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A motorcycle club (MC or MCC) is an organized club of dedicated motorcyclists who join together for camaraderie, strength of numbers, companionship, education, rider training, and socialization.
Objectives and organization
Motorcycle clubs vary a great deal in their objectives and organizations. Mainstream motorcycle clubs or associations typically have elected officers and directors, annual dues, and a regular publication. They may also sponsor annual or more frequent "rallies" where members can socialize and get to know each other. Some, such as BMW MOA and BMW RA annually publish in book form lists of members that can be used by touring motorcyclists needing assistance. There are a great many motorcycle riding clubs, including those sponsored by various manufacturers, such as the Harley Owners Group and the Honda Riders Club of America. Large national independent motorcycle clubs, such as BMW Motorcycle Owners of America, BMW Riders Association, the STAR Touring and Riding Association, and the Gold Wing Road Riders Association (GWRRA), are abundant. Other riding clubs exist for a specific purpose, such as the Patriot Guard Riders, who provide funeral escorts for military veterans. The American Motorcyclist Association (AMA) is the largest American motorcyclist organization. It serves as an umbrella organization for local clubs and sporting events. As of March, 2006, the AMA counts 269,884 active members and many chartered clubs. One online directory of MCs lists 216 clubs. The typical internal organization of a motorcycle club consists of a president, vice president, treasurer, secretary, road captain, and sergeant-at-arms. Localized groups of a single, large MC are called chapters, and the first chapter established for an MC is referred to as the mother chapter. The Hells Angels MC New York City clubhouse president of the mother chapter serves as the president of the entire MC, and sets club policy on a variety of issues. Larger motorcycle clubs for this type often acquire real estate for use as a clubhouse or private compound. These clubs often have security features such as closed-circuit television monitors, motion detector lights, and barbed wire-topped fences. As well, the clubhouse or compound walls may be reinforced materials such as plate steel or kevlar to provide ballistic protection.
In some "biker" clubs, as part of becoming a full member, an individual must pass a vote of the membership and swear some level of allegiance to the club. Some clubs have a unique club patch (or patches) adorned with the term "MC" that are worn on the rider’s vest, known as colors. The oldest motorcycle clubs in the U.S. are the Yonkers MC, founded in 1903, the San Francisco MC, founded 1904, and the Oakland MC. In these clubs, some amount of hazing may occur during the prospecting period, ranging from the mandatory performance of menial labor tasks for full patch members to sophomoric pranks, and, in the case of outlaw motorcycle gangs, acts of violence. During this time, the prospect may wear the club name on the back of their vest, but not the full logo, though this practice may vary from club to club. To become a full member, the prospect or probate must be voted on by
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the rest of the full club members. Successful admission usually requires more than a simple majority, and some clubs may reject a prospect or a probate for a single dissenting vote. A formal induction follows, in which the new member affirms his loyalty to the club and its members. The final logo patch is then awarded. Full members are often referred to as "full patch members" and the step of attaining full membership can be referred to as "being patched".
is an important distinction, for only true Motorcycle Clubs sport the "MC" moniker. The 1% patch is what distinguishes the outlaw Motorcycle Clubs from normal Motorcycle Clubs. Motorcycle Associations or Rider Clubs are not allowed to wear the MC patch. The colors worn by members of these clubs will either consist of a one-piece patch (Motorcycle Associations), two-piece patch (Rider Clubs), or a three piece patch (true Motorcycle Clubs). The Three Piece Patch Set consists of the club logo and the top and bottom patches, usually crescent shaped, which are referred to as rockers. The number and arrangement of patches is somewhat indicative of the nature of the club. All true Motorcycle Clubs will have a three-piece patch arrangement. Not all (or even most) clubs sporting a three-piece patch are onepercenters, however. The club patches always remain property of the club itself, not the member, and only members are allowed to wear the club’s colors. A member must closely guard their colors, for allowing one’s colors to fall into the hands of an outsider is an act of disgrace and may result in loss of membership in a club, or some other punishment. Contrary to recent popular belief, a 5 Piece Patch Set does not exist. The separate designation patch (MC, VC, SBR, etc.) is sometimes called the CUBE Patch. Some clubs do not count it as part of the color set. Law enforcement agencies have confiscated colors and other club paraphernalia of these types of clubs when they raid a clubhouse or the home of an MC member, and they often display these items at press conferences. These items are then used at trial to support prosecution assertions that MC members perform criminal acts on behalf of their club. Courts have found that the probative value of such items is far outweighed by their prejudicial effects on the defense.  Other patches sometimes used by OMG (Outlaw Motorcycle gangs) include a skull and crossbones patch or one proclaiming, "Respect Few, Fear None," which is given to members who commit murder or other acts of violence on behalf of the gang . In some OMGs, members who have sex with a woman with venereal disease are given green wings; those who have sex with a woman’s corpse are given purple wings. Another patch worn by some members is the number 13, which stands for the 13th letter of the alphabet, M, indicating the wearer is a
