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Fashion designers work in differ

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									Note: The following texts are for the master students who are preparing for the English state
exam. The texts will be followed by reading comprehension and vocabulary exercises. Also will
be added speaking and grammar tasks in the exam.
                          School of Industrial Technology and Design
                                               Text 1
                                          Fashion Design
       Fashion design is the applied art dedicated to clothing and lifestyle accessories created
within the cultural and social influences of a specific time. It is considered to have a built in
obsolescence usually of one to two seasons. A season is defined as either autumn/winter or
spring/summer. Nowadays, even though French, British, Japanese and American fashion are the
top in style, Italian fashion is considered the most important and elegant in design and it has led
the world of fashion since the 1970s and '80s.
       Fashion designers can work in a number of ways. Fashion designers may work full-time
for one Fashion Company, known as in-house designers, which owns the designs. They may
work alone or as part of a team. Freelance designers works for themselves, and sell their designs
to fashion houses, directly to shops, or to clothing manufacturers. The garments bear the buyer's
label. Some fashion designers set up their own labels, under which their designs are marketed.
Some fashion designers are self-employed and design for individual clients. Other high-fashion
designers cater to specialty stores or high-fashion department stores. These designers create
original garments, as well as those that follow established fashion trends. Most fashion designers,
however, work for apparel manufacturers, creating designs of men’s, women’s, and children’s
fashions for the mass market. Large designer brands which have a 'name' as their brand such as
Calvin Klein, Gucci, Ralph Lauren, or Chanel are likely to be designed by a team of individual
designers under the direction of a designer director.
Designing a collection and garment: A fashion collection is something that designers put
together each season to show their idea of new trends in both their high end couture range as well
as their mass market range. Fashion designers must take numerous matters into account when
designing clothes for a collection, including consistency of theme and style. They will also take
into account views of existing customers, previous fashions and styles of competitors, and
anticipated fashion trends, as well as the season for the collection of fashion.
       Fashion designers work in different ways. Some sketch their ideas on paper, while others
drape fabric on a dress form. When a designer is completely satisfied with the fit of the toile (or
muslin), he or she will consult a professional pattern maker who then makes the finished,
working version of the pattern out of card. The pattern maker's job is very precise and
painstaking. The fit of the finished garment depends on their accuracy. Finally, a sample garment
is made up and tested on a model.


                                              Text 2
                                         Ready to Wear
       Fashion design is generally considered to have started in the 19th century with Charles
Frederick Worth who was the first designer to have his label sewn into the garments that he
created. Before the former draper set up his maison couture (fashion house) in Paris, clothing
design and creation was handled by largely anonymous seamstresses, and high fashion
descended from that worn at royal courts. Worth's success was such that he was able to dictate to
his customers what they should wear, instead of following their lead as earlier dressmakers had
done. The term couturier was in fact first created in order to describe him. While all articles of
clothing from any time period are studied by academics as costume design, only clothing created
after 1858 could be considered as fashion design.
       It was during this period that many design houses began to hire artists to sketch or paint
designs for garments. The images were shown to clients, which was much cheaper than
producing an actual sample garment in the workroom. If the client liked their design, they
ordered it and the resulting garment made money for the house. Thus, the tradition of designers
sketching out garment designs instead of presenting completed garments on models to customers
began as an economy.
       At this time in fashion history the division between haute couture and ready-to-wear was
not sharply defined. The two separate modes of production were still far from being competitors,
and, indeed, they often co-existed in houses where the seamstresses moved freely between made-
to-measure and ready-made.
       Around the start of the 20th century fashion magazines began to include photographs and
became even more influential than in the past. In cities throughout the world these magazines
were greatly sought-after and had a profound effect on public taste. Talented illustrators, among
them Paul Iribe, George Lepape and George Barbier, drew exquisite fashion plates for these
publications, which covered the most recent developments in fashion and beauty. Perhaps the
most famous of these magazines was La Gazette du Bon Ton, which was founded in 1912 by
Lucien Vogel and regularly published until 1925 (with the exception of the war years).
