steam carrying channels separated of hydrophobic porous l
         429/24-26, To evaporatively cool fuel a stackthe pressure inwherein adjacent cells areon one sideby aaporous, hydrophobic b
                                          1. A fuel cell power generation system comprising: a reforming generate a reformed gas
         429/12, 26 A fuel cell power generation system includes a reforming catalyst body configured to catalyst body configured c
                    A                     1. A comprises a multiple number of connected unit cells, each composed of a fuel electr
H01M 8/04 (20060101) direct methanol fuel celldirect methanol fuel cell including a multiple number of connected unit cells, each co
                     34                     to a fuel cell comprising, a first separator plate; a second separator plate joined to the se
         429/38, 32,The disclosure relates1. A fuel cell, including a solid electrolyte layer disposed on a separator plate. Another firs
                     26, 24                membrane electrode assembly 21 and bipolar assembly, and a outside the membrane e
         429/38, 25,A fuel cell includes a1. A fuel cell, comprising: a membraneaelectrodeplate 24 disposed bipolar plate having firs
                    A H01M 4/88 (20060101); H01Mfor making a fuel cell anode, comprising the steps of: depositing a first film
                                          1. A method 8/02 (20060101)
H01M 4/86 (20060101); fuel cell includes at least one electrode operatively disposed in the fuel cell, and having a catalytically activeo
                    A voltage supplying 1. A voltage supplying apparatus, used source is provided. The voltage supplying apparat
         320/101 429/13, 23 180/65.3 apparatus using fuel cell to be a voltage to output a total output voltage, comprising: a fuel
                    In a 68.5, 68.4       1. A vehicle comprising: (30) is accommodated in a first recess a vehicle, which is a veh
         180/65.3, 65.1, fuel cell equipped vehicle (10), a fuel cell a floor panel that separates an inside ofportion (22) which forms
                    An 89.2, 309, 903, 1. An exhaust structure for a fuel cell vehicle having a electrical power by inducing a p
                                          for 944 903/908, 944
         180/65.1, 65.2,exhaust structure908, a fuel cell vehicle includes a fuel cell for generatingfuel cell for generating electricalrea
                    323/299 320/137         relates to a for cell. The fuel cell includes an electricity generator which has an oxygen
         429/12, 13 The present invention1. A method fuel controlling a fuel cell, comprising: measuring an output voltage of the fue
                                          1. A fuel cell system comprising: stack in an internal temperature of the stack by passin
         429/12, 24 A fuel cell system includes a first heating structure thataincreases which an electrochemical reaction occurs betw
                    A                       apparatus for a supply is able to adapt to cell comprising: a compressor that supplies p
H01M 8/04 (20060101) reaction gas supply1. A reaction gasfuel cell apparatus for a fuelvarious kinds of operating states, and can prov
                    An exhaust gas disposalAn H01M 8/00 disposal apparatus of fuel cell, the apparatus comprising: dilution ve
                                          1. apparatus gas (20060101)
H01M 8/04 (20060101); H01M 2/00 (20060101); exhaustof a fuel cell of the presentainvention is equipped with a dilutionavessel havi
                     39                   1. A fuel cell stack comprising: a plurality of and a restraining member. in series, each m
         429/37, 38,A fuel cell stack includes a plurality of multi-cell modules stacked multi-cell modules stackedEach multi-cell of
                     17, 19, 20, 24        to a method start-up method, said stack, comprising a numerous cells supplied supplied
         429/12, 13,The invention relates 1. A fuel cell for starting a fuel-cell fuel cell comprising plurality ofcells which are by a refo
                     26                    1. A fuel cell a direct methanol fuel cell organic liquid feed fuel cell having an anode, a
         429/12, 13,A fuel cell system is provided withsystem comprising: a directhaving an anode, a cathode and an electrolyte me
                     22, 19, 34            1. A fuel cell system which generates electricity by supplying oxidant gas to a fuel cell st
         429/12, 21,A fuel cell system is provided which generates electricity by supplying fuel gas andfuel gas and oxidant gas to
                     22, 23, 24, 26        1. A fuel cell-atmospheric-pressure turbine hybrid energy of a cell exhaust gas discharged
         429/12, 13,A fuel cell-atmospheric-pressure turbine hybrid system uses the thermalsystem comprising: a combustor config
                                           1. A fuel cell system comprising: a fuel cell having off-gas passage, anode, the fuel cell
         429/22, 12 A fuel cell system includes a fuel cell, an oxidant gas passage, a cathode a cathode and an a fuel gas passage, ag
                    324/691, 717 control system of fuel cell includes a a fuel to a unit that stores the fuel to an anode and a c
                                           1. 61.47, 61.78, 61.76
         429/25, 22 A fuel amount73/64.41, A controlasystem for supplyingfuel storage fuel cell stack that includesbe supplied to the
                    A power                1. A power generation control system a a fuel cell, comprising: a chargeable/dischargeab
         320/101 429/9, 23 generation control system for a fuel cell, includingforchargeable/dischargeable unit connected to a fue
                    427/115                1. sealing method for sealing both ends of an anode-supported tubular solid oxide fuel ce
         429/31, 35 A sealing element and aA sealing element for sealing both ends of an anode-supported tubular solid oxide fuel
                    A H01M 2/14 (20060101)molten carbonate fuel cell and cathode; an electrolyte matrix or disclosed. The an
                                           1. a
H01M 8/02 (20060101); fuel cell, in particularA fuel cell, comprising: an anode;aamethod for production thereof are layer of electrolyt
                     46                    1. A solid electrolyte fuel layer formed on one surface of a solid electrolyte layer formed
         429/33, 41,A solid electrolyte fuel cell including a cathodecell comprising: a solid electrolyte layer, a cathodelayer and an
                     44, 30, 33 204/293, 283, high oxygen reduction
                                           1. A supported catalyst suitable for use as a cathode of direct methanol fuel cells, compris
         429/40, 41,A catalyst particle having 284 502/101 420/525 reactivity and low methanol oxidation reactivity, a supported
                    A method 730, 832, 623.5method of converting of a web of a thin430/256, 258
                                            for 198/449 automatically converting a patterned catalyst-coated membrane membra
         29/623.1, 411, 623.3, is provided1. A automated271/5, 9.04 414/789.6, 793.1web of a thin patterned catalyst-coated to separ
         429/10                            1. Fuel cell, generating oxygen and hydrogen ions and hydrogen an anode (A), a magne
                    The fuel cell, generating electric power from electric power from oxygenand comprisingions, and comprising an
                     32, 36, 44            1. A methanol assembling a flat an integrated cathode fuel cell, sheet, a set of membran
         429/12, 13,A flat panel DMFC (directmethod forfuel cell) includes panel direct methanol electrode the method comprising:
                    29/623.1               1. disassembleable fuel a fuel cell comprising: (a) applying a forming at composition c
         429/12, 34 A method for forming aA method for formingcell assembly includes the steps of (a) first curableleast two fuel a
                     13, 31, 33             provides oxide fuel cell comprising solid cell having an that excels in output performa
         429/30, 12,The present invention1. A solid an electrolyte membrane ofaasingle oxide fuel cell air electrode disposed on a su
                     35, 39, and related systems for determining an efficient operating state for an integrated fuel cell/fuel fuel pro
                                           1.
         429/24, 26,Methods19, 30, 13, 22 A method of operating an integrated power system comprising a fuel cell and a reforme
                    A G05D 3/00 for supplying cell unit comprising: a fuel cell; an LED provided DMFC that generates electric
                                           1. A
H01M 8/04 (20060101); fuel cell unit(20060101)fuelelectric power to an electronic apparatus includes a at the fuel cell unit and power
                     24                    1. A method for operating a vehicle-mounted fuel cell stack, said as to whether consumed
         429/26, 13,For controlling operation of a vehicle-mounted fuel cell stack, a determination is made vehicle-mounted fuel ce
                    A H01M 6/36 (20060101); H01M 8/08 formic directH01M 8/14 (20060101)
                                           1. A direct for use with a acid organic fuel cell containing a fuel solution containing
H01M 8/10 (20060101); membrane electrode assemblyorganic (20060101); fuel cell comprised of: a liquid formic acid fuel includesaaf
                                           1. A seal structure first seal surface formed in first separator electrolyte one side of an
         429/34-39 A seal structure of a fuel cell includes a of a fuel cell where an outeraperiphery of andisposed on membrane is en
                     35                    1. wherein the gasket includes and second spaced and opposed bipolar plate members; Fo
         429/33, 44,A gasket for a fuel cell, A fuel cell, comprising: first the use of two or more different materials as the gasket. fir
                                           1. A comprising a pair comprising: (11, 12) each layer (13); a pair of (10) serving as a c
         429/20-40 In a fuel cell assembly (1) fuel cell assembly,of separators an electrolyte for defining a recesscatalyst electrode l
                     34                     membrane electrode assembly and separators sandwiching having a pair electrode assem
         429/39, 38,A fuel cell includes a1. A fuel cell comprising: an electrolyte electrode assembly the membraneof electrodes an
         429/12                            1. A fuel invention is a fuel cell for generating an electric power by supplying one electro
                    A cell according to the present cell for generating an electric power by supplying one electrode with a fuel and
                    The present invention1. 429/40-44 for producing a catalyst for a fuel a fuel cell comprising: a forming an inve
                                            provides a
         502/101, 182, 185, 527.15, 527.24 A methodmethod for producing a catalyst forcell comprising: a step forstep for forming
                     38                    up at a subzero temperature subzero temperature a solid cell stack that is formed by t
         429/24, 13,A method of starting 1. A method of starting up ataasolid polymer electrolyte fuelpolymer electrolyte fuel cell,st
                    596, 600, 617, 21.1, 1. An oxide material 238, 240 formula (I) A.sub.2-x-yA'.sub.XA''.sub.yM.sub.1-z M'.sub
                                           to an                     the following
         423/593.1, The invention relates263, 592.1 136/236.1,of general 429/30general formula: A.sub.2-x-yA'.sub.xA''.sub.yM.sub
                    A H01M 8/10 (20060101)method for fabricating an integrated cathode electrode sheet sheet; a membrane me
                                           1. A
H01M 8/02 (20060101); flat panel direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) includes an integrated cathode electrodeof a flat-panel directelec
                    Fuel                   1. A fuel cell membrane electrode assembly comprising a polymer electrolyte comprising
H01M 8/10 (20060101) cell membrane electrode assemblies and fuel cell polymer electrolyte membranes are provided membrane w
                     39, 143               1. A fuel cell comprising: a joint body a fuel gas flowing through electrolyte member bet
         429/34, 38,An improved fuel cell makes uniform partial gas pressure ofproduced by interposing an a gas passage formed b
                    A H01M 4/94 (20060101); H01M 8/02 (20060101) and first and second metal separators a sandwiching the
                                            membrane electrode assembly
H01M 2/08 (20060101); fuel cell includes a1. A fuel cell comprising: an electrolyte electrode assembly includingforpair of electrodes
                     36, 38, 39            1. A cell has an MEA-gasket assembly including an MEA having a polymer electrolyte m
         429/24, 35,A polymer electrolyte fuelpolymer electrolyte fuel cell comprising: an MEA-gasket assembly including an MEA
                                           1. for improving laminating laminating efficiency of a metal-separator for a fuel cell sta
         429/38, 35 Disclosed is a structure A structure foraimproving a efficiency of a metal-separator for a fuel cell stack, the meta
                    A                       a A fuel cell comprising a unit cell having a unit including electrode unit including a e
         429/42, 300 fuel cell comprises1. unit cell having a membrane-like electrode membrane-like an electrolyte membrane,an fu
                    In 211, 222            1. A processor for for in fuel cell system, may have a bottom plate, having a regenerato
         422/187-191, one embodiment, a fuelfuel processor use usea in a fuel cell system, comprising: regenerator chamber having
                     39, 35 427/115        1. An interconnect-supported fuel cell at least two electrodes and preform comprising an
         429/34, 38,A fuel cell assembly includes at least one fuel cell includingcomprising: an interconnect an electrolyte. An inter
                     19, 34, 13            1. A fuel cell system, performs a a fuel cell which performs with fuel for power generati
         429/22, 30,A fuel cell system having a fuel cell which comprising:power generation operation a power generation operation
                    A method of removing contaminants removing at cell catalyst electrode. contaminant from a fuel cell catalyst ele
         429/13 205/704                    1. A method of from a fuel least one metal oxide The method includes providing a getter
                     35, 38, 115, 12       1. A bipolar plate cell modules includes a bipolar plate said bipolar plate comprising at l
         429/34, 32,A bipolar plate for use in a stack of fuelfor use in a stack of fuel cell modules, that has at least one surface conta
  produces stack power when supplied with an anode reactant and a cathode reactant; an airmover that supplies said cathode reactant to
 y of solid oxide fuel cells, each fuel cell comprising a first electrode, an electrolyte and a second electrode, a plurality of interconnecto
e electrode assembly with a first side and a second side opposite to said first side, said assembly comprising a polymer electrolyte mem
   ion conductive polymer electrolyte membrane, a cathode catalyst layer and an anode catalyst layer sandwiching said polymer electroly
  prising a metal core, a first metal protective layer, and a second metal protective layer bonded together along respective interfaces by s
 h; a pulse generator capable of pulsing a cathode of at least one cell of a fuel cell stack through the switch when the switch is closed w
 h a fuel cell power plant which comprises a plurality of catalytic reactors each of which contains a catalyst, and a gas passage for conn
 g components arranged in a lightweight, openable and substantially airtight case: (a) a membrane-electrode assembly operable at 100.d
w passage for at least one of supplying a specific gas to the fuel cell and discharging a discharge gas from the fuel cell; a water trap, dis
ode, and an electrolyte, wherein at least one of the anode and the cathode comprises a porous material and a wash-coat composition com
cell system which comprises a load circuit having an insulation resistance, the method comprising: measuring the insulation resistance o
  which is operable to generate power from a reaction between hydrogen and oxygen; an intake system component which has an intake p
 sing: a combustion nailer having a tool housing defining a fuel cell chamber constructed and arranged for receiving a fuel cell; said fue
de reactant through a fuel cell stack having a plurality of fuel cells, the method comprising: dividing said stack into a plurality of first g
 section having an inlet and an outlet; at least two anode sections each having an inlet and an outlet; wherein said at least one cathode se
   made up of at least one fuel cell comprising an anode, a cathode, a membrane disposed between said anode and cathode, an anode flow
 ls, each of the fuel cells having an anode and a cathode; a mixing tank supplying a fuel to the anode; a discharging flow path connected
ng: a plurality of power generating cells each of which is generally in a shape of a flat plate and includes a solid polymer electrolyte me
 comprising: an anode-side face having a plurality of independent gas flow channels that each supply and discharge a fuel gas to and fro
n anode having an anode-side separator that is flat in a thickness direction and has projections and depressions formed on a surface of th
 enerated by supplying a reactive gas and a fuel gas to a fuel cell that is cooled by a liquid cooling system, the fuel-cell vehicle compris
 ell vehicle, comprising: a front tank support for supporting a hydrogen storage tank provided in front of a chassis cross member; a rear
 bout 20% to about 80% by weight of an alcohol; (b) from about 1% to about 90% by weight of a polyalkylene oxide; (c) from about 1%
  econd stage succeeding the first stage, each of the first and second stages including at least one fuel cell block, an operating-gas feed a
en supplied with hydrogen and oxygen, comprising: a fuel cell stack including a hydrogen electrode and an oxygen electrode that are di
 forming reactor configured to reform dimethyl ether with carbon dioxide; an anode chamber; and a carbon dioxide gas feeding unit con
wo openings for fuel gas inlet and outlet, comprising: supplying fuel gas to one of said at least two openings; storing exiting fuel gas fro
pply device for supplying a fuel gas to the fuel cell; a gas discharge valve for discharging the fuel gas, which is supplied to the fuel cell
 ng the following steps: providing a fuel cell unit for generating electric current and/or thermal heat; providing a cooling device for cool
  plate; an electrically conductive corrosion resistant coating formed over the metal plate, the coating including a top surface and porosit
 yte unit, a contact plate in electrically conductive contact with the cathode-anode-electrolyte unit, and a fluid guiding element comprisin
 ) a fuel cell stack connectable to an external electrical circuit for supplying electric current to said external circuit, said stack comprisin
 ode assemblies and a pair of separators sandwiching said plurality of electrolyte electrode assemblies, each of said electrolyte electrode
  posed to have a thickness directed horizontally and having front and rear sides; positive and negative electrodes respectively disposed f
  yte fuel-cell separators used in a stack, at least one side edge of each separator being sealed with a cured product of a sealing material
 fuel cell power units, coupled to one or more power busses, to provide electrical power on the one or more power busses, wherein each
 rovided with a fuel cell mounted in the vicinity of a floor portion of a body, a motor for generating a driving force for the vehicle based
  configured to generate electricity through an electrochemical reaction between air and fuel; an air feeder configured to supply air to th
  prising: operating a fuel cell power plant that consumes reformate, said fuel cell power plant comprising a fuel cell stack and a fuel pro
acting gas supply means for supplying a reacting gas to said fuel cell; fuel cell control means for controlling an amount of the reacting g
ousing for receiving an electricity generating unit; and a cooling medium supply unit connected to the housing to supply a cooling medi
  the method comprising the following steps in the following order: forming a first electrode layer, which before firing has a thickness in
having an internal space, said hollow enclosure having a plurality of trough holes formed through a wall thereof, said plurality of trough
trode assembly, having: an anode layer; a cathode layer; and an electrolyte layer, disposed between the anode layer and the cathode lay
 mbrane electrode assembly; and a distributor plate, the distributor plate including: a channel region having a plurality of channels in sa
 e gas in a fuel cell system which has a fuel cell to which gaseous fuel and an oxidizing gas are supplied, comprising: a compressor for
 ll stack, including an anode, a cathode, and a proton conducting solid polymer electrolyte membrane coupled between said anode and c
  a repeating unit given by formula (1) below: ##STR00005## wherein, each of R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 is methyl or trifluoromethyl; n is an
 nent plate for a fuel cell stack, comprising a printed circuit board comprising the following layers: a current collection layer, comprisin
rality of stacked membrane electrode assemblies, each membrane electrode assembly having an anode electrode and a cathode electrod
 unit for supplying a fuel; an oxygen supply unit for supplying oxygen; at least one electricity generation unit for generating electricity
 having a hydrogen source connected to an anode inlet of a fuel cell stack and an oxygen source connected to a cathode inlet of the fuel
 an electricity generation combustion chamber, and electricity generation/combustion means disposed within said housing, and in which
grammed to re-configure connections among a plurality of fuel cells to selectively connect the plurality of fuel cells in series, parallel, o
l comprising: a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) comprising a hydrogen ion-conducting polymer electrolyte membrane and an ano
ode assemblies and separators sandwiching said electrolyte electrode assemblies, said electrolyte electrode assemblies each including a
 ving a substrate formed from a dense hydrogen permeable material and an inorganic electrolyte layer formed on at least one side of the
 rter, comprising: a plurality of inverter units, said inverter unit comprising a capacitor and a plurality of switch diodes, said inverter uni
 s power by supplying air and a fuel gas, having a circulation passage for circulating a cooling liquid between the fuel cell and a heat ex
 uel cell that generates power by an electrochemical reaction with a supply of a fuel gas and an oxide gas; an electronic control unit tha
 ls, each of said plurality of fuel cells having an active area, wherein at least two of the plurality of fuel cells have differently sized activ
   cell comprising a pair of electrode catalyst layers and a polymer electrolyte membrane sandwiched between the electrode catalyst laye
nt and a second fuel cell segment sequentially arranged; a plurality of fuel cells disposed in each of said first and second fuel cell segme
 trolyte membrane interposed between said anode and said cathode; an anode-side conductive separator having manifold apertures and a
 mprising the steps of: preparing a first sheet, which is formed with a main material containing, therein, expanded graphite material and
rogen oxidation catalyst, said catalyst comprising a metal alloy particulate having an average particle size of less than about 100 Angstr
ith a gas flow path to supply a first reaction gas; a first electron collection layer formed on the first substrate; a first gas diffusion layer
 ell system, which comprises processing a fuel which is essentially free of organic sulfur-containing compounds to produce a hydrogen-
d an oxidant comprising: a hydrogen ion conductive polymer electrolyte membrane; an anode including an anode catalyst layer on one
 pensing a target gas, comprising: (a) a housing for containment of carrier material for the target gas, said housing comprising a gas coll
fuel cell, comprising the steps of: preparing a separator having a gas flow path and a water flow path; preparing a sealant coating appa
   formed thereon having an oxidizing gas flow path for supplying an oxidizing gas into one of a pair of electrodes disposed on the respe
 g: (a) reforming a hydrocarbon containing feed with steam in a cyclic reforming and regeneration process comprising: i. introducing th
g: a fuel cell configured to allow the reaction of a fuel gas with an oxidizer gas to generate electricity, a fuel gas supplying unit configu
 n storage; and a hydrogen burner supplied from said hydrogen storage, and further comprising a humidifier in a hydrogen supply for sa
 t a part of the anode is a double perovskite oxide material having the general formula I: (Ln.sub.aX.sub.b).sub.e(Z.sup.1.sub.cZ.sup.2.s
 ck in which a plurality of unit cells, having conductive separators, are stacked in a stack direction, the conductive separators including
 ll main body for performing power generation through the electrochemical reaction between hydrogen in reformed gas and oxygen in r
uding cathode flow channels and anode flow channels; a heat exchanger responsive to a drying gas for drying the fuel cell stack after sy
 ny of a solid-oxide material, a fuel pole material and an air pole material and having a honeycomb structural body comprising rectangu
 uel cell by press-forming, comprising: projecting conductive inclusions from a surface of the separator, wherein when the minimum be
 e having a first surface and a second surface; at least part of the second surface being exposed to the atmosphere; an anode having a fir
 ce main body; a fuel cell main body having an electricity generator to generate electrical energy and rotatable with respect to the electro
  omprising a carbon fiber paper having a surface area ratio of 1.05 or more, said porous carbon electrode substrate having a structure in
  sion is a pulling force applied directly to said diffusion layer in only an in-plane direction of said diffusion layer so as to be directed ou
 ne electrolyte intimately interfacing with a catalyst layer along each of the membrane's major surfaces being a catalyzed membrane elec
y conductive portion comprising an electrode surface portion, and an insulating portion which surrounds the electrically conductive port
ell, comprising: a. supplying a thin continuous metal foil substrate having a first and a second side; b. forming a plurality of holes by de
 east one electrical energy storage device; a cooling circuit cooling the fuel cell stack; and at least one electronic switching element in th
  m, said method comprising: providing said fuel cell system with a fluid collection container, said fluid collection container having a ga
  ll system, comprising: a supporter including a plurality of layers of a clay with ZnO between the layers of clay; and, an active materia
m comprising: a fuel cell stack: a water supply cycle comprising: a piping; a cooling water pump which supplies the cooling water to the
ast one electricity generator for receiving fuel and air to generate electrical energy; a fuel supply unit for supplying the fuel to the stack
 athode input line providing cathode input air to the stack; a water vapor transfer device receiving and humidifying the cathode input air
 ll system is improved. Where the fuel cell system 20 has not started operation, the vehicle 10 is operating under regenerative operation,
  l electrode 5, and an air electrode 7, wherein the single cell C is supported on a substrate 1 and the electrolyte 3 is disposed on a first su
  rs sandwiching the electrolyte electrode assembly. Each of the separators is a single plate, and includes a plurality of trapezoidal portio
 air electrode layer on both surfaces of a solid electrolyte, respectively, a fuel electrode current collector and an air electrode current col
  am into a fuel cell stack, operating the fuel cell stack to generate electricity and a hydrogen containing fuel exhaust stream, separating
 rode assembly; a fuel reservoir containing a liquid fuel; a conduit coupling the fuel reservoir to the fuel cell; and an electrokinetic fuel p
 f. The surface layer includes at least two layers, wherein the surface layer includes a low-elastic modulus layer (1) having a bending ela
  assemblies and a plurality of conductive separators, wherein the plurality of conductive separators include at least one separator compr
 r electrolyte fuel cells and a polymer electrolyte fuel cell having excellent dimensional stability and mechanical strength, and having hi
 xhaust of the fuel cell stack to an anode exhaust line. Based on a mode operation of the fuel cell stack, communication is selectively es
membrane (4), with front and rear faces (4a, 4b) on which first and second current collectors (13, 15) are respectively arranged, each com
  reate separate compartments for the anolyte and catholyte to flow through the semi-fuel cell thereby isolating the metal anode of the bi
   cell stack and a level of nitrogen in the anode side of the fuel cell stack provides an indirect indication of the nitrogen level in the anod
  ntegrated with the fuel cell stack. The system may also include a combustor which is thermally integrated with the reformer. The reform
   ell comprises a membrane electrode assembly arranged such that an electrolyte membrane is clamped between a membrane-like oxidiz
 fuel cell system that uses a non-linear thermal model and disturbance rejection to provide an optimum stack temperature. The thermal s
  onnected in parallel to each other with respect to a propulsive motor, and a DC-to-DC converter connected closer to the electric storage
  ide supply inlet for supplying a material for fuel, an anode and a cathode accommodated in the housing to sandwich a polymer electrol
n electric power stored in a battery 8 is commenced to be supplied to a load (step S3) followed by setting a period (step S2), in which a
e current collector physically supports the fuel cell stack within a fuel cell and an electrode element of the fuel cell stack is attached as
 munication hole. First and second oxygen-containing gas flow passage grooves are provided in the direction of the gravity while meand
   a fuel cell using the metallic material, and a method for producing the metallic material having excellent oxidation resistance and spall
    after further processing to yield a surface with variable properties.
  uel cell stack comprising a plurality of series-connected single cells. In order to significantly reduce measuring costs and apparatus a lo
 ed with a fuel gas and an oxidizing gas, a fuel gas supply path for supplying a fuel gas to the fuel cell, a fuel off-gas circulation path fo
   is performed through chemical reactions of reaction gases being supplied thereto; a discharge path through which the reaction gases ar
 nt circuit, a cooling circuit and a fan. The fuel cell stack communicates a reactant flow and communicates a water flow. The water man
 fuel cells (24) arranged in spaced apart relationship, and in electrical series, on a surface of the porous gas permeable support structure
 trode and negative electrode components which incorporate structure, external electrical connections, internal fuel and oxidizer distribu
de electrode plate, a set of membrane electrode assemblies, an intermediate bonding layer, an integrated anode electrode plate, and a fue
