Docstoc

U.S._Navy

Document Sample
U.S._Navy Powered By Docstoc
					From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

United States Navy

United States Navy
United States Navy Chief of Naval Operations Vice Chief of Naval Operations Master Chief Petty Officer of the Navy Aircraft flown Attack United States Navy portal Active Country Branch Type Size Part of Headquarters Motto Colors March Engagements 13 October 1775 - today United States of America Navy Navy 332,000 personnel 280 ships, 3,700 aircraft Department of Defense Department of the Navy The Pentagon Electronic warfare Fighter Helicopter Patrol Reconnaissance Trainer Transport F/A-18A/B/C/D, F/A-18E/F, F-35C, S-3 E-2C, EP-3E, E-6, EA-6B, EA-18G F/A-18A/B/C/D, F/A-18E/F, F-35C UH-1, SH-3, CH-53D, MH-53E, SH-60, MH-60, CH-60 P-3, P-8 RQ-2 F-5, F-16N, T-2C, T-6, T-34, T-39, T-44, T-45, TH-57 C-2, C-12, C-20, C-40, C-130 ADM Gary Roughead ADM Patrick M. Walsh

MCPON(SS/SW) Rick D. West

Non sibi sed patriae; "Not self but country" The United States Navy (USN) is the sea (unofficial).[1]

Decorations

Commanders

branch of the U.S. Armed Forces. It is one of the seven uniformed services of the United Blue & Gold States. As of 31 December 2008, the U.S. Anchors Aweigh Navy had about 331,682 personnel on active Revolutionary War duty and 124,000 in the Navy Reserve. It opQuasi-War erates 283 ships in active service and more Barbary Wars than 3,700 aircraft.[2] The U.S. Navy is the War of 1812 largest in the world; its battle fleet tonnage is Mexican-American War greater than that of the next 13 largest comAmerican Civil War Spanish-American War bined.[3] The U.S. Navy also has the world’s World War I largest carrier fleet, with 11 in service and World War II one under construction. Korean War The Navy traces its origins to the ContinVietnam War ental Navy, which was established during the Persian Gulf War Operation Enduring Freedom American Revolutionary War (1775-1783) Operation Iraqi Freedom and was essentially disbanded as a separate entity shortly thereafter. The United States Constitution provided the legal basis for a Presidential Unit Citation seaborne military force by giving Congress the power "to provide and maintain a Navy Unit Commendation navy".[4] Depredations against American shipping Meritorious Unit Commendation by Barbary Coast pirates in the Mediterranean Sea spurred Congress to employ this

1

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
power by passing the Naval Act of 1794 ordering the construction and manning of six frigates.[5] These ships were used to end most pirate activity off the Barbary Coast. The 21st century United States Navy maintains a sizable global presence, deploying in such areas as East Asia, the Mediterranean, and the Middle East. It is a blue water navy with the ability to project force onto the littoral regions of the world, engage in forward areas during peacetime, and rapidly respond to regional crises, making it an active player in American foreign and defense policy. The Navy is administratively managed by the Department of the Navy, which is headed by the civilian Secretary of the Navy. The Department of the Navy is itself a division of the Department of Defense, which is headed by the Secretary of Defense. The highest ranking Naval officer is the Chief of Naval Operations.

United States Navy
equipment of naval combat and service elements". U.S. Navy training manuals state the mission of the U.S armed forces is "to prepare and conduct prompt and sustained combat operations in support of the national interest". As part of that establishment, the U.S. Navy’s functions comprise sea control, power projection and nuclear deterrence, in addition to "sealift" duties.[7]

History
Origins
"Without a decisive naval force we can do nothing definitive." —George Washington[8]

Mission
The mission of the Navy is to maintain, train and equip combat-ready Naval forces capable of winning wars, deterring aggression and maintaining freedom of the seas. —Mission statement of the United States Navy[6] From the New Recruits Handbook: The mission of the United States Navy is to protect and defend the right of the United States and our allies to move freely on the oceans and to protect our country against her enemies. The United States Navy serves as a seaborne branch of the Military of the United States. 10 U.S.C. § 5062 prescribes the navy’s three primary areas of responsibility: • "The preparation of naval forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war" • "The maintenance of naval aviation, including land-based naval aviation, air transport essential for naval operations and all air weapons and air techniques involved in the operations and activities of the Navy" • "The development of aircraft, weapons, tactics, technique, organization, and

The Battle of Cape St. Vincent during the American Revolutionary War. In the early stages of the American Revolutionary War, the establishment of an official navy was an issue of debate among the members of the Continental Congress. Supporters argued that a navy would protect shipping, defend the coast, and make it easier to seek out support from foreign countries. Detractors countered that challenging the British Royal Navy, then the world’s preeminent naval power, was a foolish undertaking.[5] Commander in Chief George Washington commissioned seven ocean-going cruisers to interdict British supply ships, and reported the captures to the Congress. This effectively ended the debate in Congress as to whether or not to "provoke" the British by establishing a Navy as Washington’s ships had already captured British ships, somewhat a provocation. While Congress deliberated, it received word that two unarmed British supply ships