       World War II brought about many radical changes to the fashion industry. After the war,
Paris's reputation as the global center of fashion began to crumble and off-the-peg and mass-
manufactured clothing became increasingly popular. A new youth style emerged in the 1950s,
changing the focus of fashion. As the installation of central heating became more widespread the
age of minimum-care garments began and lighter textiles and, eventually, synthetics, were
introduced.
                                               Text 3
                                   Leather in Modern Culture
       Leather is a material created through the tanning of hides and skins of animals, primarily
cattle hide. The tanning process converts the putrescible skin into a durable and versatile
material. Together with wood, leather formed the basis of much ancient technology. The leather
industry and the fur industry are distinct industries that are differentiated by the importance of
their raw materials. In the leather industry the raw materials are by-products of the meat industry,
with the meat having higher value than the skin. The fur industry uses raw materials that are
higher in value than the meat and hence the meat is classified as a by-product. Taxidermy also
makes use of the skin of animals, but generally the head and part of the back are used. Hides and
skins are also used in the manufacture of glue and gelatin.
       Due to its excellent resistance to abrasion and wind, leather found a use in rugged
occupations. The enduring image of a cowboy in leather chaps gave way to the leather-jacketed
and leather-helmeted aviator. When motorcycles were invented, some riders took to wearing
heavy leather jackets to protect from road rash and wind blast; some also wear chaps or full
leather pants to protect the lower body. Many sports still use leather to help in playing the game
or protecting players; its flexibility allows it to be formed and flexed.
       The term leathering is sometimes used in the sense of a physical punishment (such as a
severe spanking) applied with a leather whip, martinet, etc.
       Leather fetishism is the name popularly used to describe a fetishistic attraction to people
wearing leather, or in certain cases, to the garments themselves.
       Many rock groups (particularly heavy metal and punk groups in the 1980s) are well-
known for wearing leather clothing. Leather clothing, particularly jackets, almost come as
standard in the heavy metal and Punk subculture. Extreme metal bands (especially black metal
bands) and Goth rock groups have extensive leather clothing, i.e. leather pants, accessories, etc.
       Many cars and trucks come with optional or standard 'leather' seating. This can range
from cheap vinyl imitation leather, found on some low cost vehicles, to real Nappa leather, found
on luxury car brands like Mercedes-Benz, BMW, and Audi.


                                               Text 4
                                 Computer-Aided Design (CAD)
       Computer-aided design (CAD) is the use of computer technology for the design of
objects, real or virtual. CAD often involves more than just shapes. As in the manual drafting of
technical and engineering drawings, the output of CAD often must convey also symbolic
information such as materials, processes, dimensions, and tolerances, according to application-
specific conventions.
       CAD may be used to design curves and figures in two-dimensional ("2D") space; or
curves, surfaces, or solids in three-dimensional ("3D") objects.[1]
       CAD is an important industrial art extensively used in many applications, including
automotive, shipbuilding, and aerospace industries, industrial and architectural design,
prosthetics, and many more. CAD is also widely used to produce computer animation for special
effects in movies, advertising and technical manuals. The modern ubiquity and power of
computers means that even perfume bottles and shampoo dispensers are designed using
techniques unheard of by shipbuilders of the 1960s. Because of its enormous economic
importance, CAD has been a major driving force for research in computational geometry,
computer graphics (both hardware and software), and discrete differential geometry.
       The design of geometric models for object shapes, in particular, is often called computer-
aided geometric design (CAD).
Using CAD: Computer-Aided Design is one of the many tools used by engineers and designers
and is used in many ways depending on the profession of the user and the type of software in
question. There are several different types of CAD. Each of these different types of CAD
systems require the operator to think differently about how he or she will use them and he or she
must design their virtual components in a different manner for each.
