# AP Physics 2 Course Description by SabeerAli1

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PHYSICS 2

Course of Study

I.   Mechanics

A.     Unit I - Introduction

1.       Unit Objectives

The student will be able to:
a.      relate the origin and definition of the standards of measurement.
b.      describe and apply the principles of unit conversion, dimensional analysis, order of
magnitude, significant digits and order of magnitude in problem solving.
c.      relate and apply mathematical notations and right triangle trigonometry in
problem solving.
d.      describe the coordinated of a point in space using Cartesian coordinate system.

a.       Standards of Length, Mass, and Time
b.       The Building Blocks of Matter
c.       Dimensional Analysis
d.       Significant Figures
e.       Conversion of Units
f.       Order-of-Magnitude Calculations
g.       Mathematical Notation
h.       Coordinate Systems and Frames of Reference
i.       Trigonometry
j.       Problem-Solving Strategy

B.     Unit II - Motion in One Dimension

1.       Unit Objectives

The student will be able to:
a.      describe and calculate the displacement, average and instantaneous velocity and
instantaneous and average acceleration of objects in motion.
b.      draw and interpret motion diagrams.
c.      calculate the initial velocity, final velocity, displacement, acceleration and time of
moving objects undergoing constant acceleration.
d.      apply the concepts of uniform acceleration to free falling objects.

a.       Displacement
b.       Average Velocity
c.       Instantaneous Velocity
d.       Acceleration
e.       Motion Diagrams
f.       One-Dimensional Motion with Constant Acceleration
g.       Freely Falling Objects

C.     Unit III - Vectors and Two-Dimensional Motion

1.       Unit Objectives

The student will be able to:
a.      describe the relationship between scalar and vector quantities.
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b.       apply the properties of vectors, including vector components and vector addition, to
projectile and two dimensional motion.
c.       relate and apply the concept of relative velocity in problem solving.

a.       Vectors and Scalars Revisited
b.       Some Properties of Vectors
c.       Components of a Vector
d.       Velocity and Acceleration in Two Dimensions
e.       Projectile Motion
f.       Relative Velocity

D.   Unit IV - The Laws of Motion

1.      Unit Objectives

The student will be able to:
a.      relate, calculate and apply the concept of force to Newton's Laws of Motion.
b.      describe and relate the normal force, coefficient of friction and friction force.
c.      calculate and apply friction force to Newton's Laws of Motion.

a.       The Concept of Force
b.       Newton's First Law
c.       Newton's Second Law
d.       Newton's Third Law
e.       Some Applications of Newton's Laws
f.       Force of Friction

E.   Unit V - Work and Energy

1.      Unit Objectives

The student will be able to:
a.      calculate work and relate it to the conservation of mechanical energy.
b.      relate work and kinetic energy with the Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem.
c.      describe and relate conservative and nonconservative force.
d.      relate work from conservative forces to the Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem a and the
conservation of mechanical energy.
e.      calculate power and relate it to force and work.

a.       W o rk
b.       Kinetic Energy and the Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem
c.       Potential Energy
d.       Conservative and Nonconservative Forces
e.       Conservation of Mechanical Energy
f.       Nonconservative Forces and the Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem
g.       Conservation of Energy in General
h.       Power

F.   Unit VI - Momentum and Collisions

1.      Unit Objectives

The student will be able to:
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a.       describe, calculate and relate momentum and impulse.
b.       relate elastic and inelastic collisions.
c.       calculate and apply the conservation of momentum in linear and glancing collisions.

a.       Momentum and Impulse
b.       Conservation of Momentum
c.       Collisions
d.       Glancing Collisions

G.   Unit VII - Circular Motion and the Law of Gravity

1.      Unit Objectives

The student will be able to:
a.      describe and calculate angular speed and acceleration in circular motion.
b.      compare and describe linear and rotational displacement, velocity and acceleration.
c.      calculate and describe the relationship of centripetal force and centripetal acceleration.
d.      relate and apply Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation.
e.      state and apply Kepler's Laws to the solar system.

a.       Angular Speed and Angular Acceleration
b.       Rotational Motion Under Constant Angular Acceleration
c.       Relations Between Angular and Linear Quantities
d.       Centripetal Acceleration
e.       Forces Causing Centripetal Acceleration
f.       Describing Motion of a Rotating System
g.       Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation
h.       Gravitational Potential Energy
i.       Kepler's Laws
j.       The Vector Nature of Angular Quantities

