Perú by zzzmarcus

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Republic of Peru República del Perú (Spanish) Density 22/km2 (193rd) 57/sq mi 2008 estimate $245.883 billion[3] $8,580[3] 2008 estimate $127.598 billion[3] $4,452[3] 54.6 (high) ▲0.788 (medium) (79th) Nuevo Sol (PEN) PET (UTC-5) right .pe 51 GDP (PPP) Total Per capita GDP (nominal) Total Per capita Gini (2002) HDI (2006) Currency Time zone Drives on the Internet TLD Calling code


Coat of arms

Anthem: "Somos libres, seámoslo siempre" (Spanish)
"We are free, may we always be so"

Capital (and largest city) Official languages Ethnic groups

12°2.6′S 77°1.7′W / 12.0433°S 77.0283°W / -12.0433; -77.0283

Quechua, Aymara and other indigenous languages are co-official in the areas where they are predominant.

Spanish1 45% Amerindian, 37% Mestizo, 15% White, 3% Black, Asian[1] Peruvian Presidential republic Alan García Luis Giampietri Yehude Simon Javier Velásquez from Spain July 28, 1821 December 9, 1824 August 14, 1879 1,285,220 km2 (20th) 496,222 sq mi 8.80 29,180,900[2] 28,220,764

Demonym Government President Vice President Prime Minister President of Congress

Independence Declared Consolidated Recognized Area Total Water (%)

Population July 2008 estimate 2007 census

Peru (Spanish: Perú, Quechua: Piruw, Aymara: Piruw), officially the Republic of Peru (Spanish: República del Perú , IPA: [reˈpuβlika del peˈɾu]), is a country in western South America. It is bordered on the north by Ecuador and Colombia, on the east by Brazil, on the southeast by Bolivia, on the south by Chile, and on the west by the Pacific Ocean. Peruvian territory was home to the Norte Chico civilization, one of the oldest in the world, and to the Inca Empire, the largest state in Pre-Columbian America. The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a Viceroyalty, which included most of its South American colonies. After achieving independence in 1821, Peru has undergone periods of political unrest and fiscal crisis as well as periods of stability and economic upswing. Peru is a representative democratic republic divided into 25 regions. Its geography varies from the arid plains of the Pacific coast to the peaks of the Andes mountains and the tropical forests of the Amazon Basin. It is a developing country with a medium Human Development Index score and a poverty level around 40%. Its main economic activities


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include agriculture, fishing, mining, and manufacturing of products such as textiles. The Peruvian population, estimated at 28 million, is multiethnic, including Amerindians, Europeans, Africans and Asians. The main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua or other native languages. This mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine, literature, and music.


The word Peru is derived from Birú, the name of a local ruler who lived near the Bay of San Miguel, Panama, in the early 16th century.[4] When his possessions were visited by Spanish explorers in 1522, they were the southernmost part of the New World yet known to Europeans.[5] Thus, when Francisco Pizarro explored the regions farther south, they came to be designated Birú or Peru.[6] The Spanish Crown gave the name legal status with the 1529 Capitulación de Toledo, which designated the newly encountered Inca Empire as the province of Peru.[7] Under Spanish rule, the country adopted the denomination Viceroyalty of Peru, which became Republic of Peru after the Peruvian War of Independence.

Machu Picchu, the "Lost City of the Incas" years later, the Spanish Crown established the Viceroyalty of Peru, which included most of its South American colonies.[12] Viceroy Francisco de Toledo reorganized the country in the 1570s with silver mining as its main economic activity and Indian forced labor as its primary workforce.[13] Peruvian bullion provided revenue for the Spanish Crown and fueled a complex trade network that extended as far as Europe and the Philippines.[14] However, by the 18th century, declining silver production and economic diversification greatly diminished royal income.[15] In response, the Crown enacted the Bourbon Reforms, a series of edicts that increased taxes and partitioned the Viceroyalty of Peru.[16] The new laws provoked Túpac Amaru II’s rebellion and other revolts, all of which were defeated.[17] In the early 19th century, while most of South America was swept by wars of independence, Peru remained a royalist stronghold. As the elite hesitated between emancipation and loyalty to the Spanish Monarchy, independence was achieved only after the military campaigns of José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar.[18] During the early years of the Republic, endemic struggles for power between military leaders caused political