omprises providing in each fuel cell flow field plate of the stack of plates a fluid supply manifold aperture for conducting a supply of fl
 etal separators. The first metal separator has first outer protrusions provided outside an oxygen-containing gas flow field. The second m
porous portion opposite to a surface where a reactant gas passage is formed, a cooling gas passage is formed. The cooling gas passage m
  power measurement section for measuring an actual power-consumption value in a household appliance, and a power-consumption est
 The apparatus utilizes two electrode boards disposed in a fuel tank and an elastic element to perform calculation of the fuel volume in t
 ccommodates a fuel cell stack inside. The fuel cell box includes a bottom frame on which the fuel cell stack is mounted, a top frame, th
 e (21) and an electrolyte (22) retained in the frame, a pair of separators (5, 6) are bonded to the electrolyte layer by that a metallic mate
 reezing and sub-freezing temperatures are obtained by utilizing an insulated fuel cell stack in combination with an thermal control subs
el containing hydrogen using a chemical catalytic reaction and thermal energy. At least one electricity generator generates electrical ene
 rovided with a tube-shaped solid electrolyte membrane (1); an outside catalyst electrode layer (2) formed on an outer peripheral surface
 to form an interior space and an exterior space. Fuel, such as hydrogen, is provided to the interior space. The electrolyte membranes ar
 anode catalyst layers held between a fuel electrode substrate having a surface area larger than that of the cathode catalyst layer and an
   electrode assembly including a fuel electrode and an oxidant electrode disposed on either side of a solid polymer electrolyte membran
uel cell comprising a sintered monolithic framework having graded pore electrode scaffolds that, upon treatment with metal solutions an
 cks for generating electrical power upon receipt of hydrogen gas and oxidized gas; an end plate to which the fuel cell stacks are fastene
 em includes at least one pair of fuel cell stacks, a manifolding functional frame, and an attaching device for securely installing each pai
  of loads includes: a fuel cell for generating DC power; a plurality of connection units, wherein one of the plurality of connection units
 feeder that provides the fuel cell stack with fuel, a fuel cell DC/DC converter that converts the output voltage of the fuel cell stack to a
upper chamber, a lower chamber, a plate for separating the upper and lower chambers, a pipe for circulating the exhaust gas and connec
 pplied with a fuel gas and an oxidizing gas to generate electricity, a fuel gas supply interrupting device for interrupting the fuel gas sup
uding a cathode side and an anode side; a compressor providing an airflow to the cathode side of the fuel cell stack; a bleed valve for p
combination of oxygen with hydrogen-containing fuel, comprising: a) a plurality of individual fuel cells organized into at least one fuel
 antifreeze solution; a water storage unit adapted to store water to be supplied to the fuel cell; a radiator adapted to cool the antifreeze s
  lectricity generator, the electricity generator comprising a membrane electrode assembly, a separator disposed on a first surface of the m
 ng: a plurality of stacked unit cells, each unit cell including a conductive separator plate formed with flow passages and manifolds for g
  an MEA and a separator plate located on each side of the MEA, wherein said structure comprises: a composite gasket located between
prising: a fuel cell that generates power using fuel and oxygen and discharges water produced as a result of power generation; and a fue
device comprising: a hard disk drive; a frame enclosing said hard disk drive; a plurality of isolation devices disposed between at least o
oor panel provided in the vehicle body that has a floor tunnel, the floor tunnel upwardly extending relative to other portions of the floor
-integrated membrane electrode assembly including a frame body in which a gas channel opening is formed, a polymer electrolyte mem
ng: a membrane-electrode assembly including a cathode, an anode vertically corresponding to the cathode and a polymer electrolyte me
cell comprising a cathode compartment, an anode compartment, glass wool and glass bead for separating the cathode compartment and
 trode assemblies and a pair of separators sandwiching said electrolyte electrode assemblies, said electrolyte electrode assemblies each i
 yers, each containing a catalyst supported by carbon particles and ion-conductive binder, and a polymer electrolyte membrane placed b
mprising: an electromotive force section unit composed of an anode electrode formed of an anode catalyst layer and an anode substrate
  h oxygen gas; a fuel electrode supplied with a fuel gas; a power generation part comprising a solid electrolyte layer that has proton con
  w electrically conductive gas permeable carbon fibres which are coated on the outside with a fuel cell catalyst and which have a means
 comprising: a fuel cell chamber configured for attachment to the power source, having a fuel cell door at one end and being dimensione
el cell that is supplied with fuel and an oxidizing agent, and generates electricity; a fuel-circulating passage that supplies fuel discharged
  l system having an electrochemical fuel cell stack, the cooling subsystem comprising: a startup coolant loop fluidly connected to the el
 ed outer shell section containing a fuel processor that generates fuel gas and having an end forming a negative terminal; and a second c
 el reforming catalytic substrate positioned within the first tube, the fuel reforming catalytic substrate being configured to receive hydroc
 ration cell which is composed of a joint component of a pair of electrodes and an electrolyte component held between the electrodes, a
 ductive membrane a catalyst juxtaposed to said proton conductive membrane a gas diffusion layer juxtaposed to and covering said cata
 rming gasoline for fuel-cell powered vehicles, comprising the steps of: 1) preparing an aqueous alumina solution having a pH of from 2
  polymer having a substituent having a terminal sulfonic acid group comprising Formula (1) at a side chain: ##STR00021## where n is
 aling arrangement for a fuel cell stack which comprises a plurality of fuel cell units that succeed one another along a stack direction com
  t supplying fuel gas; an oxidant gas supply unit supplying oxidant gas; a fuel cell stack that generates electric power upon electrochem
 : a first anode layer; a first electrolyte layer overlying the first anode layer; a first cathode layer overlying the first electrolyte layer; a se
 en supply source supplying hydrogen to the fuel cell; an ejector unit equipped with more than three ejector sections disposed between th
 ising a bipolar plate and an electrically conductive hydrophilic coating deposited on at least a portion of the bipolar plate, and wherein
 -connected fuel cells combined to form a fuel cell stack; and a plurality of shielding cables electrically connected to a first pole plate of
 first and second oxygen electrodes, a hydrogen electrode and an electrolyte membrane disposed between the hydrogen electrode and th
  ion system comprising a high temperature fuel cell operating at a temperature of at least 250.degree. C. including a cathode channel wi
  east one fuel cell stack and at least two discrete cathode sides, the method comprising: (a) determining a first power demand on the at
m including a fuel cell for converting fuel into electrical energy; a fuel canister for storing fuel for the fuel cell, the fuel canister being de
 eding fuel of hydrocarbon system, a fuel reform unit for creating hydrogen from the material fed from said material feed unit and suppl
 k wherein plural fuel cells are stacked in series, each of the fuel cells comprising a membrane electrolyte, an electrode in contact with t
  t; a resin frame part surrounding the metal central part, wherein the resin frame part is larger than the metal central part such that the re
   cell, comprising: coating a rubber-containing coating agent on a periphery of a separator which is electrically conductive and gas impe
   electrode assembly comprising: a) a polymer electrolyte membrane having an anode face with an outer edge portion, a cathode face w
  ell stack, stacked between upper and lower seal elements, the lower seal element having three distinct openings; a central cathode flow
  diffusion layer having a thickness between 200 to 280 .mu.m; a first microporous layer that is embedded into the diffusion layer, where
 omprising: a collection step in which a catalyst is collected by attracting, using a magnetic force, a magnetic material contained in at lea
 ulfurizing a hydrocarbon fuel by contacting the hydrocarbon fuel to an adsorbent comprising cerium oxide, primary particles of the ceri
 ells, each unit cell comprising a coolant passage; a coolant supply manifold passing through the laminate, which distributes coolant from
  parated by a porous, hydrophobic barrier layer having a water intrusion pressure that prevents liquid water from crossing between cells
  eforming catalyst body configured to generate a reformed gas containing hydrogen from a feed gas and water; a fuel cell configured to
mber of connected unit cells, each composed of a fuel electrode element of a microporous carbon material, an electrolyte layer formed o
 ond separator plate joined to the first separator plate to form a chamber between the joined separator plates, the second separator plate
mbly, and a bipolar plate having first and second opposing sides disposed outside the membrane electrode assembly, wherein: the bipol
  the steps of: depositing a first film on a first end region of a substrate, wherein the first film is preferentially catalytically active toward
  l output voltage, comprising: a fuel cell used to output a first output voltage; a DC-DC Voltage Converter used to receive said first out
 n inside of a vehicle, which is a vehicle passenger room, from an outside of the vehicle, the vehicle passenger room is equipped with a
   fuel cell for generating electrical power by inducing a reaction between hydrogen and oxygen, a motor to generate motive power for su
 easuring an output voltage of the fuel cell including an electrolyte; increasing a load current on the fuel cell from a first load current to
 electrochemical reaction occurs between hydrogen and oxygen; a fuel processor that produces hydrogen to be supplied to the stack from
prising: a compressor that supplies pressurized air to a cathode electrode of a fuel cell; a hydrogen supply device that supplies hydrogen
   apparatus comprising: a dilution vessel having a staying chamber configured for accommodating a hydrogen gas purged from said fue
  l modules stacked in series, each of the plurality of multi-cell modules comprising a plurality of fuel cells layered in a fuel cell stackin
a plurality of cells supplied by a reformer, said method comprising the following steps; supplying, when the reformer is cold, a first sub
  d feed fuel cell having an anode, a cathode and an electrolyte membrane put therebetween; a fuel supply unit including a mixing conta
 pplying fuel gas and oxidant gas to a fuel cell stack comprising: a fuel cell stack comprising water as a by-product of a reaction betwee
  em comprising: a combustor configured to burn a cell exhaust gas discharged from an atmospheric-pressure, high-temperature fuel cell
cathode and an anode, the fuel cell generating power with an oxidant gas supplied to the cathode and a fuel gas supplied to the anode; a
stack that includes an anode and a cathode and generates electrical energy by a chemical reaction of the fuel, comprising: a fuel storage
 omprising: a chargeable/dischargeable unit connected to the fuel cell, for being charged with electric power from the fuel cell and disch
  -supported tubular solid oxide fuel cell, the sealing element comprising: a coupling tube having a first end portion opened to an exterio
 ctrolyte matrix or layer of electrolyte arranged between the anode and the cathode; a current collector installed at the anode and a curre
 trolyte layer, a cathode layer formed on one surface of the solid electrolyte layer, and an anode layer formed on the other surface of the
   direct methanol fuel cells, comprising: an electroconductive, porous carrier having micropores; and catalyst particles positioned in the
 in patterned catalyst-coated membrane to separate membrane sheets for fuel cell assembly, a first side of the membrane web coated wit
 d hydrogen ions, and comprising an anode, a magnetic cathode comprising an active layer, a proton electrolyte between the anode and
ol fuel cell, the method comprising: providing an integrated cathode electrode sheet comprising a first substrate, a plurality of cathode e
 plying a first curable composition at a thickness which is compressible when cured to a first fuel cell component comprising at least on
 ng an air electrode disposed on a surface of an electrolyte membrane and a fuel electrode disposed on the other surface of the electrolyt
comprising a fuel cell and a fuel processor at a required power output, comprising: determining a plurality of operating points for the fu
vided at the fuel cell unit and powered by a power source module provided in the fuel cell unit, the power source module including the
  stack, said vehicle-mounted fuel cell stack comprising: (a) a plurality of power generating cells each of which is generally in a shape o
  a liquid fuel solution containing a formic fuel solution that has a concentration C.sub.f that is at least (2.2.times.10.sup.-3) moles/cm.su
 ery of an electrolyte membrane is encased by a sealant and held between a first separator and a second separator located on opposite sid
   opposed bipolar plate members; first and second spaced and opposed diffusion medium members disposed between the first and secon
 er (13); a pair of catalyst electrode layers (15) interposing said electrolyte layer there between; and a pair of planar separators (11, 12) i
 mbly having a pair of electrodes and an electrolyte interposed between the electrodes; separators stacked with the electrolyte electrode
 lying one electrode with a fuel and the other electrode with an oxidant, the fuel cell comprising: a catalyst layer formed on at least one
mprising: a step for forming an inverted micelle consisting of an aqueous solution containing the iridium compound clathrated by a surf
 solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell, the method comprising the steps of: providing a solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell stack that is form
   A.sub.2-x-yA'.sub.xA''.sub.yM.sub.1-zM'.sub.zO.sub.4+.delta. (1) where: A is a metal cation selected from the group consisting of lan
 trode sheet of a flat-panel direct methanol fuel cell, the method comprising: (1) providing a CCL (copper clad laminate) substrate comp
  g a polymer electrolyte membrane which comprises a polymer that comprises bound anionic functional groups, wherein at least a porti
  erposing an electrolyte member between a pair of electrodes; a separator which, on a first surface thereof, holds the joint body, and on
 mbly including a pair of electrodes and an electrolyte interposed between said electrodes, said electrodes including respective gas diffu
A-gasket assembly including an MEA (membrane electrode assembly) having a polymer electrolyte membrane, a pair of catalyst layers
   a metal-separator for a fuel cell stack which includes: a unit cell having a membrane electrode assembly; a gas diffusion layer moving
ne-like electrode unit including an electrolyte membrane, a fuel electrode having a methanol aqueous solution supplied thereto as a fuel
 rising: regenerator chamber having a first inlet to receive an air flow; a substantially U-shaped burner flow chamber positioned within t
 interconnect preform comprising an interconnect support structure having a top surface and at least one flow channel disposed within sa
 rforms a power generation operation with fuel for power generation received from a fuel container; and water supply control means for
  aminant from a fuel cell catalyst electrode, the method comprising the steps of: a. providing the fuel cell catalyst electrode, the fuel cel
es, said bipolar plate comprising at least one contact surface for contact with another component in said stack, said at least one contact
  t supplies said cathode reactant to said fuel cell stack; a low voltage power source that supplies low voltage power; a controller system
 ctrode, a plurality of interconnectors being arranged to electrically connect the fuel cells in electrical series, each interconnector electric
  prising a polymer electrolyte membrane with a first side and a second side opposite to said first side, an anode attached to said first sid
 sandwiching said polymer electrolyte membrane, said cathode catalyst layer and said anode catalyst layer each comprising: a catalyst-c
her along respective interfaces by solid-phase bonding, with one or more surface channels extending along directions that are substantia
switch when the switch is closed wherein the pulse generator generates a digital pulse; a relay capable of shorting the cell of a fuel cell
 atalyst, and a gas passage for connecting the catalytic reactors in series, the warm up device comprising: a burner for producing combu
  ctrode assembly operable at 100.degree. C. to 250.degree. C. and capable of generating 100 W to 500 W electrical power and having a
   from the fuel cell; a water trap, disposed in the gas flow passage, for accumulating water in the gas flow passage, the water trap having
  l and a wash-coat composition comprising a metal selected from the group consisting of cerium, copper, molybdenum, and tungsten, an
measuring the insulation resistance of the load circuit; and determining said coolant quality as a function of measured insulation resistan
m component which has an intake port opening rearwardly and supplies air taken in through said intake port to said fuel cell; and an ex
  d for receiving a fuel cell; said fuel cell having a main stem and a closure; an adapter configured for frictional engagement on said clos
  said stack into a plurality of first groups for said anode reactant and a plurality of second groups for said cathode reactant, each of said
 wherein said at least one cathode section and said at least two anode sections are operable to convert an oxidant-containing cathode rea
  d anode and cathode, an anode flowpath fluidly coupled between said anode and a fuel source, a cathode flowpath fluidly coupled betw
    a discharging flow path connected to the fuel cells, the discharging flow path conducting an exhaust from the fuel cells to the mixing t
udes a solid polymer electrolyte membrane sandwiched between an anode electrode and a cathode electrode, each of said power genera
   and discharge a fuel gas to and from a different power-generating region of an anode; and a cathode-side face having a plurality of ind
  pressions formed on a surface of the anode-side separator, a cathode disposed so as to face the anode, and a membrane electrode assem
 stem, the fuel-cell vehicle comprising: a first radiator and a second radiator for dissipating heat and cooling a coolant warmed by said f
 t of a chassis cross member; a rear tank support for supporting a hydrogen storage tank provided in back of the chassis cross member; a
  yalkylene oxide; (c) from about 1% to about 30% by weight of an additive; and (d) balance being water; wherein said composition has
  cell block, an operating-gas feed and an operating-gas discharge, the operating-gas feed of the first stage being connected to a supply o
 and an oxygen electrode that are disposed at opposite sides of an electrolyte; a hydrogen supplier portion that supplies hydrogen to the
carbon dioxide gas feeding unit configured to feed carbon dioxide into the reforming reactor or the anode chamber when the fuel cell is
penings; storing exiting fuel gas from the other of said at least two openings in an expansion reservoir; switching the supply of fuel gas
 s, which is supplied to the fuel cell, into an external environment; a voltage detecting device for detecting an output voltage of the fuel
providing a cooling device for cooling said fuel cell unit, said cooling device having a heat exchanger unit, at least one first flow genera
  including a top surface and porosities; and an electrically conductive overcoating formed over the electrically conductive corrosion resi
 d a fluid guiding element comprising a one-piece shaped sheet metal part and connected to the contact plate in a fluid-tight manner, wh
xternal circuit, said stack comprising at least one solid polymer fuel cell, and reactant stream passages for directing reactant streams thro
s, each of said electrolyte electrode assemblies including an anode, a cathode, and an electrolyte interposed between said anode and sai
 e electrodes respectively disposed from a horizontal direction on the front and rear sides of the electrolyte membrane and having upper
  ured product of a sealing material comprising in parts by weight as essential components: (A) 100 parts of an organopolysiloxane conta
 r more power busses, wherein each fuel cell power unit includes: a fuel cell stack; a voltage conditioning device, coupled to the fuel ce
a driving force for the vehicle based upon electric power supplied from the fuel cell, a motor unit supported by a body frame so that the
eeder configured to supply air to the electric generator, the air feeder comprising an inlet and an outlet; and a muffler in fluid communic
  sing a fuel cell stack and a fuel processor system for generating reformate from a hydrocarbon fuel, said fuel cell power plant having a
 trolling an amount of the reacting gas supplied from said reacting gas supply means to said fuel cell based on a target supply current de
e housing to supply a cooling medium to the electricity generating unit, wherein the housing includes: a body having a space for receiv
hich before firing has a thickness in a range of about 0.5 to 2.0 mm, the first electrode layer having a surface, and drying the first electr
wall thereof, said plurality of trough holes suitable for allowing oxygen to pass to said internal space, said hollow enclosure being form
 he anode layer and the cathode layer; a pipe; a pump, adapted to transport a fluid in the pipe to the anode layer, so as to provide fuel fo
having a plurality of channels in said distributor plate configured to distribute at least one of an anode gas and a cathode gas to the mem
lied, comprising: a compressor for the gas, a gas filter system to which the compressor is connected, an elastic, sealed gas-routing passa
   coupled between said anode and cathode; and a fuel supplying part, which supplies methanol containing fuel which is substantially fre
 is methyl or trifluoromethyl; n is an integer from 100 to 100,000; and the proton conducting polymer has an equivalent weight of 250-2
  current collection layer, comprising a current collector and a current removal region physically separated from the current collector; a
de electrode and a cathode electrode on either side of an electrode membrane, a conductive anode plate and a conductive cathode plate
  tion unit for generating electricity through an electro-chemical reaction of the fuel supplied by said fuel supply unit or a hydrogen gene
nected to a cathode inlet of the fuel cell stack, the cathode inlet being connected to a compressor, the method comprising the steps of: p
d within said housing, and in which a fuel gas and an oxygen-containing gas are supplied to said electricity generation/combustion mea
ity of fuel cells in series, parallel, or a combination of series and parallel in response to load conditions; wherein one or more of said pl
er electrolyte membrane and an anode and a cathode sandwiching the polymer electrolyte membrane; a platelike anode-side separator p
ctrode assemblies each including an anode, a cathode, and an electrolyte interposed between said anode and said cathode, wherein each
 r formed on at least one side of the substrate; an oxygen electrode disposed on one side of the electrolyte membrane; an oxidizing gas
y of switch diodes, said inverter units having a series connection; a dispatching and time-series control system, said dispatching and tim
  between the fuel cell and a heat exchanger, the apparatus comprising: a cooling liquid storage container, which stores at least a portion
e gas; an electronic control unit that controls a plurality of valves and an amount of power generated by the fuel cell; and a reformer in
uel cells have differently sized active areas, such that the ratio of the active areas of said at least two fuel cells is at least 1.1:1, wherein
 between the electrode catalyst layers, wherein said polymer electrolyte membrane is a sulfonate of a hydrocarbon-based polymer comp
 aid first and second fuel cell segments, each of said plurality of fuel cells having an anode passage, a cathode passage and a membrane
tor having manifold apertures and a flow channel for supplying a fuel to said anode; and a cathode-side conductive separator having ma
 in, expanded graphite material and binder, and a second sheet configured to face at least one of surfaces which are formed at an outer e
   size of less than about 100 Angstroms; a cathode; and an electrolyte providing ionic conduction between said anode and said cathode.
 ubstrate; a first gas diffusion layer formed on the first electron collection layer; a first reaction layer formed on the first gas diffusion l
compounds to produce a hydrogen-containing stream, wherein the hydrogen-containing stream is used for hydrodesulfurisation of a pri
ing an anode catalyst layer on one surface of said polymer electrolyte membrane, and an anode diffusion layer on the outer surface of s
  said housing comprising a gas collection compartment and a gas storage compartment, and being adapted to hold a volume of said carr
  ; preparing a sealant coating apparatus for coating a liquid sealant at a periphery of the gas flow path and the water flow path of the se
 of electrodes disposed on the respective side of an electrolyte, a fuel gas flow path for supplying a fuel gas into the other of the pair of
 ocess comprising: i. introducing the feed and steam through a first zone of a reactor containing bed packing material and a reforming c
  , a fuel gas supplying unit configured to supply the fuel gas into said fuel cell, an oxidizer gas supplying unit configured to supply the
midifier in a hydrogen supply for said fuel cell, said humidifier being thermally coupled with said hydrogen burner.
sub.b).sub.e(Z.sup.1.sub.cZ.sup.2.sub.d).sub.fO.sub.g (I) wherein Ln is selected from the group consisting of Y, La, a Lanthanide series
he conductive separators including anode-side separators and cathode-side separators to form pairs of unit separators with the anode-sid
en in reformed gas and oxygen in reactant air; a reactant air supply portion for supplying the reactant air to the fuel-cell main body; a re
 or drying the fuel cell stack after system shutdown; and a controller for controlling the heat exchanger for heating the drying gas before
 tructural body comprising rectangular cells in cross section, wherein cells adjacent to wall surfaces constituting a fuel pole cell of the fu
  or, wherein when the minimum bending R value among one or more bending radii in the press-forming is defined as r (micrometers), w
 atmosphere; an anode having a first surface and a second surface; a first chamber configured to retain liquid fuel, wherein the first cha
 rotatable with respect to the electronic device main body; a mount member to support the electronic main body thereon; a hinge portio
 ode substrate having a structure in which at least two carbon fiber papers, each containing a carbonized resin, are laminated, and at lea
 fusion layer so as to be directed outwardly.
es being a catalyzed membrane electrolyte, having an anode aspect and a cathode aspect, and which catalyzed membrane electrolyte is
nds the electrically conductive portion, wherein in the insulating portion, there is provided an inside to outside junction terminal which
 . forming a plurality of holes by developing a photoresist pattern on the second side, and depositing a thin film layer on the photoresist
e electronic switching element in thermally conductive contact with the cooling circuit and configured to electrically connect the electri
 id collection container having a gas inlet and a gas outlet; routing a flow of the fuel cell system through a liquid trap seal to collect con
 ers of clay; and, an active material including CuO supported on the supporter.
ch supplies the cooling water to the fuel cell stack; and a radiator which performs heat exchange between a cooling water and a cooling
  for supplying the fuel to the stack; a housing in which the stack is mounted, air discharged from the stack being exhausted out of the s
d humidifying the cathode input air flowing through the cathode input line; a cathode by-pass line for allowing the cathode input air to b
 ating under regenerative operation, the fuel cell 21 is operating under intermittent operation, or operation of the fuel cell system 20 has
 lectrolyte 3 is disposed on a first surface of the substrate 1, with the fuel electrode 5 and the air electrode 7 disposed on the first surface
des a plurality of trapezoidal portions. First protrusions and second protrusions are provided on both surfaces of the trapezoidal portion.
 tor and an air electrode current collector outside the fuel electrode layer and the air electrode layer, respectively, and separators outside
ng fuel exhaust stream, separating at least a portion of hydrogen contained in the fuel exhaust stream using partial pressure swing adsor
uel cell; and an electrokinetic fuel pump coupled to the conduit, the electrokinetic fuel pump having a plurality of electrodes; wherein th
dulus layer (1) having a bending elastic modulus of 1.0.times.10<sp>1</sp>-6.0.times.10<sp>3</sp> MPa, and a
nclude at least one separator comprising: a fuel gas inlet-side manifold aperture; a fuel gas outlet-side manifold aperture; a gas flow cha
mechanical strength, and having high durability at the time of a power generation. Each of polymer electrolyte membranes (111, 211, 3
ck, communication is selectively established between a cathode chamber of the fuel cell stack and the anode exhaust line.
 are respectively arranged, each comprising a metallic deposit and provided with a number of transverse passages. First and second elec
  isolating the metal anode of the bipolar electrode from the catholyte while still allowing the necessary ion transfer to affect the necessa
 on of the nitrogen level in the anode side. Base on this correlation, the variance in voltage output can be used to determine an anode ef
grated with the reformer. The reformer is a reformation catalyst containing channel bounded by at least one corrugated foil wall. The re
 d between a membrane-like oxidizer electrode and a membrane-like fuel electrode as well as the electrolyte membrane is disposed with
m stack temperature. The thermal sub-system includes a coolant loop directing a cooling fluid through the stack, a pump for pumping th
 nected closer to the electric storage device than a junction where the fuel cell and the electric storage device are connected in parallel t
 ing to sandwich a polymer electrolyte membrane, and a layer containing a biochemical catalyst which decomposes the material for fue
tting a period (step S2), in which a sensor signal from a fuel cell system 10 is held in a preceding value, in a subtraction timer, and whe
of the fuel cell stack is attached as a deposited layer to the current collector. The current collector has openings to allow gases of the fue
 irection of the gravity while meandering in the horizontal direction on a surface of a first separator. The second oxygen-containing gas
 llent oxidation resistance and spalling resistance of an oxide layer, high electrical conductivity, and a small difference in thermal expan