H.   Unit VIII - Rotational Equilibrium and Rotational Dynamics

1.      Unit Objectives

The student will be able to:
a.      relate torque with linear force.
b.      determine the center of gravity.
c.      calculate and relate torque, angular acceleration and static equilibrium.
d.      describe the conservation of mechanical energy involving gravitational potential energy,
translational kinetic energy and rotational kinetic energy.
e.      calculate and describe angular momentum in terms of angular velocity and
moment of inertia.

a.       Torque
b.       Torque and the Second Condition for Equilibrium
c.       The Center of Gravity
d.       Examples of Objects in Equilibrium
e.       Relationship Between Torque and Angular Acceleration
f.       Rotational Kinetic Energy
g.       Angular Momentum

I.   Unit IX - Solids and Fluids
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1.        Unit Objectives

The student will be able to:
a.      identify and describe the state of matter as a gas, liquid, crystalline solid or
amorphous solid.
b.      define and relate the deformation of solids in terms of Young's modulus,
Shear modulus and Bulk modulus.
c.      relate the density and specific gravity of objects of uniform composition.
d.      relate the effect of pressure on buoyant force and Archimedes' Principle.
e.      state the properties of an ideal fluid and relate them in the Equation of Continuity
and Bernoulli's Principle.
f.      explain surface tension, capillary action and viscosity in cohesive and
g.      apply Reynolds number to the turbulence of fluid flow in a tube.
h.      relate diffusion and osmosis with changes in fluid concentration.

a.       States of Matter
b.       The Deformation of Solids
c.       Density and Pressure
d.       Variation of Pressure with Depth
e.       Pressure Measurements
f.       Buoyant Forces and Archimedes' Principle
g.       Fluids in Motion
h.       Other Applications of Bernoulli's Equation
i.       Surface Tension, Capillary Action, and Viscosity
j.       Transport Phenomena

II.   Thermodynamics

A.     Unit X - Thermal Physics

1.        Unit Objectives

The student will be able to:
a.      relate temperature and heat flow with the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics.
b.      describe temperature and perform temperature conversions in the Fahrenheit, Celsius
and Kelvin temperature scales.
c.      calculate and explain the linear, area and volume expansion of solids and liquids.
d.      relate and use the Ideal Gas Law in terms of R or Boltzmann's constant and
e.      relate the postulates of the Kinetic Theory of Gases for temperature and average
kinetic energy.

a.       Temperature and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
b.       Thermometers and Temperature Scales
c.       Thermal Expansion of Solids and Liquids
d.       Macroscopic Description of an Ideal Gas
e.       Avogadro's Number and the Ideal Gas Law
f.       The Kinetic Theory of Gases

B.     Unit XI - Heat

1.        Unit Objectives

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The student will be able to:
a.      describe heat flow, thermal equilibria and specific heat.
b.      apply specific heat with calorimetry and the law of conservation of energy.
c.      describe and relate latent heat and changes in state.
d.      describe and calculate heat transfer in the forms of conduction, convection
e.      apply the law of heat conduction and Stefan's law for heat transfer by radiation.

a.       The Mechanical Equivalent of Heat
b.       Specific Heat
c.       conservation of Energy: Calorimetry
d.       Latent Heat and Phase Changes
e.       Heat Transfer by Conduction
f.       Convection
h.       Hindering Heat Transfer
i.       Metabolism and Losing Weight
j.       Application: Global Warming and Greenhouse Gases

C.     Unit XII - The Laws of Thermodynamics

1.      Unit Objectives

The student will be able to:
a.      relate the difference between heat and internal energy.
b.      describe heat and work in isobaric and adiabatic processes.
c.      apply heat and internal energy to the First Law of Thermodynamics in isothermal,
cyclic, adiabatic, isobaric and isovolumetric processes.
d.      relate heat engines and thermal efficiency with the Second Law of Thermodynamics.
e.      compare and contrast reversible and irreversible precesses.
f.      explain the Carnot engine.
g.      relate entropy with the Second Law of Thermodynamics and disorder.

