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Brighton

Brighton
Coordinates: 50°50′35″N 0°07′53″W / 50.842941°N 0.1313120°W / 50.842941; -0.1313120
Brighton
List of places: UK • England • East Sussex

Brighton Pier, also known as the Palace Pier

Brighton (pronounced /ˈbraɪtən/, listen ) is a town in East Sussex on the south coast of England and, with its neighbours Hove and Portslade, forms the City of Brighton and Hove. The ancient settlement of Brighthelmston dates from before the Domesday Book (1086), but it emerged as a health resort during the 18th Century and became a destination for day-trippers after the arrival of the railway in 1841. Brighton experienced rapid population growth reaching a peak of over 160,000 by 1961.[2] Modern Brighton forms part of a conurbation stretching along the coast, with a population of around 480,000.[3] Eight million tourists a year visit Brighton. The town also has a substantial business conference industry. Brighton has two universities and a medical school.

History

Brighton shown within East Sussex

Population OS grid reference Unitary authority Ceremonial county Region Constituent country Sovereign state Post town Postcode district Dialling code Police Fire Ambulance European Parliament UK Parliament

155,919[1] TQ315065 Brighton and Hove East Sussex South East England United Kingdom BRIGHTON BN1, BN2 01273 Sussex East Sussex South East Coast South East England Brighton Kemptown Brighton Pavilion

Royal Pavilion In the Domesday Book, Brighton was called Bristelmestune and a rent of 4,000 herring was established. In June 1514 Brighthelmstone was burnt to the ground by French raiders during a war between England and France. Only part of the St Nicholas Church and the street pattern of the area now known as "The Lanes" survived. The first drawing of Brighthelmstone was made in 1545 and depicts what is believed to be the raid of 1514.[4] During the 1740s and 1750s, Dr

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Richard Russell of Lewes began prescribing seawater at Brighton. By 1780, development of the Georgian terraces had started and the fishing village became the fashionable resort of Brighton. Growth of the town was further encouraged by the patronage of the Prince Regent (later King George IV) after his first visit in 1783.[5] He spent much of his leisure time in the town and constructed the Royal Pavilion during the early part of his Regency. The arrival of the railway in 1841 brought Brighton within the reach of day-trippers from London and population growth from around 7,000 in 1801 to over 120,000 by 1901.[6] The Victorian era saw the building of many major attractions including the Grand Hotel (1864), the West Pier (1866) and the Palace Pier (1899). After boundary changes between 1873 and 1952, the land area of Brighton increased from 1,640 acres (7 km²) in 1854 to 14,347 acres (58 km²) in 1952.[7] New housing estates were established in the acquired areas including Moulsecoomb, Bevendean, Coldean and Whitehawk. The major expansion of 1928 also incorporated the villages of Patcham, Ovingdean and Rottingdean, and much council housing was built in parts of Woodingdean after the Second World War. More recently, gentrification of much of Brighton has seen a return of the fashionable image which characterised the growth of the Regency period. Recent housing in the North Laine, for instance, has been designed in keeping with the area. In 1997 Brighton and Hove were joined to form the unitary authority of Brighton and Hove, which was granted city status by Queen Elizabeth II as part of the millennium celebrations in 2000.

Brighton

The remains of the West Pier architecture and Oriental interior design. The building and grounds were purchased by the town in 1849 for £53,000.[8] Brighton Pier (originally and in full "The Brighton Marine Palace and Pier", and for long known as the Palace Pier) opened in 1899. It features a funfair, restaurants and arcade halls. The funfair has been criticised for its prices, with rides costing up to £8. Brightonians refer to it as Palace Pier in protest at the commercialisation.[9][10][11] The West Pier was built in 1866 and has been closed since 1975 awaiting renovation, which faces continual setbacks, in part because the owners of the Palace Pier, the Noble Organisation, have opposed plans.[12] The West Pier is one of only two Grade I listed piers in the United Kingdom, but suffered two fires in 2003. Plans for a new landmark in its place – the i360, a 183m (600 ft) observation tower designed by London Eye architects Marks Barfield – were announced in June 2006. Plans were approved by the council on 11 October 2006.[13] As of early 2009, construction had yet to begin. Created in 1883, Volk’s Electric Railway runs along the inland edge of the beach from Brighton Pier to Black Rock. It is the world’s oldest operating electric railway.[14]

