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PHYSICS 2 Course of Study I. Mechanics A. Unit I - Introduction 1. Unit Objectives The student will be able to: a. relate the origin and definition of the standards of measurement. b. describe and apply the principles of unit conversion, dimensional analysis, order of magnitude, significant digits and order of magnitude in problem solving. c. relate and apply mathematical notations and right triangle trigonometry in problem solving. d. describe the coordinated of a point in space using Cartesian coordinate system. 2. Subject Headings a. Standards of Length, Mass, and Time b. The Building Blocks of Matter c. Dimensional Analysis d. Significant Figures e. Conversion of Units f. Order-of-Magnitude Calculations g. Mathematical Notation h. Coordinate Systems and Frames of Reference i. Trigonometry j. Problem-Solving Strategy B. Unit II - Motion in One Dimension 1. Unit Objectives The student will be able to: a. describe and calculate the displacement, average and instantaneous velocity and instantaneous and average acceleration of objects in motion. b. draw and interpret motion diagrams. c. calculate the initial velocity, final velocity, displacement, acceleration and time of moving objects undergoing constant acceleration. d. apply the concepts of uniform acceleration to free falling objects. 2. Subject Headings a. Displacement b. Average Velocity c. Instantaneous Velocity d. Acceleration e. Motion Diagrams f. One-Dimensional Motion with Constant Acceleration g. Freely Falling Objects C. Unit III - Vectors and Two-Dimensional Motion 1. Unit Objectives The student will be able to: a. describe the relationship between scalar and vector quantities. 1 b. apply the properties of vectors, including vector components and vector addition, to projectile and two dimensional motion. c. relate and apply the concept of relative velocity in problem solving. 2. Subject Headings a. Vectors and Scalars Revisited b. Some Properties of Vectors c. Components of a Vector d. Velocity and Acceleration in Two Dimensions e. Projectile Motion f. Relative Velocity D. Unit IV - The Laws of Motion 1. Unit Objectives The student will be able to: a. relate, calculate and apply the concept of force to Newton's Laws of Motion. b. describe and relate the normal force, coefficient of friction and friction force. c. calculate and apply friction force to Newton's Laws of Motion. 2. Subject Headings a. The Concept of Force b. Newton's First Law c. Newton's Second Law d. Newton's Third Law e. Some Applications of Newton's Laws f. Force of Friction E. Unit V - Work and Energy 1. Unit Objectives The student will be able to: a. calculate work and relate it to the conservation of mechanical energy. b. relate work and kinetic energy with the Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem. c. describe and relate conservative and nonconservative force. d. relate work from conservative forces to the Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem a and the conservation of mechanical energy. e. calculate power and relate it to force and work. 2. Subject Headings a. W o rk b. Kinetic Energy and the Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem c. Potential Energy d. Conservative and Nonconservative Forces e. Conservation of Mechanical Energy f. Nonconservative Forces and the Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem g. Conservation of Energy in General h. Power F. Unit VI - Momentum and Collisions 1. Unit Objectives The student will be able to: 2 a. describe, calculate and relate momentum and impulse. b. relate elastic and inelastic collisions. c. calculate and apply the conservation of momentum in linear and glancing collisions. 2. Subject Headings a. Momentum and Impulse b. Conservation of Momentum c. Collisions d. Glancing Collisions G. Unit VII - Circular Motion and the Law of Gravity 1. Unit Objectives The student will be able to: a. describe and calculate angular speed and acceleration in circular motion. b. compare and describe linear and rotational displacement, velocity and acceleration. c. calculate and describe the relationship of centripetal force and centripetal acceleration. d. relate and apply Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation. e. state and apply Kepler's Laws to the solar system. 2. Subject Headings a. Angular Speed and Angular Acceleration b. Rotational Motion Under Constant Angular Acceleration c. Relations Between Angular and Linear Quantities d. Centripetal Acceleration e. Forces Causing Centripetal Acceleration f. Describing Motion of a Rotating System g. Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation h. Gravitational Potential Energy i. Kepler's Laws j. The Vector Nature of Angular Quantities H. Unit VIII - Rotational Equilibrium and Rotational Dynamics 1. Unit Objectives The student will be able to: a. relate torque with linear force. b. determine the center of gravity. c. calculate and relate torque, angular acceleration and static equilibrium. d. describe the conservation of mechanical energy involving gravitational potential energy, translational kinetic energy and rotational kinetic energy. e. calculate and describe angular momentum in terms of angular velocity and moment of inertia. 2. Subject Headings a. Torque b. Torque and the Second Condition for Equilibrium c. The Center of Gravity d. Examples of Objects in Equilibrium e. Relationship Between Torque and Angular Acceleration f. Rotational Kinetic Energy g. Angular Momentum I. Unit IX - Solids and Fluids 3 1. Unit Objectives The student will be able to: a. identify and describe the state of matter as a gas, liquid, crystalline solid or amorphous solid. b. define and relate the deformation of solids in terms of Young's modulus, Shear modulus and Bulk modulus. c. relate the density and specific gravity of objects of uniform composition. d. relate the effect of pressure on buoyant force and Archimedes' Principle. e. state the properties of an ideal fluid and relate them in the Equation of Continuity and Bernoulli's Principle. f. explain surface tension, capillary action and viscosity in cohesive and adhesive substances. g. apply Reynolds number to the turbulence of fluid flow in a tube. h. relate diffusion and osmosis with changes in fluid concentration. 2. Subject Headings a. States of Matter b. The Deformation of Solids c. Density and Pressure d. Variation of Pressure with Depth e. Pressure Measurements f. Buoyant Forces and Archimedes' Principle g. Fluids in Motion h. Other Applications of Bernoulli's Equation i. Surface Tension, Capillary Action, and Viscosity j. Transport Phenomena II. Thermodynamics A. Unit X - Thermal Physics 1. Unit Objectives The student will be able to: a. relate temperature and heat flow with the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics. b. describe temperature and perform temperature conversions in the Fahrenheit, Celsius and Kelvin temperature scales. c. calculate and explain the linear, area and volume expansion of solids and liquids. d. relate and use the Ideal Gas Law in terms of R or Boltzmann's constant and Avogadro's number. e. relate the postulates of the Kinetic Theory of Gases for temperature and average kinetic energy. 2. Subject Headings a. Temperature and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics b. Thermometers and Temperature Scales c. Thermal Expansion of Solids and Liquids d. Macroscopic Description of an Ideal Gas e. Avogadro's Number and the Ideal Gas Law f. The Kinetic Theory of Gases B. Unit XI - Heat 1. Unit Objectives 4 The student will be able to: a. describe heat flow, thermal equilibria and specific heat. b. apply specific heat with calorimetry and the law of conservation of energy. c. describe and relate latent heat and changes in state. d. describe and calculate heat transfer in the forms of conduction, convection and radiation. e. apply the law of heat conduction and Stefan's law for heat transfer by radiation. 2. Subject Headings a. The Mechanical Equivalent of Heat b. Specific Heat c. conservation of Energy: Calorimetry d. Latent Heat and Phase Changes e. Heat Transfer by Conduction f. Convection g. Radiation h. Hindering Heat Transfer i. Metabolism and Losing Weight j. Application: Global Warming and Greenhouse Gases C. Unit XII - The Laws of Thermodynamics 1. Unit Objectives The student will be able to: a. relate the difference between heat and internal energy. b. describe heat and work in isobaric and adiabatic processes. c. apply heat and internal energy to the First Law of Thermodynamics in isothermal, cyclic, adiabatic, isobaric and isovolumetric processes. d. relate heat engines and thermal efficiency with the Second Law of Thermodynamics. e. compare and contrast reversible and irreversible precesses. f. explain the Carnot engine. g. relate entropy with the Second Law of Thermodynamics and disorder. 