Company Introductory Letters + Samples by blc18549


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									The following Wiley SD Styles should never be pre-edited:

Paragraph Styles:
Quote (refers to Style in template, not each instance/use of actual
quotation mark in text)
all Extract* except ExtractAttribution

Character Styles:
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                                                                                             Punctuation and Grammar
   Category      Rule                                               Notes   Source         Example                                          Exception                                       Example
1 Comma          Use serial comma.                                          CMS 15,        She likes cats, dogs, and birds.                 (1) Company, proprietary, or trademarked        (1) Doyle Dane Bernbach; Bed, Bath & Beyond
                                                                            6.19–6.20                                                       names that do not take serial comma             (2) Do you prefer the orange or the green or
                                                                                                                                            (2) When all elements in series are             the black?
                                                                                                                                            connected by conjunction                        (3) The New York Times reported, "He came,
                                                                                                                                            (3) When quoting published material in which    he saw and he conquered."
                                                                                                                                            serial comma was not used.
2 Comma          (1) Use "that" and no comma for restrictive                CMS 15, 6.38   (1) The document that she submitted was          Quoting published material.
                 clauses                                                                   well organized.
                 (2) Use "which," preceded by comma, for                                   (2) The document, which she submitted
                 nonrestrictive clauses.                                                   yesterday, was well organized.
3 Comma          (1) For month-day-year date style, insert                  CMS 15, 6.46   (1) On August 1, 2006, she quit her job as an
                 commas before and after the year.                                         editor.
                 (2) For month-year style, do not use comma                                (2) In September 2007 she began working
                 between month and year.                                                   as a cashier at Whole Foods.
4 Comma          Use comma to set off the individual elements               CMS 15, 6.47   The film was shot in Montreal, Canada,
                 in place names—cities and states or                                       because it was too expensive to do location
                 countries.                                                                work in Boston, Massachusetts.
5 Comma          Use comma following adverbial/participial                  CMS 15, 6.26   Before she left, she turned out all the lights. (1) A single word or short intro phrase does     (1) On Monday she met her best friend for
                 introductory phrase.                                                                                                      not need comma, except to avoid misreading.      dinner.
                                                                                                                                           (2) When intro adverbial or participial phrase   (2) Onto the street 10 floors below fell the air
                                                                                                                                           immediately precedes the verb it modifies.       conditioner.

6 Comma          Use comma between two or more adjectives                   CMS 15, 6.39   He walks his old, funny-looking dog every day When the adjective and noun are intended as He lives in the red brick house on the corner.
                 preceding a noun.                                                         at this time.                                  a unit.
7 Comma          Do not insert comma after "that" when it is                               She decided that if the weather didn't improve
                 used as a conjunction, even when it precedes                              she would cancel her plans to travel.
                 a clause.
8 Comma          Insert a comma after the abbreviations "i.e."              CMS 15, 5.202 He had many of the symptoms of the flu
                 and "e.g."                                                               (e.g., fever, body aches).
9 Comma          Use comma before "too," anyway," and                       USPT Style    Drinking plenty of water, too, is essential to
                 "either."                                                                good health. I don't want to go to the movies,
                                                                                          either. What's the point of this exercise,
10 Comma         Do not insert comma before Jr., Sr., and the               CMS 15, 6.49 John F. Kennedy Jr. died young.
11 Comma         Use commas around nonrestrictive                           CMS 15, 5.29   Her brother, Roy, is a wonderful man. [only
                 appositives.                                                              one brother] Her brother Roy is a wonderful
                                                                                           man. [more than one brother]
12 Ampersand     Use "and," not an ampersand (&), in running                CMS 15, 6.24   John, Michael, and Alan Smith all worked at (1) Company or product names trademarked             (1) Goldman, Sachs & Co.; Doyle Dane
                 text, lists, and tabular material.                                        the same company.                           with ampersand.                                      Bernbach
                                                                                                                                       (2) Legal-style references with three or more        (2) George Cameron Coggins, Charles F.
                                                                                                                                       authors.                                             Wilkerson, & John D. Leshy, Federal Public
                                                                                                                                                                                            Land and Resources Law .
13 Colon         In running text, the first word after a colon is           CMS 15,        He likes three kinds of music: classical,
                 lowercased unless the colon introduces a                   6.63–6.66      country, and hip-hop.
                 proper noun, two or more sentences, a                                     Many of my friends have pets: three of them
                 speech in dialogue, an extract, or a saying.                              have cats and two have dogs.
                                                                                           He likes three composers: Mozart, Copland,
                                                                                           and Dvorak.
                                                                                           Here's how to paint a room: First, plaster the
                                                                                           walls. Next, sand them down. Finally, paint
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                                                                                             Punctuation and Grammar
   Category      Rule                                              Notes   Source          Example                                          Exception                         Example
14 Semicolon     Use semicolon between two independent                     CMS 15, 6.57    Fred wants to move out of the city; he can't
                 clauses not joined by a conjunction.                                      decide, however, where he wants to live.