a.       Heat and Internal Energy
b.       Work and Heat
c.       The First Law of Thermodynamics
d.       Heat Engines and The Second Law of Thermodynamics
e.       Reversible and Irreversible Processes
f.       The Carnot Engine
g.       Entropy
h.       Entropy and Disorder

III.   Vibrations and Wave Motion

A.     Unit XIII - Vibrations and Waves

1.      Unit Objectives

The student will be able to:
a.      state and apply Hooke's Law with objects in Simple Harmonic Motion.
b.      relate Simple Harmonic Motion with the conservation of gravitational potential energy,
spring potential energy and kinetic energy.
c.      describe the Simple Harmonic Motion of a pendulum and calculate period, length and
frequency of the pendulum.
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d.          describe mechanical, transverse and longitudinal waves.
e.          identify the parts of a wave and relate frequency, amplitude, wavelength and period.
f.          determine the velocity of a wave in a string.
g.          apply the Law of Superposition to constructive and destructive interference and the
reflection of waves.

a.          Hooke's Law
b.          Elastic Potential Energy
c.          Velocity as a Function of Position
d.          Comparing Simple Harmonic Motion with Uniform Circular Motion
e.          Position, Velocity, and Acceleration as a Function of Time
f.          Motion of a Pendulum
g.          Damped Oscillations
h.          Wave Motion
i.          Types of Waves
j.          Frequency, Amplitude, and Wavelength
k.          The Speed of Waves on Strings
l.          Superposition and Interference of Waves
m.          Reflection of Waves

B.      Unit XIV - Sound

1.      Unit Objectives

The student will be able to:
a.      describe the production of sound waves including displacement and pressure variation.
b.      relate the longitudinal characteristics on sound waves.
c.      explain and determine the intensity of sound in decibels.
d.      determine and relate Doppler Shift in problem solving.
e.      describe, qualitatively and quantitatively, standing waves in a stretched string and
open and closed air column pipes.

a.          Producing a Sound wave
b.          characteristics of Sound Waves
c.          The Speed of Sound
d.          Energy and Intensity of Sound Waves
e.          Spherical and Plane Waves
f.          The Doppler Effect
g.          Interference of Sound Waves
h.          Standing Waves
i.          Forced Vibrations and Resonance
j.          Standing Waves in Air Columns
k.          Beats
l.          Quality of Sound
m.          The Ear

I V.   Electricity and Magnetism

A.      Unit XV - Electric Forces and Electric Fields

1.      Unit Objectives

The student will be able to:
a.      relate the properties of electric charges.
b.      determine if a substance is a conductor or insulator.
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c.       explain the process of charging by induction and conduction.
d.       apply Coulomb's Law to electric charges.
e.       calculate electric fields and draw electric field lines.
f.       relate the properties of conductors in electrostatic equilibrium.
g.       describe Millikan's Oil Drop Experiment and the function of the Van de Graaff
generator and the oscilloscope.
h.       apply the concept of electric flux and Gauss's Law.

a.       Properties of Electric Charges
b.       Insulators and Conductors
c.       Coulomb's Law
d.       The Electric Field
e.       Electric Field Lines
f.       Conductors in Electrostatic Equilibrium
g.       The Millikan Oil-Drop Experiment
h.       The Van de Graaff Generator
i.       The Oscilloscope
j.       Electric Flux and Gauss's Law

B.   Unit XVI - Electrical Energy and Capacitance

1.      Unit Objectives

The student will be able to:
a.      understand the concept of electric potential and electrical potential difference.
b.      calculate the electric potential difference in a uniform electric field and a group of
point charges.
c.      calculate and relate the electric potential energy and electron volts.
d.      justify the claims that (i) all points on the surface and within a charged conductor are
at the same potential and (ii) the electric field within a charged conductor is zero.
e.      define capacitance and evaluate the capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor of given
area and plate separation.
f.      determine the equivalent capacitance of a network of capacitors in series-parallel
combination and calculate the final charge on each capacitor and the potential
difference across each when a known potential is applied across the combination.