       There are many producers of the lower-end 2D systems, including a number of free and
open source programs. These provide an approach to the drawing process without all the fuss
over scale and placement on the drawing sheet that accompanied hand drafting, since these can
be adjusted as required during the creation of the final draft.
       3D wireframe is basically an extension of 2D drafting. Each line has to be manually
inserted into the drawing. The final product has no mass properties associated with it and cannot
have features directly added to it, such as holes. The operator approaches these in a similar
fashion to the 2D systems, although many 3D systems allow using the wireframe model to make
the final engineering drawing views.
       3D "dumb" solids (programs incorporating this technology include AutoCAD and
Cadkey 19) are created in a way analogous to manipulations of real world objects. Basic three-
dimensional geometric forms (prisms, cylinders, spheres, and so on) have solid volumes added or
subtracted from them, as if assembling or cutting real-world objects.
                                               Text 5
                                        The Effects of CAD
       Starting in the late 1980s, the development of readily affordable Computer-Aided Design
programs that could be run on personal computers began a trend of massive downsizing in
drafting departments in many small to mid-size companies. As a general rule, one CAD operator
could readily replace at least three to five drafters using traditional methods. Additionally, many
engineers began to do their own drafting work, further eliminating the need for traditional
drafting departments. This trend mirrored that of the elimination of many office jobs traditionally
performed by a secretary as word processors, spreadsheets, databases, etc. became standard
software packages that "everyone" was expected to learn.
       Another consequence had been that since the latest advances were often quite expensive,
small and even mid-size firms often could not compete against large firms who could use their
computational edge for competitive purposes. Today, however, hardware and software costs
   have come down. Even high-end packages work on less expensive platforms and some even
   support multiple platforms. The costs associated with CAD implementation now are more
   heavily weighted to the costs of training in the use of these high level tools, the cost of
   integrating a CAD/CAM/CAE PLM using enterprise across multi-CAD and multi-platform
   environments and the costs of modifying design work flows to exploit the full advantage of CAD
   tools.
   CAD vendors have effectively lowered these training costs. These methods can be split into three
   categories:
1. Improved and simplified user interfaces. This includes the availability of “role” specific
   tailorable user interfaces through which commands are presented to users in a form appropriate
   to their function and expertise.
2. Enhancements to application software. One such example is improved design-in-context, through
   the ability to model/edit a design component from within the context of a large, even multi-CAD,
   active digital mockup.
3. User oriented modeling options. This includes the ability to free the user from the need to
   understand the design intent history of a complex intelligent model.




                                                Text 6
                                           Graphic Design
            The term graphic design can refer to a number of artistic and professional disciplines
   which focus on visual communication and presentation. Various methods are used to create and
   combine symbols, images and words to create a visual representation of ideas and messages. A
   graphic designer may use typography, visual arts and page layout techniques to produce the final
   result. Graphic design often refers to both the process (designing) by which the communication
   is created and the products (designs) which are generated.
            Common uses of graphic design include magazines, advertisements and product
   packaging. For example, a product package might include a logo or other artwork, organized text
   and pure design elements such as shapes and color which unify the piece. Composition is one of
   the most important features of graphic design especially when using pre-existing materials or
   diverse elements.
       While Graphic Design as a discipline has a relatively recent history, graphic design-like
activities span the history of humankind: from the caves of Lascaux, to Rome's Trajan's Column
to the illuminated manuscripts of the Middle Ages, to the dazzling neons of Ginza. In both this
lengthy history and in the relatively recent explosion of visual communication in the 20th and
21st centuries, there is sometimes a blurring distinction and over-lapping of advertising art,
graphic design and fine art. After all, they share many of the same elements, theories, principles,
practices and languages, and sometimes the same benefactor or client. In advertising art the
ultimate objective is the sale of goods and services. In graphic design, "the essence is to give
order to information, form to ideas, expression and feeling to artifacts that document human
experience."
       Design can also aid in selling a product or idea through effective visual communication.