15 Semicolon     Use semicolon to distinguish between items                CMS 15, 6.60  She cleaned the bedroom, bathroom, and
                 in a series internally punctuated by commas.                            kitchen; washed the floors and windows; and
                                                                                         vacuumed the rug, the bookshelves, and
16 Quotation     Use double quotation marks around quoted                  CMS 15, 11.33 "If he doesn't come soon," said Alice, "I'm
   marks         words, phrases, and sentences run into text.                            leaving."

17 Quotation     Use single quotation marks to enclose                     CMS 15, 11.33 Joe said, "He shouted, 'Don't do it!' but it was
   marks         quotations within quotations.                                           too late."
18 Quotation     Do not use quotation marks around quoted                  CMS 15, 11.35 She recited the first sentence of the
   marks         material set off as an extract (block                                   Gettysburg Address with fervor.
                 quotation) or as an epigraph.                                           Fourscore and seven years ago, our fathers
                                                                                         brought forth upon this continent a new
                                                                                         nation, conceived in liberty and dedicated to
                                                                                         the proposition that all men are created
19 Quotation     Use double quotation marks to enclose                     CMS 15, 11.35
   marks         quoted material within extracts.
20 Quotation     Set periods and commas inside closing                     CMS 15, 6.8     Which of Shakespeare's characters said, "All When a question or exclamation mark   Take, for example, the first line of "To a
   marks         quotation marks, whether single or double;                                the world's a stage"?                        belongs within the quoted matter.     Skylark": "Hail to thee, blithe spirit!"
                 set colons, semicolons, question marks and
                 exclamation points outside closing quotation
21 Quotation     Do not use so-called scare, or apologetic,                CMS 15, 7.59    [Correct] This divide-and-conquer strategy
   marks         quotes.                                                                   makes it easier to solve the complex
                                                                                           problems and subproblems posed in the
                                                                                           design of a comprehensive signage program.
                                                                                           [Incorrect] This divide-and-conquer "strategy"
                                                                                           . . .]

22 Quotation     Do not use quotation marks around word or                 CMS 15, 7.59    Does anyone really believe that this so-called
   marks         phrase preceded by so-called .                                            peace agreement will work?
23 Pronouns      Use a singular indefinite pronoun following a             CMS 15, 5.39    [Correct] Each of the employees wants his or
                 singular noun.                                                            her own office.
                                                                                           [Incorrect] Each of the employees wants their
                                                                                           own office.
24 Pronouns      (1) Nouns referring to people take the                    CMS 15, 5.58    (1)The guests who arrived early got the most
                 pronoun "who," not "that."                                                to eat. (2) The company that filed for
                 (2) Nouns referring to nonhuman entities take                             bankruptcy has merged with another firm.
                 the pronoun "that," not "who."
25 Hyphenation   Generally, use hyphens:                                   CMS 15,         (1) The civic-minded nurse-practitioners were
                 (1) to form compound nouns and adjectives                 6.81–6.82,      first on the scene.
                 (2) to separate numbers that are not inclusive            7.82–7.90;      (2) Dial 1-212-555-7000 for information.
                 (3) to separate letters when a world is spelled           Web 11          (3) It's spelled d-o-g.
                 out                                                                       (4) It's important to hyphenate re-create to
                 (4) for clarity/readability                                               distinguish it from recreate .
                 (5) to link equal elements in a compound.                                 (5) mother-son relationship [do not use en
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                                                                                                                       Punctuation and Grammar
   Category       Rule                                                 Notes                        Source           Example                                                 Exception                    Example
26 Hyphenation    Do not hyphenate racial, ethnic, or national                                      CMS 15, 7.90, African American, French Canadian, Mexican Citing from prepublished source: hyphenation
                  designations used either as noun or                                               Section 1; 8.42 American                                   of these terms is still in widespread practice
                  adjective.                                                                                                                                   in many circles/fields.
27 Hyphenation    (1) Okay to use suspension hyphen and omit                                        CMS 15, 7.89 (1) The incidence of both over- and
                  second part of compound in hyphenated                                                             underweight teens is on the rise.
                  expressions.                                                                                      (2) Her celebrity status left her both
                  (2) Do not use suspension hyphen for first                                                        overexposed and overindulged. [Not
                  part of hyphenated expression.                                                                    "overexposed and -indulged."]
28 En dash        Use the en dash:                                                                  CMS 15, 6.83 (1) The New York–San Francisco connection In running text, generally preferable to use to , He was champion from 1998 to 2005. She
                  (1) to connect number ranges and words                                                            was phased in over a four-year period,     not en dash in number/date ranges; and for worked on the project between 1996 and 1998.
                  used to indicate sense of "to" or                                                                 2000–2004.                                 parallel construction, never use an en dash if
                  including/through                                                                                 (2) The war in Iraq (2001–) has no end in  the word from or between precedes the first
                  (2) in two-number/date range when second                                                          sight. [Note: No space after en dash.]     element; instead, use to or and, respectively.
                  number "open"                                                                                     (3) A quasi-public–quasi judicial body was
                  (3) in compound adjectives when one or                                                            appointed.
                  more elements are open compounds or
                  hyphenated compounds.
29 Em dash        In general, use the em dash to set off an                                         CMS 15, 6.87     As I started to explain—before you
                  amplifying/explanatory element or to indicate                                                      interrupted me—I can't make it on Friday.
                  sudden breaks; no spaces surrounding the
30 Ellipsis       Use ellipsis (three periods separated by word        *MS Word in most             CMS 15,          The spirit of our American radicalism is
                  spaces)* to indicate omission of word,               systems automatically        11.51, 11.57     destructive and aimless. . . . On the other
                  phrase, line, paragraph, or more from a              replaces the proper (i.e.,                    side, the conservative party . . . is timid.
                  quoted passage, or to indicate a trailing            spaced) ellipsis with                         [Incorrect: timid, or party ... is timid.]
                  thought. When omission occurs in middle of           unspaced version; thus,
                  sentence, insert ellipsis with word space            must be manually
                  before and after. When omission occurs               overridden.
                  between sentences, insert period to end
                  sentence, followed by word space, ellipsis,
                  and word space after ellipsis. (Three- or Four-
                  Dot Method)
31 Quotation      Remove straight single quotation marks;                                           apply Wiley UK
   marks          replace ' with single publishers ("curly") left or                                style to USPT
                  right quote as appropriate
32 Quotation      Remove straight double quotation marks;                                           apply Wiley UK
   marks          replace " with double publishers ("curly") left                                   style to USPT
                  or right quotes as appropriate
33 Periods        Remove any trailing full stops from the end of                                    apply Wiley UK
                  part titles                                                                       style to USPT