2. Subject Headings a. Heat and Internal Energy b. Work and Heat c. The First Law of Thermodynamics d. Heat Engines and The Second Law of Thermodynamics e. Reversible and Irreversible Processes f. The Carnot Engine g. Entropy h. Entropy and Disorder III. Vibrations and Wave Motion A. Unit XIII - Vibrations and Waves 1. Unit Objectives The student will be able to: a. state and apply Hooke's Law with objects in Simple Harmonic Motion. b. relate Simple Harmonic Motion with the conservation of gravitational potential energy, spring potential energy and kinetic energy. c. describe the Simple Harmonic Motion of a pendulum and calculate period, length and frequency of the pendulum. 5 d. describe mechanical, transverse and longitudinal waves. e. identify the parts of a wave and relate frequency, amplitude, wavelength and period. f. determine the velocity of a wave in a string. g. apply the Law of Superposition to constructive and destructive interference and the reflection of waves. 2. Subject Headings a. Hooke's Law b. Elastic Potential Energy c. Velocity as a Function of Position d. Comparing Simple Harmonic Motion with Uniform Circular Motion e. Position, Velocity, and Acceleration as a Function of Time f. Motion of a Pendulum g. Damped Oscillations h. Wave Motion i. Types of Waves j. Frequency, Amplitude, and Wavelength k. The Speed of Waves on Strings l. Superposition and Interference of Waves m. Reflection of Waves B. Unit XIV - Sound 1. Unit Objectives The student will be able to: a. describe the production of sound waves including displacement and pressure variation. b. relate the longitudinal characteristics on sound waves. c. explain and determine the intensity of sound in decibels. d. determine and relate Doppler Shift in problem solving. e. describe, qualitatively and quantitatively, standing waves in a stretched string and open and closed air column pipes. 2. Subject Headings a. Producing a Sound wave b. characteristics of Sound Waves c. The Speed of Sound d. Energy and Intensity of Sound Waves e. Spherical and Plane Waves f. The Doppler Effect g. Interference of Sound Waves h. Standing Waves i. Forced Vibrations and Resonance j. Standing Waves in Air Columns k. Beats l. Quality of Sound m. The Ear I V. Electricity and Magnetism A. Unit XV - Electric Forces and Electric Fields 1. Unit Objectives The student will be able to: a. relate the properties of electric charges. b. determine if a substance is a conductor or insulator. 6 c. explain the process of charging by induction and conduction. d. apply Coulomb's Law to electric charges. e. calculate electric fields and draw electric field lines. f. relate the properties of conductors in electrostatic equilibrium. g. describe Millikan's Oil Drop Experiment and the function of the Van de Graaff generator and the oscilloscope. h. apply the concept of electric flux and Gauss's Law. 2. Subject Headings a. Properties of Electric Charges b. Insulators and Conductors c. Coulomb's Law d. The Electric Field e. Electric Field Lines f. Conductors in Electrostatic Equilibrium g. The Millikan Oil-Drop Experiment h. The Van de Graaff Generator i. The Oscilloscope j. Electric Flux and Gauss's Law B. Unit XVI - Electrical Energy and Capacitance 1. Unit Objectives The student will be able to: a. understand the concept of electric potential and electrical potential difference. b. calculate the electric potential difference in a uniform electric field and a group of point charges. c. calculate and relate the electric potential energy and electron volts. d. justify the claims that (i) all points on the surface and within a charged conductor are at the same potential and (ii) the electric field within a charged conductor is zero. e. define capacitance and evaluate the capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor of given area and plate separation. f. determine the equivalent capacitance of a network of capacitors in series-parallel combination and calculate the final charge on each capacitor and the potential difference across each when a known potential is applied across the combination. 2. Subject Headings a. Potential Difference and Electric Potential b. Electric Potential and Potential Energy Due to Point Charges c. Potentials and Charged Conductors d. Equipotential Surfaces e. Applications f. The Definition of Capacitance g. The Parallel-Plate Capacitor h. Combinations of Capacitors i. Energy Stored in a Charged Capacitor j. Capacitors with Dielectrics k. Application: DNA and Forensic Science C. Unit XVII - Current and Resistance 1. Unit Objectives The student will be able to: a. describe and apply current, resistance and voltage in Ohm’s Law. b. explain resistivity and relate resistivity with substance type and temperature. 