 measuring costs and apparatus a low-frequency current or voltage signal is impressed on the fuel cell stack and the resulting current or
ll, a fuel off-gas circulation path for returning a fuel off-gas discharged from the fuel cell to the fuel gas supply path, an ejector, provide
hrough which the reaction gases are discharged; a discharge valve provided on the discharge path and operated for discharging the reac
icates a water flow. The water management circuit is adapted to remove water from the reactant flow and store the water in the reservo
us gas permeable support structure (16). Each solid oxide fuel cell (24) comprises a dense gas tight electrolyte member (28), a porous g
  , internal fuel and oxidizer distribution and an exhaust passage to form a simple assembly which can be formed into a stack. The fuel c
 ted anode electrode plate, and a fuel container base. The integrated cathode/anode electrode plates are conducive to mass production, an
 erture for conducting a supply of fluid to a number of the plates in the stack, the fluid supply manifold apertures forming an elongated f
aining gas flow field. The second metal separator has second outer protrusions provided outside a fuel gas flow field. The first and seco
   formed. The cooling gas passage may be fluidly connected to a reactant gas supply passage for supplying reactant gas to the fuel cell.
 ance, and a power-consumption estimation section for estimating a future power-consumption value over a given time-period after a giv
m calculation of the fuel volume in the fuel tank. The apparatus includes a structure disposed in the fuel tank and a control unit. The stru
 ell stack is mounted, a top frame, the bottom frame and the top frame sandwiching the fuel cell stack, a side frame which forms a frame
 trolyte layer by that a metallic material (27) is deposited on one of the frame and each separator and a laser beam is irradiated onto the
 nation with an thermal control subsystem. Temperature of the insulated electrochemical fuel cell stack, as well as temperature of the am
  y generator generates electrical energy by an electrochemical reaction of the hydrogen gas and oxygen. A fuel supply assembly supplie
 rmed on an outer peripheral surface of the solid electrolyte membrane (1); an inside catalyst electrode layer (3) formed on an inner peri
  ace. The electrolyte membranes are circular and joined to adjacent membranes at the outer perimeters to enclose the interior space. A s
 f the cathode catalyst layer and an oxidizer electrode substrate having a surface area larger than that of the anode catalyst layer. The fue
 solid polymer electrolyte membrane, the assembly being sandwiched from either side by a first separator and a second separator to give
  n treatment with metal solutions and heat subsequent to sintering, acquire respective anodic and cathodic catalytic activity. The inventi
which the fuel cell stacks are fastened; hydrogen system parts (hydrogen inlet valve, regulator, hydrogen pump, gas-liquid separator, hyd
vice for securely installing each pair of fuel cell stacks to the manifolding functional frame. Each fuel cell stack has a pair of end plates
 of the plurality of connection units receives information to decide power consumption of the load from the load when any of the plurali
  t voltage of the fuel cell stack to a predetermined voltage and then outputs it, a rechargeable battery that is an electric storage device, a
  ulating the exhaust gas and connecting holes bored in the plate. The upper chamber receives exhaust gas from the fuel cell system to se
 ice for interrupting the fuel gas supply to an anode inlet of the fuel cell, and an anode-off gas interrupting device for interrupting the di
   fuel cell stack; a bleed valve for periodically bleeding anode exhaust gas from the anode side of the stack; a mixing junction for mixin
 ells organized into at least one fuel cell stack assembly including a plurality of cathodes and anodes; b) a reformer for reforming hydro
 tor adapted to cool the antifreeze solution that cooled the fuel cell; an antifreeze heater disposed in an antifreeze circulation flow passag
 r disposed on a first surface of the membrane electrode assembly, and a separator disposed on a second surface of the membrane electro
h flow passages and manifolds for gas supply, a coupler attached to both sides of the separator plate and formed with openings and pen
   composite gasket located between the MEA and each separator plate, each said gasket comprising: two rows of rubber beads, each row
  sult of power generation; and a fuel supply apparatus for supplying the fuel to the fuel cell, wherein: (A) the fuel cell comprises a fuel
devices disposed between at least one inner surface of said frame and at least one opposing outer surface of said hard disk drive, and a f
  lative to other portions of the floor panel and being disposed in substantially a center in a width direction of the vehicle body; a pair of
 formed, a polymer electrolyte membrane provided inside the frame body, a pair of electrodes sandwiching the polymer electrolyte mem
 thode and a polymer electrolyte membrane having a first portion interposed between the cathode and the anode and a second portion su
  ting the cathode compartment and anode compartment, a means for feeding air to the cathode compartment, and a means for feeding w
 ctrolyte electrode assemblies each including an anode, a cathode, and an electrolyte interposed between said anode and said cathode, sa
 mer electrolyte membrane placed between the electrode catalyst layers, wherein the polymer electrolyte membrane is formed from a su
  talyst layer and an anode substrate, a cathode electrode formed of a cathode catalyst layer and a cathode substrate, and an electrolyte m
electrolyte layer that has proton conductivity and is sandwiched between the air electrode and the fuel electrode; a fuel storage part conf
ell catalyst and which have a means to enable a fuel vapour or gas to be passed down the inside of the fibre and a plurality of second ho
 or at one end and being dimensioned for operationally receiving a fuel cell in each of a first orientation and a second orientation; and a
 assage that supplies fuel discharged from the fuel cell to the fuel cell again; a high-pressure hydrogen tank that supplies new fuel to the
 ant loop fluidly connected to the electrochemical fuel cell stack, the startup coolant loop comprising a driving gear pump head and driv
 a negative terminal; and a second cylindrically configured outer shell section axially aligned and secured to said first outer shell section
  being configured to receive hydrocarbon fuel and to convert the hydrocarbon fuel to hydrogen gas; and a second tube electrically insul
  ent held between the electrodes, a flow path forming component having a flow path allowing a fluid supplied to the joint component to
uxtaposed to and covering said catalyst, said gas diffusion layer comprising a non-metallic microporous membrane, said non-metallic m
mina solution having a pH of from 2 to 5; 2) adding 2 to 7 wt % of polyvinyl alcohol, 3 to 7 wt % of methyl cellulose, and 1 to 5 wt % o
   chain: ##STR00021## where n is a number in the range of about 1 to about 5.
  another along a stack direction comprising the following method steps: producing a ceramic metal layer from a mixture of a ceramic m
es electric power upon electrochemical reaction between the fuel gas and the oxidant gas; a catalytic combustor combusting mixed gas
 lying the first electrolyte layer; a second electrolyte layer overlying the first cathode layer; and a second anode layer overlying the seco
ejector sections disposed between the fuel cell and the hydrogen supply source and permitting excess hydrogen, expelled from the fuel c
 n of the bipolar plate, and wherein the coating comprises at least one TiHfN, NbTiN, NbHfN, TaHfN, TaZrN, NbTiO.sub.xN.sub.y or T
  ly connected to a first pole plate of the fuel cell stack, wherein the cables are routed along a stacking direction of the plurality of series
ween the hydrogen electrode and the first and second oxygen electrodes; a hydrogen gas channel for supplying fuel gas containing hydr
   C. including a cathode channel with air supply means delivering air to the cathode channel and an anode channel comprising an anode
  ng a first power demand on the at least one fuel cell stack; (b) determining first and second stoichiometric quantities of cathode reactan
   fuel cell, the fuel canister being detachably connected to the fuel cell processing system, wherein the fuel canister includes a container
m said material feed unit and supplying the hydrogen, a fuel cell stack unit for generating power from the hydrogen fed from said fuel r
olyte, an electrode in contact with the membrane electrolyte, and gas passages formed facing the electrode, the power plant generating p
 e metal central part such that the resin frame part and the central metal part are separated by a gap; a connecting part disposed between
 lectrically conductive and gas impervious to form a non-vulcanized or a non-crosslinked rubber layer; then vulcanizing or crosslinking
uter edge portion, a cathode face with an outer edge portion, and an outer perimeter; b) a layer of anode catalyst material in contact with
 ct openings; a central cathode flow field opening which defines the peripheral boundary of a cathode flow field which includes an air in
 dded into the diffusion layer, wherein the first microporous layer includes carbon particles and has a thickness in the range of 10 to 30
magnetic material contained in at least one of the catalyst and a carrier on which the catalyst is supported.
  oxide, primary particles of the cerium oxide having a mean crystallite size of 10 nm or less; and subsequently reforming the desulfurize
  nate, which distributes coolant from a coolant recirculation device provided outside the laminate to the coolant passages of the unit cell
   water from crossing between cells through the barrier layer under normal operating conditions, the cell on one side of the barrier layer
 and water; a fuel cell configured to generate electric power by consuming the reformed gas, the fuel cell having a cathode and an anode
 terial, an electrolyte layer formed on the outer surface of the fuel electrode element, an air electrode layer formed on the outer surface o
   plates, the second separator plate having a mounting hole to fix a solid electrolyte layer and the mounting hole extending through a su
  trode assembly, wherein: the bipolar plate is porous, and comprises: a first gas passage formed on a surface on the first side of the bipo
 rentially catalytically active toward substantially unreformed hydrocarbon fuel; depositing a second film on a second end region of the
 verter used to receive said first output voltage and perform a conversion of said first output voltage to a second output voltage, where a
passenger room is equipped with a cooling/heating system; and a fuel cell that generates electricity through a reaction of fuel gas and ox
  tor to generate motive power for supplying a drive wheel based on electrical power generated by the fuel cell, and an exhaust pipe for
uel cell from a first load current to a second load current to recover from a dry state associated with the electrolyte at the output voltage
 gen to be supplied to the stack from a fuel source; a process burner that is operated using the fuel source or surplus hydrogen that was n
  pply device that supplies hydrogen to an anode electrode of the fuel cell; a control device that controls said compressor according to an
 hydrogen gas purged from said fuel cell; and exhaust piping for passing a cathode off-gas, wherein any of said dilution vessel and said
   cells layered in a fuel cell stacking direction and including opposite end fuel cells, each of which is a dummy fuel cell generating no e
 hen the reformer is cold, a first subassembly of cells of the fuel-cell stack with reformates from said reformer while a second subassem
 pply unit including a mixing container mixing liquid fuel and an exhaust exhausted from the direct organic liquid feed fuel cell so as to
s a by-product of a reaction between fuel gas and oxidant gas, a plurality of unit cells, each unit cell including a membrane electrode as
pressure, high-temperature fuel cell, the atmospheric-pressure, high-temperature fuel cell to which an atmospheric pressure air and an a
   a fuel gas supplied to the anode; an oxidant gas passage for supplying the oxidant gas to the cathode; a cathode off-gas passage for dis
 the fuel, comprising: a fuel storage unit that stores the fuel to be supplied to the fuel cell stack; a diluent storage unit that stores only a
   power from the fuel cell and discharging electric power to a load; a target power computing unit for computing a target power to be ge
 st end portion opened to an exterior and a second end portion opened to the exterior only through a perforation hole, which is formed a
 r installed at the anode and a current collector installed at the cathode so as to electrically contact the anode and the cathode and form g
   formed on the other surface of the solid electrolyte layer, wherein the cathode layer is a multi-layer structure including at least two lay
  catalyst particles positioned in the pores of the carrier comprising an alloy selected from the group consisting of Cd and Au; Cd and C
de of the membrane web coated with an anode catalyst and a second side of the membrane web coated with a cathode catalyst, the meth
 electrolyte between the anode and the cathode, and a network of permanent magnets, each magnet having a magnetic axis perpendicula
st substrate, a plurality of cathode electrode areas, and a first conductive via through hole, wherein the cathode electrode areas are elect
   component comprising at least one fuel cell plate; (b) mating the first fuel cell component with a second fuel cell component comprisi
 n the other surface of the electrolyte membrane, a first electrode reaction layer having open pores interposed between the electrolyte m
  rality of operating points for the fuel cell for providing the required power output, each operating point comprising operational values f
  ower source module including the fuel cell; a sensing module configured to sense an abnormal state of the fuel cell; a connection detec
   of which is generally in a shape of a flat plate and includes a solid polymer electrolyte membrane sandwiched between an anode elect
  t (2.2.times.10.sup.-3) moles/cm.sup.3 formic acid, a membrane electrode assembly having an anode contained in an anode enclosure,
nd separator located on opposite sides of the electrolyte membrane so that said fuel cell is sealed between said first and second separato
isposed between the first and second bipolar plate members; a membrane electrode assembly member disposed between the first and se
   pair of planar separators (11, 12) interposing said electrolyte layer and said catalyst electrode layers there between, wherein each said
cked with the electrolyte electrode assembly, each separator having a first and second metal plate; a reactant gas supply passage and a r
 talyst layer formed on at least one surface of at least one of the one electrode and the other electrode, wherein the catalyst layer is a lay
 ium compound clathrated by a surfactant, by mixing an organic solvent containing said surfactant, and the aqueous solution containing
  ctrolyte fuel cell stack that is formed by stacking a plurality of layers of separators that are made from metal and have a cross-sectiona
ed from the group consisting of lanthanides, alkali metals, and alkaline-earth metals; A' is at least one metal cation selected from the gr
 pper clad laminate) substrate comprising a base layer, a first copper layer laminated on an upper surface of the base layer, and a second
 nal groups, wherein at least a portion of said anionic functional groups are in acid form and at least a portion of said anionic functional
 ereof, holds the joint body, and on a second surface thereof opposite to the first surface, holds an adjacent joint body produced by inter
 odes including respective gas diffusion layers and respective electrode catalyst layers facing said electrolyte, a surface area of one of sa
membrane, a pair of catalyst layers that sandwich the polymer electrolyte membrane between the catalyst layers, and a pair of gas diffus
mbly; a gas diffusion layer moving a reaction gas to the membrane electrode assembly; a metal-separator coupled to an outside of the g
   solution supplied thereto as a fuel, and consisting essentially of a catalyst layer and a diffusion layer, which are formed in the order m
 r flow chamber positioned within the regenerator, the burner flow chamber having a second inlet to receive the air flow from the regen
one flow channel disposed within said interconnect support structure, and a removable sacrificial material disposed within said at least o
and water supply control means for extracting water from the fuel container and supplying the water to the fuel cell before the fuel cell
   cell catalyst electrode, the fuel cell catalyst electrode including the at least one metal oxide contaminant; b. providing a removeable ge
 aid stack, said at least one contact surface comprising a metal alloy oxidizable to form a metal oxide having a surface resistance no gre
 voltage power; a controller system that selectively powers said airmover using said low voltage power source and said stack power; an
   series, each interconnector electrically connecting a first electrode of one fuel cell to a second electrode of an adjacent fuel cell, the fir
 , an anode attached to said first side of said polymer electrolyte membrane, and a cathode attached to said second side of said polymer
 layer each comprising: a catalyst-carrying carbon comprising a carbon powder and an electrode catalyst carried on said carbon powder
  along directions that are substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis, wherein: the first metal protective layer is formed over the meta
  e of shorting the cell of a fuel cell stack; and a dielectrically isolated driver capable of driving the relay.
  ing: a burner for producing combustion gas by burning fuel in order to warm the catalysts upon start up of the fuel cell power plant, th
00 W electrical power and having a cathode in fluid communication with ambient air; (b) a fuel reformer capable of producing a hydrog
 flow passage, the water trap having a discharge valve for discharging the accumulated water to outside of the gas flow passage; a disch
pper, molybdenum, and tungsten, and wherein the wash-coat composition is dispersed onto at least a portion of a surface of the at least
 ion of measured insulation resistance values.
ake port to said fuel cell; and an exhaust system component which has an exhaust port and exhausts emission gas from said fuel cell thr
   frictional engagement on said closure and having a hub; a fuel cell actuator assembly in operational relationship to said fuel cell cham
  said cathode reactant, each of said first groups and each of said second groups respectively connected together electrically in series; se
   an oxidant-containing cathode reactant and a hydrogen-containing anode reactant into electricity, a cathode effluent and an anode efflu
 hode flowpath fluidly coupled between said cathode and an oxygen source and including a recirculation loop with means for selectively
 t from the fuel cells to the mixing tank; a radiator installed on the discharging flow path, the radiator cooling the exhaust to a controlled
 ectrode, each of said power generating cells generating electric power through reaction, via the solid polymer electrolyte membrane, be
  -side face having a plurality of independent gas flow channels that each supply and discharge an oxidant gas to and from a different po
 e, and a membrane electrode assembly disposed between the anode and the cathode; and a container for containing liquid fuel which is
cooling a coolant warmed by said fuel cell; at least first and second cooling fans for ventilating cooling fins of said first and second rad
back of the chassis cross member; and a shock absorbing member for connecting the front and rear tank supports to each other, and defo
 ater; wherein said composition has an electrical resistance greater than about 5 K.OMEGA.cm and wherein said composition is used in
  tage being connected to a supply of pure hydrogen and pure oxygen and the operating-gas discharge of the first stage being connected
rtion that supplies hydrogen to the hydrogen electrode; an oxygen supplier portion that supplies oxygen to the oxygen electrode; an inp
node chamber when the fuel cell is activated, wherein the reforming reactor is further configured to receive any one of a discharged gas
  ir; switching the supply of fuel gas to said other of said at least two openings; and introducing the stored exiting fuel gas to the supply
  cting an output voltage of the fuel cell; and a control device programmed to control a discharging process when a request for starting th
  r unit, at least one first flow generator and at least one second flow generator; providing a control unit; generating a first flow of a first
 ectrically conductive corrosion resistant coating, the overcoating sealing some or all of the porosities at the top surface of the electrical
 ct plate in a fluid-tight manner, wherein said one-piece shaped sheet metal part is provided with a fluid supply channel opening and a f
 s for directing reactant streams through said at least one fuel cell; (b) a humidifier in fluid communication with at least one of said reac
 rposed between said anode and said cathode, wherein each of said separators comprises: a plurality of sandwiching portions for sandwi
 olyte membrane and having upper parts and lower parts; a positive electrode diffusion layer disposed on the positive electrode; a negat
 arts of an organopolysiloxane containing at least two alkenyl groups each attached to a silicon atom in a molecule, (B) 5 to 50 parts of
  ning device, coupled to the fuel cell stack, to output power on the one or more power busses; and a control unit; one or more hydrogen
pported by a body frame so that the motor unit can be rocked for housing the motor and a shock absorber provided between the motor u
et; and a muffler in fluid communication with one of the inlet and outlet of the air feeder, the muffler comprising: a first air passageway
 said fuel cell power plant having a nominal reformate flow rate; operating said fuel processor system so as to provide a reformate flow
 based on a target supply current determined depending on a current demanded by a load when said fuel cell is connected to the load an
s: a body having a space for receiving the electricity generating unit; a guide section connected to the body to collect the cooling mediu
   surface, and drying the first electrode layer; forming an electrolyte layer by screen printing a powder slurry on the surface of the first e
, said hollow enclosure being formed of a polymeric material; a power generating unit positioned in said internal space of said hollow e
 node layer, so as to provide fuel for the anode layer; and a linkage arrangement, having: a first blade, disposed inside the pipe, wherein
 e gas and a cathode gas to the membrane electrode assembly; a first port area configured to supply at least one of the anode gas and the
  an elastic, sealed gas-routing passage made from textile material that interconnects the gas filter system to a gas inlet of the compresso
ining fuel which is substantially free of free acid electrolyte to said anode of said fuel cell stack including a meter which meters an amo
r has an equivalent weight of 250-2,500.
 rated from the current collector; a first insulation layer, comprising a first surface, a second surface, a first conductive via and a second
ate and a conductive cathode plate respectively facing the anode electrode and the cathode electrode, wherein the conductive cathode pl
  uel supply unit or a hydrogen generated from the fuel and the oxygen supplied by said oxygen supply unit; and at least one electro-che
   method comprising the steps of: purging hydrogen from the fuel cell stack with air prior to startup; starting the fuel cell system by re-i
  tricity generation/combustion means, and a combustion gas formed within said electricity generation/combustion chamber is discharge
  ns; wherein one or more of said plurality of fuel cells that is in active operation most often is placed central to said plurality of fuel cel
; a platelike anode-side separator positioned on one side of the MEA so that a front surface thereof contacts the anode, with fuel gas pa
ode and said cathode, wherein each of said separators comprises: a plurality of sandwiching portions for sandwiching said electrolyte el
olyte membrane; an oxidizing gas supply portion that supplies an oxidizing gas to the oxygen electrode; a hydrogen electrode disposed
ol system, said dispatching and time-series control system being connected with said inverter units, said dispatching and time-series con
 iner, which stores at least a portion of the cooling liquid circulating within said circulation passage, and which communicates with said
 by the fuel cell; and a reformer in which a temperature thereof is hot while the system is operating, wherein the fuel cell, electronic con
  fuel cells is at least 1.1:1, wherein the maximum power of the fuel cell device is at least 5% greater than that of a fuel cell device with
   hydrocarbon-based polymer comprising a main chain, in which a plurality of benzene rings are bound to one another, directly or throu
a cathode passage and a membrane electrode assembly interposed therebetween, said anode passage and said cathode passage being ori
ide conductive separator having manifold apertures and a flow channel for supplying an oxidant to said cathode, wherein, manifold ape
aces which are formed at an outer edge portion of the first sheet; arranging the second sheet to contact the first sheet only at the at least
 ween said anode and said cathode.
   formed on the first gas diffusion layer; an electrolyte film formed on the first reaction layer; a second reaction layer formed on the elec
ed for hydrodesulfurisation of a primary hydrocarbon fuel supplied to the fuel cell system, and wherein in the method the fuel that is es
 sion layer on the outer surface of said anode catalyst layer; and a cathode including a cathode catalyst layer on the other surface of said
 apted to hold a volume of said carrier material in isolation from an exterior environment of the housing; (b) a plurality of microtubular
  h and the water flow path of the separator, said sealant coating apparatus including a nozzle portion; at a coating-start portion of the se
uel gas into the other of the pair of electrodes or a cooling medium flow path for cooling, and at least one molding material injection ga
packing material and a reforming catalyst at a space velocity C.sub.1GHSV of at least 500 under reforming conditions, wherein calcula
 ying unit configured to supply the oxidizer gas into said fuel cell, a state detecting unit configured to detect the temperature of cooling
drogen burner.
 isting of Y, La, a Lanthanide series element, and any combination thereof and X also represents an element occupying the A site of a p
f unit separators with the anode-side separators and the cathode-side separators adjacent to each other, respectively, the structure compr
   air to the fuel-cell main body; a reformed gas supply portion for supplying the reformed gas to said fuel-cell main body; and a process
er for heating the drying gas before it is sent to the fuel cell stack.
 onstituting a fuel pole cell of the fuel cell function as air pole cells and cells adjacent to the corners of wall surfaces of the fuel pole ce
  ing is defined as r (micrometers), wherein r is 0.05 to 0.5 mm, and an average area of the conductive inclusions in a cross-section of pl
ain liquid fuel, wherein the first chamber is defined at least partially by the first surface of the anode; and a second chamber configured
  main body thereon; a hinge portion hinging the fuel cell main body to the electronic main body; and a fuel tank arranged within the m
 zed resin, are laminated, and at least one of the carbon fiber papers is the carbon fiber paper comprising carbon fibers having a surface