The earliest evidence of human presence in Peruvian territory has been dated to approximately 11,000 BCE.[8] The oldest known complex society in Peru, the Norte Chico civilization, flourished along the coast of the Pacific Ocean between 3000 and 1800 BCE.[9] These early developments were followed by archaeological cultures such as Chavin, Paracas, Mochica, Nazca, Wari, and Chimú. In the 15th century, the Incas emerged as a powerful state which, in the span of a century, formed the largest empire in pre-Columbian America.[10] Andean societies were based on agriculture, using techniques such as irrigation and terracing; camelid husbandry and fishing were also important. Organization relied on reciprocity and redistribution because these societies had no notion of market or money.[11] In 1532, a group of conquistadors led by Francisco Pizarro defeated Inca Emperor Atahualpa and imposed Spanish rule. Ten


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instability.[19] National identity was forged during this period, as Bolivarian projects for a Latin American Confederation foundered and a union with Bolivia proved ephemeral.[20] Between the 1840s and 1860s, Peru enjoyed a period of stability under the presidency of Ramón Castilla through increased state revenues from guano exports.[21] However, by the 1870s, these resources had been squandered, the country was heavily indebted, and political in-fighting was again on the rise.[22]

presidency of Alberto Fujimori (1990–2000), the country started to recover; however, accusations of authoritarianism, corruption, and human rights violations forced his resignation after the controversial 2000 elections.[29] Since the end of the Fujimori regime, Peru has tried to fight corruption while sustaining economic growth; since 2006 the president is Alan García.[30]


Angamos, a decisive battle during the War of the Pacific. Peru was defeated by Chile in the 1879–1883 War of the Pacific, losing the provinces of Arica and Tarapacá in the treaties of Ancón and Lima. Internal struggles after the war were followed by a period of stability under the Civilista Party, which lasted until the onset of the authoritarian regime of Augusto B. Leguía.[23] The Great Depression caused the downfall of Leguía, renewed political turmoil, and the emergence of the American Popular Revolutionary Alliance (APRA).[24] The rivalry between this organization and a coalition of the elite and the military defined Peruvian politics for the following three decades.[25] In 1968, the Armed Forces, led by General Juan Velasco Alvarado, staged a coup against president Fernando Belaunde. The new regime undertook radical reforms aimed at fostering development but failed to gain widespread support.[26] In 1975, Velasco was forcefully replaced as president by General Francisco Morales Bermúdez, who paralyzed reforms and oversaw the reestablishment of democracy.[27] During the 1980s, Peru faced a considerable external debt, ever-growing inflation, a surge in drug trafficking, and massive political violence.[28] Under the

Congress sits in the Palacio Legislativo in Lima. Peru is a presidential representative democratic republic with a multi-party system. Under the current constitution, the President is the head of state and government; he or she is elected for five years and cannot seek immediate re-election, he or she must stand down for at least one full constitutional term before reelection.[31] The President designates the Prime Minister and, with his advice, the rest of the Council of Ministers.[32] There is a unicameral Congress with 120 members elected for a five-year term.[33] Bills may be proposed by either the executive or the legislative branch; they become law after being passed by Congress and promulgated by the President.[34] The judiciary is nominally independent,[35] though political