7 c. relate current, resistance and voltage to the production of energy and power. d. describe and relate the medical applications of voltage in EKGs, EEGs and pacemakers. 2. Subject Headings a. Electric Current b. Current and Drift Speed c. Resistance and Ohm's Law d. Resistivity e. Temperature Variation of Resistance f. Superconductors g. Electrical Energy and Power h. Voltage Measurements in Medicine D. Unit XVIII - Direct Current Circuits 1. Unit Objectives The student will be able to: a. calculate the current in a single-loop circuit and the potential difference between any two points in the circuit. b. calculate equivalent resistance for a group of resistors in parallel, series or series-parallel combination. c. use Ohm’s law to calculate the current in a circuit and the potential difference between any two points in a circuit which can be reduced to an equivalent single-loop circuit. d. use Joule’s law to calculate the power dissipated by any resistor or group of resistors in a circuit. e. apply Kirchhoff’s rules to solve multiloop circuits; find the currents at any point and the potential difference between any two points. f. describe in qualitative terms the manner in which charge accumulates on a capacitor or current flow changes through a resistor with time in a series circuit with battery, capacitor, resistor and switch. 2. Subject Headings a. Sources of emf b. Resistors in Series c. Resistors in Parallel d. Kirchhoff's Rules and Complex DC Circuits e. RC Circuits f. Household Circuits g. Electrical Safety E. Unit XIX - Magnetism 1. Unit Objectives The student will be able to: a. use the defining equation for a magnetic field B and the right-hand rule to determine the magnitude and direction of the magnetic force exerted on an electric charge moving in a region where there is a magnetic field. b. relate the differences between the forces exerted on electric charges by electric fields and those forces exerted on moving charges by magnetic fields. c. calculate the magnitude and direction of the magnetic force on a current-carrying conductor when placed in an external magnetic field. d. determine the magnitude and direction of the torque exerted on a closed current loop in an external magnetic field. e. describe how a moving coil galvanometer can be converted to either an ammeter or a voltmeter. 8 f. calculate the period and radius of the circular orbit of a charged particle moving in a uniform magnetic field. g. calculate the magnitude and determine the direction of the magnetic field for the following cases: a point in the vicinity of a long, straight current-carrying conductor at the center of a loop, and at interior points of a solenoid. 2. Subject Headings a. Magnets b. Magnetic Field of the Earth c. Magnetic Fields d. Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor e. Torque on a Current Loop f. The Galvanometer and Its Applications g. Motion of a Charged Particle in a Magnetic Field h. Magnetic Field of a Long, Straight Wire and Ampere's Law i. Magnetic Force Between Tow Parallel Conductors j. Magnetic Field of a Current Loop k. Magnetic Field of a Solenoid l. Magnetic Domains F. Unit XX - Induced Voltages and Inductance 1. Unit Objectives The student will be able to: a. calculate the emf induced in a circuit when the magnetic flux is varying due to changes in (i)the area of the circuit, (ii) the magnitude of the magnetic field, (iii) the direction of the field or (iv) the orientation of the circuit in the magnetic field. b. relate Lenz’s law as a consequence of the law of conservation of energy. c. apply Lenz’s law to determine the direction of an induced emf. d. calculate the emf induced between the ends of a conducting bar as it moves through a constant magnetic field. e. describe self-inductance. f. calculate the total magnetic energy stored in a magnetic field when device inductance and current are given. g. describe the manner in which the instantaneous value of the current in an RL circuit changes while the current is increased or decreased with time. 2. Subject Headings a. Induced emf and Magnetic Flux b. Faraday's Law of Induction c. Motional emf d. Lenz's Law Revisited e. Generators f. Eddy Currents g. Self-Inductance h. RL Circuits i. Energy Stored in a Magnetic Field G. Unit XXI - Alternating Current Circuits and Electromagnetic Waves 1. Unit Objectives The student will be able to: a. calculate reactance in an ac circuit as a function (i) capacitance, (ii) inductance and (iii) frequency. b. interpret the meaning of phase angle and power factor in an ac circuit. 