a.       Potential Difference and Electric Potential
b.       Electric Potential and Potential Energy Due to Point Charges
c.       Potentials and Charged Conductors
d.       Equipotential Surfaces
e.       Applications
f.       The Definition of Capacitance
g.       The Parallel-Plate Capacitor
h.       Combinations of Capacitors
i.       Energy Stored in a Charged Capacitor
j.       Capacitors with Dielectrics
k.       Application: DNA and Forensic Science

C.   Unit XVII - Current and Resistance

1.      Unit Objectives

The student will be able to:
a.      describe and apply current, resistance and voltage in Ohm’s Law.
b.      explain resistivity and relate resistivity with substance type and temperature.
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c.       relate current, resistance and voltage to the production of energy and power.
d.       describe and relate the medical applications of voltage in EKGs, EEGs and pacemakers.

a.       Electric Current
b.       Current and Drift Speed
c.       Resistance and Ohm's Law
d.       Resistivity
e.       Temperature Variation of Resistance
f.       Superconductors
g.       Electrical Energy and Power
h.       Voltage Measurements in Medicine

D.   Unit XVIII - Direct Current Circuits

1.      Unit Objectives

The student will be able to:
a.      calculate the current in a single-loop circuit and the potential difference between any
two points in the circuit.
b.      calculate equivalent resistance for a group of resistors in parallel, series or
series-parallel combination.
c.      use Ohm’s law to calculate the current in a circuit and the potential difference between
any two points in a circuit which can be reduced to an equivalent single-loop circuit.
d.      use Joule’s law to calculate the power dissipated by any resistor or group of resistors
in a circuit.
e.      apply Kirchhoff’s rules to solve multiloop circuits; find the currents at any point and the
potential difference between any two points.
f.      describe in qualitative terms the manner in which charge accumulates on a capacitor or
current flow changes through a resistor with time in a series circuit with battery,
capacitor, resistor and switch.

a.       Sources of emf
b.       Resistors in Series
c.       Resistors in Parallel
d.       Kirchhoff's Rules and Complex DC Circuits
e.       RC Circuits
f.       Household Circuits
g.       Electrical Safety

E.   Unit XIX - Magnetism

1.      Unit Objectives

The student will be able to:
a.      use the defining equation for a magnetic field B and the right-hand rule to determine
the magnitude and direction of the magnetic force exerted on an electric charge
moving in a region where there is a magnetic field.
b.      relate the differences between the forces exerted on electric charges by electric fields
and those forces exerted on moving charges by magnetic fields.
c.      calculate the magnitude and direction of the magnetic force on a current-carrying
conductor when placed in an external magnetic field.
d.      determine the magnitude and direction of the torque exerted on a closed current loop
in an external magnetic field.
e.      describe how a moving coil galvanometer can be converted to either an ammeter or
a voltmeter.
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f.       calculate the period and radius of the circular orbit of a charged particle moving in
a uniform magnetic field.
g.       calculate the magnitude and determine the direction of the magnetic field for the
following cases: a point in the vicinity of a long, straight current-carrying conductor at
the center of a loop, and at interior points of a solenoid.

a.       Magnets
b.       Magnetic Field of the Earth
c.       Magnetic Fields
d.       Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor
e.       Torque on a Current Loop
f.       The Galvanometer and Its Applications
g.       Motion of a Charged Particle in a Magnetic Field
h.       Magnetic Field of a Long, Straight Wire and Ampere's Law
i.       Magnetic Force Between Tow Parallel Conductors
j.       Magnetic Field of a Current Loop
k.       Magnetic Field of a Solenoid
l.       Magnetic Domains

F.   Unit XX - Induced Voltages and Inductance

1.      Unit Objectives

The student will be able to:
a.      calculate the emf induced in a circuit when the magnetic flux is varying due to changes
in (i)the area of the circuit, (ii) the magnitude of the magnetic field, (iii) the direction
of the field or (iv) the orientation of the circuit in the magnetic field.
b.      relate Lenz’s law as a consequence of the law of conservation of energy.
c.      apply Lenz’s law to determine the direction of an induced emf.
d.      calculate the emf induced between the ends of a conducting bar as it moves through a
constant magnetic field.
e.      describe self-inductance.
f.      calculate the total magnetic energy stored in a magnetic field when device inductance
and current are given.
g.      describe the manner in which the instantaneous value of the current in an RL circuit
changes while the current is increased or decreased with time.