Landmarks

Churches & places of worship
Further information: List of places of worship in Brighton and Hove The 11th Century St Nicholas Church is the oldest building in Brighton, commonly known as "the mother .church".[15] Other notable churches include St Bartholomew’s, and St Peter’s in the heart of Brighton on an island between the Lewes Road and the London Road.

The promenade along the beach in Brighton has some shops, cafes, art and seafood stalls The Royal Pavilion is a former royal palace built as a home for the Prince Regent during the early 1800s and is notable for Indian

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Nevertheless, Brighton has become known as officially the least religious place in the UK, a description based upon analysis of the 2001 census which revealed that 66,955 people (27 per cent of the population) profess no religion, almost double the national average of 15 per cent. As part of the Jedi census phenomenon, 2.6 per cent claimed their religion was Jedi Knight.

Brighton

Brighton Pier, as viewed along the beach from the west

Night-life and popular music
Brighton is associated with popular music artists — for a list, see night-life and popular music of Brighton and Hove. There are 400 pubs and many nightclubs. There are also live music venues including the Concorde 2, Brighton Centre and the Brighton Dome, where ABBA received a substantial boost to their career upon winning the 1974 Eurovision Song Contest. One of the most prominent musical events has been the irregularly-recurring "Big Beach Boutique", for which a substantial portion of the beach is controversially closed off for a concert by Fatboy Slim.

Beaches

Brighton beach in summer The seafront has bars, restaurants, nightclubs and amusement arcades, principally between the piers. Being less than an hour from London by train has made the city a popular destination. Brighton beach has a nudist area (south of the easterly part of Kemptown). Brighton’s beach, which is a sand-free shingle beach, has been awarded a blue flag. The Monarch’s Way long-distance footpath heads west along the seafront above the beach. Since the 1978 demolition of the open-air lido at Black Rock, the most easterly part of Brighton’s seafront, the area has been developed and now features one of Europe’s largest marinas. However, the site of the pool itself remains empty except for a skate park and graffiti wall, and further development is planned including a high-rise hotel which has aroused debate, mirroring proposals for the King Alfred leisure centre in Hove. In addition, part of the eastern side of the beach has been redeveloped into a sports complex, which has courts for anything from beach volleyball to ultimate Frisbee, and opened to the public in March 2007.

Festivals

"The Big Beach Boutique II": over 250,000 watched Fatboy Slim (July 2002) Each May the city hosts Brighton Festival, the largest arts festival in the UK after Edinburgh’s. This includes processions such as the Children’s Parade, outdoor spectaculars often involving pyrotechnics, and theatre, music and visual arts in venues throughout the city, some brought into this use exclusively for the festival. The earliest feature of the festival, the Artists’ Open Houses, are homes of artists and craftspeople opened to the public as galleries, and usually selling the work of the occupants. Since 2002, these have been organized independently of the official Festival and Fringe. Brighton Festival Fringe runs alongside Brighton Festival, and has grown to be the second largest fringe festival in the world.[16]. Together with the street

Culture

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Brighton
home to notable moustache advocate Michael "Atters" Attree. Brighton is also host to The Great Escape Festival which started in 2006. It’s hosted the likes of The Kooks, Kate Nash, Still Remains, The Ting Tings and The Fratellis. It’s hosted in May each year and features over 300 bands over 3 days in over 30 venues of Brighton.