 catalyzed membrane electrolyte is conformable to a plurality of desired shapes; (B) diffusion layers sandwiching said catalyzed membr
 to outside junction terminal which extends from an inner circumferential side to an outer perimeter side of the insulating portion so tha
 a thin film layer on the photoresist pattern and on the second side, to form an anode layer; c. removing the photoresist pattern from the
 d to electrically connect the electrical energy storage device to and/or electrically disconnect the electrical energy storage device from
 ugh a liquid trap seal to collect condensate from said fuel cell system, said liquid trap seal being separate from said fluid collection con

ween a cooling water and a cooling air, wherein the fuel cell stack, the cooling water pump and the radiator are connected to each other
  stack being exhausted out of the stack through a discharge pipe; a fan unit for supplying external air to an interior of the housing for c
  allowing the cathode input air to by-pass the water vapor transfer device; a by-pass valve for switching the flow of the cathode input a
ation of the fuel cell system 20 has ended, the output terminal voltage of the fuel cell 21 is set to the OCV value of 400V via the DC/D
trode 7 disposed on the first surface of the substrate 1 so as to sandwich the electrolyte 3.
 surfaces of the trapezoidal portion. The first protrusions contact the anode of the electrolyte electrode assembly, and the second protrus
 espectively, and separators outside the fuel electrode current collector and the air electrode current collector. In a first embodiment, a f
  using partial pressure swing adsorption, and providing the hydrogen separated from the fuel exhaust stream to a hydrogen storage vess
 a plurality of electrodes; wherein the electrokinetic fuel pump moves fuel from the fuel reservoir through the conduit to the fuel cell; an
<sp>3</sp> MPa, and a bending strain of 1% or more; and a high-elastic modulus layer (2) having a bending elastic modulu
e manifold aperture; a gas flow channel for fuel gas formed on an anode-side of the separator; an inlet-side through hole and an outlet-s
electrolyte membranes (111, 211, 311) have a region 1 having proton conductivity over the entirety in the thickness direction of the mem
e anode exhaust line.
erse passages. First and second electrodes (14, 16) are respectively arranged on the first and second current collectors (13, 15) such as t
 ry ion transfer to affect the necessary electrochemical balance for the reaction to take place in the semi-fuel cell.
n be used to determine an anode effluent venting requirement to avoid nitrogen fouling of the fuel cell stack.
ast one corrugated foil wall. The reformer is adapted to reform a hydrocarbon fuel to a hydrogen containing reaction product and to pro
 ctrolyte membrane is disposed with the outer periphery thereof protruding from the outer peripheries of the fuel electrode and the oxidi
 h the stack, a pump for pumping the cooling fluid through the coolant loop, and a radiator for cooling the cooling fluid outside of the f
e device are connected in parallel to each other. An electric power control system includes a power supply controller having a failure de
ch decomposes the material for fuel to generate fuel, the layer being formed between the anode-side supply inlet and the anode.
lue, in a subtraction timer, and when discrimination is made (step S5, step S6) that the fuel cell system 10 is started up and each pressu
s openings to allow gases of the fuel cell to flow to and from the electrode element.
The second oxygen-containing gas flow passage grooves communicate with the outlet side oxygen-containing gas communication hole
a small difference in thermal expansion from an electrolyte. Specifically, 0.20 percent by mass or less of C, 0.02 to 1.0 percent by mass

 l stack and the resulting current or voltage signal is measured. From at least one change of the harmonic content of the signal the opera
 gas supply path, an ejector, provided in the fuel gas supply path and driven by fluid flow energy, for supplying the fuel off-gas in the fu
 d operated for discharging the reaction gases through the discharge path; an opening condition monitoring device for continuously mon
w and store the water in the reservoir. The cooling circuit is adapted to generate the water flow that is communicated through the fuel ce
 lectrolyte member (28), a porous gas permeable first electrode (26) and a porous gas permeable second electrode (30). Each electrolyte
n be formed into a stack. The fuel cell can utilize either a rigid or a flexible electrolyte. The components are manufacturable by a proces
  e conducive to mass production, and are manufactured by using PCB compatible processes.
 ld apertures forming an elongated fluid supply manifold extending through the stack, flowing the supply of fluid into the fluid supply m
el gas flow field. The first and second protrusions sandwich outer edges of electrode catalyst layers.
plying reactant gas to the fuel cell. The cooling gas passage is controllable in flow amount. The porous portion is formed only in a sepa
 over a given time-period after a given time point, in accordance with the actual power-consumption value measured by the power meas
uel tank and a control unit. The structure in the fuel tank includes two electrode boards and an elastic element, which maintains the liqu
  , a side frame which forms a framework of the fuel cell box and which is connected to the bottom frame and to the top frame, a bottom
  a laser beam is irradiated onto the metallic material through the frame or the separator in a state that the frame and each separator conta
ck, as well as temperature of the ambient environment, are monitored and a heating fluid is heated by thermal transfer with the environm
 en. A fuel supply assembly supplies fuel to the reformer, and an oxygen supply assembly supplies oxygen to the at least one electricity
  e layer (3) formed on an inner peripheral surface of the solid electrolyte membrane (1); an outside collector (4) arranged on an outer pe
rs to enclose the interior space. A stack of such membrane assemblies is provided on a shaft and is rotated within a housing to drive off
 of the anode catalyst layer. The fuel electrode substrate includes a fuel-sealing support portion surrounding the cathode catalyst layer. T
rator and a second separator to give a stacked construction. The first and second separator have a planar shape slightly larger than a sol
hodic catalytic activity. The invention is also a method for making such a solid oxide fuel cell. The graded pore structure of the graded
gen pump, gas-liquid separator, hydrogen discharge valve, hydrogen supply pipe, hydrogen discharge pipe, distribution pipes, and conn
 l cell stack has a pair of end plates and six openings including a fuel inlet, an oxidant inlet, a cooling agent inlet, a fuel outlet, an oxida
  m the load when any of the plurality of loads is connected to any of the connection units; and a control unit operable to compute the po
  that is an electric storage device, and a rechargeable battery DC/DC converter that converts the output voltage of the rechargeable batte
 t gas from the fuel cell system to separate water contained in the exhaust gas. The lower chamber has a portion for discharging the wat
 pting device for interrupting the discharge of anode-off gas from an anode outlet of the fuel cell. When a problem occurs in the system
   stack; a mixing junction for mixing a cathode exhaust gas and the bled anode exhaust gas during the bleed; and a controller for contro
   b) a reformer for reforming hydrocarbons to provide said fuel; c) an air supply system for supplying said oxygen in the form of cathod
 n antifreeze circulation flow passage to heat the antifreeze solution; a first antifreeze circulation flow passage adapted to circulate the a
 nd surface of the membrane electrode assembly; a reformer to convert fuel to generate hydrogen gas; a fuel supply unit to supply the fu
 and formed with openings and penetrating passages to expose the manifolds and the flow passages, and a membrane-electrode assembl
 two rows of rubber beads, each row of which is disposed at a top and a bottom of the MEA and is compressed from both top and botto
: (A) the fuel cell comprises a fuel supply unit into which the fuel is supplied and a water discharging unit for discharging the water, wh
face of said hard disk drive, and a fuel cell, coupled to the hard disk drive and at least one of the plurality of isolation devices; wherein
  ction of the vehicle body; a pair of front seats each having a seating surface and a seat back and disposed on the floor panel laterally ou
 iching the polymer electrolyte membrane, and a sealant enclosing the gas channel opening and the electrodes; a separator having a chan
   the anode and a second portion surrounding the first portion; and a gasket including a first multilayer structure having a first adhesive
artment, and a means for feeding wastewater to the anode compartment, wherein wastewater fed to the anode compartment is anaerobic
  en said anode and said cathode, said separators each consisting of a single plate, wherein each of said separators in said pair of separat
 yte membrane is formed from a sulfonated polyarylene consisting of 0.5 to 99.999% by mol of a first repeating unit represented by the
hode substrate, and an electrolyte membrane carried in contacting with the anode catalyst layer and the cathode catalyst layer; an anode
  l electrode; a fuel storage part configured to store a liquid fuel; a liquid fuel vaporizing layer configured to vaporize the liquid fuel and
  e fibre and a plurality of second hollow electrically conductive gas permeable carbon fibres which are coated on the outside with a fuel
  on and a second orientation; and a shelf mount disposed in said chamber and configured for axially securing a fuel injector in place wh
n tank that supplies new fuel to the fuel cell; a fuel-forwarding device disposed in the fuel-circulating passage and provided with: a fue
 a driving gear pump head and driven gear pump head mounted on a common shaft; and a standard coolant loop comprising a standard
 ured to said first outer shell section and having an end forming a positive terminal and positioned linearly opposite the end of the first c
and a second tube electrically insulated from the fuel reforming catalytic substrate and disposed around the first tube, the second tube c
  supplied to the joint component to flow therethrough, a fastening unit comprising a frame and a base, wherein the power generation ce
ous membrane, said non-metallic microporous membrane being a polymeric or ceramic microporous membrane, and said polymeric me
 methyl cellulose, and 1 to 5 wt % of phosphoric acid to the aqueous alumina solution to form a mixture, wherein the weight percentage

ayer from a mixture of a ceramic material and a metal material and/or a metal precursor; producing a metallic layer in addition to the ce
 combustor combusting mixed gas comprising an anode off-gas discharged from an anode of the fuel cell stack and a cathode off-gas di
ond anode layer overlying the second electrolyte layer, wherein: the first and second electrolyte layers are in direct contact with the firs
  hydrogen, expelled from the fuel cell, among hydrogen supplied to the fuel cell from the hydrogen supply source to be recirculated to
N, TaZrN, NbTiO.sub.xN.sub.y or TaZrO.sub.xN.sub.y where 0.001.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1, and 0.1.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.2. the coating making the b
g direction of the plurality of series-connected fuel cells as far as a contact area for a second pole plate of the fuel cell stack to an extern
supplying fuel gas containing hydrogen to the hydrogen electrode, the hydrogen gas channel facing the hydrogen electrode; a first oxid
 node channel comprising an anode inlet and an anode outlet, whereby at least one hydrocarbon feedstock is subject to internal reformin
metric quantities of cathode reactant to supply to at least one of the at least two cathode sides based on the first power demand; (c) supp
 e fuel canister includes a container control system for storing information about an identification of the fuel canister, and a communica
m the hydrogen fed from said fuel reform unit and air, a cooling water supply unit for supplying cooling water to said fuel cell stack uni
 trode, the power plant generating power by a chemical reaction of a gas flowing in the gas passages at the electrode; a first manifold co
   connecting part disposed between the metal central part and the resin frame part to thereby connect the metal central part and the resin
 r; then vulcanizing or crosslinking the rubber layer, without pressing, to adhere to the separator to produce a separator unit; and then br
ode catalyst material in contact with at least a portion of the anode face of said polymer electrolyte membrane; c) a layer of cathode cat
   flow field which includes an air intake portion and an air exhaust portion, a fuel intake manifold opening and a fuel exhaust manifold
  thickness in the range of 10 to 30 .mu.m; and a second microporous layer that forms a boundary with the diffusion layer, wherein the s

 sequently reforming the desulfurized fuel by bringing the desulfurized fuel into contact with a catalyst comprising at least one member
 he coolant passages of the unit cells; a coolant discharge manifold passing through the laminate, which recovers coolant from the coola
cell on one side of the barrier layer defining a flow channel for liquid water adjacent that one side of the barrier layer, the cell on the ot
 cell having a cathode and an anode, the cathode consuming an oxidizing gas and the anode consuming the reformed gas, the anode disc
 layer formed on the outer surface of the electrolyte layer, wherein the fuel cell further comprises: a fuel reservoir which stores at least a
unting hole extending through a surface of the second separator plate facing the first separator plate; and a porous pyroelectric member
 surface on the first side of the bipolar plate facing the membrane electrode assembly, a second gas passage formed on another surface
 ilm on a second end region of the substrate, the second end region opposed to the first end region, wherein the second film is preferent
 o a second output voltage, where a positive input terminal of said DC-DC Voltage Converter and a negative input terminal of said DC-
hrough a reaction of fuel gas and oxidation gas, wherein the fuel cell is disposed on the floor panel so as to be in the vehicle passenger
e fuel cell, and an exhaust pipe for conveying byproducts in the fuel cell power generation process, and an exhaust port formed on an ex
 he electrolyte at the output voltage equaling or less than a first threshold value based on the dry state, wherein the second load current
urce or surplus hydrogen that was not consumed in the stack and that generates a process burner exhaust gas; hydrogen and oxygen flow
ols said compressor according to an operating state of the fuel cell to regulate an air pressure of the cathode electrode; a regulator that i
 ny of said dilution vessel and said exhaust piping comprises a hydrogen suction hole for sucking the hydrogen gas within said staying c
  a dummy fuel cell generating no electrical power, at opposite ends of the plurality of fuel cells layered; and a restraining member, whi
  reformer while a second subassembly of cells of the fuel-cell stack is not supplied with reformates, and then supplying, when the refor
organic liquid feed fuel cell so as to form a liquid mixture, the liquid mixture being supplied to the anode; an air supply unit supplying a
 including a membrane electrode assembly to generate electricity from the reaction between the fuel gas and oxidant gas, which forms t
   atmospheric pressure air and an atmospheric pressure fuel are supplied at an atmospheric pressure and from which the cell exhaust gas
 e; a cathode off-gas passage for discharging a cathode off-gas of the cathode; a fuel gas passage for supplying the fuel gas to the anode
uent storage unit that stores only a diluent that is a byproduct of the chemical reaction in the fuel cell stack; a sensor that detects a conc
r computing a target power to be generated by the fuel cell; a power-lowering request detection unit for detecting a power-lowering req
perforation hole, which is formed at a center of the second end portion of the coupling tube and has a sectional area equal to or smaller
e anode and the cathode and form gas flow channels for a fuel gas to the anode and a cathode gas to the cathode, the current collector o
  structure including at least two layers, the outermost layer constituting the multi-layer structure is a porous layer obtained by adding a
consisting of Cd and Au; Cd and Cu; and Cd and Ni; wherein the alloy has a stronger oxygen-binding force than platinum or a weaker
ed with a cathode catalyst, the method comprising: transporting, with use of a movable vacuum, an end portion of the membrane web fr
 aving a magnetic axis perpendicular to and crossing a plane of interface between the electrolyte and the active layer, the magnets comp
he cathode electrode areas are electroplated on both the front and the backside of the first substrate and have a plurality of apertures the
  cond fuel cell component comprising at least one fuel cell plate; (c) compressing the first fuel cell component and the second fuel cell
 terposed between the electrolyte membrane and the air electrode so as to accelerate a reaction of forming oxygen ions from oxygen gas
  int comprising operational values for fuel cell voltage, fuel cell current, input hydrogen, and bypass hydrogen; determining a plurality o
  of the fuel cell; a connection detecting module configured to detect a presence or absence of a connection with an electronic apparatus
 andwiched between an anode electrode and a cathode electrode, each of said power generating cells generating electric power through
e contained in an anode enclosure, said organic liquid fuel solution contained in said anode enclosure, a cathode electrically linked to sa
 ween said first and second separators and between said electrolyte membrane and each of said first and second separators, said seal stru
  r disposed between the first and second diffusion medium members; a first seal member in an inboard position relative to the first and
   there between, wherein each said separator of said pair of separators comprises a first surface facing said electrolyte layer and a secon
 reactant gas supply passage and a reactant gas discharge passage extended through the fuel cell in the stacking direction; a reactant gas
e, wherein the catalyst layer is a layer comprising a mixture of catalyst carrying carbon and other particles, the catalyst layer is obtained
 nd the aqueous solution containing said iridium compound; a step for forming a fine iridium particle aggregate by insolubilization treat
  m metal and have a cross-sectional waveform structure and membrane electrode assemblies having a solid polymer electrolyte membra
 e metal cation selected from the group consisting of lanthanides alkali metals, and alkaline-earth metals; A'' is a cationic vacancy, that
face of the base layer, and a second copper layer laminated on a lower surface of the base layer; (2) drilling the CCL substrate within p
a portion of said anionic functional groups are neutralized by manganese cations, and wherein the distribution of said cations across the
  acent joint body produced by interposing an electrolyte member between a pair of electrodes; a rib portion which is formed on respecti
 ctrolyte, a surface area of one of said gas diffusion layers being larger than a surface area of the other of said gas diffusion layers, said
alyst layers, and a pair of gas diffusion electrodes provided on outer surfaces of the pair of catalyst layers, an outer periphery of the gas
 rator coupled to an outside of the gas diffusion layer so as to support the membrane electrode assembly; a gasket interposed between th
 r, which are formed in the order mentioned on one surface of the electrolyte membrane, and an air electrode having an oxidizing gas su
 receive the air flow from the regenerator and defining a substantially U-shaped burner air flow path; and a substantially U-shaped refor
  erial disposed within said at least one flow channel, wherein said sacrificial material substantially fills said at least one flow channel an
 to the fuel cell before the fuel cell performs the power generation operation.
 nant; b. providing a removeable getter electrode, wherein the getter electrode is electrically connected to the fuel cell electrode; c. cont
   having a surface resistance no greater than about 0.007 ohm-cm.sup.2, wherein said metal alloy is selected from the group consisting o
 er source and said stack power; and a source power switch coupled to said fuel cell stack and said low voltage power source, wherein s
rode of an adjacent fuel cell, the first electrode comprising a first layer on the electrolyte to optimize the electrochemical activity at the
o said second side of said polymer electrolyte membrane; an anode side separator disposed on said first side of said membrane electrod
lyst carried on said carbon powder; and a hydrogen ion conductive polymer electrolyte attached to said catalyst-carrying carbon, where
ctive layer is formed over the metal core; the second protective layer is formed over the first protective layer; the first metal protective l

  up of the fuel cell power plant, the burner comprising a lean burn burner for burning a mixture of fuel and air at a larger air-fuel ratio
 mer capable of producing a hydrogen-rich, carbon monoxide-poor product stream from fuel; (c) a fuel container containing said fuel fo
 de of the gas flow passage; a discharge valve controller for controlling an open/close state of the discharge valve; a pressure measurem
 portion of a surface of the at least one of the anode and the cathode and into at least a portion of the pores therein.

emission gas from said fuel cell through said exhaust port, wherein said intake system component and said exhaust system component a
   relationship to said fuel cell chamber and configured for actuating said fuel cell in said chamber to emit a measured dose of fuel durin
ed together electrically in series; selecting a number of said first groups and a number of fuel cells in each of said first groups to mainta
 cathode effluent and an anode effluent; a first flow path operable to supply a first anode reactant feed stream to an inlet of a first anode
  ion loop with means for selectively introducing fuel therein, a combustor for selectively reacting said selectively introduced fuel with o
   cooling the exhaust to a controlled temperature so as to condense a controlled amount of water meeting a demand in the fuel cells; a v
   polymer electrolyte membrane, between fuel gas and reacting air supplied to the anode electrode and cathode electrode, respectively, e
 dant gas to and from a different power-generating region of a cathode, wherein the gas flow channels of the anode-side and cathode-sid
  for containing liquid fuel which is to be fed to the anode, the container housing at least the anode of the fuel cell body so as to be imm
 ng fins of said first and second radiators, respectively; and an electric pump, disposed along a pipe line of said cooling system for circu
ank supports to each other, and deformed when shock is applied to the front and rear tank supports; wherein said shock absorbing mem
wherein said composition is used in a fuel cell assembly.
   of the first stage being connected to the operating-gas feed of the second stage such that each of the at least one fuel cell blocks of the
gen to the oxygen electrode; an input portion that inputs a requested electric power; a generation control portion configured to cause the
 eceive any one of a discharged gas from the anode chamber or a mixed gas composed of the discharged gas and carbon dioxide from t
 ored exiting fuel gas to the supply of fuel gas going to said other of said at least two openings.
 ocess when a request for starting the fuel cell is given; wherein when the control device receives the request and determines that the o
nit; generating a first flow of a first cooling water fluid by the at least one first flow generator, the first flow circulating the first cooling
   at the top surface of the electrically conductive corrosion resistant coating, wherein the electrically conductive corrosion resistant coat
uid supply channel opening and a fluid discharge channel opening in fluid guiding areas of said one-piece shaped sheet metal part to wh
cation with at least one of said reactant stream passages, for humidifying a reactant stream supplied to said stack; and (c) a purge system
of sandwiching portions for sandwiching said electrolyte electrode assemblies, wherein said sandwiching portions are separate from eac
d on the positive electrode; a negative electrode diffusion layer disposed on the negative electrode; an oxygen gas passage provided on
 in a molecule, (B) 5 to 50 parts of a resinous copolymer consisting of (R).sub.3SiO.sub.1/2 units and SiO.sub.2 units, or of (R).sub.3Si
 control unit; one or more hydrogen storage sources coupled to each fuel cell power unit; and wherein, in response to a cessation of ope
 rber provided between the motor unit and the body frame, wherein: the shock absorber is arranged under the fuel cell, and further com
r comprising: a first air passageway having a first end and a second end, the first air passageway having a first length extending along t
m so as to provide a reformate flow at a rate greater than said nominal reformate flow rate; operating said fuel cell power plant using a f
 uel cell is connected to the load and a current is supplied to the load; a capacitor connected parallel to said fuel cell and chargeable by
e body to collect the cooling medium passing through the electricity generating unit; and an exhaust unit connected to the guide section
er slurry on the surface of the first electrode layer, and drying the electrolyte layer; forming a second electrode layer on a surface of the
 said internal space of said hollow enclosure, said power generating unit having a diffusion layer and a metal conducting layer and a me
e, disposed inside the pipe, wherein the fluid flows through the first blade and the pump and is then transported to the anode layer, and
 t least one of the anode gas and the cathode gas to the channel region; and a second port area configured to remove at least one of the a
 tem to a gas inlet of the compressor and that prevents penetration of gases from outside the sealed gas routing passage, and a porous, fl
uding a meter which meters an amount of fuel which is used by the fuel cell, and controls supply of fuel based on said metering.

 a first conductive via and a second conductive via; an electrical component layer, comprising an electrical component having a first co
  wherein the conductive cathode plate comprises at least one air flow channel, and a member that absorbs water disposed on one end of
 y unit; and at least one electro-chemical capacitor disposed in said electricity generation unit, with the electro-chemical capacitor being
 starting the fuel cell system by re-introducing said hydrogen to the anode inlet of the fuel cell stack, said hydrogen reacting with said a
n/combustion chamber is discharged from said electricity generation/combustion chamber, wherein a heat exchanger having a first chan
  central to said plurality of fuel cells to provide heat to less active fuel cells of said plurality of fuel cells.
 ontacts the anode, with fuel gas passages through which fuel gas flows being formed in the front surface; and a platelike cathode-side s
  for sandwiching said electrolyte electrode assemblies and forming a plurality of fuel gas flow fields between one surface of said separa
ode; a hydrogen electrode disposed on the other side of the electrolyte membrane; and a fuel gas supply portion that supplies a hydroge
 aid dispatching and time-series control system being connected with a plurality of fuel cells; a plurality of backup inverter units, said b
and which communicates with said circulation passage via a gas drawing passage and via a passage for returning the cooling liquid; a s
wherein the fuel cell, electronic control unit and the reformer are disposed separated from each other in a single enclosure, and wherein
 than that of a fuel cell device with an equal total active area and equally sized cells and said electrolyte sheet contains at least 5 electro
nd to one another, directly or through a divalent organic group, and wherein said polymer electrolyte membrane comprises an ion cond
 and said cathode passage being oriented in a unidirectional, gravity-assisted flow orientation; and a valve and piping manifold assembl
aid cathode, wherein, manifold aperture connecting portions formed at an inlet-side end and an outlet-side end of said flow channel, res
ct the first sheet only at the at least one of surfaces which are formed at the outer edge portion of the first sheet; and forming a passage

nd reaction layer formed on the electrolyte film; a second gas diffusion layer formed on the second reaction layer; a second electron co
ein in the method the fuel that is essentially free of organic sulfur-containing compounds is not the same fuel as the primary hydrocarbo
 st layer on the other surface of said polymer electrolyte membrane, and a cathode diffusion layer on the outer surface of said cathode ca
 ing; (b) a plurality of microtubular elements disposed in said housing i) having an outer diameter in a range of from 10 micrometers to
   at a coating-start portion of the sealant, making the nozzle portion be relatively closer to the separator than at portions other than the c
 t one molding material injection gate mark formed to overlap a plurality of grooves comprising the oxidizing gas flow path on the flow
orming conditions, wherein calculation of C.sub.1GHSV includes bed volume of all catalysts and heat transfer solids in reforming and r
o detect the temperature of cooling water to be supplied into said fuel cell, a cooling water heater configured to heat the cooling water t

 lement occupying the A site of a perovskite oxide and is selected from the group consisting of Sr, Ca and Ba, and Z.sup.1 and Z.sup.2
 r, respectively, the structure comprising: a voltage-measuring unit having a conductive voltage-measuring terminal; a contact section, w
 fuel-cell main body; and a processed water supply portion comprising a processed water tank for stocking processed water and for sup

of wall surfaces of the fuel pole cell and adjacent to wall surfaces of an air pole cell function as cooling air cells, whereby fuel pole cel
e inclusions in a cross-section of plate thickness direction in a separator material plate before the press-forming is defined as S (square
  and a second chamber configured to retain liquid electrolyte, wherein the second chamber is defined at least partially by the second su
d a fuel tank arranged within the mount member to store fuel.
 ing carbon fibers having a surface area ratio of 1.05 or more, said porous carbon electrode substrate having a structure in which a plura

sandwiching said catalyzed membrane electrolyte, said diffusion layers being comprised of materials that are conformable; (C) flexible
 ide of the insulating portion so that at least a portion of an inner circumferential side end portion of the inside to outside junction termi
ng the photoresist pattern from the second side to reveal a plurality of holes extending through the anode layer to the metal foil substra
ctrical energy storage device from the fuel cell stack.
arate from said fluid collection container; transporting said condensate from said liquid trap seal to said fluid collection container; and p

 adiator are connected to each other by the piping; n numbers of pressure detectors provided on the piping and detecting pressure of the
r to an interior of the housing for cooling said at least one electricity generator; and a region being supplied with the air discharged from
hing the flow of the cathode input air between the cathode input line and the cathode by-pass line; and a controller for controlling the by
 OCV value of 400V via the DC/DC converter 31. As a result, even where the status of the fuel cell 21 changes from operating to stopp

e assembly, and the second protrusions contact the cathode of the electrolyte electrode assembly. A fuel gas inlet for supplying a fuel g
ollector. In a first embodiment, a fuel gas and an oxidant gas are supplied from the separators to the fuel electrode layer and the oxidan
t stream to a hydrogen storage vessel or to a hydrogen using device.
ough the conduit to the fuel cell; and wherein the electrokinetic fuel pump electrodes do not deleteriously affect the performance of the
 2) having a bending elastic modulus exceeding 6.0.times.10<sp>3</sp> MPa, as at least one layer constituting the surface l
et-side through hole and an outlet-side through hole penetrating the separator which are formed at an inlet-side end and an outlet-side e
n the thickness direction of the membrane and a region 2 located at the outer peripheral portion of the region 1 and having a non-porou

urrent collectors (13, 15) such as to come into direct contact with the electrolytic membrane (4).
mi-fuel cell.