OPP Sgt. Dave Rector positions Bandidos vest seized in raids near Iona Station prior to a news conference in London, Ontario. Note MC and 1% patches. The primary visual identification of a member of an MC is the vest adorned with a specific large club patch or patches, predominantly located in the middle of the back. The patch(es) will contain a club logo, the name of the club, and the letters "MC", and a possible state, province, or other chapter identification. This garment and the patches themselves are referred to as the "colors", or, sometimes, "cuts", a term taken from the early practice of cutting the collars and/or sleeves from a denim or leather jacket. But all MCs wear vests with their colors on their vests. Many non-outlaw motorcycle riding clubs (as opposed to MCs) such as Harley Owners Group (HOG) also wear patches on the back of their vests, but the letters "MC" are nowhere to be seen on such patches. This
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user or dealer of Methamphetamine (not Marijuana), the drug of choice for many outlaw-bikers.
vest. Whether or not this practice was carried over from the military aviation history of colorful pilot callsigns is not known.
One Percenters aka Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs
The term "One-Percenter" was coined after an incident in Hollister, California in 1947 which was dubbed the Hollister riot. Whether or not an actual riot occurred is debatable, but there was a motorcycle rally in Hollister from July 4 to July 6 of that year that was attended by about 4000 people. Several newspaper articles were written that, according to some attendees, sensationalized the event and Life magazine ran an article and a staged photograph of an intoxicated subject on a motorcycle parked in a bar. The film The Wild One, starring Marlon Brando, was inspired by the event, and it became the first in a series of movies that depicted bikers and members of motorcycle clubs in this stereotypical manner. The press asked the American Motorcyclist Association (AMA) to comment on the Hollister incident and their response was that 99% of motorcyclists were law-abiding citizens, and the last one percent were outlaws. Thus was born the term, "one percenter". They are also known as "Outlaw Motorcycle Gang" or (OMG) according to the ATF. One-percenter MCs (OMGs) do not allow women to become full-patch mem, rather, women are subbers missive to the men, treated as property, victimized by forcing them into prostitution or street level drug traffickers, and are often physically and sexually abused. Any pay women receive is given to their individual men and sometimes to the entire club. Women’s roles as obedient followers, and their status as objects, make these groups extremely gender segregated. Membership in what authorities term ’Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs’ is often racist, as well; for example membership in the Hells Angels is not open to African-Americans or Hispanics, which has led to creation of rival gangs such as the Bandidos and the Mongols Motorcycle Club. MC members are not usually referred to by their given names, but instead refer to each other by nicknames, or road names, sometimes even displaying their road name on the club
Most motorcycle club chapters function as following: • President: Leader of the chapter • Vice-President: Second-in-command • Secretary: Responsible for the administrative tasks • Sergeant-at-Arms: Responsible for discipline within the Chapter jurisdiction • Treasurer: Manages the financial resources of the Chapter • Road Captain: Organizes motorcycle tours • Patched Member: Members of a Chapter without a specific task • Prospect: A candidate for the Patched Member status • Hang-Around: A candidate for the Prospect status • Free Rider: A biker not affiliated with a club
While one-percenters garner much publicity for their activities and misdeeds, there are other motorcycle clubs and bikers that instead identify themself as Ninety-Nine-percenters. Indeed, as of March, 2006, the American Motorcyclist Association, an organization that is the very antithesis of one-percenters, counts 269,884 active members and many chartered clubs. 99%er MCs include police, military, and firefighter clubs (or a combination thereof). Examples of 99%ers three piece patch clubs include the Iron Pigs, the Nam Knights, Blue Knights and the Red Knights. These mostly law enforcement clubs do not ask the dominant 1 %er clubs for permission to exist, or wear a three piece patch, which has caused the 1 %ers some irritation. In addition to the many independent and "outlaw" MCs, there are a great many motorcycle riding clubs, including those sponsored by various manufacturers, such as the Harley Owners Group, Iron Indian Riders Association, Honda Riders Club of America, BMW Motorcycle Owners of America, and several others. Other riding groups exist for a specific purpose, such as the Patriot Guard Riders,
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who provide funeral escorts for military veterans. Furthermore, some groups define themselves as "associations". These consist of persons from all backgrounds, to include law enforcement, fire and military, but are open to anyone. Although associations do parallel "MC" standards such as established by laws and prospecting members, they do not use MC on their colors. Associations try and maintain a friendly atmosphere with all clubs 1% or 99% but will never form an alliance with any club. In most cases associations will try to fall in line with "local biker politics" as long as they stay within the confines of the law. The association will err on the side of the law in all cases, especially those who have law enforcement as association officers. Examples of associations are South West Desert Riders El Paso TX.