34 Periods        Remove any trailing full stops from the end of                                    apply Wiley UK
                  chapter titles                                                                    style to USPT

35 Quotation      Do not make any changes to block quotes                                           apply Wiley UK
   marks          within the manuscript; they should be                                             style to USPT
                  reproduced exactly as they appear in the
                  original. If there are spelling mistakes or
                  inconsistencies with the block quote, raise as
                  a copyeditor/author query.
36 Quotation      Do not use quotations marks to delineate                                          apply Wiley UK
   marks          block quotes.                                                                     style to USPT
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                                                                                          Punctuation and Grammar
   Category      Rule                                         Notes     Source           Example                     Exception   Example
37 Quotation     Block quotes are set in roman, not italic.             apply Wiley UK
   marks                                                                style to USPT
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                                                                                                   Spelling Conventions
   Category        Rule                                                 Notes   Source         Example                                       Exception                                           Notes   Example
 1 Variants        Use U.S., not British, forms.                                CMS 15, 7.5   color (not colour), odor (not odour);          When quoting from published material,
                                                                                              backward, forward, upward, downward,           including works of titles, proper names.
                                                                                              toward (no "s"); amid, among (not amidst,
                                                                                              amongst); traveled, traveler, canceled (no
                                                                                              double "ells"); authorize, specialize (not
                                                                                              authorise, specialise); acknowledgment,
                                                                                              judgment (no "e" after "g") theater, center
                                                                                              (not "-re")*
 2 Variants        Use first (i.e., preferred) spelling in dictionary           Web 11        gases (vs. gasses); moveable (vs. movable),    (1) When citing from published works
                                                                                              but salable and usable (vs. saleable and       (2) When secondary spelling used
                                                                                              useable)                                       consistently throughout work.
 3 Abbreviations   (1) Spell "United States" (and other country                 CMS 15, 15.33 (1) In the United States, a large percentage   Okay to use U.S. as noun in tabular material,
                   names) when used as noun. [Exception:                                      of citizens enjoy a high standard of living.   lists, and the like, in particular, for space
                   "U.S.S.R." both noun and adjective.] (2) Use                               (2) Many U.S. citizens enjoy a high standard   considerations.
                   abbreviation, U.S., as adjective.                                          of living.