taining reaction product and to provide the reaction product to the fuel cell stack.
 of the fuel electrode and the oxidizer electrode, a first separator disposed with an abutment surface abutting on the fuel electrode of th
g the cooling fluid outside of the fuel cell stack. The system includes a controller for controlling the speed of the pump so as to mainta
upply controller having a failure detector for detecting a failure of the DC-to-DC converter. When the failure detector detects a failure
supply inlet and the anode.
m 10 is started up and each pressure is stabilized from a sensor signal from the fuel cell system 10, the electric power generated in the

 ontaining gas communication hole via second oxygen-containing gas connecting flow passages. The lowest position of the second oxyg
ss of C, 0.02 to 1.0 percent by mass of Si, 2.0 percent by mass or less of Mn, 10 to 40 percent by mass of Cr, 0.03 to 5.0 percent by ma

 onic content of the signal the operational state of individual cells of the fuel cell stack is inferred.
  supplying the fuel off-gas in the fuel off-gas circulation path flow to the fuel gas supply path, a fuel pump, provided in the fuel off-gas
 toring device for continuously monitoring a demanded opening condition of the discharge valve; and an opening condition renewing de
  communicated through the fuel cell stack from the water in the reservoir. The fan controls the amount of water that is removed from t
ond electrode (30). Each electrolyte (28) is arranged in contact with a corresponding one of the first electrodes (26), each second electro
ents are manufacturable by a process of printing rolled or flat stock, cutting where appropriate and stacking into a fuel cell assembly.

pply of fluid into the fluid supply manifold and laterally diverting a part of the supply of fluid to feed each of the number of the plates.

 us portion is formed only in a separator portion where a downstream portion of the reactant gas passage is located. At a separator porti
 value measured by the power measurement section. Moreover, the system includes a power-generation instruction section for determini
   element, which maintains the liquid level of the fuel in a level and transmits essential data corresponding to the distance between the t
 ame and to the top frame, a bottom holddown member which fixes a bottom portion of the fuel cell stack to the bottom frame, and a to
   the frame and each separator contact each other whereby the metallic material forms a eutectic with the other of the frame and each se
y thermal transfer with the environment under appropriate thermal conditions. The heated fluid is then passed to the insulated fuel cell i
xygen to the at least one electricity generator. A heat exchanger is connected to the reformer and to the at least one electricity generator
ollector (4) arranged on an outer peripheral surface of the outside catalyst electrode layer (2); and an inside collector (5) arranged on an
otated within a housing to drive off byproduct water. The water is collected and recirculated by spraying over the fuel cell stack for coo
unding the cathode catalyst layer. The oxidizer electrode substrate includes an oxidizer-sealing support portion surrounding the anode c
 nar shape slightly larger than a solid polymer electrolyte membrane, with primary face seal rubber layers affixed to outer peripheral ed
 raded pore structure of the graded pore electrode scaffolds in achieved by a novel freeze casting for YSZ tape.
e pipe, distribution pipes, and connection pipes) for supplying hydrogen gas to the fuel cell stacks; and a stack case for housing at least
g agent inlet, a fuel outlet, an oxidant outlet, and cooling agent outlet all formed on one end plate thereof. When the fuel cell stacks are
  rol unit operable to compute the power consumption of the load based on the information received by the connection unit when power
  ut voltage of the rechargeable battery to a predetermined voltage and then outputs it. The setting of a voltage at a node at which an out
 s a portion for discharging the water which is separated by the upper chamber. The pipe, which is attached to the upper chamber, has fl
hen a problem occurs in the system, the fuel gas supply interrupting device cuts off the fuel gas supply to the anode inlet, while the ano
e bleed; and a controller for controlling the compressor and the bleed valve so that the concentration of hydrogen in the mixed anode an
g said oxygen in the form of cathode air; d) an integrated fuel/air manifold for receiving said fuel from said reformer, conveying said fu
w passage adapted to circulate the antifreeze solution through the fuel cell and the radiator; a second antifreeze circulation flow passage
 ; a fuel supply unit to supply the fuel to the reformer; an air supply unit to supply air to the stack; and a cooling water supply unit to su
and a membrane-electrode assembly disposed between the combined separator plate and coupler and another coupler, wherein a periphe
ompressed from both top and bottom directions during assembly so that outer ones of said beads completely encompass cross-sectional
 g unit for discharging the water, wherein access to the fuel supply unit and the water-discharging unit is provided at a same face of the
 rality of isolation devices; wherein said plurality of isolation devices comprise a fluid contained within a flexible membrane to provide
posed on the floor panel laterally outside of the floor tunnel in the width direction of the vehicle body; seat rails provided between the f
  ectrodes; a separator having a channel for supplying and releasing a fuel gas to and from one of the pair of electrodes; and a separator
 er structure having a first adhesive layer, a first support layer and a first elastic layer that are sequentially stacked and a second multilay
he anode compartment is anaerobically treated in the anode compartment, is transferred to the cathode compartment via the glass wool
id separators in said pair of separators has a plurality of sandwiching portions, one of the plurality of electrolyte electrode assemblies b
st repeating unit represented by the general formula (1) and 0.001 to 99.5% by mol of a second repeating unit represented by the genera
he cathode catalyst layer; an anode passage plate forming a fuel passage disposed in contact with the anode substrate; a cathode passag
ured to vaporize the liquid fuel and to supply the vaporized fuel to the fuel electrode as a gas fuel; and a generated gas ejection part con
 re coated on the outside with a fuel cell catalyst and which have a means to enable oxygen or an oxygen containing gas to be passed do
 securing a fuel injector in place when the fuel cell is in the first orientation, and for supporting a bottom of the fuel cell when the fuel c
g passage and provided with: a fuel pump that is powered from an outside source to circulate the fuel in the fuel-circulating passage at
 oolant loop comprising a standard pump and a stack valve such that the standard coolant loop is fluidly connected to the electrochemic
 early opposite the end of the first cylindrically configured outer shell section forming the negative terminal to form together a cylindric
 nd the first tube, the second tube comprising an active area disposed downstream the fuel reforming catalytic substrate, said active area
 e, wherein the power generation cell is held between said base and frame, and a pressure plate attached to the frame to press the power
 membrane, and said polymeric membrane being made of a polymer selected from the group consisting of polyolefins, vinyl polymers,
 ure, wherein the weight percentages of the polyvinyl alcohol, the methyl cellulose, and the phosphoric acid are with reference to the w

a metallic layer in addition to the ceramic metal layer; and at least partially converting the metal of the ceramic metal layer into an elect
   cell stack and a cathode off-gas discharged from an cathode of the fuel cell stack; an anode off-gas control valve supplying the anode
 rs are in direct contact with the first cathode layer and the first cathode layer consists of a unitary layer; and a metal mesh is embedded
 supply source to be recirculated to the fuel cell; and a shut-off mechanism selectively shutting off hydrogen communicating through at
y.ltoreq.2. the coating making the bipolar plate resistant to corrosion during fuel cell operation due to fluoride ions being released as a p
 te of the fuel cell stack to an external area of the fuel cell stack, the shielding cables being joined together in the contact area to form a
  he hydrogen electrode; a first oxidant gas channel for supplying oxidant gas to the first oxygen electrode, the first oxidant gas channel
 stock is subject to internal reforming in the anode channel to produce a hydrogen containing fuel gas, and a hydrogen recycle means co
 on the first power demand; (c) supplying a cathode reactant stream; (d) routing a first portion of said cathode reactant stream to a first o
 the fuel canister, and a communication interface which is detachably coupled to the container control system to provide a communicatio
 ing water to said fuel cell stack unit to control its temperature in order for said fuel cell stack unit to generate electric power stably and
  at the electrode; a first manifold communicating with an end of each of the gas passages, the first manifold comprising a water-absorbi
  the metal central part and the resin frame part, wherein the connecting part is an elastic member; a plurality of reaction gas passages d
  oduce a separator unit; and then bringing the rubber layer, which has been vulcanized or crosslinked, of the separator unit into contact
membrane; c) a layer of cathode catalyst material in contact with at least a portion of the cathode face of said polymer electrolyte memb
 ening and a fuel exhaust manifold opening, the upper seal element having three distinct openings; a central anode flow field opening w
  h the diffusion layer, wherein the second microporous layer includes carbon particles and is on the surface of the embedded first micro

  st comprising at least one member selected from the group consisting of a partial-oxidation reforming catalyst, an autothermal reformin
 ich recovers coolant from the coolant passages of the unit cells to the coolant recirculation device; a valve which shuts off circulation o
   the barrier layer, the cell on the other side of the barrier layer defining a flow channel for steam adjacent that other side of the barrier l
 ng the reformed gas, the anode discharging an off gas containing hydrogen gas for discharging a combustion gas for heating the reform
  uel reservoir which stores at least a part of liquid fuel by an occluding element formed of a porous material and/or bundled fibers prese
  and a porous pyroelectric member in the chamber, the porous pyroelectric member including a first density part and a second density p
  assage formed on another surface on the second side of the bipolar plate, a communicating passage which allows the first gas passage
wherein the second film is preferentially catalytically active toward at least one of substantially reformed or partially reformed hydrocar
negative input terminal of said DC-DC Voltage Converter are electrically connected with a positive output terminal of said fuel cell and
 o as to be in the vehicle passenger room in a temperature conditioned environment, wherein the fuel cell is disposed in a fuel cell reces
 nd an exhaust port formed on an exhaust pipe and opening towards an outer side of a vehicle frame, further including: a hydrogen cylin
e, wherein the second load current is greater than the first load current; and decreasing the load current from the second load current to
 aust gas; hydrogen and oxygen flow lines that pass through the stack; and a first heating structure that increases an internal temperatur
  athode electrode; a regulator that is applied with the air pressure of said cathode electrode as a reference pressure, and regulates a supp
   hydrogen gas within said staying chamber, wherein a flow adjustment measure configured for flow-adjusting said hydrogen gas, and l
 red; and a restraining member, which extends in the fuel cell stacking direction over all of the plurality of multi-cell modules, for restra
and then supplying, when the reformer is hot, the first and second subassemblies of cells of the fuel-cell stack with reformates from said
node; an air supply unit supplying air to the cathode; and a heat exchanger connected to the mixing container so as to exchange heat be
gas and oxidant gas, which forms the water as a by-product, the membrane electrode assembly comprising a polymer electrolyte memb
and from which the cell exhaust gas is discharged at the atmospheric pressure; a turbine in which a combustion gas discharged at the atm
supplying the fuel gas to the anode, said fuel gas passage being free of a humidifier; a circulation passage for circulating an anode off-g
  stack; a sensor that detects a concentration of a fuel in a fuel mixture solution and outputs a signal according to the concentration; and
for detecting a power-lowering request to the fuel cell, comprising a cell voltage detection unit for detecting a cell voltage of the fuel ce
a sectional area equal to or smaller than a sectional area of a gas path formed in the fuel cell, in which the coupling tube is formed at an
 the cathode, the current collector on the anode side, together with the anode, form an anode half-cell, and the current collector on the c
 porous layer obtained by adding a pore-forming material which is gasified at the firing temperature for the formation of the cathode lay
 g force than platinum or a weaker hydrogen-binding force than platinum.
 nd portion of the membrane web from a first location to a second location; securing, with use of respective first and second vacuums a
 the active layer, the magnets comprising a first pole and a second pole, and wherein the first and second poles of the magnets of the ne
nd have a plurality of apertures therein, wherein the first conductive via through hole is disposed outside the cathode electrode areas an
omponent and the second fuel cell component with a compressive force to abuttingly engage the second fuel cell component and the fir
ming oxygen ions from oxygen gas and electrons, a second electrode reaction layer interposed between the electrolyte membrane and th
 hydrogen; determining a plurality of operating points for the fuel processor for providing the input hydrogen to the fuel cell at the requ
ection with an electronic apparatus, the electronic apparatus being operable using electric power supplied from the fuel cell unit, the co
 generating electric power through reaction, via the solid polymer electrolyte membrane, between fuel gas and reacting air supplied to th
e, a cathode electrically linked to said anode and contained in a cathode enclosure, an oxidizer contained in said cathode enclosure and
 nd second separators, said seal structure comprising: a first seal surface formed in said first separator, and a second seal surface formed
rd position relative to the first and second bipolar plate members, wherein the first seal member is comprised of a material selected from
g said electrolyte layer and a second surface opposite to said first surface, wherein said first surface comprises at least one recess (31) th
 e stacking direction; a reactant gas inlet buffer on respective surfaces of the first and second metal plates facing a respective one of the
 ticles, the catalyst layer is obtained by chemically bonding a molecule comprising an ion-conducting functional group serving as an ele
  aggregate by insolubilization treatment of said iridium compound; a step for impregnating said fine-iridium particle aggregate with an
a solid polymer electrolyte membrane and electrodes, the solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell stack also including a space formed betwee
tals; A'' is a cationic vacancy, that is to say a cation A and/or cation A' vacancy; M is a metal selected from the group consisting of tran
drilling the CCL substrate within pre-selected electrode areas to form a plurality of apertures through the first copper layer, the base lay
stribution of said cations across the thickness of said polymer electrolyte membrane is uniform.
portion which is formed on respectively on the first and the second surfaces of the separator, divides the first and second surfaces of the
er of said gas diffusion layers, said one gas diffusion layer including an outer marginal region extending outwardly beyond an outer reg
 yers, an outer periphery of the gas diffusion electrodes being located inwardly relative to an outer periphery of the polymer electrolyte
bly; a gasket interposed between the membrane electrode assembly and the metal-separator so as to prevent the reaction gas from being
 ectrode having an oxidizing gas supplied thereto, and consisting essentially of a catalyst layer and a diffusion layer, which are formed
  and a substantially U-shaped reformer flow chamber having a third inlet to receive the air flow from the burner chamber, the reformer
 ls said at least one flow channel and combines with said top surface of said interconnect support structure to provide a temporary, subs

d to the fuel cell electrode; c. contacting the fuel cell catalyst electrode and the getter electrode with an electrolyte; d. providing a volta
elected from the group consisting of: Y--Ba--Cu, La--Sr--Co, La--Sr--Cr, La--Sr--V, La--Ca--Mn, La--Nd--Ni, Ti--Ta, Ti--Nb, Ti--V, T
 w voltage power source, wherein said controller system is operable to power said airmover with a same voltage and current value rega
 the electrochemical activity at the electrolyte and a second layer on the first layer to provide electronic conduction perpendicular to the
irst side of said membrane electrode assembly; and a cathode side separator disposed on said second side of said membrane electrode a
aid catalyst-carrying carbon, wherein at least said cathode catalyst layer comprises at least two layers, the ratio (WP/W.sub.Cat-C) of th
ve layer; the first metal protective layer and the second metal protective layer comprise at least one different metal or metal alloy; and t

uel and air at a larger air-fuel ratio than a stoichiometric air-fuel ratio; combustion gas supply passages for distributing the combustion g
el container containing said fuel for said fuel reformer, said fuel comprising a mixture of methanol and water; (d) a fuel pump for feedi
charge valve; a pressure measurement unit for measuring a pressure inside the gas flow passage; and a judgment unit for judging wheth
 pores therein.

 d said exhaust system component are both disposed on the same side of said fuel cell.
emit a measured dose of fuel during tool operation; a fuel delivery apparatus associated with said actuator assembly and engageable on
  each of said first groups to maintain a substantially constant anode reactant stoichiometry for each of said first groups, wherein a numb
d stream to an inlet of a first anode section of said at least two anode sections; a second flow path operable to supply a second anode re
d selectively introduced fuel with oxygen in said recirculation loop, and an anode purge flowpath selectively fluidly coupled between s
 ting a demand in the fuel cells; a ventilator controllably feeding air to the radiator; and a controller unit controlling the ventilator so as
 d cathode electrode, respectively, each of said power generating cells having, in a front end portion thereof that faces forward when sai
 s of the anode-side and cathode-side faces are aligned on the polar-opposite faces of the separator so that each anode power-generating
f the fuel cell body so as to be immersed in the liquid fuel, wherein the fuel cell body has passageways surrounded by the projections a
ine of said cooling system for circulating the coolant; wherein said electric pump is disposed at a position where said electric pump can
wherein said shock absorbing member comprises two first and second shock absorbing members which are connected at centers thereof

e at least one fuel cell blocks of the first stage is connected in parallel to the at least one fuel cell blocks of the second stage, an end stag
trol portion configured to cause the fuel cell stack to generate an electric power corresponding to the requested electric power by contro
 ged gas and carbon dioxide from the carbon dioxide gas feeding unit when the fuel cell is operated in a stationary operation.

e request and determines that the output voltage has reached a first threshold before the discharging process has been completed, the co
 st flow circulating the first cooling fluid through the fuel cell unit and the heat exchanger unit; generating a second flow of a second co
conductive corrosion resistant coating has a plurality of layers.
piece shaped sheet metal part to which the electrolyte of the cathode-anode-electrolyte unit does not extend, said fluid supply channel o
 o said stack; and (c) a purge system comprising a humidifier bypass assembly comprising (1) at least one bypass conduit for directing s
hing portions are separate from each other by slits; a fuel gas supply portion provided substantially in a plane including a surface of sai
 n oxygen gas passage provided on an outer face of the positive electrode diffusion layer; and a hydrogen gas passage provided on an ou
d SiO.sub.2 units, or of (R).sub.3SiO.sub.1/2 units and SiO.sub.2 units and (R).sub.2SiO.sub.2/2 units, or of (R).sub.3SiO.sub.1/2 units
n, in response to a cessation of operation of a master control unit, the control unit of at least one of the other fuel cell power units of the
 nder the fuel cell, and further comprising: a dilutor for diluting gaseous hydrogen not consumed in the fuel cell, wherein: the dilutor is
 ing a first length extending along the first air passageway between the first and second ends of the first air passageway; and a second a
 said fuel cell power plant using a first portion of said reformate flow, said first portion being less than or equal to said nominal reforma
to said fuel cell and chargeable by said fuel cell, said capacitor being dischargeable to supply the current demanded by the load when s
 unit connected to the guide section to exhaust the cooling medium to outside of the housing, wherein a plurality of electricity generatin
  electrode layer on a surface of the electrolyte layer, and drying the second electrode layer, wherein the layers comprise a multilayer ele
  a metal conducting layer and a membrane electrode assembly sandwiched between said diffusion layer and said metal conducting laye
 ransported to the anode layer, and the fluid is adapted to drive the first blade to rotate; at least one second blade, disposed outside the p
 ured to remove at least one of the anode gas and the cathode gas from the channel region; wherein each of the plurality of channels inc
as routing passage, and a porous, flexible gas routing passage connected to an inlet side of the gas filter system to pre-filter gas entering
fuel based on said metering.

ectrical component having a first connection site and a second connection site; and a second insulation layer, comprising a first surface
 sorbs water disposed on one end of the conductive cathode plate at the location of one end of the at least one air flow channel and havi
he electro-chemical capacitor being a super-capacitor.
  said hydrogen reacting with said air to generate an initial amount of electrical power; determining said initial amount of electrical pow
  heat exchanger having a first channel and a second channel is disposed on the inner side of at least one wall of said housing, said com

face; and a platelike cathode-side separator positioned on the other side of the MEA so that a front surface thereof contacts the cathode
 between one surface of said separator and respective anodes of said electrolyte electrode assemblies for supplying a fuel gas to said an
ply portion that supplies a hydrogen-rich fuel gas to the hydrogen electrode; wherein the substrate permeates the hydrogen in the state o
lity of backup inverter units, said backup inverter unit comprising a capacitor and a plurality of switch diodes, said backup inverter unit
for returning the cooling liquid; a supply air pipe which supplies air into the fuel cell; an air pump for supplying the air to the fuel cell
 in a single enclosure, and wherein the electronic control unit is disposed at a side opposite a side on which the reformer is disposed an
yte sheet contains at least 5 electrode pairs and the electrode pairs adjacent to at least one edge of said electrolyte sheet are larger than
  membrane comprises an ion conducting polymer containing fluorine in a molecular structure thereof, and the ratio (Y/X) of the fluorin
valve and piping manifold assembly positioned between and providing fluid communication between said first fuel cell segment and sa
t-side end of said flow channel, respectively, in each of said anode-side conductive separator and said cathode-side conductive separato
 first sheet; and forming a passage on the first sheet at the same time as pressure-bonding the first sheet and the second sheet by a press

 eaction layer; a second electron collection layer formed on the second gas diffusion layer; and a second substrate provided with a secon
ame fuel as the primary hydrocarbon fuel, wherein the fuel that is essentially free of organic sulfur-containing compounds is processed
 the outer surface of said cathode catalyst layer, wherein said anode catalyst layer includes conductive carbon particles supporting a pla
 a range of from 10 micrometers to 1 millimeter, ii) one or more open ends in fluid communication with either the gas collection compa
 or than at portions other than the coating-start portion; and at the coating-start portion of the sealant, moving the nozzle portion at a ho
oxidizing gas flow path on the flow path surface, wherein said grooves are connected with each other through said molding material inje
at transfer solids in reforming and regeneration zones; ii. passing at least a portion of the product of step I through a second zone of the
nfigured to heat the cooling water to said fuel cell, an operation controlling unit configured to detect abnormalities with respect to rising

 a and Ba, and Z.sup.1 and Z.sup.2 represent different elements occupying the B site of a perovskite oxide and are selected from the gro
suring terminal; a contact section, with which the conductive voltage-measuring terminal is to be held in face to face contact, formed on
ocking processed water and for supplying processed water, wherein said processed water tank supplies the processed water to said refor

ing air cells, whereby fuel pole cells, air pole cells and cooling air cells are arranged in longitudinal and lateral directions so that cells o
ss-forming is defined as S (square of micrometers), r and S satisfy the formulas: 1.ltoreq.0.56.times.S.sup.1/2 1.77.times.S.sup.1/2/r.lto
d at least partially by the second surface of the anode and the first surface of the cathode, wherein the fuel cell is configured to be seale

 having a structure in which a plurality of carbon fiber papers, each containing a carbonized resin, are the same kind and are laminated

 that are conformable; (C) flexible current collectors coupled with each of said anode aspect and said cathode aspect of said membrane
the inside to outside junction terminal contacts and extends along an outer surface of the insulating portion and is located between the i
node layer to the metal foil substrate, to form a patterned porous anode; d. depositing a thin film electrolyte layer on the second side; e.

aid fluid collection container; and purging said fluid collection container, the purging comprising providing a cathode exhaust stream to

iping and detecting pressure of the cooling water, the n being an even number of two or greater, wherein if a center point of a cross-sec
upplied with the air discharged from the stack through a return line that is coupled to the discharge pipe, wherein air heated while cooli
 d a controller for controlling the by-pass valve, said controller detecting a high to low power request or a low power condition and swi
21 changes from operating to stopped, the value of the current flowing over the power supply lines 411 can be immediately and reliabl

fuel gas inlet for supplying a fuel gas into a fuel gas flow field is formed on the trapezoidal portion. The fuel gas inlet is provided at an
 fuel electrode layer and the oxidant electrode layer, respectively, through the fuel electrode current collector and the air electrode curre

ously affect the performance of the membrane-electrode assembly.
 one layer constituting the surface layer, other than the low-elastic modulus layer (1).
  inlet-side end and an outlet-side end of the gas flow channel for fuel gas; and an inlet-side connection groove and an outlet-side conne
 e region 1 and having a non-porous sheet disposed so that the region 2 has no proton conductivity over the entirety in the thickness dir




 abutting on the fuel electrode of the membrane electrode assembly and having a first flow path for supplying fuel, and a second separa
 speed of the pump so as to maintain the temperature of the stack at a desired temperature. The controller uses the thermal model to ant
he failure detector detects a failure of the DC-to-DC converter, the response of electric power output from the fuel cell is limited.

the electric power generated in the fuel cell stack 1 is commenced to be supplied to the load (step S8) followed by setting the period, in

 lowest position of the second oxygen-containing gas flow passage grooves 44 in the direction of gravity is higher than the bottom of th
ss of Cr, 0.03 to 5.0 percent by mass of Mo, 0.1 to 3.0 percent by mass of Nb, and at least one element selected from the group consist


  pump, provided in the fuel off-gas circulation path or on the fuel gas supply path and downstream with respect to the ejector, and driv
d an opening condition renewing device for renewing the demanded opening condition of the discharge valve depending on the demand
unt of water that is removed from the reactant flow to regulate a water level of the reservoir and controls removal of thermal energy fro
electrodes (26), each second electrode (30) is arranged in contact with a corresponding one of the electrolytes (28). Each of the first elec
acking into a fuel cell assembly.