9 c. calculate (i) the instantaneous and rms voltage drop across components, (ii) the instantaneous and rms current in the circuit, (iii) the phase angle by the current leads or lags the voltage, (iv) the power expended in the and the resonance frequency of circuit, give resistance, inductance, capacitance and the emf source in an RLC series circuit. d. describe how step-up and step-down transformers in transmitting electrical power over long distances. e. calculate the primary to secondary voltage andd current ratios for an ideal transformer. f. summarize the properties of electromagnetic waves and relate Maxwell’s contribution to the understanding of the nature of electromagnetic radiation. g. relate the relative orientation of magnetic field, electric field and direction of propagation in the corresponding electromagnetic wave. 2. Subject Headings a. Resistors in an ac Circuit b. Capacitors in an ac Circuit c. Inductors in an ac Circuit d. The RLC Series Circuit e. Power in an ac Circuit f. Resonance in a Series RLC Circuit g. The Transformer h. Maxwell's Predictions i. Hertz's Discoveries j. Production of Electromagnetic Waves by an Antenna k. Properties of Electromagnetic Waves l. The Spectrum of Electromagnetic Waves m. The Doppler Effect for Electromagnetic Waves V. Light and Optics A. Unit XXII - Reflection and Refraction of Light 1. Unit Objectives The student will be able to: a. describe the various experimental results which support the view of the dual nature of light including Young's experiment and the photoelectric effect. b. describe the methods used by Roemer and Fizeau for the measurement of c. c. understand the conditions under which total internal reflection occur in a medium and determine the critical angle for a given pair of adjacent media. d. describe the process of dispersion of a beam of white light as it passes through a prism. e. describe the conditions under which internal reflection of a light ray is possible. f. calculate the critical angle for internal reflection at a boundary between two optical media of known indices of refraction. g. describe the application of internal reflection to fiber optics techniques. 2. Subject Headings a. The Nature of Light b. Measurements of the Speed of Light c. The Ray Approximation in Geometric Optics d. Reflection and Refraction e. The Law of Refraction f. Dispersion and Prisms g. The Rainbow h. Huygens' Principle i. Total Internal Reflection B. Unit XXIII - Mirrors and Lenses 10 1. Unit Objectives The student will be able to: a. identify the following properties which characterize an image formed by a lens or mirror system with respect to an object: position, magnification, orientation (inverted, erect or right-left reversal) and whether real or virtual. b. relate the calculated algebraic sign associated with the nature of the image and object: real or virtual, erect or inverted. c. calculate the location of the image of a specified object as formed by a flat mirror, spherical mirror, plane refracting surface, spherical refracting surface, thin lens or a combination of two or more of these devices and determine the magnification and character if the image. d. construct ray diagrams to determine the location and nature of the image of a given object when the geometrical characteristics of the optical device (lens or mirror) are known. 2. Subject Headings a. Flat Mirrors b. Images Formed by Spherical Mirrors c. Convex Mirror and Sign Conventions d. Images Formed by Refraction e. Atmospheric Refraction f. Thin Lenses g. Lens Aberrations C. Unit XXIV - Wave Optics 1. Unit Objectives The student will be able to: a. describe Young's double-slit experiment to demonstrate the wave nature of light. b. account for the phase difference between light waves from two sources as they arrive at a given point of the screen. c. state the conditions for constructive and destructive interference in terms of each of the following: path difference, phase difference, distance from center of screen and angle subtended by the observation point at the source midpoint. d. account for the conditions of constructive and destructive interference in thin films considering both path difference and any expected phase changes due to reflection. e. describe Fraunhofer diffraction