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intervention into judicial matters has been common throughout history and arguably continues today.[36] The Peruvian government is directly elected, and voting is compulsory for all citizens aged 18 to 70.[37] General elections held in 2006 ended in a second round victory for presidential candidate Alan García of the Peruvian Aprista Party (52.6% of valid votes) over Ollanta Humala of Union for Peru (47.4%).[38] Congress is currently composed of the Peruvian Aprista Party (36 seats), Peruvian Nationalist Party (23 seats), Union for Peru (19 seats), National Unity (15 seats), the Fujimorista Alliance for the Future (13 seats), the Parliamentary Alliance (9 seats) and the Democratic Special Parliamentary Group (5 seats).[39] Peruvian foreign relations have been dominated by border conflicts with neighboring countries, most of which were settled during the 20th century.[40] There is still an ongoing dispute with Chile over maritime limits in the Pacific Ocean.[41] Peru is an active member of several regional blocs and one of the founders of the Andean Community of Nations. It is also a participant in international organizations such as the Organization of American States and the United Nations. The Peruvian military is composed of an army, a navy and an air force; its primary mission is to safeguard the independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of the country.[42] The armed forces are subordinate to the Ministry of Defense and to the President as Commander-in-Chief. Conscription was abolished in 1999 and replaced by voluntary military service.[43]


Peru is divided into 25 regions and the province of Lima. Each region has an elected government composed of a president and a council, which serves for a four-year term.[44] These governments plan regional development, execute public investment projects, promote economic activities, and manage public property.[45] The province of Lima is administered by a city council.[46] Regions: • • • • Amazonas Ancash Apurímac Arequipa • • • • Lambayeque Lima Loreto Madre de Dios

About this image Ama zonas Ancash Apurímac Arequipa Ayacucho Caja marca Cusco Huánuco Huanca velica Ica Junín La Libertad Lamba yeque Lima Lima Province Callao Loreto Madre de Dios Moquegua Pasco Piura Puno Tacna Tumbes


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San Martín Ucayali Clickable map of the regions of Peru. • • • • • • • • • Ayacucho Cajamarca Callao Cusco Huancavelica Huánuco Ica Junín La Libertad • • • • • • • • Moquegua Pasco Piura Puno San Martín Tacna Tumbes Ucayali

west, is a narrow plain, largely arid except for valleys created by seasonal rivers. The sierra (highlands) is the region of the Andes; it includes the Altiplano plateau as well as the highest peak of the country, the 6,768 m (22,205 ft) Huascarán.[47] The third region is the selva (jungle), a wide expanse of flat terrain covered by the Amazon rainforest that extends east. Almost 60% of the country’s area is located within this region,[48] (70 million hectares) giving Peru the fourth largest area of tropical forest in the world after Brazil, Congo and Indonesia.[49] Most Peruvian rivers originate in the Andes and drain into one of three basins. Those that drain toward the Pacific Ocean are steep and short, flowing only intermittently. Tributaries of the Amazon River are longer, have a much larger flow, and are less steep once they exit the sierra. Rivers that drain into Lake Titicaca are generally short and have a large flow.[50] Peru’s longest rivers are the Ucayali, the Marañón, the Putumayo, the Yavarí, the Huallaga, the Urubamba, the Mantaro, and the Amazon.[51]

Province: • Lima


The peaks of the Andes are the source of many Peruvian rivers. Peru, unlike other equatorial countries, does not have an exclusively tropical climate; the influence of the Andes and the Humboldt Current cause great climatic diversity within the country. The costa has moderate temperatures, low precipitations, and high humidity, except for its warmer, wetter northern reaches.[52] In the sierra, rain is frequent during summer, and temperature and humidity diminish with altitude up to the frozen peaks of the Andes.[53] The selva is characterized by heavy rainfall and high temperatures, except for its southernmost part, which has cold winters and seasonal rainfall.[54]

Topographic map of Peru Peru covers 1,285,220 km² (496,193 sq mi). It neighbors Ecuador and Colombia to the north, Brazil to the east, Bolivia to the southeast, Chile to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west. The Andes mountains run parallel to the Pacific Ocean, dividing the country into three geographic regions. The costa (coast), to the