 4 Abbreviations   Spell out state and country names when                       CMS 15, 15.29 In Hershey, Pennsylvania, the air always      Okay to use state postal codes and country
                   standing alone and when following city name                                smells like chocolate. In the United Kingdom, abbreviations in bibliographies, tabular
                   in running text.                                                           teatime is a tradition.                       material, lists, and mailing addresses. Also,
                                                                                                                                            okay to use "DC" in all cases for District of
 5 Plurals         Form the plural of abbreviations/acronyms,                   CMS 15, 7.15 In the 1990s, two CPAs told her she should For clarity, use an apostrophe before "s" with                   The equation contained numerous x's and
                   numbers, and letters with an "s" and no                                    invest in different IRAs.                     lowercase letters or when the abbreviation                   y's.
                   apostrophe.                                                                                                              contains two or more periods and both upper-
                                                                                                                                            and lowercase letters.
 6 Abbreviations In general, do not use periods in acronyms or                  CMS 15, 15.4 VP, CEO, HTML, but a.k.a., et al., a.m./p.m. U.S., used as adjective, unless part of
   and Initialisms initialisms that appear in capital letters; do                                                                           proprietary name, e.g., USAir
                   use periods for those appearing in lowercase
 7 Abbreviations Spell out acronyms and abbreviations at first                  CMS 15, 15.2  The spokesman for the Federal Emergency        When acronym/abbreviation is in widespread                  IBM announced that its new technology
   and Acronyms use, followed by abbreviation/acronym in                                      Management Agency (FEMA) could not say         and long-term use.                                          would be available to consumers by fall.
                   parentheses.                                                               when aid would reach the victims of
                                                                                              Hurricane Katrina.
 8 Abbreviations   Abbreviations of academic degrees set in full-               CMS 15, 15.21 BFA, DDS, MS, PhD                              For tradition or consistency, earlier style with            She has a B.A. and an M.A.
                   size caps, no spaces, no periods.                                                                                         periods may be used.
 9 Abbreviations   With time of day, use a.m., p.m. (lowercase,                 CMS 15, 15.44 The train arrived at 10:35 a.m.                For tradition or consistency, earlier styles with           The train arrived at 10:35 AM. (small caps, no
                   periods, no spaces).                                                                                                      small caps may be used.                                     periods, no spaces)
                                                                                                                                                                                                         The train arrived at 10:35 A.M. (small caps,
                                                                                                                                                                                                         periods, no spaces)
10 Abbreviations   For eras, use all caps, no periods, no spaces.               CMS 15, 15.41 AD 230, 3000 BC                                For tradition or consistency, earlier styles with           A.D. 230, 3000 B.C. (small caps, periods, no
                                                                                                                                             small caps may be used.                                     spaces)
                                                                                                                                                                                                         AD 230, 3000 BC (small caps, no periods, no
11 Abbreviations   When initials are used in place of a person's                CMS 15, 8.6    J. M. W. Turner was a great painter.          When initials are used alone, with or without               M.J. is considered the greatest basketball
                   name, insert word space between them.                                                                                     periods                                                     player of all time. FDR initiated the New Deal.
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                                                                                                Spelling Conventions
   Category        Rule                                              Notes   Source         Example                                           Exception                                         Notes   Example
13 Hyphenation— Close up compound words formed with most                     CMS 15, 7.90, antihero, antiwar; bisexual, biannual;             Hyphenate:                                                (1) Pre-Vietnam War, anti-American, pre-
   prefixes     prefixes.                                                    3; Web 11     coauthor, coworker; cyberspace, cybercop;          (1) when prefix is followed by proper noun or             2000
                                                                                           midcentury, midair; multiauthor, multichannel;     numeral                                                   (2) anti-inflammatory, intra-arterial
                                                                                           nonviolent, noninvasive; overabundance,            (2) to separate two i's, two a's, and other               (3) sub-subentry
                                                                                           overachieve; posttraumatic, postgraduate;          letters, for readability                                  (4) re-sort, to mean sort again, versus resort,
                                                                                           prewar, preempt; pseudomodern,                     (3) to separate double prefix                             to take recourse; re-create, to create anew,
                                                                                           pseudoscience; reedit, rework; semicolon,          (4) for sense.                                            versus recreate, to take recreation.
                                                                                           semiannual; unfunded, unneutered;
                                                                                           underground, underutilized*

14 Hyphenation— Close up compound words formed with the                      CMS 15, 7.90, childlike, workmanlike*                            Hyphenate:                                                (1) bell-like
   suffixes     suffix -like .                                               2; Web 11                                                        (1) after words ending in the letter l                    (2) Jordan-like; but Christlike
                                                                                                                                              (2) after most proper nouns                               (3) penitentiary-like
                                                                                                                                              (3) after most words of 3 or more syllables
                                                                                                                                              (4) for readability/sense.
15 Hyphenation— Close up compound words formed with the                      CMS 15, 7.90, citywide, worldwide*                               Hyphenate:                                                (1) Boston-wide
   suffixes     suffix -wide .                                               2; Web 11                                                        (1) after proper nouns                                    (2) university-wide
                                                                                                                                              (2) after most words of 3 or more syllables
                                                                                                                                              (3) for readability/sense.
16 Hyphenation— Close up compound words formed with the                      CMS 15, 7.90, foodborne, waterborne                              Hyphenate:                                                (1) cab-borne
   suffixes     suffix -borne .                                              2; Web 11                                                        (1) after words ending in the letter b                    (2) mosquito-borne
                                                                                                                                              (2) after words of 3 or more syllables.
17 Hyphenation— Hyphenate most compound nouns prefixed                       CMS 15, 7.90, self-conscious, self-destructive, self-aware*      Close up when self- is followed by a suffix or            selfless, unselfconscious (CMS 15; Web 11
   prefixes     by self- .                                                   2; Web 11                                                        preceded by un- .                                         prefers unself-conscious)