a.       Induced emf and Magnetic Flux
c.       Motional emf
d.       Lenz's Law Revisited
e.       Generators
f.       Eddy Currents
g.       Self-Inductance
h.       RL Circuits
i.       Energy Stored in a Magnetic Field

G.   Unit XXI - Alternating Current Circuits and Electromagnetic Waves

1.      Unit Objectives

The student will be able to:
a.      calculate reactance in an ac circuit as a function (i) capacitance, (ii) inductance and
(iii) frequency.
b.      interpret the meaning of phase angle and power factor in an ac circuit.
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c.       calculate (i) the instantaneous and rms voltage drop across components, (ii) the
instantaneous and rms current in the circuit, (iii) the phase angle by the current leads
or lags the voltage, (iv) the power expended in the and the resonance frequency of circuit,
give resistance, inductance, capacitance and the emf source in an RLC series circuit.
d.       describe how step-up and step-down transformers in transmitting electrical power over
long distances.
e.       calculate the primary to secondary voltage andd current ratios for an ideal transformer.
f.       summarize the properties of electromagnetic waves and relate Maxwell’s contribution
to the understanding of the nature of electromagnetic radiation.
g.       relate the relative orientation of magnetic field, electric field and direction of
propagation in the corresponding electromagnetic wave.

a.       Resistors in an ac Circuit
b.       Capacitors in an ac Circuit
c.       Inductors in an ac Circuit
d.       The RLC Series Circuit
e.       Power in an ac Circuit
f.       Resonance in a Series RLC Circuit
g.       The Transformer
h.       Maxwell's Predictions
i.       Hertz's Discoveries
j.       Production of Electromagnetic Waves by an Antenna
k.       Properties of Electromagnetic Waves
l.       The Spectrum of Electromagnetic Waves
m.       The Doppler Effect for Electromagnetic Waves

V.   Light and Optics

A.      Unit XXII - Reflection and Refraction of Light

1.         Unit Objectives

The student will be able to:
a.      describe the various experimental results which support the view of the dual nature
of light including Young's experiment and the photoelectric effect.
b.      describe the methods used by Roemer and Fizeau for the measurement of c.
c.      understand the conditions under which total internal reflection occur in a medium and
determine the critical angle for a given pair of adjacent media.
d.      describe the process of dispersion of a beam of white light as it passes through a prism.
e.      describe the conditions under which internal reflection of a light ray is possible.
f.       calculate the critical angle for internal reflection at a boundary between two optical
media of known indices of refraction.
g.      describe the application of internal reflection to fiber optics techniques.

a.       The Nature of Light
b.       Measurements of the Speed of Light
c.       The Ray Approximation in Geometric Optics
d.       Reflection and Refraction
e.       The Law of Refraction
f.       Dispersion and Prisms
g.       The Rainbow
h.       Huygens' Principle
i.       Total Internal Reflection

B.      Unit XXIII - Mirrors and Lenses
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1.      Unit Objectives

The student will be able to:
a.      identify the following properties which characterize an image formed by a lens or
mirror system with respect to an object: position, magnification, orientation (inverted,
erect or right-left reversal) and whether real or virtual.
b.      relate the calculated algebraic sign associated with the nature of the image and object:
real or virtual, erect or inverted.
c.      calculate the location of the image of a specified object as formed by a flat mirror,
spherical mirror, plane refracting surface, spherical refracting surface, thin lens or a
combination of two or more of these devices and determine the magnification and
character if the image.
d.      construct ray diagrams to determine the location and nature of the image of a given
object when the geometrical characteristics of the optical device (lens or mirror)
are known.

a.       Flat Mirrors
b.       Images Formed by Spherical Mirrors
c.       Convex Mirror and Sign Conventions
d.       Images Formed by Refraction
e.       Atmospheric Refraction
f.       Thin Lenses
g.       Lens Aberrations