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Because of its varied geography and climate, Peru has a high biodiversity with 21,462 species of plants and animals reported as of 2003; 5,855 of them endemic.[55] The Peruvian government has established several protected areas for their preservation.

increase in late 2007 with rising oil and commodity prices. For the first half of 2008, it was about 5.5%. [59]. The Peruvian government actively seeks to attract both foreign and domestic investment in all sectors of the economy. International investment was spurred by the significant progress Peru made during the 1990s toward economic, social, and political stability, but it slowed again after the government delayed privatizations and as political uncertainty increased in 2000. President Alejandro Toledo has made investment promotion a priority of his government. While Peru was previously marked by terrorism, hyperinflation, and government intervention in the economy, the Government of Peru under former President Alberto Fujimori took the steps necessary to bring those problems under control. Democratic institutions, however, and especially the judiciary, remain weak. The Government of Peru’s economic stabilization and liberalization program lowered trade barriers, eliminated restrictions on capital flows, and opened the economy to foreign investment, with the result that Peru now has one of the most open investment regimes in the world. Between 1992 and 2001, Peru attracted almost $17 billion in foreign direct investment in Peru, after negligible investment during the 1980s, mainly from Spain (32.35%)[60], the United States (17.51%), the Switzerland (6.99%), Chile (6.63%), and Mexico (5.53%). The basic legal structure for foreign investment in Peru is formed by the 1993 constitution, the Private Investment Growth Law, and the November 1996 Investment Promotion Law. Although Peru does not have a bilateral investment treaty with the United States, it has signed an agreement (1993) with the Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC) concerning OPIC-financed loans, guarantees, and investments. Peru also has committed itself to arbitration of investment disputes under the auspices of ICSID (the World Bank’s International Center for the Settlement of Investment Disputes) or other international or national arbitration tribunals. Exports are growing at a pace of 25% and will reach US$ 28 billion by the end of 2007 and US$ 50 billion by the end of 2010. High technological investment is growing fast in Peru, and will be 10% of the GDP by 2010. Services account for 53% of Peruvian gross domestic product, followed by


The seaport of Callao is the main outlet for Peruvian exports. Traditionally the economy of Peru, was based on natural resources in fields such as mining, farming, fishing, and agriculture. Lately, though, there has been a noticeable increase in slight industries, services and high technologies. In 2007, the Peruvian economy grew 9%, the largest growth rate in the world. The rate was mantained for 2008 and stoped only by the 2009 world economic crisis. Peruvian economy remains structurally strong and despite the adverse environment is expected to grown, as only few economies in the world. Poverty has been reduced substantially in the past decade as in 2004, it was slightly under 50%, in 2006 was at 45%, and in 2008 is at 36%.[56] According to government sources, poverty is projected to be reduced to under 10% in eight years [56], and the President Alan Garcia has stated that by this time Peru will cease to be a third world nation. [56]The Lima Stock Exchange grew 185.24% in 2006 [57] and in 2007 grew 168.3% [58] making it one of the fastest growing stock exchanges in the world. However, the Bolsa started falling in mid-2008 and up´s and down`s have continued through 2009, leaving the index at 80% of its peak of the previous year. There was a slight recovery in the last half of March 2009. Inflation was the lowest in Latin America at only 1.8% in 2006, but it started to


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manufacturing (22.3%), extractive industries (15%), and taxes (9.7%).[61] Recent economic growth has been fueled by macroeconomic stability, improved terms of trade, and rising investment and consumption.[62] Trade is expected to increase further after the implementation of a free trade agreement with the United States signed on April 12, 2006.[63] Peru’s main exports are copper, gold, zinc, textiles, and fish meal; its major trade partners are the United States, China, Brazil, and Chile.[64]