18 Foreign terms (1) Style commonly known foreign words and                  CMS 15, 7.51   (1) déjà vu, de facto, a priori, per se, shalom, (3) If a foreign word or phrase is used
                  phrases as roman type (in general, if it                                  apropos, ad hoc, laissez-faire                   repeatedly, set ital only at first mention.
                  appears in Web 11, set roman; follow first                                (2) the Reichstag, the Champs Élysees
                  spelling in Web 11 for accents; retain accent                             (3) ex ante, brise soleil
                  on capitals).
                  (2) All foreign proper nouns set roman; retain
                  accent on capitals.
                  (3) Other foreign words set ital.
19 Internet terms Follow Webster's New World Computer                        WebNWComp
                  Dictionary.                                                uter

20 Symbols         Spell out "percent" in running text.                      CMS 15, 9.19   Though only 45 percent of the population          Use of percent sign (%) acceptable in
                                                                                            voted for him, he won the election.               scientific and statistical material, in tabular
                                                                                                                                              material, in mathematical copy, and where
                                                                                                                                              numerous percentage figures are given.
21 Symbols         Symbols for scientific units do not take full             apply Wiley UK kg not kg., mm not mm.
                   points                                                    style to USPT

22 Symbols         Symbols for scientific units do not take plural           apply Wiley UK 24 kg not 24 kgs; not 24 kg.s; not 24 kg's
                   s (or 's, or .s)                                          style to USPT

23 Symbols         Note the k in kilo is lowercase.                          apply Wiley UK km not Km; kg not Kg
                                                                             style to USPT
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   Category        Rule                                                Notes             Source          Example                                         Exception                                 Example
 1 Variants        Use singular form of verb for collective                              USPT Style      The company is [not are] moving to New
                   nouns.                                                                                Jersey.
 2 Abbreviations   Use the abbreviations "etc.," "i.e.," and "e.g."                      USPT Style      The group—that is, the more outspoken
                   only in parentheticals, tables, figures, and                                          members—insisted on changing the rules.
                   notes. Spell out in text: "and so on," "that is,"                                     The group (i.e., the more outspoken
                   and "for example," respectively (or other                                             members) insisted on changing the rules.
                   acceptable alternatives).

 3 Troublesome     (1) Use "between" to indicate a one-to-one                            CMS 15, 5.202 (1) The airline now offers service between        "Between" can be used for more than two   War erupted between Israel, Lebanon, and
   expressions     relationship; "between" takes "and," not "to."                                      New York and Tucson. The price is between         entities when multiple one-to-one         Syria.
                   (2) Use "among" to indicate undefined or                                            twenty and twenty-five dollars.                   relationships are understood.
                   collective relationships.                                                           (2) There was no camaraderie among the
                                                                                                       team members.
 4 Troublesome     Use "whether," not "whether or not," unless                           CMS 15, 5.202 Whether he goes or stays makes no
   expressions     meaning is "regardless of whether."                                                 difference to me. He's leaving whether or not
                                                                                                       I go with him.
 5 Troublesome     (1) Use "fewer" for countable, plural nouns.                          CMS 15, 5.202 (1) Put less salt in the soup this time.          Idioms                                    Describe it to me in 25 words or less.
   expressions     (2) Use "less" for mass, singular nouns.                                            (2) Fewer people like salty food these days.

 6 Troublesome     (1) Use "farther" in reference to physical                            CMS 15, 5.202 (1) You can see farther from this vantage
   expressions     distance.                                                                           point.
                   (2) Use "further" to indicate figurative                                            (2) You'll go further in life if you get a good
                   distance.                                                                           education.
 7 Troublesome     In general, "different" takes "from," not "than."                     CMS 15, 5.202 It's a different style from the rest of the       Adverbial usage                           You did it differently than everyone else.
   expressions                                                                                         paintings he completed in the same period.