Museums
Brighton museums include Brighton Museum and Art Gallery; Booth Museum of Natural History; Brighton Toy and Model Museum; and Brighton Fishing Museum, which includes artefacts from the West Pier. The Royal Pavilion is also open to the public, serving as a museum to the British Regency. Further information: List of landmarks and notable buildings of Brighton and Hove

Theatre and cinema
Seafront display of Minis after a London to Brighton drive performers from Brighton Festival’s "Streets of Brighton" events, and the Royal Mileesque outdoor performances that make up "Fringe City", outdoor spectacles and events more than double during May.[17] Other festivals include The Great Escape in May, featuring three nights of bands across the city; the Soundwaves Festival in June, which shows classical music composed in the 21st Century, and involves both amateur and professional performers; Brighton Live which each September stages a week of free gigs in pubs to show local bands; and Brighton Pride (see Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community, below). The Kemptown area has its own small annual street festival, the Kemptown Carnival, and the Hanover area similarly has a "Hanover Day". An inaugural White Nights (Nuit Blanche) all-night arts festival took place in October, 2008. On 1 September 2007, competitors from the United Kingdom, United States, Germany and other countries convened for the World Beard and Moustache Championship . Hosted by The Handlebar Club, categories include Dali moustache, goatee and full beard freestyle.[18] Additionally, Brighton is permanent Theatres include the expanded Komedia (also used as a music venue) and the Theatre Royal which celebrated its 200th anniversary in 2007. There are also smaller theatres such as the Marlborough Theatre and Nightingale Theatre, both above pubs, which attract mostly local productions. Brighton also has a history of involvement with the film industry, and the Duke of York’s Picture House has been in operation since 22 September 1910. Further information: Brighton in film

Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community
Brighton is well-known for having a substantial LGBT community, served by shops, bars and night-clubs in addition to support organisations. It is referred to as "the gay capital of Britain"[19], Gay Pride carnival every August attracts thousands. It consists of a carnival parade and a party and funfair in Preston Park. There is also a "Winter Pride" in March.

Economy
Brighton has a high density of businesses involved in media, particularly digital or "new media", and since the 1990s has been referred to as "Silicon Beach". According to the Boho Britain creativity index developed by United States economic regeneration expert

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Richard Florida, Brighton and Hove ranked sixth of 66 British new cities when measured against the three criteria of his index. Florida states the index measures the appeal of cities to the new "creative class" and is an indicator of a city’s health. American Express has a former headquarters building in Edward Street. It employs around 3000, the largest private employer in the city. "The Lanes" form a retail, leisure and residential area near the seafront, characterised by narrow alleyways following the street pattern of the original fishing village. The Lanes contain predominantly clothing stores, jewellers, antique shops, restaurants and pubs. The North Laine area is a retail, leisure and residential area immediately north of The Lanes. Its name derives from the Anglo-Saxon "Laine" meaning "fields". The North Laine contains a mix of businesses dominated by cafés, independent and avant-garde shops, and theatres. Churchill Square is an indoor shopping centre with a floor space of 470,000 sq ft (43,663 m²) and over 80 shops, several restaurants and 1,600 car-parking spaces.[20] It was built in the 1960s as an open-air, multi-level pedestrianised shopping centre, but was rebuilt and enlarged in 1998 and is no longer open-air. Further retail areas include Western Road and London Road.