street gangs, prison gangs, and OMGs are the primary retail distributors of illegal drugs in the US, with OMGs dominating US methamphetamine trade distribution. In 1985 a three-year, eleven-state FBI operation named Roughrider culminated in the largest OMG bust in history, with the confiscation of $2 million worth of illegal drugs, as well as an illegal arsenal of weapons, ranging from Uzi submachine guns to antitank weapons. In October, 2008, the FBI announced the end of a 6-month undercover operation by agents into the narcotics trafficking by the Mongols Motorcycle Gang. The bust went down with 160 search warrants and 110 arrest warrants. Canada, especially, has in the past two decades experienced a significant upsurge in crime involving outlaw motorcycle gangs, most notably in what has been dubbed the Quebec Biker war, which has involved more than 150 murders (plus a young bystander killed by an exploding car bomb), 84 bombings, and 130 cases of arson. The increased violence in Canada has been attributed to turf wars over the illegal drug trafficking business, specifically relating to access to the Port of Montreal , but also as the Hells Angels have sought to obtain control of the street level trade from other rival and/or independent gangs in various regions of Canada. Members and supporters of these clubs insist that illegal activities are isolated occurrences and that they, as a whole, are not criminal organizations. They often compare themselves to police departments, wherein the occasional "bad cop" does not make a police department a criminal organization. One biker website has a news section devoted to "cops gone bad" to support their point of view, and the Hells Angels sponsors charitable events for Toys for Tots in a attempt to legitimize themselves with public opinion.
Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs
The U.S. Department of Justice defines Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs as organizations whose members use their motorcycle clubs as conduits for criminal enterprises. Both the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and Criminal Intelligence Service Canada have designated four MCs as Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs (OMGs), which are the Pagans, Hells Angels, Outlaws MC, and Bandidos, known as the "Big Four". These four have a large enough national impact to be prosecuted under the Federal Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations (RICO) statute. The California Attorney General also lists the Mongols as an outlaw motorcycle gang. The FBI asserts that OMGs support themselves primarily through drug dealing, trafficking in stolen goods, and extortion, and that they fight over territory and the illegal drug trade. The Royal Canadian Mounted Police Gazette, quoting from the Provincial Court of Manitoba, defines these groups as: "Any group of motorcycle enthusiasts who have voluntarily made a commitment to band together and abide by their organizations’ rigorous rules enforced by violence, who engage in activities that bring them and their club into serious conflict with society and the law". The FBI asserts that OMG’s collect $1 billion in illegal income annually and that
Contrary to other criminal organizations, OMGs operate on an individual basis instead of top-down, which is how supporters can claim that only some members are committing crimes. Belonging guarantees to each member the option of running criminal activity, using other members as support - the main characteristic of OMGs being "amoral individualism" in contrast to the hierarchical orders and bonds of "amoral familism" of
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other criminal organizations such as the Mafia and La Cosa Nostra.