2

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
from England were heading towards Quebec without escort. A plan was drawn up to intercept the ships—however, the armed vessels to be used were owned not by Congress, but by individual colonies. Of greater significance, then, was an additional plan to equip two ships that would operate under the direct authority of Congress to capture British supply ships. This was not carried out until 13 October 1775, when George Washington announced that he had taken command of three armed schooners under Continental authority to intercept any British supply ships near Massachusetts. With the revelation that vessels were already sailing under Continental control, the decision to add two more was made easier;[9] the resolution was adopted and 13 October would later become known as the U.S. Navy’s official birthday.[10] The Continental Navy achieved mixed results; it was successful in a number of engagements and raided many British merchant vessels, but it lost 24 of its vessels[11] and at one point was reduced to two in active service.[12] As Congress turned its attention after the conflict towards securing the western border of the new United States, a standing navy was considered to be dispensable because of its high operating costs and its limited number of roles.[5]

United States Navy

USS Constitution battles HMS Guerriere in the War of 1812. Following an undeclared Quasi-War with France, the U.S. Navy saw substantial action in the War of 1812, where it was able to defeat three rival British frigates over a six month period, with the loss of only two frigates to the British Navy. The Navy drove all significant British forces off the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain and prevented them from becoming British controlled zones of conflict. Despite this, the U.S. Navy was not strong enough to prevent the British from blockading American ports and landing troops at will.[5] After the war, the U.S. Navy again focused its attention on protecting American shipping assets, sending squadrons to the Caribbean, the Mediterranean, South America, Africa, and the Pacific.[11] During the Mexican-American War the U.S. Navy contributed by instituting blockades of Mexican ports, capturing or burning the Mexican fleet in the Gulf of California and capturing all major cities in Baja California peninsula -later returned. In 1846-1848 the navy successfully used the Pacific Squadron under Commodore (Rear Admiral) Robert Stockton and its marines and blue-jackets to facilitate the capture of California with large scale land operations coordinated with the local militia organized in the California Battalion. The navy conducted the U.S. military’s first large-scale amphibious joint operation by successfully landing 12,000 army troops with their equipment in one day at Veracruz, Mexico. When larger guns were needed to bombard Veracruz Navy volunteers landed large navy guns and manned them in the successful bombardment of the city and its surrender. This successful landing and capture of Veracruz eventually opening the way for the capture of Mexico City and the end of the

From reestablishment to the Civil War
We ought to begin a naval power, if we mean to carry on our commerce. —Thomas Jefferson[13] The United States would be without a navy for nearly a decade—a state of affairs that exposed its merchant ships to a series of attacks by Barbary pirates. The sole armed maritime presence between 1790 and the launching of the U.S. Navy’s first warships in 1797 was the U.S. Revenue Cutter Service (USRCS), the primary "ancestor" of the U.S. Coast Guard. Although USRCS Cutters conducted operations against these pirates, the depredations far outstripped the abilities of the USRCS and Congress ordered the construction and manning of six frigates on 27 March 1794;[11] three years later the first three were welcomed into service: the USS United States, USS Constellation and USS Constitution.

3

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
war.[5] The United States Navy established itself as a player in American foreign policy through the actions of Commodore Matthew Perry in Japan, which resulted in the Convention of Kanagawa in 1854. Naval power would play a significant role during the American Civil War, where the Union had a distinct advantage over the Confederacy on the seas.[5] A Union blockade on shipping handicapped the Southern effort throughout the conflict. The two American navies would help usher in a new era in world naval history by putting ironclad warships into combat for the first time. The Battle of Hampton Roads in 1862, which pitted USS Monitor against CSS Virginia, became the first engagement between two steam-powered ironclads.[12] Soon after the war, however, the U.S. Navy’s fleet slipped into obsolescence because of neglect.

United States Navy

20th century
Our ships are our natural bulwarks —Woodrow Wilson[8] Columbia, personification of the United States, wearing a warship bearing the words "World Power" as her "Easter bonnet" on the cover of "Puck", April 6, 1901. ultimately unsuccessful, Japan attempted to allay this strategic threat with the 1941 surprise attack on Pearl Harbor. Following American entry into the war, the U.S. Navy grew tremendously as the United States was faced with a two-front war on the seas. It achieved notable acclaim in the Pacific Theater, where it was instrumental to the Allies’ successful "island hopping" campaign.[12] The U.S. Navy participated in many significant battles, including the Battle of the Coral Sea, the Battle of Midway, the Battle of the Philippine Sea, the Battle of Leyte Gulf, and the Battle of Okinawa. By 1943, the Navy’s size was larger than the combined fleets of all the other combatant nations in World War II.[14] By war’s end in 1945, the United States Navy had added hundreds of new ships, including 18 aircraft carriers and 8 battleships, and had over 70% of the world’s total numbers and total tonnage of naval vessels of 1,000 tons or greater.[15][16] The potential for armed conflict with the Soviet Union during the Cold War pushed the U.S. Navy to continued its technological