 8 Troublesome     Distinguish between "lose" (vb), to miss from                         CMS 15, 5.202 You will lose your keys because they are
   expressions     one's possession, and "loose" (adj), not                                            loose on the key ring.
                   tightly secured.
 9 Place names     (1) Lowercase "earth" in nontechnical context                         CMS 15, 8.149 (1) If we do not address environmental issues
                   when preceded by "the" or in idioms such as                                         soon, the long-term survival of the earth is in
                   "down to earth."                                                                    question.
                   (2) Capitalize when used as proper name of                                          (2) From space, Earth looks like a peaceful
                   the planet, usually without "the."                                                  place.
10 Words as        When a word/term is used as the word/term CMS says either ital or     CMS 15, 7.62; The term hypertensive refers to someone
   words           itself, italicize the word/term.              enclosed in quotes is   USPT Style    suffering from high blood pressure.
                                                                 acceptable, but USPT
                                                                 prefers ital.
11 Letters as      Italicize references to individual letters or                                         The letters x and y are commonly used in a
   letters         combinations of letters.                                                              mathematical context. Some plural nouns are
                                                                                                         formed by adding s , others by adding es .
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 Category      Rule                                            Notes                     Source          Example                                          Exception                             Example
1 Numbers      Spell ordinals under 101.                                                 CMS 15, 9.8     Her office is on the hundredth floor, fifth door
                                                                                                         on the right as you exit the elevator.
2 Decades      Consistently, either spell out decades,                                   CMS 15, 9.37    the twenty-first century; the 1990s              Citing quoted or published material
               lowercased, or use 4-digit numeral—no
               apostrophe between the year and s.
3 Numbers      Do not elide second number in number                                      USPT Style      1910–1925, not 1910–25; pages 345–348,
               ranges.                                                                                   not 345–48.
4 Numbers      (1) Humanities style: spell numbers one         *This is very general rule. CMS 15, 9.3
               through one hundred and round large             Most USPT divisions use
               numbers that can be expressed in no more        scientific/technical style.
               than three words ("four hundred thousand");     Individual preferences are
               use numerals thereafter.                        identified in division
               (2) Scientific/technical style: spell out       columns, right, as either
               numbers one through nine; use numerals          (H) or (S/T). Note that
               thereafter.*                                    within divisions there
                                                               variations/deviations from
                                                               CMS, based on topic,
                                                               individual manuscript,
                                                               author preference, and
                                                               other factors.

5 Numbers      Spell out numbers beginning a sentence or                                 CMS 15, 9.5     Six thousand four hundred people in Queens,
               list entry.                                                                               New York, were without power for several
                                                                                                         days during the heat wave of 2006.
6 Numbers      Where many numbers occur, maintain                                        CMS 15, 9.7     (1) Sci/Tech style: There were 12 cats, 9
               consistency in number styling of each                                                     dogs, and 3 parakeets offered for adoption by
               category within the immediate context                                                     the ASPCA.
               (paragraph, series of paragraphs, discussion                                                  Humanities style: There were twelve cats,
               of topic).                                                                                nine dogs, and three parakeets offered for
               (1) If chosen style would require one of the                                              adoption by the ASPCA.
               numbers in a given category to be styled as a                                             (2) Sci/Tech style: There were between 2
               numeral, use numerals for all numbers in that                                             and 10 empty seats per row in the theater.
               category.                                                                                     Humanities style: There were between
               (2) If chosen style would call for all of the                                             two and ten empty seats per row in the
               numbers in a given category to be spelled                                                 theater.
               out, then do so.                                                                              Both styles: There were between two and
               (3) Different categories within the same                                                  eight empty seats per row in the theater.
               discussion may be styled differently.                                                     (3) Both styles: The ASPCA took in 12 cats
                                                                                                         and 9 dogs in three months; in five years
                                                                                                         those figures were 326 cats and 217 dogs.
                                                                                                         [The category of time—months and
                                                                                                         years—takes its own styling, which in this
                                                                                                         case is less than 10, thus spelled out in both
                                                                                                         H and S/T style.]

7 Money        For isolated references to amounts of money                               CMS 15, 9.23    The movers charged her ninety-five dollars
               in round numbers, consistently either spell                                               an hour per man. The movers charged her
               out or express with numerals and currency                                                 $95 an hour per man.
8 Money        For very large monetary amounts over one                                  CMS 15, 9.28    A brownstone in Harlem recently sold for $2.8
               million, use mixture of numerals and spelled-                                             million.
               out currency.
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   Category      Rule                                               Notes   Source          Example                                           Exception                                     Example
 9 Money         For exact amounts of money, dollars and                    USPT Style    Coffee and a croissant cost $7.35 at the
                 cents, or mixed round and exact amounts,                                 hotel; the same two items cost $3.00 at the
                 use numerals and symbols.                                                corner deli.
10 Numbers       In general, in running text, use "to" instead of           CMS 15, 9.62- Various experts estimated his art collection to Parenthetical date or number ranges, such         Marie Sklodowska, better known as Madame
                 an en dash for number ranges, in particular if             9.63          be worth from $850,000 to $1 million.           as page numbers; and sports scores.               Curie (1867–1934), was born in Poland. The
                 the meaning is "from . . . to" or "between . . .                                                                                                                           Yankees won in overtime, 5–2.
11 Numbers       (1) Form plurals of spelled-out numbers as                 CMS 15, 9.58    (1) nineties, sixes, twenties; (2) 90s, 6s, 20s
                 other nouns.
                 (2) Form plurals of numerals with an s , no
12 Numbers       (1) In general, in running text, insert a comma            CMS 15, 9.59    (1) He examined 1,500 samples today,
                 in most numerals of one thousand or more.                                  bringing the total for the month to 37,000.
                 (2) Omit comma in scientific use, page                                     (2) On page 1215, you'll find a brief
                 numbers, addresses, and dates.                                             introduction of the war years, 1914 to 1918.