Brighton
The University of Brighton, the former Brighton Polytechnic, has a student population of 20,017 of which 80% are undergraduates.[22] The University is on several sites with additional buildings in Falmer, Eastbourne and Hastings.[23] The University of Sussex is a "plate glass university" based on a campus between Stanmer Park and Falmer, four miles (6 km) from the city centre. Served by frequent trains (to Falmer railway station) and 24-hour buses, it has a student population of 10,563 of which 70% are undergraduates.[24] In 2003, the universities of Sussex and Brighton formed a medical school, known as Brighton and Sussex Medical School. The school was one of four new medical schools to be created as part of a government programme to increase the number of qualified NHS doctors. The school is also based in Falmer and works closely with the Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust A range of non-university courses for students over 16, mainly in vocational education subjects, is provided at the further education college, City College Brighton and Hove. More academic subjects can be studied for 16-18 year-olds at Brighton Hove & Sussex Sixth Form College (BHASVIC) in the Seven Dials area. Varndean College in North Brighton occupies a commanding position. The 1920s building is celebrated for its façade and internal quads. The college offers academic A levels and vocational courses. There are state schools, some faith schools. Notable state schools include Longhill High School Varndean Secondary School, Patcham High School, Dorothy Stringer, Blatchington Mill School and Sixth Form College, Hove Park School and Sixth Form Centre, Falmer High School and Cardinal Newman (a large Roman Catholic secondary school, which also caters for the children of the large Coptic Orthodox community). There are also a number of private schools, including Brighton College, Lancing Prep, Roedean School, Steiner School and a Montessori School. As with the state schools, some independents are faith-based; Torah Academy, the last Jewish primary school, closed at the end of the 2007. In spring and summer, thousands of students from all over Europe gather to attend language courses at the many language schools.

Education

Roedean School File:Brighton tsunami exhibit library.jpg The Jubilee Library Brighton & Hove City Council is responsible for 80 schools of which 54 are in Brighton.[21]

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Brighton
June 2002 featured football stars such as Eric Cantona and Matthew Le Tissier. Brighton has a horse-racing course, Brighton Racecourse, with the unusual feature that when the full length of the course is to be used, some of the grass turf of the track has to be laid over the tar at the top of Wilson Avenue, a public road, which therefore has to be closed for the races. There is a greyhound racing circuit run by Coral, at which Motorcycle speedway racing was staged in 1928. Brighton is home to Brighton Football Club (RFU)[26] which is one of the oldest Rugby Clubs in England. Basketball team Brighton Bears are in the British Basketball League. Brighton Ultimate, an ultimate Frisbee team[27] was set up in 1985. Brighton Tsunami American Football Club was started in 2000 for students of the University of Brighton. It plays at the university’s Falmer site, between November and March.[28] There is a pétanque terrain on the seafront near the West Pier.[29] There are yachting clubs and other boating activities run from Brighton Marina. Brighton has two competitive swimming clubs. Brighton SC [30] formed in 1860 claims to be the oldest swimming club in England. Brighton Dolphin SC .[31] was formed in 1891 as Brighton Ladies Swimming Club and met at Brills Baths in Pool Valley.

Politics
Brighton and Hove is covered by part of the Brighton Kemptown constituency, Brighton Pavilion constituency and Hove constituency in the Parliament of the United Kingdom. All three Members of Parliament elected at the 2005 General Election were from the Labour Party. The city is in the European Parliament constituency of South-East England. The Green Party held 22% of the vote in Brighton Pavilion constituency in the 2005 general election, compared with 1% nationally, in addition to holding one of the ten European Parliament seats for the South East Region. The political campaigning group Justice? and its SchNEWS newspaper are based in Brighton, at The Cowley Club libertarian social centre; also operating from the town is the Brighton and Hove Palestine Solidarity Campaign. The presence of a British subsidiary of the United States arms company EDO Corporation in Moulsecoomb, Brighton, has been the cause of protests since 2004.[25]

Sport
Brighton is home of Brighton & Hove Albion Football Club, who played at the Goldstone Ground for 95 years until they were forced to sell it in 1997 to pay off debts. The club spent two years ground-sharing at Gillingham before returning to the town as tenants of the Withdean Athletics Stadium. However, the club is due to move to a permanent home at Falmer at the start of the 2011/12 season. The new stadium (yet to be named) is currently under construction by The Buckingham Group, who built the MK Dons stadium. The club’s notable achievements including winning promotion to the Football League First Division for the first time in 1979, staying there for four seasons, during the last of which they reached the FA Cup final and took Manchester United to a replay before losing 4-0. Notable former managers of the club include Brian Clough, Jimmy Melia, Liam Brady, Jimmy Case, Steve Gritt, Brian Horton, Steve Coppell and Mark McGhee. Notable former players include Gareth Barry, Dave Beasant, Justin Fashanu, Dennis Mortimer, Gordon Smith, Frank Stapleton, Howard Wilkinson and Bobby Zamora. There is also an annual beach soccer competition in a temporary stadium on imported sand on the beach. The inaugural contest in