with the permission of the dominant regional club. Smaller clubs will usually be required to wear a "support" patch on their vests that shows their support for the dominant regional. Certain clubs are exempt from this requirement, such as the police clubs ("Iron Pigs") as well as the national "military only" clubs like the "US Military Vets MC". Certain organizations also sponsor clubs such as the Harley Owners Group, the international Jewish Motorcycle Alliance which is made up of individual Jewish chapter "clubs" such as the LOST TRIBE in Va. Beach, and then there is the Christian Motorcyclists Association. These are not considered "real" motorcycle clubs and can be easily differentiated from "real" clubs by the lack of "MC" (Motorcycle Club) or "MG" (Motorcycle Gang) on the back of their vests. When a bar or other establishment posts a "No Colors" sign, they are specifically targeting people with the "MC" or "MG" letters on the vest. The incidence of drug dealing and illegal activities in the vast majority of MCs mirrors the percentage of criminal behavior in society as a whole. Most clubs are organized as a 501c charitable organization and provide money and support to a variety of charities. Typical events include "poker runs" and ’50-50’ raffles where a portion of the proceeds are donated to the club’s designated cause. Additionally the clubs provide support services and maintenance for members in the form of trailers, tools, etc. The clubs also stress safety and rider skills. Most will have a "road captain" who is responsible for safe riding. The members will generally have a pre-run safety check where required equipment, tires, etc are checked. This is both for member safety and prevent giving the police any justification for stopping the pack. Most states have special provisions for "Funerals and Other Processions" that allow the pack as a whole to go through a signal light as long as the first bike entered the intersection legally under the green. Packs tend to ride "high & tight" to prevent other vehicles from attempting to ’bull’ into the pack. This type of behavior by a cage (car) is extremely dangerous to a pack and happens quite often, especially in larger runs (20+ bikes) Organized runs with large numbers will usually include "road guard" bikes whose responsibility is to block intersections and roads to allow the pack to enter/exit the highway or turn as a unit. Biker clubs have
Relationships among motorcycle clubs
In the United States, many MCs have established state-wide MC confederations. These confederations are composed of MCs who have chapters in the state, and the occasional interested third party organization. The confederation holds periodic meetings on neutral ground, wherein representatives from each club (usually the presidents and vice-presidents, but not always) meet in closed session to resolve disputes between clubs and discuss issues of common interest. The largest one-percent club tends to dominate the confederation, using their numbers to impose their will on other clubs. Sometimes clubs are forced into, or willingly accept, "support" roles for a one-percent club. Smaller clubs who resist a large one-percent club have been forcibly disbanded, e.g. told to hand over their colors or risk war.  With the exception of Law Enforcement Clubs , smaller clubs usually comply, since members of a family club are usually unwilling to risk injury or worse. Another tactic used by one-percent clubs is to force smaller clubs to join the AMA and wear an AMA patch. This is considered an act of shame by some clubs, and a club thus forced may wear an upside-down AMA patch on their colors as a form of protest and to retain their dignity. Certain large one-percent MCs are rivals with each other and will fight over territory and other issues. In 2002, members of the Mongols MC and the Hells Angels MC had a confrontation in Laughlin, Nevada at the Harrah’s Laughlin Casino that left three bikers dead.  Another melee, this time between the Hells Angels and the Pagans MC, occurred in February, 2002 at a Hells Angels convention in Long Island, New York. Police reports indicate the Pagans were outraged that the event was held on what they considered their "home turf". The local COC (Coalition of Clubs) has eliminated most of the inter-club rivalry. Club members tend to be older veterans, and given the cost of ownership of a Harley Dresser type motorcycle, increasingly well to do. The "big 5" national 1% clubs tend to be territorial. Smaller clubs are allowed to form
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long initiations and many ’team building’ exercises to foster trust and confidence between members. Someone that has marginal riding skills will be relegated to the back of the pack until their skills are such that they are capable of riding without the risk of ’bumping pegs’ with the other riders. Contrary to popular myth, most clubs don’t imbibe large amounts of alcohol until the end of the run.