produced by a single slit and determine the positions of the maxima and minima in a single-slit diffraction pattern. f. describe qualitatively the polarization of light by selective absorption, reflection, scattering and double refraction and make appropriate calculations using Brewster's law. 2. Subject Headings a. Conditions for Interference b. Young's Double-Slit Interference c. Change of Phase Due to Reflection d. Interference in Thin Films e. Diffraction f. Single-Slit Diffraction g. Polarization of Light Waves D. Unit XXV - Optical Instruments 1. Unit Objectives 11 The student will be able to: a. define the f-number of a camera lens and relate this criterion to shutter speed. b. describe the geometry of the combination of lenses for a simple magnifier, compound microscope, reflecting telescope and refracting telescope and calculate the magnifying power for each. c. determine whether or not two sources under a given set of conditions are resolvable as defined by Rayleigh's criterion. d. describe the technique employed in the Michelson interferometer for precise measurement of length based on known values for the wavelength of light. e. determine the positions of the principal maxima in the interference pattern of a diffraction grating. f. understand what is meant by the resolving power and the dispersion of a grating and calculate the resolving power of a grating under specified conditions. 2. Subject Headings a. The Camera b. The Eye c. The Simple Magnifier d. The Compound Microscope e. The Telescope f. Resolution of Single-Slit and Circular Apertures g. The Michelson Interferometer h. The Diffraction Grating VI . Modern Physics A. Unit XXVI - Relativity 1. Unit Objectives The student will be able to: a. state Einstein's two postulates of the special theory of relativity. b. understand the Michelson-Morley experiment, its objectives, results and the significance of its outcome. c. understand the idea of simultaneity and the fact that simultaneity is not an absolute concept. That is, two events which are simultaneous in one reference frame are not simultaneous when viewed from a second frame moving with respect to the first. d. make calculations using the equation for time dilation and length contraction. e. calculate and state the correct relativistic expressions for the momentum, kinetic energy and total energy of a particle. 2. Subject Headings a. Introduction b. The Principle of Relativity c. The Speed of Light d. The Michelson-Morley Experiment e. Einstein's Principle of Relativity f. Consequences of Special Relativity g. Relativistic Momentum h. Relativistic Addition of Velocities i. Relativistic Energy j. General Relativity B. Unit XXVII - Quantum Physics 1. Unit Objectives 12 The student will be able to: a. describe the formula for blackbody radiation proposed by Planck and the assumption made in deriving the formula. b. describe the Einstein model for the photoelectric effect and the predictions of the fundamental photoelectric effect equation for the maximum kinetic energy of photoelectrons and recognize that Einstein's model involves the photon concept and the fact that the basic features of the photoelectric effect are consistent with the model. c. describe the Compton effect (scattering of x-rays by electrons) and be able to use the formula for the Compton shift and recognize that the Compton effect only be explained using the photon concept. d. discuss the wave properties of particles, the de Broglie wavelength concept and the dual nature of both matter and light. e. discuss the manner in which the uncertainty principle makes possible a better understanding of the dual wave-particle nature of light and matter. 2. Subject Headings a. Blackbody Radiation and Planck's Hypothesis b. The Photoelectric Effect c. Applications of the Photoelectric Effect d. X-Rays e. Diffraction on X-Rays by Crystals f. The Compton Effect g. Pair Production and Annihilation h. Photons and Electromagnetic Waves i. The Wave Properties of Particles j. The Wave Function k. The Uncertainty Principle l. the Scanning Tunneling Microscope C. Unit XXVIII - Atomic Physics 1. Unit Objectives The student will be able to: a. state the basic postulates of the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom. b. sketch an energy level diagram for hydrogen including the principle quantum number n, show transitions corresponding to spectral lines in the several known series and calculate wavelength. c. for each of the quantum numbers n, l, ml and ms, describe what each implies concerning atomic structure and state the allowed values for each and the number of allowed states which may exist in a given atom. c. state the Pauli exclusion principle and describe its relevance to the periodic table and show how it relates to the ground state configurations of the light elements. 