Transport
Public transport dates back to 1840. There are several railway stations, bus services, taxis, and coach services. A Rapid Transport System[32][33] is under construction and in the past it has had trolleybuses, ferries, trams and hydrofoil services. Frequent trains operate from Brighton Station. Destinations include London Victoria, London Bridge, Gatwick Airport, Southampton, Portsmouth, Ashford, Kent, Reading, Berkshire and Bedford. Twice-daily services also operate via Bristol to Wales. The fastest service from London Victoria takes 51 minutes.[34] Brighton & Hove Bus and Coach Company operates 300 buses. There is also a limited night service. Brighton seafront is the home of the Volks Electric Railway, the world’s oldest electric railway.

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Brighton

See also
Brighton hotel bombing Brighton in fiction Brighton in film Eurovision Song Contest 1974 List of people from Brighton and Hove Royal Alexandra Hospital for Sick Children • The Argus (newspaper) • • • • • •

References and notes
[1] "Neighbourhood Statistics". http://neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk/ dissemination/areasubject.do. Retrieved on 2007-08-20. [2] Carder, Timothy (1990). The Encyclopaedia of Brighton. S.127 East Sussex County Libraries. ISBN 0-86147-315-9 [3] "KS01 Usual resident population: Census 2001, Key Statistics for urban areas". http://www.statistics.gov.uk/statbase/ ssdataset.asp?vlnk=8271&More=Y. Retrieved on 2007-04-11. [4] Carder (1990), s.17 [5] Carder (1990), s.71 [6] Carder (1990), s.127 [7] Carder (1990), s.13 [8] Dale, Antony (1976). Brighton Town and Brighton People. Chichester: Phillimore. ISBN 0-85033-219-2. [9] The Argus newspaper [10] The Argus newspaper [11] The Argus newspaper [12] Pier Threatens To Unplug Rival (from The Argus) [13] "BBC NEWS - England - Southern Counties - Tall tower rises from pier ashes". http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/ england/southern_counties/6039722.stm. Retrieved on 2007-08-20. [14] "Home page of Volks Electric Railway Group". http://www.volkselectricrailway.co.uk. Retrieved on 2007-08-20. [15] "St. Nicholas Church - Out & About Regency Square Area Society". http://www.regencybrighton.com/ outabout/st_nicholas/. Retrieved on 2007-04-11. [16] "Brighton Fringe Festival 2006 - Cities VisitBritain". http://www.visitbritain.com/ VB3-en/experiences/cities/focus_on/