immigration from England, France, Germany, Italy, and Spain.[70] Chinese arrived in the 1850s as a replacement for slave workers and have since become a major influence in Peruvian society.[71] Other immigrant groups include Arabs and Japanese. Peru’s racial structure can be classified as 45% Amerindian, 37% Mestizo (mixed Amerindian and European), 15% White, and 3% black, Japanese, Chinese, and other.[1] Spanish, the first language of 83.9% of Peruvians age 5 and older in 2007, is the primary language of the country. It coexists with several indigenous languages, the most important of which is Quechua, spoken by 13.2% of the population. Other native and foreign languages were spoken at that time by 2.7% and 0.1% of Peruvians, respectively.[72] In the 2007 census, 81.3% of the population over 12 years old described themselves as Catholic, 12.5% as Evangelical, 3.3% as of other denominations, and 2.9% as non-religious.[73] Literacy was estimated at 92.9% in 2007; this rate is lower in rural areas (80.3%) than in urban areas (96.3%).[74] Primary and secondary education are compulsory and free in public schools.[75]


Peruvian woman and child of Amerindian ancestry With about 28 million inhabitants, Peru is the fourth most populous country in South America as of 2007.[65] Its demographic growth rate declined from 2.6% to 1.6% between 1950 and 2000; population is expected to reach approximately 42 million in 2050.[66] As of 2007, 75.9% lived in urban areas and 24.1% in rural areas.[67] Major cities include Lima, Arequipa, Trujillo, Chiclayo, Piura, Iquitos, Cusco, Chimbote, and Huancayo, all of which reported more than 250,000 inhabitants in the 2007 census.[68] Peru is a multiethnic nation formed by the combination of different groups over five centuries. Amerindians inhabited Peruvian territory for several millennia before Spanish Conquest in the 16th century; their population decreased from an estimated 9 million in the 1520s to around 600,000 in 1620 mainly because of infectious diseases.[69] Spaniards and Africans arrived in large numbers under colonial rule, mixing widely with each other and with indigenous peoples. After independence, there has been a gradual European

Peruvian culture is primarily rooted in Amerindian and Spanish traditions,[76] though it has also been influenced by various African, Asian, and European ethnic groups. Peruvian artistic traditions date back to the elaborate pottery, textiles, jewelry, and sculpture of Pre-Inca cultures. The Incas maintained these crafts and made architectural achievements including the construction of Machu Picchu. Baroque dominated colonial art, though modified by native traditions.[77] During this period, most art focused on religious subjects; the numerous churches of the era and the paintings of the Cuzco School are representative.[78] Arts stagnated after independence until the emergence of Indigenismo in the early 20th century.[79] Since the 1950s, Peruvian art has been eclectic and shaped by both foreign and local art currents.[80] Peruvian literature has its roots in the oral traditions of pre-Columbian civilizations. Spaniards introduced writing in the 16th century; colonial literary expression included chronicles and religious literature. After


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African, Arab, Italian, Chinese, and Japanese cooking.[86] Common dishes include anticuchos, ceviche, humitas, and pachamanca. Because of the variety of climates within Peru, a wide range of plants and animals are available for cooking.[87] Peruvian cuisine has recently received acclaim due to its diversity of ingredients and techniques.[88] Peruvian music has Andean, Spanish and African roots.[89] In pre-Hispanic times, musical expressions varied widely from region to region; the quena and the tinya were two common instruments.[90] Spanish conquest brought the introduction of new instruments such as the guitar and the harp, as well as the development of crossbred instruments like the charango.[91] African contributions to Peruvian music include its rhythms and the cajón, a percussion instrument.[92] Peruvian folk dances include marinera, tondero, danza de tijeras and huayno.[93]

See also
Anonymous Cuzco School painting, 18th century independence, Costumbrism and Romanticism became the most common literary genres, as exemplified in the works of Ricardo Palma.[81] In the early 20th century, the Indigenismo movement produced such writers as Ciro Alegría,[82] José María Arguedas,[83] and César Vallejo.[84] During the second half of the century, Peruvian literature became more widely known because of authors such as Mario Vargas Llosa, a leading member of the Latin American Boom.[85]