13 Time          In general, for even, half, and quarter hours,             CMS 15, 9.41    She's usually away by five o'clock in the
                 spell times of day. And with "o'clock," always                             morning and at work at her computer by six
                 spell the number.                                                          thirty.
14 Time          Use numerals to express exact times—hours                  CMS 15, 9.42    She catches the 6:43 a.m. train every
                 and minutes—with zeros for even hours; use                                 morning to ensure she can be at her desk at
                 a.m./p.m., lowercase with periods, or small                                7:00 a.m. sharp.
15 Percentages   Always use numerals to express                             CMS 15, 9.19    Currently, it is estimated that 64 percent of When the percentage begins a sentence.            Sixty-four percent of the adult population is
                 percentages, followed by spelled-out                                       the adult population is overweight or obese.                                                    estimated to be overweight or obese.
                 "percent."                                                                 [Note usage: "The percentage of correct
                                                                                            answers," not "the percent of correct
                                                                                            answers." The word percent is used only with
                                                                                            an accompanying number.]

16 Units of      In general, to express specific physical                   CMS 15, 9.14    A 40-watt bulb is not strong enough to read
   measure       quantities/units of measure, use numerals                                  by. When buildings cover a large area, the
                 followed by either the spelled-out unit or its                             use of medium voltages of 5 to 34 kV for
                 abbreviation, depending on use.                                            distribution feeders is usually required. These
                 In scientific/technical material, always use                               units are available for AC motors in 5 to 900
                 abbreviation with numerals (with certain                                   HP.
                 exceptions: see example with "watt"), and
                 spell out otherwise.
17 Units of      In general, there is a word space between a                CMS 15,         50 km, 10 ft., 35 mm, 4 in.                       No space separates the number from the        40°C
   measure       number and its unit of measure.                            9.17–9.18                                                         symbol for degrees of temperature.
                                                                                                                                              [Exception: The Kelvin scale takes a space.
                                                                                                                                              "15 K".]
18 Units of      Where used in conjunction with a unit of                   apply Wiley UK 5 kg not five kg
   measure       measurement use numerical characters; do                   style to USPT
                 not spell out the number
19 Numbers       Decimal points always appear on the                        apply Wiley UK 1.5 not 1·5
                 baseline                                                   style to USPT

20 Numbers       Do not use superscripts for 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 5th,            apply Wiley UK 1st not 1st
                 etc.                                                       style to USPT
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                                                                                                                    Miscellaneous Style Points
   Category         Rule                                              Notes                         Source           Example                                           Exception                                     Example
 1 Cross- refs      To cross-reference a chapter/appendix in          *Contrary to CMS 15, 8.190,     USPT Style     For more on this topic, refer to Chapter 3, The generic word "chapter" (or "part," etc.) is In the next chapter, we'll discuss . . .
                    running text, init-cap "Chapter/Appendix,"*       but preferred by most USPT                     "Using Cross-References in Running Text." not capitalized.
                    followed by chapter/appendix number.**            divisions. **Usually a numeral,
                    When chapter title is included, enclose it in     but may be spelled out,
                    quotes.                                           depending on book design.

 2 Cross-refs       In running text, to cross-reference a section                                   USPT Style       For more on this topic, refer to Chapter 3,
                    in a chapter, precede xref with phrase "see                                                      "Using Cross-References in Running Text,"
                    the section" (or similar) followed by section                                                    in the section "Internal Citations."
                    title in quotes.
 3 Cross-refs       To cross-reference page number(s) in                                            USPT Style       For more on this topic, refer to Chapter 3,
                    running text, lowercase and spell out                                                            "Using Cross-References in Running Text,"
                    "page(s)" followed by page number(s),                                                            page 96.
                    always numerals; if a range is given, use an
                    en dash.
 4 Terms            Italicize key terms on first occurrence;                                        CMS 15, 7.57     Consider that the terms environmental             (1) When both an English translation and its (1) Don't confuse pécher, "to sin," with
                    thereafter, set roman                                                                            graphics , signage, and wayfinding were           foreign equivalent are used in a sentence,     pêcher, "to fish."
                                                                                                                     not in use 30 years ago.                          italicize the foreign term and enclose the
                                                                                                                                                                       English in quotes.
                                                                                                                                                                       (2) Okay to repeat italic key terms if
                                                                                                                                                                       uses/mentions are spaced far apart in text, to
                                                                                                                                                                       remind readers.
 5 Emphasis         Use italics (not bold, all caps, or underscore)                                 CMS 15, 7.49     If I told you once, I told you a thousand
                    for emphasis.                                                                                    times, it's on the fourth floor, not the third.

