CELLULOSIC BIOETHANOL FROM PALM BIOMASS – TO GO OR NOT TO GO

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CELLULOSIC BIOETHANOL FROM PALM BIOMASS – TO GO OR NOT TO GO Powered By Docstoc
					                      CELLULOSIC BIOETHANOL
                    FROM PALM BIOMASS – TO GO
                          OR NOT TO GO?




                            Dato’ Dr. Abdul Rashid Ab. Malik
                        Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM)
                      Kepong, 52109 Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
  INTERNATIONAL               Tel: 603-62797012/603-62797000
CONFERENCE ON OIL               e-mail: rashid@frim.gov.my
  PALM BIOMASS
 2-3 AUGUST 2010
•   Outline
    •   Global Biofuels Scenario
    •   Biomass Supply
    •   Technology
    •   Government support
    •   Logistics & Infrastructure
    •   Summary



          INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OIL PALM BIOMASS, 2010
•   Outline
    •   Global Biofuels Scenario
    •   Biomass Supply
    •   Technology
    •   Government support
    •   Logistics & Infrastructure
    •   Summary
                            GLOBAL ENERGY DEMAND




Source: Tanaka, N. (2008) World Energy Outlook 2008



                    INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OIL PALM BIOMASS, 2010
                         WORLD OIL PRODUCTION




Source: Tanaka, N. (2008) World Energy Outlook 2008


                   INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OIL PALM BIOMASS, 2010
“..era of easy oil is over….And new energy discoveries are mainly
occurring in places where resources are difficult to extract,
physically, economically and even politically”
Mr. David J. O’Reilly
Chairman & CEO Chevron Corporation,
Wall Street Journal - 2 December 2008




     INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OIL PALM BIOMASS, 2010
                                                                    6
           CLIMATE CHANGE & GLOBAL WARMING




Source: Defra, Environment in your pocket

                                                                         Image: National Geographic June 2010


                    INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OIL PALM BIOMASS, 2010
          World energy-related CO2 emissions




Source:




            INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OIL PALM BIOMASS, 2010
                  Malaysia CO2 emissions




Source: Opportunities and risks arising from climate change for Malaysia, Khazanah Nasional 2010




              INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OIL PALM BIOMASS, 2010
                                   It’s time to cool the planet




Source: The Wall Street Journal 15 June 2009



                 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OIL PALM BIOMASS, 2010
 Global Biofuel Mandates
                                                              What countries are already doing:
      USA 24% (36 billion gallons) by 2022


      Japan 3% by 2008


      Canada 5% by 2010


      EU 5.75% by 2012


      Sweden 100% by 2025


      Chinese moratorium on food stock ethanol


      Malaysia 10-15% bioethanol by 2020

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethanol_fuel


         INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OIL PALM BIOMASS, 2010
                                                                                              11
INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OIL PALM BIOMASS, 2010
   “Exxon Mobil Corp. forms partnership
   with biotechnology company Synthetic
   Gynomics Inc. and spends USD600
   million in an effort to develop biofuels
   from photosynthetic algae”
The Wall Street Journal 15 July 2009




        INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OIL PALM BIOMASS, 2010
“BP to acquire Verenium cellulosic
 biofuels business for USD98.3
 million”
Biofuels Digest, July 2010




     INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OIL PALM BIOMASS, 2010
“Nineteen integrated biorefinery projects in USA
to receive up to USD 564m for pilot,
demonstration and commercial scale facilities”
Biofuels Digest – July 14, 2010




           INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OIL PALM BIOMASS, 2010
Cellulosic bioethanol pilot/demonstration/commercial
plants in the USA.
                                                                        U.S. Biofuel Refueling Infrastructure




 Source: Biofuels International                                    Source: National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)




                   INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OIL PALM BIOMASS, 2010
                                                                                                                16
     Norway Norske Skog and Germany
     Choren Industries has built the world’s
     first commercial 3.9 million gallon
     synthetic biofuel plant using gasification
     technology from forest residue and waste
     wood.



                                             Cellulosic ethanol company, Iogen,
                                             Ottawa, Canada has shipped more
                                             than half of a 47,000 gallon cellulosic
                                             ethanol order to Shell.