Alone: The True Story of the Undercover Agent Who Infiltrated America’s Most Violent Outlaw Motorcycle Gang” The Discovery Channel has featured looks inside several MCs including the Devil Dolls. The film Beyond the Law is based on the true story of Dan Black, an undercover officer who infiltrated a one-percenter MC. The 2007 Disney film Wild Hogs tells the story of four friends who have an encounter with the fictional Del Fuegos MC. The original script used the Hells Angels, causing the Hells Angels to sue Disney for trademark infringement. The film Torque shows a biker gang. The new FX television series Sons Of Anarchy follows the exploits of the fictional outlaw motorcycle club SAMCRO, or Sons of Anarchy Motorcycle Club Redwood Original. Ride to Hell is an upcoming video game, set on the West Coast in the 1960s, where the player will live and fight in the early years of the oulaw motorcycle clubs’ underworld. Fictional outlaw motorcycle clubs, The Renegades and the Order of Odin, are main antagonists in the novel Silent Scream by American novelist, Brett Kihlmire. Robert Muchamore’s new book in his series CHERUB involves the main character James Adams to infiltrate an outlaw biker gang, Brigands MC.
Motorcycle clubs in popular culture
Part of the mystique surrounding MCs has been driven by books, movies and television, beginning with the so-called Hollister riot in 1947, about which two articles appeared in the San Francisco Chronicle, and another in Life Magazine featuring a large staged photograph of an intoxicated subject on a motorcycle parked in a bar. A series of biker movies followed, beginning with The Wild One, starring Marlon Brando, and culminating with the award-winning Easy Rider, with its iconic Captain America chopper. Many of these were B movies, a staple of 1960s drive-in theaters. In 1966, Hunter S. Thompson (who later started the movement known as gonzo journalism) wrote Hell’s Angels: The Strange and Terrible Saga of the Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs, giving readers their first inside glimpse into the most notorious motorcycle club of all. The 1969 Altamont Free Concert incident thrust the Hells Angels front and center for the killing of a concert-goer by a Hells Angels member, Alan Passaro, who was, along with other club members, by some reports, providing security for the Rolling Stones at the event. Meredith Hunter, was stabbed multiple times by Passaro and other Hells Angels members. Film evidence later showed that Meredith Hunter was holding a gun. Passaro was charged with murder but was later found to be acting in self-defense and acquitted. Since Hunter S. Thompson’s groundbreaking book, more books have followed, including former Angels president Sonny Barger’s, Hell’s Angel: The Life and Times of Sonny Barger and the Hell’s Angels Motorcycle Club, and, more recently, Edward Winterhalder’s account of the Bandidos, Out In Bad Standings; Inside The Bandidos Motorcycle Club. William Queen‘s “Under and
• List of motorcycle clubs • List of motorcycle biker patches • Outlaw biker film
 ^ AMA Newsroom: Facts and Figures, retrieved September 10, 2007  Motorcycle Club Index, retrieved September 25, 2007  1% - Example of Bylaws- Motorcycle Club and Riding Club Education]  "Under and Alone: The True Story of the Undercover Agent Who Infiltrated America’s Most Violent Outlaw Motorcycle Gang". Author William Queen, 2004  Five charged in murders of eight Bandidos bikers- CTV.ca, June 10, 2006, Retrieved October 10, 2007
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 The United States Court of Appeals For the Seventh Circuit, Case Nos. 95-2829 and 95-2879; UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. JOHN E. IRVIN and THOMAS E. PASTOR, Defendants-Appellants  KTLA TV, Los Angeles  ATF affidavit   - KTLA TV, Los Angeles   Herald Sun   Los Angeles Times   Daily Mail  "Hell’s Angels: The Strange and Terrible Saga of the Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs", by Hunter S. Thompson  Dougherty, C.I. (1947-07-05). "Motorcyclists Take Over Town, Many Injured". San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.cestcop.com/chron1.htm. Retrieved on 2007-10-24.  Dougherty, C.I. (1947-07-06). "2000 ’Gypsycycles’ Chug Out of Town and the Natives Sigh ’Never Again’". San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.cestcop.com/chron2.htm. Retrieved on 2007-10-24.  