 6 Sexist           Use gender-neutral language and replace           *Context is all regarding this USPT Style;     Use he or she, for he; him or her, for him;
   language         gender-specific nouns and pronouns, but           rule, as noun or pronoun may CMS 5.203-        etc. Change to plural when possible to
                    only when gender-specific language is being       be used to refer to a specific 5.204           avoid overuse of "or" construction. Use
                    used to mean both male and female.*               person in the text.                            gender-neutral nouns; e.g., firefighter for
                                                                                                                     fireman, spokesperson, for spokesman;
                                                                                                                     chair, for chairman, member of Congress,
                                                                                                                     for congressman. Also acceptable:
                                                                                                                     alternate use of feminine and masculine
                                                                                                                     pronouns by chapter.
 7 Punctuation      Generally, all punctuation marks should                                         CMS 15, 6.3,     Note: The font of punctuation marks is the        Parentheses and brackets should appear in     Note: Parentheses and brackets set in same
   and font style   appear in same font (roman, italic, or bold) as                                 6.6              same as the main or surrounding text.             the same font as the surrounding text, not    font as surrounding text (not that of the
                    the main or surrounding text.                                                                                                                      that of the material they enclose.            material they enclose ).
 8 Place names      Use "United States," rather than "America,"                                     USPT Style       The United States comprises 50 states.
                    when United States of America is meant.

 9 Web              General form is (org,                                       USPT Style;
   addresses--      edu, etc.). Delete prefix "http://" when it is                                         
   URLs             followed by "www"; otherwise, maintain
                    "http://." Also, override automatic hyperlink
                    setup of most MS Word programs.

10 Web              Delete trailing slash from URLs unless they                                     USPT Style;
   addresses--      specify a longer path name than the domain                                             
   URLs             name.                                                                                            ssories/
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                                                                                                                       Miscellaneous Style Points
   Category         Rule                                                Notes                            Source          Example                                        Exception                                     Example
11 Titles of book  When mentioned in running text, part/chapter                                          CMS 15,         In the chapter titled "Signage and
   elements        titles, headings/subheadings, table titles, and                                       8.164–ff;       Environmental Graphics on the Brand
                   the like are styled in headline style (title case)                                    USPT Style      Bandwagon," we will discuss . . .
                   regardless of how they are designed to
                   appear at their point of origin (as all caps, for
                   example). Headline style: init-cap all words
                   except articles and prepositions (of any
                   See also entries 12 and 13 below.
12 Titles of Works All are set in headline style (title case).                                           CMS 15,         (1) The movie To Kill a Mockingbird was
                   (1) Italicize titles of books and periodicals                                         8.178–8.207     based on the book by Harper Lee.
                   (newspapers, magazines, journals, etc.);                                                              Entertainment Tonight ranked it one of the
                   plays, television series, and movies; operas                                                          best movies of all time. The New Yorker
                   and other long musical compositions; long                                                             recently reviewed a biography of Lee. Walt
                   poetical works; comic strips/cartoons; and                                                            Whitman's Leaves of Grass is his best-
                   paintings, drawings, and sculpture.                                                                   known work. We saw Michelangelo's
                   (2) Titles of book series and editions are set                                                        David .
                   roman, no quotes.                                                                                     (2) Do you know anyone who has read the
                   (3) Titles of artworks of antiquity are set                                                           Loeb Classics?
                   roman, no quotes.                                                                                     (3) The museum exhibited the Venus de
                   (4) Titles of photographs are set roman and                                                           Milo.
                   in quotes.                                                                                            (4) Ansel Adams's photograph "North
                                                                                                                         Dome" was on display.
13 Titles of Works Enclose in quotes titles of poetry, articles in                                       CMS 15,         "Tom Outland's Story" is my favorite part of
                   publications, song titles, short story and                                            8.187–8.193     Willa Cather's novel The Professor's
                   essay titles, chapter titles.                                                                         House . It motivated me to write my essay
                                                                                                                         "Indian Ruins in Willa Cather's Works."

14 Titles,          In general, in running text, lowercase civil,                                        CMS 15, 8.21  President Bill Clinton, but Bill Clinton, the    Capitalize a title used alone in place of a    Thank you, Mr. President.
   personal         military, religious, and professional titles                                                       president; General George S. Patton, but         personal name, especially in formal
                    when they stand alone or follow a person's                                                         George S. Patton, the general; President         situations, or in direct address. Also, ok to
                    name.                                                                                              Charles de Gaulle, but French president          capitalize titles following names when used in
                                                                                                                       Charles de Gaulle. The senator bowed out         lists, including book acknowledgments.
                                                                                                                       of the race.
15 Titles,          In running text, when a periodical title is                                          CMS 15, 8.180 Do you read the New York Times every
   periodicals      mentioned, an initial the , even if part of the                                                    day? No, I prefer the Wall Street Journal .
                    official title, is lowercase (unless beginning a
                    sentence) and roman.
16 Entities         Do not use ® or ™ in running text.                                                   CMS 15, 8.162 I bought Kleenex facial tissues.

17 Web              Do not use an underscore under the web              do not simulate live hyperlink   apply Wiley UK Visit our Web site,
   addresses--      address/URL                                                                          style to USPT
18 Web              Do not use angle brackets <> (or any other                                           CMS 15, 17.10 Visit our Web site,
   addresses--      graphic) to enclose web site addresses.

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