Ceviche is a citrus marinated seafood dish. Peruvian cuisine is a blend of Amerindian and Spanish food with strong influences from

[1] ^ Peru (10/08), U.S. Department of State [2] "CIA - The World Factbook - Peru". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved on November 20, 2008. [3] ^ "Peru". International Monetary Fund. 2009/01/weodata/ weorept.aspx?sy=2006&ey=2009&scsm=1&ssd=1& Retrieved on 2009-04-22. [4] Raúl Porras Barrenechea, El nombre del Perú, p. 83. [5] Raúl Porras Barrenechea, El nombre del Perú, p. 84. [6] Raúl Porras Barrenechea, El nombre del Perú, p. 86. [7] Raúl Porras Barrenechea, El nombre del Perú, p. 87. [8] Tom Dillehay et al, "The first settlers", p. 20. [9] Jonathan Haas et al, "Dating the Late Archaic occupation of the Norte Chico region in Peru", p. 1021. [10] Terence D’Altroy, The Incas, pp. 2–3. [11] Enrique Mayer, The articulated peasant, pp. 47–68. [12] Recopilación de leyes de los Reynos de las Indias, vol. II, pp. 12–13.


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[13] Peter Bakewell, Miners of the Red Mountain, p. 181. [14] Margarita Suárez, Desafíos transatlánticos, pp. 252–253. [15] Kenneth Andrien, Crisis and decline, pp. 200–202. [16] Mark Burkholder, From impotence to authority, pp. 83–87. [17] Scarlett O’Phelan, Rebellions and revolts in eighteenth century Peru and Upper Peru, p. 276. [18] Timothy Anna, The fall of the royal government in Peru, pp. 237–238. [19] Charles Walker, Smoldering ashes, pp. 124–125. [20] Paul Gootenberg, Between silver and guano, p. 12. [21] Paul Gootenberg, Imagining development, pp. 5–6. [22] Paul Gootenberg, Imagining development, p. 9. [23] Ulrich Mücke, Political culture in nineteenth-century Peru, pp. 193–194. [24] Peter Klarén, Peru, pp. 262–276. [25] David Palmer, Peru: the authoritarian tradition, p. 93. [26] George Philip, The rise and fall of the Peruvian military radicals, pp. 163–165. [27] Daniel Schydlowsky and Juan Julio Wicht, "Anatomy of an economic failure", pp. 106–107. [28] Peter Klarén, Peru, pp. 406–407. [29] BBC News, Fujimori: Decline and fall. Retrieved on July 21, 2007. [30] The Economist, Peru. Retrieved on July 18, 2007. [31] Constitución Política del Perú, Article N° 112. [32] Constitución Política del Perú, Article N° 122. [33] Constitución Política del Perú, Article N° 90. [34] Constitución Política del Perú, Articles N° 107–108. [35] Constitución Política del Perú, Articles N° 146. [36] Jeffrey Clark, Building on quicksand. Retrieved on July 24, 2007. [37] Constitución Política del Perú, Article N° 31. [38] (Spanish) Oficina Nacional de Procesos Electorales, Segunda Elección Presidencial 2006. Retrieved on May 15, 2007.