d each of the number of the plates. The plates are each fed in parallel from the fluid supply manifold, and the laterally diverting is perfo

 age is located. At a separator portion where an upstream portion of the reactant gas passage is located, a coolant passage is formed. A
on instruction section for determining the need of startup/stop of the fuel-cell power generator in accordance with the estimated power-
 nding to the distance between the two electrode boards to the control unit for calculation such that the control unit may obtain the volum
stack to the bottom frame, and a top holddown member which fixes a top portion of the fuel cell stack to the top frame. Structural mem
  the other of the frame and each separator.
n passed to the insulated fuel cell in order to increase the temperature of the same, typically to a temperature at or near the temperature
 he at least one electricity generator. The heat exchanger supplies thermal energy of the reformer, during initial operation of the system,
  inside collector (5) arranged on an inner peripheral surface of the inside catalyst electrode layer (3), is characterized in that at least one
ying over the fuel cell stack for cooling and hydration.
ort portion surrounding the anode catalyst layer. The fuel-sealing and oxidizer-sealing support portions each include pores partially or w
ayers affixed to outer peripheral edge portions of primary faces of the first and second separator. Thus, an outer peripheral edge portion

nd a stack case for housing at least the fuel cell stacks and hydrogen system parts. The hydrogen system parts are congregated and mou
 reof. When the fuel cell stacks are securely installed onto the manifolding functional frame, each opening thereof is air commnicateabl
  y the connection unit when power supply is requested from another load among the plurality of loads connected to the connection unit,
a voltage at a node at which an output end of the fuel cell DC/DC converter and an output end of the rechargeable battery DC/DC conv
 tached to the upper chamber, has fluid communication with an inside of the upper chamber. The connecting holes provide fluid commu
ly to the anode inlet, while the anode-off gas interrupting device opens the anode outlet when the problem in the system occurs, and cu
  of hydrogen in the mixed anode and cathode exhaust gas is below a predetermined percentage, said controller using a valve orifice mo
m said reformer, conveying said fuel to said anodes, and returning said fuel as tail gas from said anodes, and for receiving said cathode
 antifreeze circulation flow passage adapted to circulate the antifreeze solution through the fuel cell, the water storage unit and the antifr
  d a cooling water supply unit to supply cooling water to the stack, wherein each separator comprises a flow channel section through w
  another coupler, wherein a periphery of the manifolds generally coincides with a periphery of the openings of the coupler, the coupler
mpletely encompass cross-sectional surfaces of the MEA; and a support for reinforcing, wherein said two rows of rubber beads are attac
it is provided at a same face of the fuel cell; and (B) the fuel supply apparatus comprises a mounting unit for mounting the fuel cell, a f
  in a flexible membrane to provide shock absorption to the disk drive within the frame and to provide fuel for powering the fuel cell.
y; seat rails provided between the front seats and the floor panel and adapted to be able to move the front seats in a longitudinal directio
 pair of electrodes; and a separator having a channel for supplying and releasing an oxidizer gas to and from the other one of the pair of
  ially stacked and a second multilayer structure having a second adhesive layer, a second support layer and a second elastic layer that ar
de compartment via the glass wool and the glass bead, is aerobically treated in the cathode compartment, and is then discharged from th
   electrolyte electrode assemblies being stacked on each of the plurality of sandwiching portions; said each of said separators has a fuel
  ting unit represented by the general formula (2): ##STR00029## (wherein, a benzene ring in general formula (1) includes its derivative
   anode substrate; a cathode passage plate forming an oxidizer passage disposed in contact with the cathode substrate; an anode feed po
  d a generated gas ejection part configured to eject a generated gas that is generated by a power generation reaction in the power genera
  gen containing gas to be passed down the inside of the fibre with the first hollow electrically conductive gas permeable carbon fibres a
tom of the fuel cell when the fuel cell is provided with a mechanical fuel dispenser in the second orientation, said shelf mount defining
 l in the fuel-circulating passage at a predetermined circulation rate, and an ejector that forwards the new fuel from the high-pressure hy
 dly connected to the electrochemical fuel cell stack when the stack valve is open and the standard coolant loop is fluidly isolated from
erminal to form together a cylindrical battery cell such that the ends of the cylindrical battery cell form the respective negative and posi
 catalytic substrate, said active area having an anode positioned on an interior, an electrolyte positioned exteriorly from the anode, and a
hed to the frame to press the power generation cell; a fluid conveyance apparatus having an opening commonly functioning as an intake
 ng of polyolefins, vinyl polymers, polyamides, polyesters, polycarbonates, polyethers, polyphenylene chalcogenides, polyether ether ke
ric acid are with reference to the weight of the solid content in the aqueous alumina solution; 3) stirring and ball-milling said mixture to

he ceramic metal layer into an electrically non conductive metal compound so as to produce a non conductive boundary layer.
 control valve supplying the anode off-gas to the catalytic combustor; a cathode off-gas control valve supplying the cathode off-gas to th
yer; and a metal mesh is embedded in the first anode layer, the first cathode layer, the second anode layer, or any combination thereof.
 drogen communicating through at least one of the ejector sections, wherein the ejector unit comprises a housing formed with a hydroge
o fluoride ions being released as a product of membrane degradation.
gether in the contact area to form a first connecting contact, further wherein the first connecting contact is spaced apart from the first po
 rode, the first oxidant gas channel facing the first oxygen electrode; a second oxidant gas channel for supplying the oxidant gas which
s, and a hydrogen recycle means configured to receive an anode exhaust gas comprising hydrogen from the anode outlet, and to enrich
  cathode reactant stream to a first one of the cathode sides via a first cathode reactant flow path; (e) routing a second portion of said cat
l system to provide a communication link between the fuel canister and the fuel cell processing system; a fuel delivery control system h
 generate electric power stably and a control unit for controlling output power generated from said fuel cell stack unit in compliance wi
 anifold comprising a water-absorbing material facing a flow of the gas; and a second manifold communicating with the other end of ea
plurality of reaction gas passages defined in the frame part, wherein the plurality of reaction gas passages guide reaction gases to the me
 , of the separator unit into contact with each side of a single cell to assemble the fuel cell and to seal a periphery of the single cell.
  of said polymer electrolyte membrane; d) an anode-side fluid transport layer having an outer edge portion, said anode-side fluid transp
 central anode flow field opening which defines the peripheral boundary of an anode flow field which includes a fuel intake portion and
 urface of the embedded first microporous layer, wherein the sum of the thicknesses of the first and second microporous layers is betwe

 g catalyst, an autothermal reforming catalyst, and a steam reforming catalyst; wherein: neither hydrogen nor oxygen is added while des
 valve which shuts off circulation of the coolant between the laminate and the coolant recirculation device; and a bypass passage connec
acent that other side of the barrier layer, said water and steam flow channels being in vapor communication with each other through the
mbustion gas for heating the reforming catalyst body; an off gas water separator located downstream of the anode and configured to sep
material and/or bundled fibers presenting capillarity; a fuel feeder having an infiltration structure; and a fuel supply system for supplying
 density part and a second density part having a higher density than that of the first density part and the second density part comprising
 which allows the first gas passage and second gas passage to communicate with each other, a gas inlet for introducing gas connected to
med or partially reformed hydrocarbon fuel, byproducts thereof, and mixtures thereof; depositing an intermediate film on a region of the
output terminal of said fuel cell and a negative output terminal of said fuel cell respectively, a positive output terminal of said DC-DC V
 cell is disposed in a fuel cell recess portion of the floor panel.
 further including: a hydrogen cylinder disposed on one of a left or right side of the drive wheel, a muffler disposed on the other of the
 nt from the second load current to the first load current at the output voltage equaling or less than a second threshold value based on a
hat increases an internal temperature of the stack by passing exhaust gas of the process burner through the stack in the hydrogen flow li
ence pressure, and regulates a supply pressure to said anode electrode based on said air pressure; an air injector that is capable of regula
-adjusting said hydrogen gas, and leading the hydrogen gas into said hydrogen suction hole is provided within said staying chamber, wh
 ty of multi-cell modules, for restraining each of the plurality of multi-cell modules in a direction perpendicular to the fuel cell stacking
cell stack with reformates from said reformer, wherein the cells of the first subassembly are optimized for operation with a cold reform
 ontainer so as to exchange heat between ambient air and the liquid mixture in the mixing container.
 rising a polymer electrolyte membrane and two electrodes on both sides of and adjacent to the polymer electrolyte membrane, a fuel ce
ombustion gas discharged at the atmospheric pressure from the combustor expands and the pressure of the combustion gas drops to a n
ssage for circulating an anode off-gas to the anode; an anode off-gas passage for discharging the anode off-gas; a fuel shutoff valve for
according to the concentration; and a control unit that receives the signal from the sensor and controls the fuel mixture solution, wherei
etecting a cell voltage of the fuel cell, wherein the power-lowering request detection unit determines whether or not the power-lowering
 h the coupling tube is formed at an inner portion thereof with an internal cavity having a shape corresponding to an external appearanc
l, and the current collector on the cathode side, together with the cathode, form a cathode half-cell, the electrolyte matrix or layer of ele
 or the formation of the cathode layer during the formation of the cathode layer by firing, and has a mesh metal or wire metal for curren

 pective first and second vacuums at the first and second locations and after removal of the movable vacuum, the end portion of the me
  ond poles of the magnets of the network are respectively arranged in the active layer and in the electrolyte.
 side the cathode electrode areas and is electronically connected to the respective cathode electrode areas with a conductive wire; provid
ond fuel cell component and the first curable composition with the first curable composition disposed between the first fuel cell compon
 en the electrolyte membrane and the fuel electrode and including NiO and scandia-doped zirconia, and an interconnector having a role
 ydrogen to the fuel cell at the required power output, each operating point for the fuel processor corresponding to an operating point fo
plied from the fuel cell unit, the connection detecting module being powered by the power source module; and a control module config
  l gas and reacting air supplied to the anode electrode and cathode electrode, respectively, each of said power generating cells having, a
 ned in said cathode enclosure and a solid polymer electrolyte sandwiched between said anode and said cathode, said membrane having
 r, and a second seal surface formed in said second separator, said first seal surface and said second seal surface opposing each other; an
omprised of a material selected from the group consisting of ethylene propylene diene monomer, rubber, fluoroelastomers, and combina
  omprises at least one recess (31) through which a fuel fluid or an oxidizer fluid flows so as to contact an associated one of said pair of
 lates facing a respective one of the electrodes, wherein the reactant gas inlet buffer has bosses; a reactant gas outlet buffer on the respe
   functional group serving as an electrolyte to a surface of the other particles and then mixing the other particles and the catalyst carryin
 -iridium particle aggregate with an aqueous solution containing a platinum compound; a step for obtaining a solution containing the inv
 o including a space formed between at least a portion of the separators and separators that are placed adjacent to this portion of the sep
  d from the group consisting of transition metals; and M' is at least one metal selected from the group consisting of transition metals sai
h the first copper layer, the base layer and the second copper layer; (3) chemically depositing a third copper layer on both surfaces of th

 the first and second surfaces of the separator into a plurality of regions, and forms passages through which fluid flows on the separator
 ing outwardly beyond an outer region of said other gas diffusion layer; first and second metal separators for sandwiching said electroly
eriphery of the polymer electrolyte membrane, and a pair of gaskets provided on peripheral portions of principal surfaces on both sides
 prevent the reaction gas from being leaked; and a connecting plate having a plurality of manifolds and coupled to an outside of the unit
  diffusion layer, which are formed in the order mentioned on the other surface of the electrolyte membrane, wherein the diffusion layer
m the burner chamber, the reformer flow chamber defining a substantially U-shaped reformer air flow path, wherein the burner flow cha
ucture to provide a temporary, substantially planar support surface suitable for deposition thereupon; and a layer of electrode material d

 an electrolyte; d. providing a voltage across the fuel cell electrode and the getter electrode, wherein the voltage is sufficient to drive th
a--Nd--Ni, Ti--Ta, Ti--Nb, Ti--V, Ti--W, Ti--Mo, Ti--Zr--Ta, Ti--Zr--Nb, Cr--Ta, Cr--Nb, Cr--Ti, Cr--Zr, Sr--V, Ni--Li, Cu--Ti, Cu--Fe
ame voltage and current value regardless of using said low voltage power and said stack power; and wherein said controller system ope
nic conduction perpendicular to the layers of the fuel cell, the cross-sectional area of the second layer in contact with the first layer bein
 side of said membrane electrode assembly; wherein said anode side separator is provided with an anode side flow path comprising at l
s, the ratio (WP/W.sub.Cat-C) of the weight of said polymer electrolyte (W.sub.P) to the weight of said catalyst-carrying carbon (W.sub
different metal or metal alloy; and the metal core comprises material selected from the group consisting of copper, aluminum, brass, bro

 es for distributing the combustion gas individually to the catalytic reactors; and a heat amount supply adjustment mechanism for reduci
 nd water; (d) a fuel pump for feeding said fuel to said fuel reformer; (e) means for heating said fuel reformer to a temperature of from
d a judgment unit for judging whether or not water is accumulated in the water trap based on a pressure variation measured by the press




 uator assembly and engageable on said adapter for receiving the emitted dose of fuel and providing it to a combustion chamber; said fu
of said first groups, wherein a number of said fuel cells in each of said first groups is decreasing from upstream to downstream; selectin
 erable to supply a second anode reactant feed stream to an inlet of a second anode section of said at least two anode sections; a first de
 ectively fluidly coupled between said anode flowpath and said cathode flowpath such that voltage potentials on fuel cell components a
unit controlling the ventilator so as to control cooling the exhaust to the controlled temperature, wherein the controller unit calculates th
thereof that faces forward when said fuel cell stack is mounted on a vehicle, a reacting-air introduction opening for introducing the reac
o that each anode power-generating region will have a single corresponding and co-extensive cathode power-generating region.
 ys surrounded by the projections and depressions formed on the surface of the anode-side separator and a surface of the membrane elec
sition where said electric pump can catch the flow of air created by the second cooling fan, wherein the flow of air created by the secon
 ch are connected at centers thereof to each other by a bolt to form an X shape, both ends of each of the first and second shock absorbin

cks of the second stage, an end stage succeeding the second stage, wherein the end stage substantially consumes operating gases from p
 requested electric power by controlling the oxygen supplier portion and the hydrogen supplier portion; and a non-generation-time cont
n a stationary operation.

process has been completed, the control device staffs power generation of the fuel cell irrespective of completion of the discharging pro
ating a second flow of a second cooling air fluid by the at least one second flow generator, the second flow flowing the second cooling

 extend, said fluid supply channel opening forming a part of a fluid supply channel which extends through the fuel cell unit parallel to a
 t one bypass conduit for directing said reactant stream to said stack in fluid isolation from said humidifier and (2) a bypass control devi
n a plane including a surface of said electrolyte electrode assembly and outside of said surface, a fuel gas supply passage being formed
ogen gas passage provided on an outer face of the negative electrode diffusion layer, the positive electrode including an electrolyte, car
 s, or of (R).sub.3SiO.sub.1/2 units and SiO.sub.2 units and RSiO.sub.3/2 units, or of (R).sub.3SiO.sub.1/2 units and SiO.sub.2 units an
he other fuel cell power units of the plurality of fuel cell power units controls the operation of the fuel cell power system.
he fuel cell, wherein: the dilutor is arranged below the fuel cell; and the shock absorber is arranged between a lower end of the fuel cel
 rst air passageway; and a second air passageway having a first end and a second end, the second air passageway having a second lengt
an or equal to said nominal reformate flow rate; and separating a second portion of said reformate flow from said first portion upstream
rrent demanded by the load when said target supply current increases within a time shorter than a response delay which is caused in sai
n a plurality of electricity generating units are provided in the receiving space and the cooling medium flows along at least one cooling
the layers comprise a multilayer electrochemical structure; thermally processing the multilayer structure in a single thermal cycle that in
yer and said metal conducting layer, said diffusion layer and said metal conducting layer and said membrane electrode assembly extend
econd blade, disposed outside the pipe; and a connecting element, adapted to connect the first blade and the second blade, the first blad
 ach of the plurality of channels includes a first section, a second section, and a serpentine section connecting the first and second sectio
lter system to pre-filter gas entering the gas filter system and prevent particles in the gas from entering the gas filter system.


on layer, comprising a first surface and a second surface, wherein the current collection layer is laminated to the first surface of the first
least one air flow channel and having grooves corresponding in shape to the at least one air flow channel.

aid initial amount of electrical power generated by the fuel cell stack with an electronic controller; applying an electrical load to the fue
one wall of said housing, said combustion gas is discharged from an interior of said electricity generation/combustion chamber through

 urface thereof contacts the cathode, with oxidizing gas passages through which oxidizing gas flows being formed in the front surface; a
  for supplying a fuel gas to said anodes and a plurality of oxygen-containing gas flow fields between the other surface of said separator
 rmeates the hydrogen in the state of protons or hydrogen atoms and the electrolyte layer has proton conductivity; wherein the substrate
ch diodes, said backup inverter units having a series connection, said backup inverter units having a series connection with said inverter
or supplying the air to the fuel cell via the supply air pipe; and a signal pressure pipe connected to a downstream side of the air pump an
  which the reformer is disposed and the fuel cell, the electronic control unit, and the reformer are housed in the same enclosure, the fue
 id electrolyte sheet are larger than at least some of the electrode pairs located in the middle area of the electrolyte sheet.
 f, and the ratio (Y/X) of the fluorine content in said polymer electrolyte membrane (Y) to the fluorine content in said electrode catalyst
n said first fuel cell segment and said second fuel cell segment, said manifold assembly being configurable between said anode and cath
 d cathode-side conductive separator, are recessed below the upper surface of said separator, and cover plates for covering each end of s
 eet and the second sheet by a pressurizing means.

ond substrate provided with a second gas flow path to supply a second reaction gas, at least one of the first electron collection layer and
ontaining compounds is processed without having been subjected to hydrodesulfurisation, and wherein the fuel is processed to produce
e carbon particles supporting a platinum catalyst thereon and a hydrogen ion conductive polymer electrolyte, a discontinuous catalyst la
 ith either the gas collection compartment or the gas storage compartment and iii) extending from said compartment with which it is in
  moving the nozzle portion at a horizontal moving velocity that is relatively slower than at the portions other than the coating-start port
  through said molding material injection mark, and wherein a direction of flowing is the same in said grooves over which said molding
step I through a second zone of the reactor containing bed packing material and transferring heat from the product to the packing mater
abnormalities with respect to rising of the temperature of the cooling water by utilizing the results detected by said state detecting unit,

oxide and are selected from the group consisting of Cr, Mn, Mg and Fe, and wherein a has a value from 0 to 1, b has a value of from 1
d in face to face contact, formed on a side face, which is defined by the stack direction and a direction perpendicular to the stack direct
es the processed water to said reformed gas supply portion to humidify the reformed gas, humidifies the reactant air supplied from said

and lateral directions so that cells of the same type appear in every other location.
S.sup.1/2 1.77.times.S.sup.1/2/r.ltoreq.0.1.
e fuel cell is configured to be sealed in a substantially liquid-tight manner during at least a portion of its service life, wherein the fuel c

e the same kind and are laminated in such a state that the same sides of the papers are each directed outward.

d cathode aspect of said membrane electrolyte; (D) a fuel delivery means coupled with said anode aspect of said membrane electrolyte
 ortion and is located between the insulating portion and an electrode that contact the electrode surface portion of the electrically condu
ctrolyte layer on the second side; e. removing the first side of the metal foil substrate, thus exposing the holes filled with electrolyte; an

oviding a cathode exhaust stream to said gas inlet, wherein said cathode exhaust stream flows through said fluid collection container an

erein if a center point of a cross-section of the piping is divided into n numbers of equal parts by axis lines and one of the axis lines is s
 ipe, wherein air heated while cooling said at least one electricity generator and the air discharged from the stack and containing moistu
  or a low power condition and switching the cathode input air to the cathode by-pass line during the high to low power request or low
411 can be immediately and reliably set to 0 A. The control unit 60 then obtains the current value Ad from the fuel cell current sensor 4

The fuel gas inlet is provided at an upstream position away from an intermediate position of the electrolyte electrode assembly in a flow
collector and the air electrode current collector, respectively. Each separator is formed by laminating a plurality of thin metal plates at l




on groove and an outlet-side connection groove for connecting the inlet-side and outlet-side through holes with the fuel gas inlet-side m
ver the entirety in the thickness direction of the membrane, and outer edges of the catalyst layers (127, 128) are disposed so as to be loc




upplying fuel, and a second separator disposed with an abutment surface abutting on the oxidizer electrode of the membrane electrode
oller uses the thermal model to anticipate a temperature of the cooling fluid out of the fuel cell stack to control the speed of the pump.
from the fuel cell is limited.

 ) followed by setting the period, in which the sensor signal from the fuel cell system 10 is held in the preceding value, in the subtractio

avity is higher than the bottom of the outlet side oxygen-containing gas communication hole 38b by the height h.
ent selected from the group consisting of Sc, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Zr, and Hf in a total of 1.0 percent by mass or less are added


with respect to the ejector, and driven by a rotating machine, for pressurizing the fuel off-gas, a discharge valve for discharging the fuel
ge valve depending on the demanded opening condition of the discharge valve detected by the opening condition monitoring device wh
 rols removal of thermal energy from the water flow regulate a temperature of the fuel cell stack.
ctrolytes (28). Each of the first electrodes (26) is arranged in contact with the surface of the support structure (16). The interconnectors
 and the laterally diverting is performed in a manner to avoid turbulence in the fluid supply manifold from adversely affecting supply o

ed, a coolant passage is formed. A rib and a rib-bottom portion have a great porosity. A groove may be filled with porous material. The
 ordance with the estimated power-consumption value from the power-consumption estimation section.
he control unit may obtain the volume of the fuel in the fuel tank.
ck to the top frame. Structural members which are required to carry a fuel cell stack are reduced in weight and miniaturized in size whil

 perature at or near the temperature of the ambient environment. In this manner, ambient heat from the environment is utilized to increa
ring initial operation of the system, to the at least one electricity generator so as to pre-heat the at least one electricity generator.
 is characterized in that at least one of the outside collector (4) and the inside collector (5) is a coiled collector that includes a coiled co

ns each include pores partially or wholly filled with a resin. The fuel-sealing support portion is bonded to the membrane by the resin at
 s, an outer peripheral edge portion of the solid polymer electrolyte membrane projecting outwardly beyond the fuel and oxidant electro

tem parts are congregated and mounted on the end plate.
ening thereof is air commnicateable to a sub-passage defined in the body without being communicated with one another and respective
 s connected to the connection unit, and operable to inform a user of power shortage without supplying power to the load when the pow
  rechargeable battery DC/DC converter are connected together is changeable, and the rechargeable battery is detachable. As a result, th
 necting holes provide fluid communication between the upper and lower chambers. The connecting holes are positioned off a center of
oblem in the system occurs, and cuts off the anode-off gas once a predetermined condition has been satisfied.
 controller using a valve orifice model to calculate the flow rate of the anode exhaust gas through the bleed valve to identify how much
 des, and for receiving said cathode air from said air supply system, conveying said cathode air to said cathodes, and returning said cath
 he water storage unit and the antifreeze heater, by bypassing the radiator; and a hot medium flow passage disposed around and conform
s a flow channel section through which the cooling water supplied from the cooling water supply unit passes, and wherein the flow cha
penings of the coupler, the coupler comprising: one side plate formed with at least one of the openings and at least one of the penetratin
 two rows of rubber beads are attached to and on top of the support; wherein only the support is inserted into a groove between said gas
  unit for mounting the fuel cell, a fuel supply unit for supplying the fuel to the mounted fuel cell, a water-suctioning unit for suctioning
e fuel for powering the fuel cell.
front seats in a longitudinal direction of the vehicle body; and a fuel cell stack having a plurality of unit fuel cells stacked in the longitu
nd from the other one of the pair of electrodes, wherein: the frame body has a plurality of projections having a hook-shaped tip on both
 er and a second elastic layer that are sequentially stacked, wherein the first adhesive layer includes a first part and a second part, and th
 ent, and is then discharged from the cathode compartment.
d each of said separators has a fuel gas supply unit at a center thereof for letting a fuel gas prior to consumption flow therethrough in a
l formula (1) includes its derivative, and A is a divalent organic group selected from the group consisting of --O--, --S--, --CH.dbd.CH-
 athode substrate; an anode feed port for feeding fuel to one end of the fuel passage, and an anode discharge port disposed at the other e
 ration reaction in the power generation part between the fuel electrode and the liquid fuel vaporizing layer, wherein the generated gas e
ctive gas permeable carbon fibres arranged side by side, so as to form a first sheet of the fibres, with the second hollow electrically con
entation, said shelf mount defining a distance between said fuel cell door that fully accommodates the fuel cell in said fuel cell chambe
new fuel from the high-pressure hydrogen tank to the fuel-circulating passage and circulates the fuel in the fuel-circulating passage at th
oolant loop is fluidly isolated from the electrochemical fuel cell stack when the stack valve is closed; and a drive loop in the standard co
 m the respective negative and positive terminals, said second outer shell section containing therein a fuel cell having electrodes formin
 ed exteriorly from the anode, and a cathode positioned exteriorly from the electrolyte the second tube being configured to route hydrog
 commonly functioning as an intake port and a discharge port of the fluid, and discharging the fluid into the flow path, wherein said flu
 e chalcogenides, polyether ether ketones, polysulfone, polyethersulfone, polyetherimides, cellulose acetate, polydimethylsiloxane, blend
 ng and ball-milling said mixture to prepare an alumina slurry; 4) coating the alumina slurry on a ceramic honeycomb support to form a

onductive boundary layer.
 supplying the cathode off-gas to the catalytic combustor; and a controller operative to control the anode off-gas control valve and the c
layer, or any combination thereof.
es a housing formed with a hydrogen inlet port, a hydrogen outlet port and a hydrogen recirculation port, and a valve body moveably re

 act is spaced apart from the first pole plate and the second pole plate.
 r supplying the oxidant gas which has passed through the first oxidant gas channel to the second oxidant electrode, the second oxidant
om the anode outlet, and to enrich and recycle at least a portion of the hydrogen from the anode exhaust gas for supplying to the anode
routing a second portion of said cathode reactant stream to a second one of the cathode sides via a second cathode reactant flow path; a
 m; a fuel delivery control system having a processor, a memory, and an I/O interface system, wherein the delivery control system is co
uel cell stack unit in compliance with use purposes, said device comprising memory means for storing information necessary for mainte
municating with the other end of each of the gas passages, the second manifold comprising a water-absorbing material facing a flow of
 ages guide reaction gases to the metal central part; and a plurality of reaction product passages defined in the frame part, wherein a rea
l a periphery of the single cell.
portion, said anode-side fluid transport layer being in contact with said layer of anode catalyst material, said anode-side fluid transport l
h includes a fuel intake portion and a fuel exhaust portion, an air intake manifold opening and an air exhaust manifold opening, said un
 econd microporous layers is between 20 and 50 .mu.m.

ogen nor oxygen is added while desulfurizing the hydrocarbon fuel; and the cerium oxide is a cerium oxide that has been calcined at a t
 evice; and a bypass passage connecting the coolant supply manifold and the coolant discharge manifold, wherein the bypass passage ha
 ication with each other through the barrier layer, the process of cooling the fuel cells by evaporative cooling during fuel cell operation
 of the anode and configured to separate steam from the off gas containing hydrogen gas and to condense the separated steam into wate
  a fuel supply system for supplying liquid fuel to the fuel reservoir includes a second fuel reservoir and a valve element configured to o
 he second density part comprising a plurality of ribs in a surface of the porous pyroelectric member; wherein the second density part is
 et for introducing gas connected to one of the first gas passage and second gas passage, and a gas outlet for discharging gas connected
intermediate film on a region of the substrate intermediate the first end region and the second end region, wherein the intermediate film
 e output terminal of said DC-DC Voltage Converter is electrically connected with a negative output terminal of said fuel cell, and a po

uffler disposed on the other of the left or right side of the drive wheel, and a tail pipe extending from a rear end of the muffler, wherein
second threshold value based on a wet state associated with the electrolyte, thereby supplying electric power with a device from the fue
h the stack in the hydrogen flow line and then redirecting the exhaust gas of the process burner that has passed through the stack in the
air injector that is capable of regulating the reference pressure that is applied to said regulator, by discharging air from an air flow passa
ed within said staying chamber, wherein said exhaust piping includes a divergence portion diverged into first piping and second piping
pendicular to the fuel cell stacking direction at the opposite end fuel cells of each of the plurality of multi-cell modules, wherein: each
 d for operation with a cold reformer and the cells of the second subassembly are optimized for operation with a hot reformer.