Source: Biofuels International

                 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OIL PALM BIOMASS, 2010
INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OIL PALM BIOMASS, 2010
                                                     18
 BIOFUELS AND CAR INDUSTRY
Ethanol blends are currently being tested in                  Honda continues R&D on bioethanol production
Vietnam’s taxis                                               technology




     Images: Biofuels International 2009 Issue 2(3)


                 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OIL PALM BIOMASS, 2010
)
     BIOFUELS AND AVIATION INDUSTRY
    Biofuel aviation test

             FLIGHT                        DATE                     FEEDSTOCK BLEND                         COMPANIES

    Japan Air                      January 2009             B50 – 50% Jet-A Kerosone,              JAL, Pratt & Whitney, Boeing,
                                                            42% camelina, 8% jatropha,             Sustainable Oils
                                                            1% algae biofuels blend

    Continental                    January 2009             B50 - 50% HP8, 50% blend algae         Continental, UOP, Boeing, CFM
                                                            and Jatropha blend                     Engines, Sapphire Energy

    New Zealand                    December 2009            B50 – 50% Jatropha fuel,               NZ Air, Boeing, Rolls Royce,
                                                            50% JP8 blend                          UOP

    Virgin Air                     February 2008            B20 – Blend of Babasu and Palm         Virgin, Boeing, GE, Imperium
                                                            Oil fuels blend                        Renewable
     Source: Emerging Market Online, Algae 2020: Advanced Biofuels Markets Study




                                                                               Images: Biofuels International 2009 Issue 6(2)


                              INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OIL PALM BIOMASS, 2010
         GHG emission reduction and mitigation cost (2020)


                         Feedstock                                   Reduction          Mitigation Cost
                        (& Process)                                     (%)              (E/tCO2-eq)*

          Sugar beets                                                       60              190 - 250

          Grains                                                            40              370 - 450

          Potatoes                                                          20              860 – 940

          Residual starch streams                                       45 - 75             110 – 330

          Lignocelullose:
                enzymatic hydrolysis                                     85                  20 - 170
               gasification & synthesis                                  90                  20 - 160
                 gasification & fermentation                          80 – 90?              240 – 510?

* At petrol production costs of 0.40E/L (oil price USD50/barrel)                  Source: Bioethanol in Europe Report
                                                                                  2GAVE0601

                       INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OIL PALM BIOMASS, 2010
   MALAYSIAN OPTION IN BIOFUEL INDUSTRY

1st generation biofuels – limited to margins

2nd generation biofuels – moving beyond the
   limits…
   – Change feedstock and technologies
   – Create energy plant


3rd generation biofuels – intriguing
prospects for the bioeconomy…
   – Biorefineries for high value products
     AND energy


                                                                  Image: National Geographic June 2009


             INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OIL PALM BIOMASS, 2010
                                                                                                         22
•   Outline
    •   Global Biofuels Scenario
    •   Biomass Supply
    •   Technology
    •   Government support
    •   Logistics & Infrastructure
    •   Summary



          INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OIL PALM BIOMASS, 2010
The global biomass potential is enormous – if managed right




•   Highly
    productive
    agriculture
•   Effective
    bioenergy
    crops
•   Effective
    management
    of land use
                     Source: Kline et al, Issues in Science & Technology,
                     Spring 2009


            INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OIL PALM BIOMASS, 2010
                TOTAL BIOMASS 2007 (Mt)
Oil palm                EFB                                         6.1
                        Fibre                                       6.2
                        Shell                                       4.0        74.7
                        Fronds                                      41.7
                        Trunks                                      16.7
Paddy                   Husk & strraw                                          1.4
MSW                                                                            7.6*
Wood                                                                           1,890,230m3
* Based on 20,765 tonne/day for P. Malaysia

Source: Pusat Tenaga Malaysia/MPOB/MOA



                          INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OIL PALM BIOMASS, 2010
26   INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OIL PALM BIOMASS, 2010
•   Outline
    •   Global Biofuels Scenario
    •   Biomass Supply
    •   Technology
    •   Government support
    •   Logistics & Infrastructure
    •   Summary



          INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OIL PALM BIOMASS, 2010
“Malaysia had the potential to take the leadership role in green technology
and develop a niche in high value green industries and services”

YAB Datuk Seri Najib Tun Razak
at the INVEST MALAYSIA 2010

Star Biz- 31 March 2010




             INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OIL PALM BIOMASS, 2010
BIOFUELS CONVERSION PATHWAY




   INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OIL PALM BIOMASS, 2010
                                                         Enhanced saccharification performance