[39] (Spanish) Congreso de la República del Perú, Grupos Parlamentarios. Retrieved on January 5, 2008. [40] Ronald Bruce St John, The foreign policy of Peru, pp. 223–224. [41] BBC News, Peru–Chile border row escalates. Retrieved on May 16, 2007. [42] Ministerio de Defensa, Libro Blanco de la Defensa Nacional, p. 90. [43] Ley N° 27178, Ley del Servicio Militar, Articles N° 29, 42 and 45. [44] Ley N° 27867, Ley Orgánica de Gobiernos Regionales, Article N° 11. [45] Ley N° 27867, Ley Orgánica de Gobiernos Regionales, Article N° 10. [46] Ley N° 27867, Ley Orgánica de Gobiernos Regionales, Article N° 66. [47] AndesHandbook, Huascarán. Retrieved on August 12, 2007. [48] Instituto de Estudios Histórico–Marítimos del Perú, El Perú y sus recursos: Atlas geográfico y económico, p. 16. [49] Painter, James (December 7, 2008). "Peru aims for zero deforestation" (in English). BBC News. 7768226.stm. [50] Instituto de Estudios Histórico–Marítimos del Perú, El Perú y sus recursos: Atlas geográfico y económico, p. 31. [51] Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática, Perú: Compendio Estadístico 2005, p. 21. [52] Instituto de Estudios Histórico–Marítimos del Perú, El Perú y sus recursos: Atlas geográfico y económico, pp. 24–25. [53] Instituto de Estudios Histórico–Marítimos del Perú, El Perú y sus recursos: Atlas geográfico y económico, pp. 25–26. [54] Instituto de Estudios Histórico–Marítimos del Perú, El Perú y sus recursos: Atlas geográfico y económico, pp. 26–27. [55] Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática, Perú: Compendio Estadístico 2005, p. 50. [56] ^ Alan García: En el 2015, la pobreza se reducirá a menos del 10% | El Comercio Perú [57] dat_infostat_en.pdf Bolsa de Valores de Lima


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[58] Bolsa de Valores de Lima [77] Gauvin Alexander Bailey, Art of colonial [59] Latin America, pp. 72–74. the-world-factbook/rankorder/ [78] Gauvin Alexander Bailey, Art of colonial 2092rank.html CIA World FactbookLatin America, p. 263. Inflation [79] Edward Lucie-Smith, Latin American art [60] Foreign investment statistics (in of the 20th century, pp. 76–77, 145–146. Spanish). [80] Damián Bayón, "Art, c. 1920–c. 1980", pp. 425–428. modulos/JER/ [81] Gerald Martin, "Literature, music and PlantillaStandardsinHijos.aspx?ARE=0&PFL=0&JER=1537. the visual arts, c. 1820–1870", pp. 37–39. [61] 2006 figures. (Spanish) Banco Central de [82] Gerald Martin, "Narrative since c. 1920", Reserva, Memoria 2006, p. 204. pp. 151–152. Retrieved on June 25, 2007. [83] Gerald Martin, "Narrative since c. 1920", [62] (Spanish) Banco Central de Reserva, pp. 178–179. Memoria 2006, pp. 15, 203. Retrieved on [84] Jaime Concha, "Poetry, c. 1920–1950", June 25, 2007. pp. 250–253. [63] Office of the U.S. Trade Representative, [85] Gerald Martin, "Narrative since c. 1920", United States and Peru Sign Trade pp. 186–188. Promotion Agreement, April 4, 2006. [86] Tony Custer, The Art of Peruvian Retrieved on May 15, 2007. Cuisine, pp. 17–22. [64] 2006 figures. (Spanish) Banco Central de [87] Tony Custer, The Art of Peruvian Reserva, Memoria 2006, pp. 60–61. Cuisine, pp. 25–38. Retrieved on July 3, 2007. [88] Embassy of Peru in the United States, [65] United Nations, World Population Peruvian Gastronomy - History. ProspectsPDF (2.74 MB), pp. 44–48. Retrieved on May 27, 2008 Retrieved on July 29, 2007 [89] Raúl Romero, "Andean Peru", p. [66] Instituto Nacional de Estadística e 385–386. Informática, Perú: Estimaciones y [90] Dale Olsen, Music of El Dorado, pp. Proyecciones de Población, 1950–2050, 17–22. pp. 37–38, 40. [91] Thomas Turino, "Charango", p. 340. [67] Instituto Nacional de Estadística e [92] Raúl Romero, "La música tradicional y Informática, Perfil sociodemográfico del popular", pp. 263–265. Perú, p. 13. [93] Raúl Romero, "La música tradicional y [68] Instituto Nacional de Estadística e popular", pp. 243–245, 261–263. Informática, Perfil sociodemográfico del Perú, p. 24. [69] Noble David Cook, Demographic Etymology collapse: Indian Peru, 1520–1620, p. 114. • (Spanish) Porras Barrenechea, Raúl. El [70] Mario Vázquez, "Immigration and nombre del Perú. Lima: Talleres Gráficos mestizaje in nineteenth-century Peru", P.L. Villanueva, 1968. pp. 79–81. History [71] Magnus Mörner, Race mixture in the • Andrien, Kenneth. Crisis and decline: the history of Latin America, p. 131. Viceroyalty of Peru in the seventeenth [72] Instituto Nacional de Estadística e century. Albuquerque: University of New Informática, Perfil sociodemográfico del Mexico Press, 1985. Perú, p. 111. • Anna, Timothy. The fall of the royal [73] Instituto Nacional de Estadística e government in Peru. Lincoln: University of Informática, Perfil sociodemográfico del Nebraska Press, 1979. Perú, p. 132. • Bakewell, Peter. Miners of the Red [74] Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Mountain: Indian labor in Potosi Informática, Perfil sociodemográfico del 1545–1650. Albuquerque: University of Perú, p. 93. New Mexico, 1984. [75] Constitución Política del Perú, Article N° • BBC News. Fujimori: Decline and fall. 17. November 20, 2000. [76] Víctor Andrés Belaunde, Peruanidad, p. 472.