http://www.usdoj.gov/criminal/gangunit/ about/omgangs.html  Book, Organised Crime By Alan Wright  CBS News  [www.foxnews.com/story/ 0,2933,442281,00.html]Fox News  [www.tandemnews.com/ printer.php?storyid=96]Tandem News  Women in Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs, From Constructions of Deviance: Social Power, Context, and Interaction, P 389-401, 1994, Patricia A and Peter Adler, eds  Into the Abyss: A Personal Journey into the World of Street Gangs, Mike Carlie Phd  Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, Vol. 18, No. 4, 363-387 (1990)  Book, "Beyond the Mafia" by Sue Mahan and Katherine O’Neil  Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs- OZBiker.org  Gangs in Maryland- University of Maryland  Outlaw Motorcycle Groups- Laurier College  Dozens of outlaw bikers arrested in ATF sting- MSNBC.com, Oct 21, 2008
 Dozens of Outlaw Bikers Arrested in ATF Sting.- MSNBC.com, October 21, 2008  U.S. Dept. of Justice  FBI Safe Street Violent Crime Initiative Report Fiscal Year 2000- FBI.org  2004 Annual Report- Criminal Intelligence Service Canada, cisc.gc.ca  Motorcycle Gangs- Connecticut Gang Investigators Association  2004 Annual Report- Criminal Intelligence Service Canada (CISC), cisc.gc.ca  Organized Crime in California - 2004 Annual Report to the LegislatureCalifornia Department of Justice  Dozens of outlaw bikers arrested in ATF sting- MSBNC.com, October 21, 2008  Organized Crime Investigation- by T. O’Connor, Austin PEA State University  ^ Organized Crime Fact Sheet- Public Safety Canada  The Hells Angels’ Devilish BusinessCNN.com, November 30, 1992  Biker Gangs in Canada- CBC News, April 5, 2007  Narcotics Digest, Gangs In The United States- the National Gang Center  Comprehensively Combating Methamphetamine: Impact on Health and the Environment- DEA Deputy Chief Joseph Rannazzisi, congressional testimony on October 20, 2005  The Hells Angels’ Devilish Business- by Andrew E. Serwer, Fortune Magazine, November 30, 1992  Sonny Barger Kicks Starts Life as a Free Man by Violating Parole- by Philip Martin, Phoenix New Times, December 2, 1992.  Sonny Barger Kicks Starts Life as a Free Man by Violating Parole- by Philip Martin, Phoenix New Times, December 2, 1992  Busting Hell’s Angels- Time Magazine, May 13, 1985  Was Noye case witness killed by Hell’s Angels?- Guardian Observer, October 15, 2000  The Biker Trials: Bringing Down the Hells Angels, by Paul Cherry, ECW Press, 2005  Fallen Angel: The Unlikely Rise of Walter Stadnick in the Canadian Hells Angels, by Jerry Langton, Wiley & Sons, 2006  Cops Gone Bad- Bikernews.net
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 Storm Approaching- by Michael Jamison, The Missoulian, July 2000  Tandem News, Angels With Dirty Faces by Antonio Nicaso  Ex-Hells Angels official says cops kept out of club- by Adrienne Packer, Las Vegas Review-Journal, October 5, 2006  Laughlin Shootout: Signs told of melee in making- by Glenn Puit and Dave Berns, Las Vegas Review Journal, April 30, 2002  73 Bikers Arrested- New York Times, March 13, 2002  Hells Angels sue Disney over filmBBC.com, March 11, 2006. HAMC vs Walt Disney
• Veno, Arthur, The Mammoth Book of Bikers, Constable & Robinson, 2007 (ISBN 0-7867-2046-8) • Vieth, Errol, "Angels in the Media: Constructing Outlaw Motorcyclists", in Consent and Consensus, edited by Denis Cryle and Jean Hiliier, Perth, API Network, 2005, 97–116 (ISBN 1-920845-12-7). • Winterhalder, Edward, Out in Bad Standings: Inside the Bandidos Motorcycle Club - The Making of a Worldwide Dynasty, Blockhead City Press, 2005/ Seven Locks Press, 2007 (ISBN 0-9771-7470-0) • Winterhalder, Edward, & De Clercq, Wil, The Assimilation: Rock Machine Become Bandidos – Bikers United Against the Hells Angels, ECW Press, 2008 (ISBN 1-5502-2824-2)
Books and Newspaper Articles
• Coulthart, Ross and McNab, Duncan, Dead Man Running: An Insider’s Story on One of the World’s Most Feared Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs, the Bandidos Allen & Unwin, 2008, (ISBN 1-7417-5463-1) • Hayes, Bill. The Original Wild Ones: Tales of The Boozefighters Motorcycle Club, Est. 1946. St. Paul, MN: Motorbooks, 2005.
• • • • CNN article on outlaw bikers African American Motorcycle Clubs Outlaw Biker World - biker news Outlaw Biker (UK)- Worldwide Biker News