DuPont Danisco’s biorefinery pilot plant




                INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OIL PALM BIOMASS, 2010
INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OIL PALM BIOMASS, 2010
                     EFB Ethanol                                                   Trunks         Fronds
                                   Fiber                          Shell
                   (DM kg) (Liter)
                        1000                    1000                  1000           1000           1000

Glucose g/g DM            430          215       230       115          70    35      650   325      470    235

Xylose g/g DM             260            91      180        63         400   140      120    42      240     84

Ethanol g/ton DM                       306                 178               175            367             319

Ethanol L/ton DM                       388                 226               222            465             404



0.50g ethanol/g glucose               0.50

0.35g ethanol/g xylose                0.35

density of ethanol (g/ml)           0.789                  Source: Malaysian - Danish Environmental Cooperation
                                                           Programme

                 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OIL PALM BIOMASS, 2010
  B2A Thermo-chemical Process




Source: Syntec Biofuel Inc.                                            B2A (Biomass to Alcohol)

                  INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OIL PALM BIOMASS, 2010
       Syntec Catalyst Yields Based on Improved Efficiency




* Carbon conversion
** Currently, Syntec’s catalysts have the highest yield in the world


Source: Syntec Biofuel Inc.


        INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OIL PALM BIOMASS, 2010
                       MASCOMA CBP TECHNOLOGY
                Conventional Approach                                                       Mascoma Approach
                           Feedstock                                                            Feedstock
                            Supply                                                               Supply
                                                              Steam & Power
                                                                Generation
                             Harsh
                          Pretreatment                             Waste                               Mascoma
                                                                  Treatment
                                                                                                        focus
                          Conditioning

           Enzyme                                                                                  Simple
                            Hydrolysis
            Supply                                                                              Pretreatment

                          Conditioning
                                                                                               Consolidated
                                                                                               BioProcessing
                          Fermentation                                                             (CBP)
                                                                       Key
                            Distillation                   Mature              Developing
                                                         Technology            Technology       Distillation
                            & Storage
                                                                                                & Storage
Source: Dr. Jim Flatt, Mascoma.

                          INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OIL PALM BIOMASS, 2010
    Promising Initial Results on Palm Residues
       Screening Test on Palm Residue Types
       • aqueous-based pretreatment
       • stem has highest yield
       • low lignin (17 – 18%)

                  Palm Residue                      Carbohydrate              Max Ethanol
                                                       Yield (%               Yield (gal/mt)
                                                     theoretical)
               Empty Fruit                                     73                  62
               Bunch
               Stem                                            80                  76

               Frond                                           71                  62

Source: Dr. Jim Flatt, Mascoma.

                         INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OIL PALM BIOMASS, 2010
Total bioethanol production from oil palm biomass only




Source                  Million tonnes                   EtOH per tonne   Total EtOH
                        per year                         (liters)*        (billion liters)


Fronds                              41.7                            270           11.3
Trunks                              16.7                            340           5.7
EFB                                  6.7                            270           1.8


   * Mascoma conversion rate

                            These are upper bound estimates




               INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OIL PALM BIOMASS, 2010
          KEY BARRIER – HIGH COST




Source: Syntec Biofuel Inc.


               INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OIL PALM BIOMASS, 2010
                                                                       Energy

 Particle board
                                                                                Energy uses
 MDF portion
                                                                                Incineration




Pulp and paper
                                                                                Composting




            Mulch mat and baling


                  INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OIL PALM BIOMASS, 2010
•   Outline
    •   Global Biofuels Scenario
    •   Biomass Supply
    •   Technology
    •   Government support
    •   Logistics & Infrastructure
    •   Summary



          INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OIL PALM BIOMASS, 2010
“ Malaysia is committed in cutting 50 million tonnes of CO         2   equivalent
(CO2 Eq) in 2020”

YAB Datuk Seri Najib Tun Razak
at the United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP 15) 2009
7-18 December 2009
Copenhagen, Denmark

Star - 20 December 2009




              INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OIL PALM BIOMASS, 2010
Abatement measures from land transport sector




       Source: Opportunities and risks arising from climate change for
       Malaysia, Khazanah Nasional 2010



           INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OIL PALM BIOMASS, 2010
NATIONAL BIOFUELS POLICY
 The National Biofuels Policy, published by the Ministry
 of Primary Industries and Commodities 2005, sets the
 platform for the attainment of the following objectives :

                                            Supplement the depleting supply
                                            of fossil fuels with renewable
                                            resources
                                            Mobilising local resources for
                                            biofuels
                                            Exploiting the local technology to
                                            generate energy for the
                                            transportation and industrial sectors
                                            Paving the way for export of biofuels
                                            Benefiting from the spinoff effect of
                                            more stable prices for palm oil


    INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OIL PALM BIOMASS, 2010
                           BIOFUELS ROADMAP
Industry Role (Strategic Positioning) & Feedstock Trends




  Source: Malaysian Biotech Corporation and Frost & Sullivan 2008

             INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OIL PALM BIOMASS, 2010     44
                        CONSUMPTION OF PETROL AND DIESEL (AT PUMP)


              (Unit in billion litres)
                       Year                                   Petrol                      Diesel
                      2004                                     9.71                        5.56
                      2005                                    10.25                        5.62
                      2006                                    10.49                        5.46
                      2007                                    10.77                        5.03
                2008 (Jan-May)                                 4.37                        3.00
Source: Ministry of Domestic Trade and Consumer Affair, Malaysia


Based on 2007 figures:
If E5 or E10 is implemented:



                                                        Petrol (litres)           Bioethanol (litres)     EFB (Dry weight - tonnes)
                      E5                                                               538,500,000                   1,387,887
Pilot Plant (1\10 of Commercial)                                                        53,850,000                     138,789
                                                       10,770,000,000
                     E10                                                             1,077,000,000                   2,775,773
Pilot Plant (1\10 of Commercial)                                                       107,700,000                     277,577

From - Ethanol potential for Empty Fruit Bunches pre-treated by Wet-Explosion
(A report prepared under the Malaysian - Danish Environmental Cooperation
Programme Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Component)
                                                                                               Source: Malaysian - Danish Environmental
388 litres of ethanol can be produced from 1 tonne of EFB (dried weight)                       Cooperation Programme



                             INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OIL PALM BIOMASS, 2010
             Bioethanol production costs in Europe

                     Feedstock                               Production costs including profit
                    (& Process)                              margin (Є/l)*

  Sugar beets                                                            0.50 – 0.55

  Grains                                                                 0.55 – 0.60

  Potatoes                                                               0.85 – 0.90

  Residual starch streams                                                0.45 – 0.55

  Lignocelullose:
        enzymatic hydrolysis                                             0.50 – 0.55
                                                                      0.30 – 0.50 (2020)
       gasification & synthesis
      gasification & fermentation                                     0.60 – 0.90 (2020)


* 1E/l bioethanol = E47/GJ
 Source: Bioethanol in Europe Report 2GAVE0601


                 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OIL PALM BIOMASS, 2010
 PRICE SETTING FOR BIOETHANOL
Assumptions:
1. Production cost of petrol is RM1.35/l (average
   crude oil price at USD47/b)
2. Production cost of bioethanol is estimated at
   RM1.50/l
3. Fixed cost (commission, profit, etc) is RM0.22/l
   Mixing bioethanol and petrol in E10, the pump
   price would be
    0.90*RM1.35 + 0.10*RM1.50 = RM1.37/l E10
    RM1.37 + RM0.22 = RM1.59/l E10

   Source: Technical and Economic Potential of Biodiesel and Bioethanol, EPU-Danida IRP2, 2005


                INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OIL PALM BIOMASS, 2010
•   Outline
    •   Global Biofuels Scenario
    •   Biomass Supply
    •   Technology
    •   Government support
    •   Logistics & Infrastructure
    •   Summary



          INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OIL PALM BIOMASS, 2010
Images: Biofuels International 2008 Issue 6(2)


                INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OIL PALM BIOMASS, 2010
                                           Supply chain issue




INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OIL PALM BIOMASS, 2010
•   Outline
    •   Global Biofuels Scenario
    •   Biomass Supply
    •   Technology
    •   Government support
    •   Logistics & Infrastructure
    •   Summary



          INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OIL PALM BIOMASS, 2010
                                SUMMARY
•   Palm biomass is a potential feedstock for
    cellulosic bioethanol industry.

•   Biofuels Industry Roadmap has been
    developed.

•   Malaysia has the potential to be the major
    player in the cellulosic bioethanol industry.

•   Malaysia requires 2 billion litres of bioethanol
    by 2020.

          INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OIL PALM BIOMASS, 2010
•   Bioethanol blending policy, logistics,
    infrastructure costs and blending facilities
    are main issues to the success of the
    bioethanol industry in Malaysia.




           INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OIL PALM BIOMASS, 2010
INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OIL PALM BIOMASS, 2010

				
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