It is applied to products and elements of company identity like logos, colors, packaging, and text.
Together these are defined as branding (see also advertising).
       Branding has increasingly become important in the range of services offered by many
graphic designers, alongside corporate identity, and the terms are often used interchangeably.
       Graphic design is also applied to layout and formatting of educational material to make
the information more accessible and more readily understandable.
       Graphic design is applied in the entertainment industry in decoration, scenery, and visual
story telling. Other examples of design for entertainment purposes include novels, comic books,
opening credits and closing credits in film, and programs and props on stage. This could also
include artwork used for t-shirts and other items screen printed for sale.


                                               Text 7
                                              Sewing
       Sewing or stitching or Tailoring is the fastening of cloth, leather, furs, bark, or other
flexible materials, using needle and thread. Its use is nearly universal among human populations
and dates back to Paleolithic times (30,000 BCE). Sewing predates the weaving of cloth.
       Sewing is used primarily to produce clothing and household furnishings such as curtains,
bedclothes, upholstery, and table linens. It is also used for sails, bellows, skin boats, banners, and
other items shaped out of flexible materials such as canvas and leather.
            Most sewing in the industrial world is done by machines. Pieces of a garment are often
first tacked together. The machine has a complex set of gears and arms that pierces thread
through the layers of the cloth and semi-securely interlocks the thread.
            Some people sew clothes for themselves and their families. More often home sewers sew
to repair clothes, such as mending a torn seam or replacing a loose button. A person who sews
for a living is known as a seamstress (from seams-mistress) or seamster (from seams-master),
dressmaker, tailor, garment worker, machinist, or sweatshop worker.
            "Plain" sewing is done for functional reasons: making or mending clothing or household
linens. "Fancy" sewing is primarily decorative, including techniques such as shirring, smocking,
embroidery, or quilting.
            Sewing is the foundation for many needle arts and crafts, such as applique, canvas work,
and patchwork.
            While sewing is sometimes seen as a semi-skill job, flat sheets of fabric with holes and
slits cut into the fabric can curve and fold in complex ways that require a high level of skill and
experience to manipulate into a smooth, ripple-free design. Aligning and orienting patterns
printed or woven into the fabric further complicates the design process. Once a clothing designer
with these skills has created the initial product, the fabric can then be cut using templates and
sewn by manual laborers or machines.




                                                 Text 8
                                           Industrial Design
            Industrial design is a combination of applied art and applied science, whereby the
aesthetics and usability of mass-produced products may be improved for marketability and
production. The role of an Industrial Designer is to create and execute design solutions towards
problems of form, usability, user ergonomics, engineering, marketing, brand development and
sales.[1]
            The term "industrial design" is often attributed to the designer Joseph Claude Sinel in
1919 (although he himself denied it in later interviews) but the discipline predates that by at least
a decade. Its origins lay in the industrialization of consumer products. For instance the Deutscher
Werkbund, founded in 1907 and a precursor to the Bauhaus, was a state-sponsored effort to
integrate traditional crafts and industrial mass-production techniques, to put Germany on a
competitive footing with England and the United States.
       Western Electric model 302 Telephone, found almost universally in the United States
from 1937 until the introduction of touch-tone dialing
       General Industrial Designers are a cross between an engineer and an artist. They study
both function and form, and the connection between product and the user. They do not design the
gears or motors that make machines move, or the circuits that control the movement, but they
can affect technical aspects through usability design and form relationships. And usually, they
partner with engineers and marketers, to identify and fulfill needs, wants and expectations.
       In Depth "Industrial Design (ID) is the professional service of creating and developing
concepts and specifications that optimize the function, value and appearance of products and
systems for the mutual benefit of both user and manufacturer" according to the IDSA (Industrial
Designers Society of America).