2. Subject Headings a. Early Models of the Atom b. Atomic Spectra c. The Bohr Theory of Hydrogen d. Modification of the Bohr Model e. De Broglie Waves and the Hydrogen Atom f. Quantum Mechanics and the Hydrogen Atom g. The Spin Magnetic Quantum Number h. Electron Clouds i. The Exclusion Principle and the Periodic Table j. Buckyballs k. Characteristic X-Rays l. Atomic Transitions m. Lasers and Holography 13 n. Fluorescence and Phosphorescence D. Unit XXIX - Nuclear Physics 1. Unit Objectives The student will be able to: a. account for nuclear binding energy in terms of the Einstein mass-energy relationship and describe the basis for energy release by fission and fusion in terms of the shape of the curve of binding energy per nucleon vs. mass number. b. identify each of the components of radiation that are emitted by the nucleus through natural radioactive decay and describe the basic properties of each. c. write typical equations for the processes of transmutation by alpha and beta decay. d. state and apply the formulas for decay rate as a function of decay constant and number of radioactive nuclei and the number of remaining radioactive nuclei left as a function of elapsed time, decay constant or half-life and the initial number of nuclei. e. calculate the Q value of given nuclear reactions and determine the threshold energy of endothermic reactions. 2. Subject Headings a. Some Properties of Nuclei b. Binding Energy c. Radioactivity d. The Decay Processes e. Natural Radioactivity f. Nuclear Reactions g. Medical Applications of Radiation E. Unit XXX - Nuclear Energy and Elementary Particles 1. Unit Objectives The student will be able to: a. write an equation which represents a typical fission event and describe the sequence of events which occurs during the fission process and use data from the binding energy curve to estimate the disintegration energy of a typical fission event. b. describe the basis of energy release in fusion and write nuclear reactions for fusion-powered reactor. c. outline the classification of elementary particles and include several characteristics of each group. d. know the broad classification of particles and the characteristics properties of the following classes: relative mass value, spin and decay mode. e. determine whether or not a suggested decay can occur based on the conservation of baryon number and the conservation of lepton number. f. determine whither or not a predicted reaction/decay will occur based on the conservation of strangeness for the strong and electromagnetic interactions. 2. Subject Headings a. Nuclear Fission b. Nuclear Reactors c. Nuclear Fusion d. Elementary Particles e. The Fundamental Forces in Nature f. Positrons and Other Antiparticles g. Mesons and the Beginning of Particle Physics h. Classification of Particles i. Conservation Laws 14 j. Strange Particles and Strangeness k. The Eightfold Way l. Quarks m. Colored Quarks n. Electroweak Theory and the Standard Model o. The Cosmic Connection p. Problems and Perspectives 15 Some Experiments Done in Advanced Placement Physics Force Boards and Vector Addition Uniformly Accelerated Motion Motion in Two Dimensions Coefficient of Friction Newton's Second Law of Motion Torques and Rotational Equilibrium of a Rigid Body Conservation of Energy Conservation of Spring and Gravitational Potential Energy Projectile Motion Conservation of Momentum Centripetal Acceleration of an Object in Circular Motion Moment of Inertia and Rotational Motion Archimedes' Principle Simple Harmonic Motion - The Pendulum Simple Harmonic Motion - Mass on a Spring Standing Waves Speed of Sound - Reasonance Tube Specific Heat of Metals Linear Thermal Expansion The Ideal Gas Law Measurement of Electrical Resistance and Ohm's Law Wheatstone Bridge Voltmeters and Ammeters Kirchhoff's Rules Alternating Current Joule Heating of a Resistor Focal Length of Lenses Reflection and Refraction Geiger Counter Measurement of the Half-Life of 137Ba 16 Advanced Placement Physics Student Evaluation I. Semester Grade a. 1st Quarter Grade 50% b. 2nd Quarter Grade 5 0% II. Quarter Grade a. Chapter Tests 7 0% b. Lab Notebook and homework 3 0% 17