brighton_fringe.aspx. Retrieved on 2007-08-20. [17] "Brighton Fringe Festival 2007. 5th May - 28th May 2007.". http://www.brightonfestivalfringe.org.uk/ press/index.asp?ID=122. Retrieved on 2007-08-20. [18] BBC NEWS, Bearded wonders go head to head [19] "BBC NEWS - England - Southern Counties - Couples tie knot in ’gay capital’". http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/ england/southern_counties/4546976.stm. Retrieved on 2007-08-20. [20] "Churchill Square Shopping Centre: Churchill Square Food". http://www.churchillsquare.co.uk/ index.php?id=271. Retrieved on 2007-08-20. [21] "Brighton & Hove City Council - school contact information". http://www.brighton-hove.gov.uk/ index.cfm?request=c1001684&action=dsp_lists&typ Retrieved on 2007-08-20. [22] "Facts and figures - University of Brighton". http://www.brighton.ac.uk/ aboutus/facts/ population.php?PageId=703. Retrieved on 2007-08-20. [23] "South-east England, maps and directions - University of Brighton". http://www.brighton.ac.uk/maps/ southeast/index.php?PageId=752. Retrieved on 2009-03-30. [24] "Communications Division Facts and Figures 2003-04". http://www.sussex.ac.uk/Units/ publications/factsandfigures/2005-06/. Retrieved on 2007-08-20. [25] "smashEDO". http://www.smashedo.org.uk/. Retrieved on 2007-04-11. [26] "Brighton Rugby Club - Sussex, south of England". http://www.brightonrugby.org.uk/. Retrieved on 2007-04-11. [27] "Brighton Ultimate frisbee team website". http://brightonultimate.co.uk/. [28] "Brighton Tsunami American Football Club". http://www.brightontsunami.com/. [29] "Brighton and Hove Pétanque Club". http://www.bhpetanque.org/. [30] "Brighton Swimming Club". http://www.brightonsc.co.uk/.

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Brighton

[31] "Brighton Dolphin Swimming Club". • "Brighton Fringe Festival 2007. 5th May http://www.bdsc.co.uk/. 28th May 2007.". [32] "Transport Project Will Cut Journey http://www.brightonfestivalfringe.org.uk. Times (from The Argus)". Retrieved on 2007-08-20. http://www.theargus.co.uk/search/ • "Brighton from Space - Satellite image of display.var.1305605.0.transport_project_will_cut_journey_times.php.Google Maps". Brighton courtesy of Retrieved on 2007-04-25. http://www.google.com/ [33] "Brighton and Hove City Council - Major maps?f=q&hl=en&geocode=&q=brighton&ie=UTF8& Scheme Business Case - Rapid Transport Retrieved on 2007-08-20. System" (PDF). http://www.brighton• "Brighton Museum & Art Gallery". hove.gov.uk/downloads/bhcc/transport/ http://www.brighton.virtualmuseum.info/. rapid_transport_report%5b1%5d.pdf. Retrieved on 2007-08-20. Retrieved on 2007-04-25. • "Brighton, Sussex, Theatres and Halls". [34] "Bedside the seaside - Independent http://www.arthurlloyd.co.uk/ Online Edition > UK". BrightonTheatresIndex.htm. Retrieved on http://travel.independent.co.uk/uk/ 2007-08-20. article8880.ece. Retrieved on • "History of Brighton and the Royal 2007-04-11. Pavilion palace". http://www.btinternet.com/~ted.power/ rp00.html. Retrieved on 2007-08-20. • "Phoenix Arts Association". • Brighton at the Open Directory Project http://www.phoenixarts.org/. • "Brighton & Hove City Council". • "Official Brighton Tourism Guide". http://www.brighton-hove.gov.uk/. http://www.visitbrighton.com/. Retrieved on 2007-08-20. • "St Mary’s School Brighton". • "Brighton & Hove in Pictures". http://www.stmaryshall.co.uk/. http://www.citylibraries.info/pictures/. • Map Of Brighton & Hove Interactive map Retrieved on 2007-08-20. of Brighton & Hove, with locations of • "Brighton Fringe Festival 2008 reviews". businesses and other points of interest http://www.fringereview.co.uk/ • List of Cafes in Brighton & Hove With fringePlayListCategory.php?playName=Brighton%20Fringe%202008. Customer Reviews, Wireless Internet • "Brighton Festival 2008". Hotspots and directions http://www.brightonfestival.org. Retrieved on 2008-03-19.

External links

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brighton" Categories: Brighton, Brighton and Hove, Coastal settlements, Former non-metropolitan districts, Seaside resorts in England, Towns in East Sussex, Monarch's Way This page was last modified on 21 May 2009, at 20:37 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers

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