C.   Unit XXIV - Wave Optics

1.      Unit Objectives

The student will be able to:
a.      describe Young's double-slit experiment to demonstrate the wave nature of light.
b.      account for the phase difference between light waves from two sources as they arrive
at a given point of the screen.
c.      state the conditions for constructive and destructive interference in terms of each of
the following: path difference, phase difference, distance from center of screen and
angle subtended by the observation point at the source midpoint.
d.      account for the conditions of constructive and destructive interference in thin films
considering both path difference and any expected phase changes due to reflection.
e.      describe Fraunhofer diffraction produced by a single slit and determine the positions
of the maxima and minima in a single-slit diffraction pattern.
f.      describe qualitatively the polarization of light by selective absorption, reflection,
scattering and double refraction and make appropriate calculations using Brewster's law.

a.       Conditions for Interference
b.       Young's Double-Slit Interference
c.       Change of Phase Due to Reflection
d.       Interference in Thin Films
e.       Diffraction
f.       Single-Slit Diffraction
g.       Polarization of Light Waves

D.   Unit XXV - Optical Instruments

1.      Unit Objectives

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The student will be able to:
a.      define the f-number of a camera lens and relate this criterion to shutter speed.
b.      describe the geometry of the combination of lenses for a simple magnifier, compound
microscope, reflecting telescope and refracting telescope and calculate the magnifying
power for each.
c.      determine whether or not two sources under a given set of conditions are resolvable as
defined by Rayleigh's criterion.
d.      describe the technique employed in the Michelson interferometer for precise
measurement of length based on known values for the wavelength of light.
e.      determine the positions of the principal maxima in the interference pattern of a
diffraction grating.
f.      understand what is meant by the resolving power and the dispersion of a grating and
calculate the resolving power of a grating under specified conditions.

a.       The Camera
b.       The Eye
c.       The Simple Magnifier
d.       The Compound Microscope
e.       The Telescope
f.       Resolution of Single-Slit and Circular Apertures
g.       The Michelson Interferometer
h.       The Diffraction Grating

VI .   Modern Physics

A.     Unit XXVI - Relativity

1.        Unit Objectives

The student will be able to:
a.      state Einstein's two postulates of the special theory of relativity.
b.      understand the Michelson-Morley experiment, its objectives, results and the
significance of its outcome.
c.      understand the idea of simultaneity and the fact that simultaneity is not an absolute
concept. That is, two events which are simultaneous in one reference frame are not
simultaneous when viewed from a second frame moving with respect to the first.
d.      make calculations using the equation for time dilation and length contraction.
e.      calculate and state the correct relativistic expressions for the momentum,
kinetic energy and total energy of a particle.

a.       Introduction
b.       The Principle of Relativity
c.       The Speed of Light
d.       The Michelson-Morley Experiment
e.       Einstein's Principle of Relativity
f.       Consequences of Special Relativity
g.       Relativistic Momentum
i.       Relativistic Energy
j.       General Relativity

B.     Unit XXVII - Quantum Physics

1.     Unit Objectives

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The student will be able to:
a.      describe the formula for blackbody radiation proposed by Planck and the assumption
b.      describe the Einstein model for the photoelectric effect and the predictions of the
fundamental photoelectric effect equation for the maximum kinetic energy of                photoelectrons
and recognize that Einstein's model involves the photon concept and                  the fact that the
basic features of the photoelectric effect are consistent with the model.
c.      describe the Compton effect (scattering of x-rays by electrons) and be able to use the
formula for the Compton shift and recognize that the Compton effect only be explained
using the photon concept.
d.      discuss the wave properties of particles, the de Broglie wavelength concept and the
dual nature of both matter and light.
e.      discuss the manner in which the uncertainty principle makes possible a better
understanding of the dual wave-particle nature of light and matter.

a.       Blackbody Radiation and Planck's Hypothesis
b.       The Photoelectric Effect
c.       Applications of the Photoelectric Effect
d.       X-Rays
e.       Diffraction on X-Rays by Crystals
f.       The Compton Effect
g.       Pair Production and Annihilation
h.       Photons and Electromagnetic Waves
i.       The Wave Properties of Particles
j.       The Wave Function
k.       The Uncertainty Principle
l.       the Scanning Tunneling Microscope

C.   Unit XXVIII - Atomic Physics

1.      Unit Objectives

The student will be able to:
a.      state the basic postulates of the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom.
b.      sketch an energy level diagram for hydrogen including the principle quantum number n,
show transitions corresponding to spectral lines in the several known series and calculate wavelength.
c.      for each of the quantum numbers n, l, ml and ms, describe what each implies concerning
atomic structure and state the allowed values for each and the number of allowed states
which may exist in a given atom.
c.      state the Pauli exclusion principle and describe its relevance to the periodic table and
show how it relates to the ground state configurations of the light elements.

