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CSCE 790 – Secure Database Systems

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CSCE 790 – Secure Database Systems Powered By Docstoc
					Psyops and Perception
    Management
      Lecture 7
        Reading List
       This class and next:
    –      Denning Chapters 5, 6
    –      A review of FBI Security Programs,
           http://www.usdoj.gov/05publications/websterreport.pdf (Intro,
           conclusion)
    –       Insider threat to security may be harder to detect, experts say,
           http://www.computerworld.com/securitytopics/security/story/0,1
           0801,70112,00.html
    –      Treason 101, http://rf-
           web.tamu.edu/security/secguide/Treason/Intro.htm#Treason%20
           101




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         Perception
        Management
   Information operations that aim to affect
    perception of others to influence
     – Emotions
     – Reasoning
     – Decisions
     – Actions



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          Covert Action

   “…attempt by one government to pursue its
    foreign policy objectives by conducting
    some secret activity to influence the
    behavior of a foreign government or
    political, military, economic, or societal
    events and circumstances in a foreign
    country.”
           (Silent Warfare)
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                    Covert

 Total secrecy: details or even the existence
  of activities are confidential
 Unaccounted; actions are public knowledge,
  government involvement is concealed
 Goal: direct furthering of national foreign
  policy objectives
 Wide range of activities:
     – Today’s topic: perception management

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      Perception of a
    Foreign Government
 Goal: change foreign government’s policy
  to support offense’s political interest
 Influence
     – Foreign government’s perception
     – Perceptions of elements of foreign society




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  Agents of Influence
 Influence directly government policy
 Data collection is not necessary
 Persuade colleagues to adopt certain policies
 E.g., government officials
     – 1930-40s: Soviet intelligence agents working for U.S.
       government (Harry Dexter White – Assistant Secretary
       of the Dept. of Treasury)
     – 1976: in France Pierre-Charles Pathe founded Synthese
       (political newsletter). 1979: convicted for espionage
       and being an agent of influence.

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Agent of Influence

 Trusted contact – willing to work for a
  foreign government, no detailed
  instructions, not paid
 Controlled agent – receives precise
  instructions, usually paid
 Manipulated agent – unaware of serving a
  foreign government

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    Use of Information
    and Disinformation
   Providing information (or misinformation)
     – Influence a desired action
     – E.g., revealing identities of opponents’ intelligence
         agents
   Origin of information
   Sender of information
   Misinformation
     – Plausible
     – “silent forgery”
     – “deception operation”


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Perception of Foreign
      Society
 Hard to measure
 Cumulative effect over long period of time
 Agents of Influence
     – Reach public – journalists, TV commentator,
       etc.
     – Prominent person – political figure, aid
       organization, etc.
   Culture

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               Unattributed
               Propaganda
 “Black” propaganda: origin is concealed
 Disseminating opinions, information or
  misinformation via media
 Government may not be directly associated
  with materials
     – Increase believability
     – Government may not want to be associated
         with certain opinions

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          Unattributed
          Propaganda
 “Gray” propaganda: origin not public
  knowledge
 E.g., Radio Free Europe, Radio Liberty
     – Information about targets’ own countries
     – Information about the West
     – Set up as private U.S. organizations but were
         run by CIA
   Planting stories in independent news media

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        Offensive
        Operations
 Information Space
 Communication Medium: any (TV, radio,
  Internet, Web sites, e-mail, news groups,
  etc.)
 Target: individuals, groups, nations, World



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               Internet
 Global Access – mass audiences
 Easy to set up Web sites
 Low cost (compare with broadcasting
  radio, TV, etc.)
 “great equalizer”
 Authority over Internet?


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Tools for Perception
   Management
    In War and Anti-War by Alvin and Heidi
     Toffler:
    1. Atrocity accusations
    2. Hyperbolic inflations
    3. Demonization and/or dehumanization
    4. Polarization
    5. Claim of divine sanction
    6. Meta-propaganda
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           Psyops

   Affect human psyche
    – Goal: influence behavior
    – Means: fear, desire, logic, etc.




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       Lies and
      Distortions
   Widely used
   Destroys the integrity of the carrying media
   Ethical/unethical?
   Bad/Useful?
   Digital media
     – Fabrication, spoofed originator, modification, etc.
     – Easy to carry out
     – Trust in observation (senses: see, hear, touch, taste,
         etc.)

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        Distortion
 Distort information
 Conscious/Unconscious
 Important elements ignored, down played
 Insignificant elements made to appear
  important
 Digital media:
     – Web page metatags: hidden data

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          Fabrication

 Fake information
 Must seem legitimate
 Goal: influence decision/activities of enemy
  or competition, financial gain, popularity,
  etc.
 Can be very effective
 Must know target
 Errors and intentional fabrications
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               Hoaxes
   Fabrications to
     – Amuse
     – Create fear
     – Discredit/damage
   Digital media:
     – Easy to send hoax mail or post information
     – Virus hoaxes


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          Social
        Engineering
 Trick people into doing something they
  would not do if the truth is known.
 Means:
    – Impersonating
    – Threatening
    – Pretend position/relationship/urgency/etc.


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     Denouncement
   Discredit, defame, demonize, or dehumanize an
    opponent
   Goal: gain of support for the entity performing the
    denouncement and loss for the adversary
   Military/politics/economy/personal
   Hate groups
   Conspiracy theory
   Defamation: damage the reputation and good
    name of another

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       Harassment
 Targets opponent directly
 Unwanted, threatening messages
 Communication: in person, via medium
 Examples:
     – Physical threat
     – Hate mails
     – Sexual harassment

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              Advertising
   Scam: cone artists lure customers into scam
     – Fake prizes, telemarketing, etc.
     – Internet: easy solicitations – junk e-mail, chat
         room, newsgroups, Web site, etc.
   Spam: junk e-mail
     – Time consuming: read/process/delete
     – Unwanted/useless/harmful data


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           Censorship
 Offensive: denies population access to certain
  materials
 Defensive: protect society from materials that
  would undermine its culture or governance
 Internet: makes censorship difficult
     – Children Internet Protection Act, 2000
       (http://www.ifea.net/cipa.html ,
       http://www.cybertelecom.org/cda/cipa.htm )
     – Free speech online
              Electronic Frontier Foundation http://www.eff.org/br/
              http://www.anu.edu.au/mail-archives/link/link9810/0378.html
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             United State
             Restrictions
   First Amendment to the Constitution of the United
    States: freedom of speech and press
     – Exception: child pornography, offensive and harmful
       speech, obscene material, etc.
     – Materials depicting violence ?
   1996: Communications Decency Act (US
    congress)
     – Indecent material – restricting access to minors
     – Controversial – civil liberties groups
   1997: Supreme Court ruled that CDA sections 223
    and 224 abridged First Amendment rights
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