       Design, itself, is often difficult to define to non-designers because the meaning accepted
by the design community is not one made of words. Instead, the definition is created as a result
of acquiring a critical framework for the analysis and creation of artifacts. One of the many
accepted (but intentionally unspecific) definitions of design originates from Carnegie Mellon's
School of Design, "Design is the process of taking something from its existing state and moving
it to a preferred state." This applies to new artifacts, whose existing state is undefined and
previously created artifacts, whose state stands to be improved.


                                              Text 9
                         The Development of Industrial Management
        Industrial management term applied to highly organized modern methods of carrying on
industrial, especially manufacturing, operations. Before the Industrial Revolution people worked
with hand tools, manufacturing articles in their own homes or in small shops. In the third quarter
of the 18th cent. steam power was applied to machinery, and people and machines were brought
together under one roof in factories, where the manufacturing process could be supervised. This
was the beginning of shop management. In the next hundred years factories grew rapidly in size,
     in degree of mechanization, and in complexity of operation. The growth, however, was
 accompanied by much waste and inefficiency. In the United States many engineers, spurred by
                the increased competition of the post-Civil War era, began to seek
ways of improving plant efficiency.
       The first sustained effort in the direction of improved efficiency was made by Frederick
Winslow Taylor , an assistant foreman in the Midvale Steel Company, who in the 1880s
undertook a series of studies to determine whether workers used unnecessary motions and hence
too much time in performing operations at a machine. Each operation required to turn out an
article or part was analyzed and studied minutely, and superfluous motions were eliminated.
Records were kept of the performance of workers and standards were adopted for each operation.
The early studies resulted in a faster pace of work and the introduction of rest periods.
       Industrial management also involves studying the performance of machines as well as
people. Specialists are employed to keep machines in good working condition and to ensure the
quality of their production. The flow of materials through the plant is supervised to ensure that
neither workers nor machines are idle. Constant inspection is made to keep output up to standard.
Charts are used for recording the accomplishment of both workers and machines and for
comparing them with established standards. Careful accounts are kept of the cost of each
operation. When a new article is to be manufactured it is given a design that will make it suitable
for machine production, and each step in its manufacture is planned,
including the machines and materials to be used.
                                                      Text 10
                                     Modern Trends of Management
       The principles of scientific management have been gradually extended to every
department of industry, including office work, financing, and marketing. Soon after 1910
American firms established the first personnel departments, and eventually some of the larger
companies took the lead in creating environments conducive to worker efficiency. Safety
devices, better sanitation, plant cafeterias, and facilities for rest and recreation were provided,
thus adding to the welfare of employees and enhancing morale. Many such improvements were
made at the insistence of employee groups, especially labor unions.
       Over the years, workers and their unions also sought and often won higher wages and
increased benefits, including group health and life insurance and liberal retirement pensions.
During the 1980s and 1990s, however, cutbacks and downsizing in many American businesses
substantially reduced many of these benefits. Some corporations permit employees to buy stock;
others make provision for employee representation on the board of directors or on the shop
grievance committee. Many corporations provide special opportunities for training and
promotion for workers who desire advancement, and some have made efforts to solve such
difficult problems as job security and a guaranteed annual wage.
       Modern technological devices, particularly in the areas of computers, electronics,
thermodynamics, and mechanics, have made automatic and semiautomatic machines a reality.
The development of such automation is bringing about a second industrial revolution and is
causing vast changes in commerce as well as the way work is organized.
       Such technological changes and the need to improve productivity and quality of products
in traditional factory systems also changed industrial management practices. In the 1960s
Swedish automobile companies discovered that they could improve productivity with a system of
group assembly. In a contrast to older manufacturing techniques where a worker was responsible
for assembling only one part of the car, group assembly gave a group of workers the
responsibility for assembling an entire car.
       The system was also applied in Japan, where managers developed a number of other
innovative systems to lower costs and improve the quality of products. One Japanese innovation,
known as quality circles, allowed workers to offer management suggestions on how to make
production more efficient and to solve problems. Workers were also given the right to stop the
assembly line if something went wrong, a sharp departure from U.S. factories.

								
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