mer electrolyte membrane, a fuel cell stack anode electrically connected to one of the two electrodes, and a fuel cell stack cathode elect
 of the combustion gas drops to a negative pressure lower than the atmospheric pressure, the turbine being configured to discharge a tur
 de off-gas; a fuel shutoff valve for shutting off supply of the fuel gas to the fuel gas passage; a supply device for supplying a scavengin
 s the fuel mixture solution, wherein the diluent comprises H.sub.2O, and wherein the sensor comprises: an external electrode; an intern
 whether or not the power-lowering request is present based on the cell voltage detected by the cell voltage detection unit; an available
esponding to an external appearance of an end portion of the fuel cell inserted into the coupling tube; and a flow tube extending outwar
he electrolyte matrix or layer of electrolyte being applied on one of the half cells; and a sealing element mounted on sides of the curren
mesh metal or wire metal for current collection embedded therein or fixed thereto, and the innermost layer disposed in contact with the

 vacuum, the end portion of the membrane web at the first and second locations; cutting the membrane web within a gap defined betwee

reas with a conductive wire; providing a plurality of proton exchange membranes corresponding to the plurality of cathode electrode ar
d between the first fuel cell component and the second fuel cell component; (d) curing the first curable composition to form an adhesive
nd an interconnector having a role of electrical connection; wherein the electrolyte membrane includes only a first layer comprising a m
 esponding to an operating point for the fuel cell and comprising operational values for the fuel input, hydrogen output, and input of by
odule; and a control module configured to notify a user of the abnormal state, by using the LED, when the sensing module has sensed t
id power generating cells having, a reacting-air introduction opening for introducing the reacting air into said power generating cell; (b)
aid cathode, said membrane having a thickness t: .gtoreq..times..times..times..times..times. ##EQU00005## where C.sub.f is said form
 eal surface opposing each other; and first and second stepped recesses formed respectively in outer end portions of said first and secon
ber, fluoroelastomers, and combinations thereof; and a second seal member adjacent to the first seal member, wherein the second seal m
ct an associated one of said pair of catalyst electrode layers, wherein said separator further comprises at least one through hole (33) tha
ctant gas outlet buffer on the respective surfaces of the first and second metal plates facing a respective one of the electrodes, wherein t
 er particles and the catalyst carrying carbon, the chemical bond is a covalent bond formed by an elimination reaction, and the other par
 aining a solution containing the inverted micelle clathrating the fine iridium particle aggregate containing platinum by reducing said pl
d adjacent to this portion of the separators which is used as a coolant flow passage, wherein the solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell stack
p consisting of transition metals said material being such that: 0<y<0.30, 0<.delta.<0.25, 0.sup..ltoreq.x.sup..ltoreq.2; and 0.su
copper layer on both surfaces of the CCL substrate and interior sidewalls of inside the apertures; (4) forming a patterned resist layer on

 which fluid flows on the separator, and which communicate with each other in series; and a gas supply inlet which connects to a fluid
 tors for sandwiching said electrolyte electrode assembly, said first and second metal separators having respective reactant gas flow fiel
 of principal surfaces on both sides of the MEA with gaps between respectively adjacent gaskets and gas diffusion electrodes; and a pai
nd coupled to an outside of the unit cell so as to support the unit cell, wherein the metal-separator comprises: an embossed structure tha
mbrane, wherein the diffusion layer of at least the fuel electrode among the fuel electrode and the air electrode includes a carbon paper p
  path, wherein the burner flow chamber is nested within the reformer flow chamber and wherein the burner air flow path and the reform
 and a layer of electrode material disposed on said temporary, substantially planar support surface by using a deposition process.

 the voltage is sufficient to drive the at least one metal oxide contaminant from the fuel cell electrode through the electrolyte to the gett
--Zr, Sr--V, Ni--Li, Cu--Ti, Cu--Fe, Cu--Mn, Cu--Al, Cu--Si, Sn--Sb, and combinations thereof.
 wherein said controller system operates in a sliding mode when transitioning power between said low voltage power source and said fu
 r in contact with the first layer being different at different positions such that electronic conduction perpendicular to the layers of the fu
node side flow path comprising at least one groove formed on an anode side thereof, and said cathode side separator is provided with a
aid catalyst-carrying carbon (W.sub.Cat-C) is decreased from an innermost layer positioned closest to said polymer electrolyte membra
 ng of copper, aluminum, brass, bronze, nickel, silver, and alloys including the same.

y adjustment mechanism for reducing differences among the reactors in relation to a timing at which the catalyst reaches an activation t
reformer to a temperature of from about 200.degree. C. to about 700.degree. C.; (f) at least one fan for cooling said membrane-electrod
ure variation measured by the pressure measurement unit when the discharge valve is open.




 it to a combustion chamber; said fuel delivery apparatus configured for preventing actuation of the main stem by said actuator assembl
m upstream to downstream; selecting a number of said second groups and a number of fuel cells in each of said second groups to mainta
  least two anode sections; a first device in said first flow path operable to modulate flow through said first flow path; a second device in
otentials on fuel cell components are reduced, said method comprising: selecting from one of two transient operating modes, said first m
 ein the controller unit calculates the controlled temperature in accordance with an equation of .times..function..function..times..times..ti
on opening for introducing the reacting air into said power generating cell, the reacting-air introduction opening being exposed to an am
e power-generating region.
and a surface of the membrane electrode assembly, the fuel passageways are connected to a feed port and a discharge port so as to exte
 the flow of air created by the second cooling fan and directed to the electric pump is thereafter directed to the fuel cell for cooling the f
the first and second shock absorbing members being fastened to a bracket attached to each of the tank supports.

y consumes operating gases from preceding stages to minimize exhaust gases produced during operation of the fuel cell system, where
on; and a non-generation-time control portion configured to stop a generation control performed by the generation control portion if the


f completion of the discharging process.
nd flow flowing the second cooling fluid through the heat exchanger unit; performing by the control unit a parameter comparison to obt

rough the fuel cell unit parallel to a stacking direction and which does not pass through the electrolyte of the cathode-anode-electrolyte
 difier and (2) a bypass control device for selectively directing flow of said reactant stream to said stack through either of said humidifie
 l gas supply passage being formed in said fuel gas supply portion for supplying the fuel gas in a stacking direction of said separators; a
ctrode including an electrolyte, carbon, a catalyst carried on the carbon, a pore-forming material and a water-repellent resin, such that to
ub.1/2 units and SiO.sub.2 units and (R).sub.2SiO.sub.2/2 units and RSiO.sub.3/2 units, in a molar ratio of (R).sub.3SiO.sub.1/2 units t
el cell power system.
between a lower end of the fuel cell and a lower end of the dilutor.
 passageway having a second length extending along the second air passageway between the first and second ends of the second air pas
ow from said first portion upstream of said fuel cell stack.
 ponse delay which is caused in said fuel cell while said fuel cell control means controls an output current of said fuel cell, and the outp
m flows along at least one cooling pathway interposed between the electricity generating units, wherein the cooling medium supply un
ure in a single thermal cycle that includes: heating the multilayer structure in a first portion of the single thermal cycle to a temperature
embrane electrode assembly extending radially relative to a longitudinal axis of said power generating unit, said power generating unit
and the second blade, the first blade driving the second blade to rotate through the connecting element to bring air to flow through the c
nnecting the first and second sections, said first section, said second section and said serpentine section defining a gas channel in said d
ng the gas filter system.


nated to the first surface of the first insulation layer, and the electrical component layer is laminated between the second surface of the f


pplying an electrical load to the fuel cell stack via the compressor for supplying oxygen to the cathode inlet based on said initial amoun
ation/combustion chamber through said first channel of said heat exchanger, and one of said oxygen-containing gas and said fuel gas is

being formed in the front surface; a cell stack in which a plurality of said cells is stacked; and a cooling water flow passage, through wh
n the other surface of said separator and respective cathodes of said electrolyte electrode assemblies for supplying an oxygen-containing
 conductivity; wherein the substrate made of the hydrogen permeable material includes at least two hydrogen separation membrane laye
series connection with said inverter units, said backup inverter units being connected with said dispatching and time-series control syste
downstream side of the air pump and the cooling liquid storage container so that said cooling liquid storage container communicates wi
 used in the same enclosure, the fuel cell being disposed above the reformer so that heat from the reformer can be transmitted to the fue
he electrolyte sheet.
ne content in said electrode catalyst layer (X) is within the range of 0.2 to 2.0.
urable between said anode and cathode passages of said first fuel cell segment and said anode and cathode passages of said second fuel
 er plates for covering each end of said flow channel are fitted and fixed to the recessed portions, respectively, wherein said cover plate


he first electron collection layer and the second electron collection layer constructed in porous form by stacking conductive material par
 in the fuel is processed to produce a hydrogen-containing stream using a steam reformer, autothermal reformer or partial oxidation reac
 ctrolyte, a discontinuous catalyst layer being formed on a surface of said anode catalyst layer and having a higher density of platinum t
 d compartment with which it is in fluid communication and into the other compartment, wherein each of said microtubular elements co
ons other than the coating-start portion.
d grooves over which said molding material injection gate mark is formed.
m the product to the packing material; iii. removing substantially all the product from the second zone said product comprising a synga
etected by said state detecting unit, a cooling water path in which the cooling water for cooling said fuel cell flows, a heat exchanger w

rom 0 to 1, b has a value of from 1 to 0, and each of c and d has a value of from 0.25 to 0.75, provided that a+b has a value of 1, and c
on perpendicular to the stack direction, of a first pair of unit separators; and a non-contact section, with which the conductive voltage-m
 the reactant air supplied from said reactant air supply portion by using the processed water, and supplies the humidified reactant air to
f its service life, wherein the fuel cell is configured to at least one of receive fresh liquid and discharge spent liquid via at least one rese




 pect of said membrane electrolyte that delivers fuel substantially uniformly to said anode aspect while said fuel cell maintains a desired
ce portion of the electrically conductive portion.
the holes filled with electrolyte; and f. depositing a thin film cathode on the second side, to form a thin film solid oxide fuel cell.

h said fluid collection container and exits through said gas outlet.

s lines and one of the axis lines is set as an axis line of a reference pressure detector, the other pressure detector is provided within an a
 m the stack and containing moisture are mixed in the region; wherein the air that is mixed in the region is discharged from the region.
 high to low power request or low power condition so as to send dry cathode input air to the stack.
d from the fuel cell current sensor 413 (step S150), and determines the offset correction value Ac needed in order to cancel the drift am

trolyte electrode assembly in a flow direction of an oxygen-containing gas.
 a plurality of thin metal plates at least including a thin metal plate in which a first gas discharge opening is arranged in a central part a




 holes with the fuel gas inlet-side manifold aperture and the fuel gas outlet-side manifold aperture, respectively, which are formed on a
 7, 128) are disposed so as to be located in the area 2.




 ctrode of the membrane electrode assembly and having a second flow path for supplying an oxidizer.
  to control the speed of the pump.


e preceding value, in the subtraction timer (step S7).

the height h.
 percent by mass or less are added so as to satisfy 0.1.ltoreq.Mo/Nb.ltoreq.30, for decreasing the growth rate of the oxide layer and imp


harge valve for discharging the fuel off-gas from the fuel off-gas circulation path; and a control device operatively connected to the fuel
 ng condition monitoring device when opening of the discharge valve is demanded. Opening of the discharge valve is controlled depend

structure (16). The interconnectors (32), the peripheral seal layer (34) and the electrolytes (28) are arranged to encapsulate all of the fir
d from adversely affecting supply of fluid to downstream ones of the number of plates.

be filled with porous material. The porous portion may be replaced by a water exchange portion. A portion of the separator other than t


 eight and miniaturized in size while ensuring the desired installation rigidity when the fuel cell stack is carried.

he environment is utilized to increase the temperature of the insulated fuel cell stack, thus improving conditions for subsequent cold star
 st one electricity generator.
  collector that includes a coiled conductor.

ed to the membrane by the resin at a position closer to an outer edge of the membrane than is the cathode catalyst. The oxidizer-sealing
beyond the fuel and oxidant electrodes are held clamped fluid-tightly between the first and second separators by means of the primary f


ed with one another and respectively communicated to a plurality of main passages defined in the body, making the main passages and
ng power to the load when the power consumption of the load is higher than surplus power of the fuel cell, in a state where power is su
battery is detachable. As a result, the fuel cell system of the present invention has high versatility.
holes are positioned off a center of the plate so that the connecting holes lie apart from the pipe.

  bleed valve to identify how much airflow from the compressor is required to dilute the hydrogen in the anode exhaust gas to be below
 d cathodes, and returning said cathode air from said cathodes; e) a thermal enclosure for housing at least one of said fuel cells, said ref
 ssage disposed around and conforming, in a contacting relationship, to a water contact section on an outside of the water storage unit to
 t passes, and wherein the flow channel section comprises: a first flow channel comprising a first via hole into which the cooling water
gs and at least one of the penetrating passages to expose the manifolds and the flow passages of the separator plate and with coupling b
rted into a groove between said gasket and each of the separator plates.
water-suctioning unit for suctioning the water produced inside the fuel cell, a detecting switch on the mounting unit for detecting the mo

 nit fuel cells stacked in the longitudinal direction of the vehicle body, the fuel cell stack being received under the floor tunnel and subs
  having a hook-shaped tip on both planes of the frame body and each separator has a plurality of stepped parts; and the projections of t
 first part and a second part, and the second adhesive layer includes a third part and a fourth part, wherein the first part is adhered to on

onsumption flow therethrough in a stacking direction; first protrusions are provided on one surface of each sandwiching portion of said
sting of --O--, --S--, --CH.dbd.CH--, --C.ident.C--, --CO--, ##STR00030## ##STR00031## (wherein, I is an integer of from 1 to 100, -
scharge port disposed at the other end of the fuel passage; a cathode feed port for feeding an oxidizer to one end of the oxidizer passage
  layer, wherein the generated gas ejection part comprises a hollow fiber membrane, and the hollow fiber membrane ejects the generate
 the second hollow electrically conductive gas permeable carbon fibres arranged side by side to form a second sheet of the fibres, with
 e fuel cell in said fuel cell chamber in said first orientation, and permits operational engagement between the mechanical fuel dispenser
 in the fuel-circulating passage at the predetermined circulation rate in combination with the fuel pump, wherein the fuel pump is dispo
  and a drive loop in the standard coolant loop such that a coolant in the standard coolant loop flows through the driving gear pump head
  fuel cell having electrodes forming an anode and cathode, an ion exchange electrolyte positioned between said electrodes, wherein sai
 e being configured to route hydrogen gas from the fuel reforming catalytic substrate to the active area, the active area being configured
 nto the flow path, wherein said fluid conveyance apparatus has a housing having at least one of said opening, and a diaphragm which d
 cetate, polydimethylsiloxane, blends of the foregoing, compositions including other materials wherein the foregoing polymer comprise
 amic honeycomb support to form a support having an alumina coating; 5) ball-milling of gasoline reforming transition metal catalyst po


node off-gas control valve and the cathode off-gas control valve such that at least during an ignition period until the catalytic combustor

port, and a valve body moveably received in the housing and incorporating the ejector sections, wherein movement of the valve body al


dant electrode, the second oxidant channel facing the second oxygen electrode; and a dehumidifier for dehumidifying the oxidant gas w
aust gas for supplying to the anode inlet, the method comprising: controlling the hydrogen recycle means and the air supply means to o
econd cathode reactant flow path; and (f) varying a quantity of cathode reactant in at least one of said first and second portions of said c
 in the delivery control system is configured to read and to check the infor-mation about the identification of the fuel canister in order to
 g information necessary for maintenance or inspection of said fuel cell device, wherein said memory means includes a rewritable mem
bsorbing material facing a flow of the gas; and a gas supply mechanism for selectively changing over between a first gas supply directi
 ed in the frame part, wherein a reaction product produced at the metal central part is guided to the plurality of reaction product passage

 al, said anode-side fluid transport layer not extending over the outer edge portion of the anode side of said polymer electrolyte membra
 exhaust manifold opening, said unit comprising: (a) an upper cushion element and a lower cushion element wherein each of the upper


  oxide that has been calcined at a temperature of from 120 to 400.degree. C., the cerium oxide being selected from the group consisting
 old, wherein the bypass passage has a larger cross-section than a cross-section of the coolant passages.
 cooling during fuel cell operation comprising the steps of: flowing liquid water into and through the water flow channel and out of the
 ense the separated steam into water which is discharged outside the system; an off gas heating heat exchanger located downstream of t
and a valve element configured to open and close by pressing the second fuel reservoir, wherein each unit cell is connected to the fuel f
 wherein the second density part is connected to the first separator plate and at least two opposing sides of the second density part are i
utlet for discharging gas connected to the other of the first gas passage and second gas passage.
gion, wherein the intermediate film is preferentially catalytically active toward at least one of substantially unreformed or partially refor
 terminal of said fuel cell, and a positive output terminal of said fuel cell with a negative output terminal of said DC-DC Voltage Conve

m a rear end of the muffler, wherein the exhaust port is positioned further in a rear direction than a shaft of the drive wheel.
 c power with a device from the fuel cell.
 has passed through the stack in the hydrogen flow line to pass through the stack in the oxygen flow line.
scharging air from an air flow passage for the air pressure that is applied to said regulator; a second air flow passage connected to said a
 into first piping and second piping, and wherein an ejector is arranged in said first piping, the ejector comprising: a nozzle configured t
 multi-cell modules, wherein: each of the opposite end fuel cells of each of the plurality of multi-cell modules has an extended portion f
ation with a hot reformer.

  and a fuel cell stack cathode electrically connected to the other of the two electrodes, wherein each unit cell is immediately adjacent a
being configured to discharge a turbine exhaust gas at the negative pressure; a compressor configured to compress the turbine exhaust g
ly device for supplying a scavenging gas, which is for scavenging the fuel cell, to the anode and the cathode; a humidifier disposed in t
ses: an external electrode; an internal electrode; and a sensor member that fills the space between the internal electrode and the external
 oltage detection unit; an available power detection unit for detecting available power of the chargeable/dischargeable unit; a power ext
; and a flow tube extending outward from the center of the second end portion of the coupling tube and being formed at an inner portio
ent mounted on sides of the current collector on the anode side and a sealing element mounted on sides of the current collector on the c
 layer disposed in contact with the solid electrolyte layer is a dense layer obtained by firing free of pore-forming material during the for

ne web within a gap defined between a single catalyst pattern of the membrane web end portion and an adjacent catalyst pattern to prod

he plurality of cathode electrode areas; providing an intermediate bonding layer comprising at least one bonding sheet, wherein the inte
 le composition to form an adhesive bond between the first and second fuel cell components; (e) applying a second curable composition
 es only a first layer comprising a material having an oxygen-ionic conductivity of S1 on the air-electrode side, and a second layer com
 , hydrogen output, and input of bypass hydrogen from the fuel cell; calculating the total system efficiency for each operating point for
en the sensing module has sensed the abnormal state and the connection detecting module has detected a connection with the electronic
 into said power generating cell; (b) one or more cooling cells stacked alternately with said power generating cells, each of said cooling
0005## where C.sub.f is said formic acid fuel concentration over said anode, D.sub.f is the effective diffusivity of said fuel in said soli
end portions of said first and second separators, said first stepped recess extending between said first seal surface and an outside surface
 member, wherein the second seal member is in an outboard position relative to the first seal member and the first and second bipolar p
s at least one through hole (33) that extends from said first surface to said second surface of each said separator; a first electroconductiv
ive one of the electrodes, wherein the reactant gas outlet buffer has bosses; a reactant gas flow field between each reactant gas inlet buf
mination reaction, and the other particles are inorganic particles that comprise at least one selected from the group consisting of silica, a
 ining platinum by reducing said platinum compound and depositing platinum metal in said fine iridium particle aggregate; a step for su
  polymer electrolyte fuel cell stack has a predetermined heat capacity that is determined based on a preset start-up commencement tem
.sup..ltoreq.x.sup..ltoreq.2; and 0.sup..ltoreq.z.sup..ltoreq.1.
 forming a patterned resist layer on the CCL substrate to expose the pre-selected electrode areas; (5) using the patterned resist layer as a

ply inlet which connects to a fluid passage and supplies a gas to the fluid passage, wherein the gas supply inlet is located so that the ga
ng respective reactant gas flow fields for supplying reactant gases to said electrodes, said first separator having a plurality of first inner
 gas diffusion electrodes; and a pair of electrically conductive separators disposed to sandwich the MEA-gasket assembly, the separator
mprises: an embossed structure that has a plurality of indentations and a plurality of projections alternately formed along at least one ed
electrode includes a carbon paper prepared by laminating carbon fibers, and a water repellent polymer represented by general formula (
 burner air flow path and the reformer air flow paths are concurrent flow paths; and wherein the burner flow chamber and the reformer
  using a deposition process.

e through the electrolyte to the getter electrode, thereby removing the at least one contaminant from the fuel cell electrode.
w voltage power source and said fuel cell stack without interrupting power to and while maintaining a speed of said airmover.
perpendicular to the layers of the fuel cell is different at different positions in the second layer.
 e side separator is provided with a cathode side flow path comprising at least one groove formed on a cathode side thereof, at least a po
o said polymer electrolyte membrane toward an outermost layer positioned farthest from said polymer electrolyte membrane in said cat


 the catalyst reaches an activation temperature, the heat amount supply adjustment mechanism comprising a valve which is capable of s
 or cooling said membrane-electrode assembly; (g) at least one electrical power outlet adapted to receive and dispense the electrical pow




main stem by said actuator assembly upon the fuel cell being adapter-free; wherein said adapter includes a body and said hub is reciproc
ach of said second groups to maintain a substantially constant cathode reactant stoichiometry for each of said second groups, wherein a
d first flow path; a second device in said second flow path operable to modulate flow through said second flow path; a third flow path c
ansient operating modes, said first mode comprising starting up said system, and said second mode comprising shutting down said syste
 ..function..function..times..times..times..times..times. ##EQU00007## in which T.sub.fin.sub.--.sub.cathode is the controlled temperatu
 on opening being exposed to an ambient environment; one or more cooling cells arranged alternately with said power generating cells,

 t and a discharge port so as to extend in substantially one direction from the feed port to the discharge port, the discharge port being pr
ted to the fuel cell for cooling the fuel cell.
 k supports.

ation of the fuel cell system, wherein the first stage includes a first number of fuel cells and the second stage includes a second number
he generation control portion if the requested electric power is lower than or equal to a predetermined value, and configured to operate




 unit a parameter comparison to obtain a comparison result, wherein the parameter comparison comprises comparing changes in a volum

te of the cathode-anode-electrolyte unit and said fluid discharge channel opening forming a part of a fluid discharge channel which exte
ack through either of said humidifier and said humidifier bypass conduit; and (d) a purge flow control device for actuating said bypass c
 king direction of said separators; and a plurality of bridges connecting said sandwiching portions and said fuel gas supply portion, a fu
 a water-repellent resin, such that to electrolyte/carbon weight ratio, and an amount of the carried catalyst included in the positive electr
atio of (R).sub.3SiO.sub.1/2 units to SiO.sub.2 units [(R).sub.3SiO.sub.1/2/SiO.sub.2] of 0.5:1 to 1.5:1, (R).sub.2SiO.sub.2/2 units and


d second ends of the second air passageway, the first end of the second air passageway being connected to the first end of the first air p

urrent of said fuel cell, and the output current of said fuel cell is smaller than the current demanded by the load; charging/discharging st
 ein the cooling medium supply unit, the at least one cooling pathway a nd the exhaust unit are substantially aligned in a same direction
ngle thermal cycle to a temperature and time sufficient to substantially remove moisture; heating the multilayer structure in a second po
ng unit, said power generating unit being a circular structure having an external wall and a central chute, said external wall positioned a
nt to bring air to flow through the cathode layer.
ion defining a gas channel in said distributor plate, each of said serpentine sections having a serpentine pattern and formed in a rectang




between the second surface of the first insulation layer and the first surface of the second insulation layer, wherein the first connection


de inlet based on said initial amount of electrical power of the fuel cell stack; and gradually increasing said electrical load on the fuel ce
 -containing gas and said fuel gas is supplied to said electricity generation/combustion means through said second channel of said heat e

ing water flow passage, through which cooling water flows, formed on at least the rear surface of one from among the anode-side separ
for supplying an oxygen-containing gas to said cathodes; a fuel gas supply unit formed at a central region of the separators and extendin
ydrogen separation membrane layers respectively made of different kinds of metal, and a metal diffusion suppression layer, provided o
tching and time-series control system; a control unit, said control unit being connected with said dispatching and time-series control sys
storage container communicates with the supply air pipe, means for changing a pressure within the signal pressure pipe by changing a r
ormer can be transmitted to the fuel cell to warm the fuel cell up.