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University Park, Pennsylvania: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1999. • Thorp, Rosemary and Geoffrey Bertram. Peru 1890–1977: growth and policy in an open economy. New York: Columbia University Press, 1978. • United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Indices: A statistical update 2008. New York: UNDP, 2008. Demographics • Cook, Noble David. Demographic collapse: Indian Peru, 1520–1620. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981. • (Spanish) Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática. Perú: Estimaciones y Proyecciones de Población, 1950–2050. Lima: INEI, 2001. • (Spanish) Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática. Perfil sociodemográfico del Perú. Lima: INEI, 2008. • Mörner, Magnus. Race mixture in the history of Latin America. Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1967. • United Nations. World Population Prospects: The 2006 Revision. HighlightsPDF (2.74 MB). New York: United Nations, 2007. • Vázquez, Mario. "Immigration and mestizaje in nineteenth-century Peru". In: Magnus Mörner, Race and class in Latin America. New York: Columbia University Press, 1970, pp. 73–95. Culture • Bailey, Gauvin Alexander. Art of colonial Latin America. London: Phaidon, 2005. • Bayón, Damián. "Art, c. 1920–c. 1980". In: Leslie Bethell (ed.), A cultural history of Latin America. Cambridge: University of Cambridge, 1998, pp. 393–454. • (Spanish) Belaunde, Víctor Andrés. Peruanidad. Lima: BCR, 1983. • Concha, Jaime. "Poetry, c. 1920–1950". In: Leslie Bethell (ed.), A cultural history of Latin America. Cambridge: University of Cambridge, 1998, pp. 227–260. • Custer, Tony. The Art of Peruvian Cuisine. Lima: Ediciones Ganesha, 2003. • Embassy of Peru in the United States. The Peruvian Gastronomy.

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External links
Government • (Spanish) Web portal of the Peruvian Government • (Spanish) Directory of Peruvian Government websites General reference • Country Profile from BBC News • Peru from the Encyclopædia Britannica • Peru entry at The World Factbook • Peru at UCB Libraries GovPubs • Peru at the Open Directory Project • PeruLinks web directory • Wikimedia Atlas of Peru • Peru travel guide from Wikitravel

Retrieved from "" Categories: Peru, Former Spanish colonies, G15 nations, Spanish-speaking countries, Republics, Liberal democracies, Andean Community of Nations, States and territories established in 1821


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