a.       Early Models of the Atom
b.       Atomic Spectra
c.       The Bohr Theory of Hydrogen
d.       Modification of the Bohr Model
e.       De Broglie Waves and the Hydrogen Atom
f.       Quantum Mechanics and the Hydrogen Atom
g.       The Spin Magnetic Quantum Number
h.       Electron Clouds
i.       The Exclusion Principle and the Periodic Table
j.       Buckyballs
k.       Characteristic X-Rays
l.       Atomic Transitions
m.       Lasers and Holography
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n.       Fluorescence and Phosphorescence

D.   Unit XXIX - Nuclear Physics

1.      Unit Objectives

The student will be able to:
a.      account for nuclear binding energy in terms of the Einstein mass-energy relationship and
describe the basis for energy release by fission and fusion in terms of the shape of the
curve of binding energy per nucleon vs. mass number.
b.      identify each of the components of radiation that are emitted by the nucleus through
natural radioactive decay and describe the basic properties of each.
c.      write typical equations for the processes of transmutation by alpha and beta decay.
d.      state and apply the formulas for decay rate as a function of decay constant and number
of radioactive nuclei and the number of remaining radioactive nuclei left as a function
of elapsed time, decay constant or half-life and the initial number of nuclei.
e.      calculate the Q value of given nuclear reactions and determine the threshold energy of
endothermic reactions.

a.       Some Properties of Nuclei
b.       Binding Energy
d.       The Decay Processes
f.       Nuclear Reactions

E.   Unit XXX - Nuclear Energy and Elementary Particles

1.      Unit Objectives

The student will be able to:
a.      write an equation which represents a typical fission event and describe the sequence
of events which occurs during the fission process and use data from the binding energy
curve to estimate the disintegration energy of a typical fission event.
b.      describe the basis of energy release in fusion and write nuclear reactions for
fusion-powered reactor.
c.      outline the classification of elementary particles and include several characteristics of
each group.
d.      know the broad classification of particles and the characteristics properties of the
following classes: relative mass value, spin and decay mode.
e.      determine whether or not a suggested decay can occur based on the conservation of
baryon number and the conservation of lepton number.
f.      determine whither or not a predicted reaction/decay will occur based on the
conservation of strangeness for the strong and electromagnetic interactions.

a.       Nuclear Fission
b.       Nuclear Reactors
c.       Nuclear Fusion
d.       Elementary Particles
e.       The Fundamental Forces in Nature
f.       Positrons and Other Antiparticles
g.       Mesons and the Beginning of Particle Physics
h.       Classification of Particles
i.       Conservation Laws
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j.   Strange Particles and Strangeness
k.   The Eightfold Way
l.   Quarks
m.   Colored Quarks
n.   Electroweak Theory and the Standard Model
o.   The Cosmic Connection
p.   Problems and Perspectives

15
Some Experiments Done in Advanced Placement Physics

Uniformly Accelerated Motion
Motion in Two Dimensions
Coefficient of Friction
Newton's Second Law of Motion
Torques and Rotational Equilibrium of a Rigid Body
Conservation of Energy
Conservation of Spring and Gravitational Potential Energy
Projectile Motion
Conservation of Momentum
Centripetal Acceleration of an Object in Circular Motion
Moment of Inertia and Rotational Motion
Archimedes' Principle
Simple Harmonic Motion - The Pendulum
Simple Harmonic Motion - Mass on a Spring
Standing Waves
Speed of Sound - Reasonance Tube
Specific Heat of Metals
Linear Thermal Expansion
The Ideal Gas Law
Measurement of Electrical Resistance and Ohm's Law
Wheatstone Bridge
Voltmeters and Ammeters
Kirchhoff's Rules
Alternating Current
Joule Heating of a Resistor
Focal Length of Lenses
Reflection and Refraction
Geiger Counter Measurement of the Half-Life of 137Ba

16

Student Evaluation

b.      2nd Quarter Grade                         5 0%