thode passages of said second fuel cell segment to form one of a counter-current flow arrangement of said anode and cathode passages
pectively, wherein said cover plates have a pair of supporting members facing an upper surface and a bottom surface of the manifold ap


by stacking conductive material particles, the conductive material particles having at least one of a particle shape, an elliptical shape, an
al reformer or partial oxidation reactor.
aving a higher density of platinum type catalyst than said anode catalyst layer which is provided at the interface between said anode cat
ch of said microtubular elements comprises a tubular wall defining a bore side and a shell side, and wherein the bore side of each of sai


ne said product comprising a syngas enriched in hydrogen, iv. introducing an oxygen containing gas into the second zone and combusti
fuel cell flows, a heat exchanger which is provided on said cooling water path, an exhaust heat recovery path in which flow a water of h

ed that a+b has a value of 1, and c+d, has a value of 1, and wherein e has a value of from 0.8 to 1, wherein f has a value of from 0.8 to
th which the conductive voltage-measuring terminal is to not be held in contact, concavely formed on a side face, which is defined by
plies the humidified reactant air to said fuel-cell main body, wherein said water supply portion comprises water processing means for s
ge spent liquid via at least one resealable opening, and wherein the at least one resealable opening comprises two resealable openings e




le said fuel cell maintains a desired shape; (E) a conformable fuel cell housing formed from a molded plastic frame that has been forme

in film solid oxide fuel cell.




re detector is provided within an angle range of .+-.360/2n degrees about the other axis line, and wherein the pressure detectors are pla
ion is discharged from the region.

ded in order to cancel the drift amount (i.e., in order to perform zero-point correction).


ning is arranged in a central part and second gas discharge openings are circularly arranged in a peripheral part, and a thin metal plate




spectively, which are formed on a cathode-side of the separator.




wth rate of the oxide layer and improving the spalling resistance.


e operatively connected to the fuel pump and to the discharge valve.
ischarge valve is controlled depending on the latest demanded opening condition which has been renewed by the opening condition ren

ranged to encapsulate all of the first electrodes (26) except for the surfaces of the first electrodes (26) in contact with the surface of the
portion of the separator other than the region of the porous portion may be made by porous material. Due to these, a fuel cell can be ob




 conditions for subsequent cold start of the insulated fuel cell stack.




 hode catalyst. The oxidizer-sealing support portion is bonded to the membrane by the resin at a position closer to the outer edge of the
 parators by means of the primary face seal rubber layers of the first and second separators.


dy, making the main passages and the sub-passages be able to be used to supply and/or discharge gas or liquid being used by all the fu
el cell, in a state where power is supplied to at least one of the plurality of loads.




 the anode exhaust gas to be below the predetermined percentage.
least one of said fuel cells, said reformer, and said manifold in a hot zone therein; and f) a structural enclosure for housing said thermal
 outside of the water storage unit to allow the antifreeze solution, heated by the antifreeze heater, to flow around the outside of the wate
 hole into which the cooling water flows, a second via hole from which the cooling water flows out, and a first groove that connects the
separator plate and with coupling bosses along a periphery thereof, and another side plate formed with another of the openings and ano

 mounting unit for detecting the mounting of the fuel cell, and a switch provided separately from the detecting switch for starting to sup

ved under the floor tunnel and substantially in the center of the vehicle body width direction so as to be substantially parallel with the s
pped parts; and the projections of the frame body and the stepped parts of the pair of separators are integrated by fitting together with e
herein the first part is adhered to one face of the second portion of the polymer electrolyte membrane, and the third part is adhered to th

f each sandwiching portion of said plurality of sandwiching portions, and said first protrusions form a fuel gas flow field for supplying
 , I is an integer of from 1 to 100, --W-- is a divalent electron attracting group; -T- is a divalent organic group; and R.sup.1 to R.sup.8 a
r to one end of the oxidizer passage, and a cathode discharge port disposed at the other end of the oxidizer passage; a fuel container con
 iber membrane ejects the generated gas, that is selectively introduced via a surface thereof, outside the fuel cell.
  a second sheet of the fibres, with the fibres in each adjacent sheet at an angle to each other and in which first electrically conductive g
ween the mechanical fuel dispenser and said power source in said second orientation.
mp, wherein the fuel pump is disposed in the fuel-circulating passage at a location where the fuel discharged from the fuel cell flows aw
through the driving gear pump head of the startup coolant loop.
etween said electrodes, wherein said fuel cell receives fuel gas generated from the fuel processor and an oxidant gas through the second
ea, the active area being configured to transform the hydrogen gas into electrical energy.
 opening, and a diaphragm which divides inside of said housing into a first space and a second space, and wherein said first space and
in the foregoing polymer comprises a majority of the composition, and copolymers thereof a conducting plate juxtaposed to and coveri
forming transition metal catalyst powder to prepare a catalyst slurry; and 6) washcoating said support having an alumina coating with t


period until the catalytic combustor is discriminated to be sufficiently activated from commencement of supplying the mixed gas to the

ein movement of the valve body allows any one of the ejector sections to be selected, wherein the valve body comprises a hydrogen re


or dehumidifying the oxidant gas which has passed through the first oxidant gas channel, the dehumidifier being disposed downstream
eans and the air supply means to operate the high temperature fuel cell in a substantially thermally balanced regime at a normal design
d first and second portions of said cathode reactant stream between the determined first and second stoichiometric quantities, which rem
ation of the fuel canister in order to determine if the fuel in the fuel canister is an appropriate type of fuel for the fuel cell; a sensor syst
  means includes a rewritable memory and stores information internal of said memory in a partitive memory area comprised of a use en
 r between a first gas supply direction wherein the gas is made to flow from the first manifold to the second manifold via the gas passag
lurality of reaction product passages.

 f said polymer electrolyte membrane; e) a cathode-side fluid transport layer having an outer edge portion, said cathode-side fluid transp
element wherein each of the upper and lower cushion elements define a central cell opening, air intake and exhaust manifold openings a


 selected from the group consisting of cerium oxide alone, cerium oxide carried on a porous refractory carrier comprising alumina or z

 water flow channel and out of the fuel cell, the water being heated within the water channel by heat produced by the fuel cell; and cau
exchanger located downstream of the off gas water separator and configured to heat the off gas containing hydrogen gas from the water
h unit cell is connected to the fuel feeder having the infiltration structure and coupled with the fuel reservoir for storing liquid fuel, so a
des of the second density part are in contact with the first density part; and wherein at least one of the first separator plate and the secon

ntially unreformed or partially reformed hydrocarbon fuel, byproducts thereof, and mixtures thereof; and biasing inclusion of nickel tow
 inal of said DC-DC Voltage Converter are used to supply said total output voltage, wherein said total output voltage equal to the sum o

aft of the drive wheel.


air flow passage connected to said air flow passage; a regulator pressure sensor provided on said air flow passage; and an atmospheric p
 r comprising: a nozzle configured to eject said cathode off-gas at a high speed by focusing flow of said cathode off-gas; a suction porti
  modules has an extended portion formed by extending each of the opposite end fuel cells of each of the plurality of multi-cell modules
 unit cell is immediately adjacent another unit cell; a rechargeable battery electrically connected to the fuel cell stack in a parallel conne
d to compress the turbine exhaust gas discharged from the turbine to increase the pressure of the turbine exhaust gas to the atmospheric
cathode; a humidifier disposed in the oxidant gas passage for humidifying the scavenging gas; and a control device programmed to con
  internal electrode and the external electrode, wherein the sensor member changes volume thereof depending on the concentration of th
ble/dischargeable unit; a power extraction limiting unit for limiting electric power to be extracted from the fuel cell based on the power
nd being formed at an inner portion thereof with a hollow section, which axially extends while communicating with the perforation hol
des of the current collector on the cathode side, each of the sealing elements having a U-shaped cross section that opens toward an insid
ore-forming material during the formation of the cathode layer by firing, wherein the layers constituting the cathode layer are formed b

 an adjacent catalyst pattern to produce a membrane sheet; and positioning the membrane sheet to a desired orientation to facilitate subs

one bonding sheet, wherein the intermediate bonding layer comprises a plurality of openings for respectively accommodating the plurali
  ying a second curable composition at a thickness which is compressible when cured to the second fuel cell component; (f) curing the s
 trode side, and a second layer comprising a material containing at least zirconia and having an oxygen-ionic conductivity of S2 on the f
  iency for each operating point for the fuel cell and corresponding operating point for the fuel processor, wherein total system efficiency
 ed a connection with the electronic apparatus.
 nerating cells, each of said cooling cells including two opposed flat plates for passage therebetween of cooling air and having a cooling
  diffusivity of said fuel in said solid polymer electrolyte, K.sub.f is the equilibrium constant for partition coefficient for said fuel into sa
   seal surface and an outside surface of said first separator, said second stepped recess extending between said second seal surface and a
r and the first and second bipolar plate members, wherein the second seal member is comprised of a silicone material, and wherein the
 d separator; a first electroconductive film (35) disposed across said at least one through hole, wherein said first electroconductive film e
 between each reactant gas inlet buffer and corresponding reactant gas outlet buffer; a coolant inlet buffer on respective surfaces of the f
om the group consisting of silica, alumina, quartz, glass, ceramics and mica.
 um particle aggregate; a step for supporting said fine iridium particle aggregate containing platinum on a conductive carrier by dispersi
preset start-up commencement temperature and on characteristics of the membrane electrode assembly; supplying a reaction gas to the

 using the patterned resist layer as a plating mask, performing an electroplating process to electroplate a fourth copper layer within the e

upply inlet is located so that the gas enters into a first of the plurality of regions in a direction parallel to a longitudinal axis of the first
 tor having a plurality of first inner surfaces contacting a cathode of said electrolyte electrode assembly, a plurality of second surfaces f
 EA-gasket assembly, the separators having groove-shaped cell reaction gas passages on inner surfaces thereof, each of the cell reaction
nately formed along at least one edge thereof so as to enable a plurality of the metal-separators to be stably laminated in a honeycomb
er represented by general formula (I) given below is arranged to cover the surface of the carbon fiber of the carbon paper or is loaded in
ner flow chamber and the reformer flow chamber are primarily formed within a monolithic structure formed from a single piece of meta


 he fuel cell electrode.
 a speed of said airmover.

a cathode side thereof, at least a portion of said anode side flow path is divided, along the direction perpendicular to the depth thereof b
er electrolyte membrane in said cathode catalyst layer, and said ratio (W.sub.P/W.sub.Cat-C) in said innermost layer is 0.8 to 3.0 and s


 rising a valve which is capable of supplying air to one of the combustion gas supply passages.
eive and dispense the electrical power generated by component (a); and (h) an electrical circuit coupling components (a), and (d)-(g) an




 des a body and said hub is reciprocally movable relative to said body.
h of said second groups, wherein a number of said fuel cells in each of said second groups is decreasing from upstream to downstream,
econd flow path; a third flow path connecting an outlet of said first anode section to an outlet of said second anode section without pass
 omprising shutting down said system; recycling fluid disposed in said cathode flowpath through said recirculation loop; creating a purg
cathode is the controlled temperature, I.sub.op is a current generated by the fuel cells,I.sub.c.o. is a proton current converted from a qua
y with said power generating cells, each of said cooling cells including two opposed flat plates for passage therebetween of cooling air

ge port, the discharge port being provided at a position higher than that of the feed port, and wherein the fuel passageways are disposed




nd stage includes a second number of fuel cells, the second number of fuel cells in the second stage, is from 30% to 35% of the first nu
d value, and configured to operate at least one of the oxygen supplier portion and the hydrogen supplier portion based on a predetermin




rises comparing changes in a volume flow of the first flow and in power of the at least one second flow generator with predetermined o

fluid discharge channel which extends through the fuel cell unit parallel to a stacking direction and which does not pass through the ele
l device for actuating said bypass control device, after the supply of electric current from said stack to said external circuit has been int
d said fuel gas supply portion, a fuel gas supply channel being formed in said bridges for supplying the fuel gas from said fuel gas supp
alyst included in the positive electrode decrease from an electrolyte membrane side in the direction of the positive electrode diffusion l
:1, (R).sub.2SiO.sub.2/2 units and RSiO.sub.3/2 units being contained in a total amount of up to 50 mol % based on the entire molecul


 ted to the first end of the first air passageway, the second end of the second air passageway being connected to the second end of the fi

y the load; charging/discharging state recognizing means for recognizing a charging/discharging state of said capacitor; target supply c
antially aligned in a same direction, and wherein the guide section is in a funnel shape having a decreasing inner diameter toward the e
multilayer structure in a second portion of the single thermal cycle to a temperature and time sufficient to substantially remove binder;
ute, said external wall positioned adjacent said wall of said hollow enclosure; a hydrogen storage unit positioned in said central chute w

 ne pattern and formed in a rectangular area of the distributor plate which is free of an adjacent channel; wherein the first section and se




 ayer, wherein the first connection site of the electrical component is electrically connected to the current collector by the first conducti


 g said electrical load on the fuel cell stack over time while using increased electrical power generated to drive the compressor to supply
  said second channel of said heat exchanger, and wherein reforming means is disposed within said electricity generation/combustion ch

 e from among the anode-side separator and the cathode-side separator of at least a prescribed cell in said cell stack; wherein said fuel g
egion of the separators and extending in a stacking direction of said separators for supplying unreacted fuel gas; a plurality of fuel gas s
 sion suppression layer, provided on at least a part of a contact interface between the separation membrane layers of the different kinds
patching and time-series control system; a detection unit, said detection unit being connected with said inverter units, said backup inver
ignal pressure pipe by changing a rotation speed of the air pump, wherein said signal pressure pipe communicates with said cooling liq




of said anode and cathode passages of said fuel cells within said fuel cell stack to provide counter-current flow and a parallel flow arran
a bottom surface of the manifold aperture connecting portion.


article shape, an elliptical shape, and a cylindrical shape; and the at least one of the first electron collection layer and the second el

 e interface between said anode catalyst layer and said polymer electrolyte membrane, and the ratio (Pt/C) of platinum atoms to carbon
wherein the bore side of each of said microtubular elements is sealed from the shell side thereof; (c) a seal which, together with the tubu


into the second zone and combusting the gas and a fuel in a region proximate to an interface between the first and second zone to produ
 ery path in which flow a water of heat exchanging with the cooling water of said cooling water path via said heat exchanger, a hot wat

wherein f has a value of from 0.8 to 1, and g has a value of from 2.5 to 3.2; said material optionally including at least one dopant.
 n a side face, which is defined by the stack direction and a direction perpendicular to the stack direction, of a second pair of unit separ
 rises water processing means for subjecting water to predetermined processing and supplying the processed water to the processed wat
omprises two resealable openings each in fluid communication with one of the first and second chambers.




d plastic frame that has been formed according to said desired shape, said conformable fuel cell housing maintaining high compression




erein the pressure detectors are placed in a position where pressure variation of the cooling water in the piping is caused by lateral acce




 pheral part, and a thin metal plate with an indented surface. Gases discharged from the separators can be supplied




newed by the opening condition renewing device.

6) in contact with the surface of the support structure (16) to prevent leakage of reactant from the first electrodes (16).
 Due to these, a fuel cell can be obtained where removal of product water is improved, product water can be utilized for humidifying ga




 tion closer to the outer edge of the membrane than is the anode catalyst.




as or liquid being used by all the fuel cell stacks integrated.




enclosure for housing said thermal enclosure and for housing said air supply system in a cool zone outside of said thermal enclosure, s
flow around the outside of the water storage unit.
and a first groove that connects the first via hole and the second via hole to each other, the first flow channel being formed on the sepa
th another of the openings and another of the penetrating passages to expose the manifolds and the flow passages of the separator plate

 detecting switch for starting to supply the fuel to the fuel cell.

 be substantially parallel with the seat rails and relatively between the front seats, wherein the fuel cell stack is entirely disposed wit
 ntegrated by fitting together with each other.
 , and the third part is adhered to the other face of the second portion of the polymer electrolyte membrane such that the second portion

a fuel gas flow field for supplying a fuel gas along an electrode surface of an anode provided in the plurality of electrolyte electrode ass
nic group; and R.sup.1 to R.sup.8 are a hydrogen atom or fluorine atom, an alkyl group, fluorine-substituted alkyl group, allyl group, ar
 idizer passage; a fuel container connected to the anode feed port; a cathode recovery container connected to the cathode discharge port
 he fuel cell.
which first electrically conductive gas permeable fibre sheet (anode) and the second electrically conductive gas permeable fibre sheet (c

charged from the fuel cell flows away from the fuel cell and toward the ejector; means for monitoring a cell voltage of the fuel cell; me
 an oxidant gas through the second outer shell section for generating an electric current, wherein said first outer shell section comprises

 , and wherein said first space and said second space both directly communicate with an external portion of said housing via said openi
ting plate juxtaposed to and covering said gas diffusion layer and having a flow field therein, said flow field being in communication w
 t having an alumina coating with the catalyst slurry to form the structured catalyst.


t of supplying the mixed gas to the catalytic combustor, an average fuel gas concentration of the mixed gas is maintained in a given ran

alve body comprises a hydrogen recirculation flow passage communicating with the hydrogen recirculation port, wherein the valve bod


 difier being disposed downstream of the first oxidant gas channel and upstream of the second oxidant gas channel.
alanced regime at a normal design operating point, the system generating only enough high grade heat at a normal design operating poi
toichiometric quantities, which remain unchanged as a power demand on the fuel cell stack remains constant at the first power demand
  fuel for the fuel cell; a sensor system for sensing an amount of fuel remaining in the fuel canister and for transmitting this information
memory area comprised of a use environment information memory area for storing use environment conditions, a material feed informa
second manifold via the gas passages, and a second gas supply direction wherein the gas is made to flow from the second manifold to t


 rtion, said cathode-side fluid transport layer being in contact with said layer of cathode catalyst material, said cathode-side fluid transp
ke and exhaust manifold openings and fuel intake and exhaust manifold openings wherein the fuel intake manifold opening and the fuel


 ry carrier comprising alumina or zirconia, and cerium oxide carrying at least one metal selected from the group consisting of silver, co

  produced by the fuel cell; and causing the liquid water to boil as it flows through the water channel by reducing the pressure in the ste
aining hydrogen gas from the water separator by heat exchange with the combustion gas; a burner configured to combust the off gas he
eservoir for storing liquid fuel, so as to supply liquid fuel thereto, wherein the fuel electrode element and the fuel feeder adjoining the fu
 e first separator plate and the second separator plate comprises a plurality of ribs joined to the plurality of ribs of the porous pyroelectri

 and biasing inclusion of nickel toward the second film, wherein each of the first, intermediate, and second films has as a main compon
al output voltage equal to the sum of the first output voltage and the second output voltage; and a control circuit used to control the volt




flow passage; and an atmospheric pressure sensor; wherein said air flow passage has an orifice on an upstream side of said air injector
aid cathode off-gas; a suction portion configured to generate a negative pressure by the cathode off-gas ejected from the nozzle, and to
 the plurality of multi-cell modules outwardly in a direction perpendicular to the fuel cell stacking direction of each of the plurality of
 e fuel cell stack in a parallel connection in which an anode of the battery is electrically connected to the anode of the fuel cell stack, an
bine exhaust gas to the atmospheric pressure and to discharge a compressor exhaust gas at the atmospheric pressure; and a heat exchang
 control device programmed to control the supply device when the fuel cell is turned off by: switching the fuel shutoff valve to shut off
epending on the concentration of the fuel mixture solution.
m the fuel cell based on the power-lowering request detected by the power-lowering request detection unit and the available power dete
municating with the perforation hole of the coupling tube.
s section that opens toward an inside of the fuel cell so that the sealing elements laterally encompass and seal the current collector of th
ing the cathode layer are formed by an electrolyte constituting the solid electrolyte layer and an electrode material in admixture, and w

desired orientation to facilitate subsequent processing of the membrane sheet.

ectively accommodating the plurality of proton exchange membranes, and a second conductive via through hole that is aligned with the
uel cell component; (f) curing the second curable composition under a compressive force; and (g) mating a third fuel cell component co
en-ionic conductivity of S2 on the fuel-electrode side, with an outer surface of the first layer engaging the first electrode reaction layer,
sor, wherein total system efficiency is calculated as power level divided by the fuel input; based upon the total system efficiency calcul

 of cooling air and having a cooling-air introduction opening for introducing the cooling air between the opposed flat plates; and (c) an
 tion coefficient for said fuel into said solid polymer electrolyte membrane, I is Faraday's constant, n.sub.f is the number of electrons re
ween said second seal surface and an outside surface of said second separator, wherein a distance between a surface of the first stepped
 silicone material, and wherein the first and second seal members are not physically attached to each other as parts of the same seal.
 n said first electroconductive film electrically communicates with said catalyst electrode layer; a second electroconductive film (36) dis
uffer on respective surfaces of the first and second metal plates that are opposite the reactant gas inlet and outlet buffers, wherein the co

on a conductive carrier by dispersing said conductive carrier in said solution; and a step for firing the conductive carrier whereon said f
ly; supplying a reaction gas to the fuel cell stack so as to obtain electrical current at a subzero temperature; obtaining self-generated he

 e a fourth copper layer within the expose the pre-selected electrode areas and area not covered by the patterned resist layer, and then el

 l to a longitudinal axis of the first region.
bly, a plurality of second surfaces forming a portion of a coolant flow passage and a third substantially flat outermost peripheral surface
 es thereof, each of the cell reaction gas passages running sequentially across a first portion of a respective gasket of the pair of gaskets
  stably laminated in a honeycomb shape.
r of the carbon paper or is loaded in the clearance among the carbon fibers of the carbon paper: ##STR00005## where R.sup.1 denotes
 formed from a single piece of metal that is positioned substantially within the regenerator chamber; and wherein neither the fuel proces
perpendicular to the depth thereof by a film permeable to gas but
 innermost layer is 0.8 to 3.0 and said ratio (W.sub.P/W.sub.Cat-C) in said o




ing components (a), and (d)-(g) and coupling the electrical power




sing from upstream to downstream, at least one of sa
 second anode section without passing through a
  recirculation loop; creating a purging fluid by reacting fuel introduced th
 roton current converted from a quantity of a c
assage therebetween of cooling air and having, in a front end

 the fuel passageways are disposed so as to be inclined relat




is from 30% to 35% of the first number of fuel c
lier portion based on a predetermined condition regardless of




ow generator with predetermined operating parame

which does not pass through the electrolyte of the cath
to said external circuit has been interrupt
the fuel gas from said fuel gas supply portion along
of the positive electrode diffusion layer, decrease f
mol % based on the entire molecule, wherein R is a substitu


onnected to the second end of the first air passageway, th

e of said capacitor; target supply current correctin
 easing inner diameter toward the exhaust unit.
ent to substantially remove binder; heatin
it positioned in said central chute within said internal space of

nel; wherein the first section and second sectio




rrent collector by the first conductive


d to drive the compressor to supply additi
lectricity generation/combustion chamber, said fuel gas is supplied to said

 said cell stack; wherein said fuel gas, oxidizing gas, and cooling wate
ed fuel gas; a plurality of fuel gas supply channels div
 brane layers of the different kinds of metal, for suppressing diffusi
id inverter units, said backup inverter uni
 ommunicates with said cooling liquid storage containe




rrent flow and a parallel flow arrangement of said anode and catho




ection layer and the second el

Pt/C) of platinum atoms to carbon atoms on the surface of said
a seal which, together with the tubular walls, sealingly isolates th


n the first and second zone to produce heat and a combustion product
 via said heat exchanger, a hot water st

ncluding at least one dopant.
tion, of a second pair of unit separators adjacen
ocessed water to the processed water tank, and wherein said water suppl
sing maintaining high compression along the active surfaces of the fuel




the piping is caused by lateral acceleration, longitud




n be supplied




t electrodes (16).
r can be utilized for humidifying gas, and pro




outside of said thermal enclosure, said structural

 channel being formed on the separator along a first edge t
low passages of the separator plate and with coupling holes for rece




ell stack is entirely disposed wit

 brane such that the second portion of the polymer electr

plurality of electrolyte electrode assemblies;
stituted alkyl group, allyl group, aryl group or cyano group, and may b
ected to the cathode discharge port for collecting the fuel su

uctive gas permeable fibre sheet (cathode) are separated

g a cell voltage of the fuel cell; means for d
d first outer shell section comprises a conduc

tion of said housing via said opening, and wherein said diaphragm also os
ow field being in communication with said gas diffusion layer whereby a fuel comprisi




 ed gas is maintained in a given range whereas after the ignit

ulation port, wherein the valve body has a cylindrical shape and receive


nt gas channel.
 at at a normal design operating point to be self-sustaining while substan
 constant at the first power demand, such that at
nd for transmitting this information about th
conditions, a material feed information memory area for storing at
 flow from the second manifold to the first manifold via the gas pas


erial, said cathode-side fluid transport layer not extendi
 take manifold opening and the fuel exhaust manifold opening of the


m the group consisting of silver, copper, nickel, iron and manganese.

 by reducing the pressure in the steam channel
nfigured to combust the off gas heated by the off gas heating heat exchanger to ge
 and the fuel feeder adjoining the fuel ele
ity of ribs of the porous pyroelectric me

 econd films has as a main component thereof a n
ntrol circuit used to control the voltage conversion of sa




  upstream side of said air injector and
gas ejected from the nozzle, and to suck said hydrogen gas within sai
 rection of each of the plurality of
 the anode of the fuel cell stack, and a cathode of the
pheric pressure; and a heat exchanger configured to transfer heat from th
ng the fuel shutoff valve to shut off the fuel gas suppl

 n unit and the available power detected by the availab

 and seal the current collector of the anode or
trode material in admixture, and wherein a




hrough hole that is aligned with the first conductive via thr
 ting a third fuel cell component comprising at least one fuel cell
g the first electrode reaction layer, and with an outer surface
n the total system efficiency calculation, selectin

the opposed flat plates; and (c) an air allocation mechanism
sub.f is the number of electrons released when 1 molec
ween a surface of the first stepped recess and a s
other as parts of the same seal.
ond electroconductive film (36) dis
t and outlet buffers, wherein the coolan

e conductive carrier whereon said fine iridium particle aggr
rature; obtaining self-generated heat due to power generati

e patterned resist layer, and then electroplating


ly flat outermost peripheral surface offse
ective gasket of the pair of gaskets, a first portion of a respective

TR00005## where R.sup.1 denotes a divalent to tetravalent e
and wherein neither the fuel processor nor the monolith structure have

								
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