The Great White Fleet demonstrates U.S. naval power in 1907; it was proof that the US Navy had blue-water capability A modernization program beginning in the 1880s brought the U.S. in line with the navies of countries such as the United Kingdom and Germany. In 1907, most of the Navy’s battleships, with several support vessels, dubbed the Great White Fleet, were showcased in a 14-month circumnavigation of the world. Ordered by President Theodore Roosevelt, it was a mission designed to demonstrate the Navy’s capability to extend to the global theater.[11] The Navy saw little action during World War I, but grew into a formidable force in the years prior to World War II. Though

4

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
advancement by developing new weapons systems, ships, and aircraft. United States naval strategy changed to that of forward deployment in support of U.S. allies with an emphasis on carrier battle groups.[17]

United States Navy

21st century
When a crisis confronts the nation, the first question often asked by policymakers is: ’What naval forces are available and how fast can they be on station?’ —Admiral C.A.H. Trost[18]

Six modern amphibious assault ships of the US Navy in formation The United States Navy continues to be a major support to American interests in the 21st century. Since the end of the Cold War, it has shifted its focus from preparations for large-scale war with the Soviet Union to special operations and strike missions in regional conflicts.[19] The Navy participated in Operation Enduring Freedom, Operation Iraqi Freedom, and is a major participant in the ongoing War on Terror, largely in this capacity. Development continues on new ships and weapons, including the CVN-21 aircraft carrier (since renamed the CVN-78/Gerald R. Ford class) and the Littoral combat ship. Because of its size, weapons technology, and ability to project force far from American shores, the current U.S. Navy remains a potent asset for the United States Commanderin-Chief (the President of the United States). In 2007, the U.S. Navy joined with the U.S. Marine Corps and U.S. Coast Guard to adopt a new maritime strategy called A Cooperative Strategy for 21st Century Seapower that raises the notion of prevention of war to the same philosophical level as the conduct of war. The strategy was presented by the Chief of Naval Operations, the Commandant of the Marine Corps and Commandant of the Coast Guard at the International Seapower Symposium in Newport, R.I. on 17 October 2007.[20] The strategy recognized the economic links of the global system and how any

A recruitment poster from 1917, emphasizing the U.S. Navy’s transport function The Navy was a major participant in the Vietnam War, blockaded Cuba during the Cuban Missile Crisis, and, through the use of ballistic missile submarines, became an important aspect of the United States’ nuclear strategic deterrence policy. The United States Navy conducted various combat operations in the Persian Gulf against Iran in 1987 and 1988, most notably Operation Praying Mantis. The Navy was extensively involved in Operation Urgent Fury, Operation Desert Shield, Operation Desert Storm, Operation Deliberate Force, Operation Allied Force, Operation Desert Fox and Operation Southern Watch.

5

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
disruption due to regional crises—manmade or natural—can adversely impact the U.S. economy and quality of life. This new strategy charts a course for the Navy, Coast Guard and Marine Corps to work collectively with each other and international partners to prevent these crises from occurring or reacting quickly should one occur to prevent negative impacts on the United States.

United States Navy

Operating forces
There are nine components to the operating forces of the U.S. Navy: the Atlantic Fleet, Pacific Fleet, Naval Forces Central Command, Naval Forces Europe, Naval Network Warfare Command, Navy Reserve, Naval Special Warfare Command, Operational Test and Evaluation Forces and Military Sealift Command. Fleets in the United States Navy take on the role of force provider; they do not carry out military operations independently, rather they train and maintain naval units that will subsequently be provided to the naval forces component of each Unified Combatant Command. While not widely publicized, groups of ships departing U.S. waters for operational missions gain a Task force type designation, almost always with the Second or Third Fleets. On entry into another numbered fleet’s area of responsibility, they are redesignated as a task group from that fleet. For example, a carrier task group departing the Eastern Seaboard for the Mediterranean might start out as Task Group 20.1; on entry into the Mediterranean, it might become Task Group 60.1. The United States Navy has six active numbered fleets—Second, Third, Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Seventh—that are each led by a three-star Vice Admiral and the Fourth fleet led by a Rear Admiral. These six fleets are further grouped under Fleet Forces Command (the former Atlantic Fleet), Pacific Fleet, Naval Forces Europe, and Naval Forces Central Command, whose commander also doubles as Commander Fifth Fleet; these four commands are led by four-star full Admirals. The First Fleet existed after the Second World War from 1947, but it was redesignated Third Fleet in early 1973.[21] In early 2008, the United States Navy reactivated the Fourth Fleet to control operations in the area controlled by Southern Command, which consists of US assets in and around Central and South America.[22]

Organization

Simplified flowchart of U.S. Navy command structure The Navy falls under the administration of the Department of the Navy, under civilian leadership of the Secretary of the Navy (SECNAV). The most senior naval officer is the Chief of Naval Operations (CNO), a fourstar admiral who is immediately under and reports to the Secretary of the Navy. At the same time, the Chief of Naval Operations is one of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, which is the second-highest deliberatory body of the armed forces after the United States National Security Council, although it only plays an advisory role to the President and does not nominally form part of the chain of command. The Secretary of the Navy and Chief of Naval Operations are responsible for organizing, recruiting, training, and equipping the Navy so that it is ready for operation under the command of the Unified Combatant Commanders.

Shore establishments
Shore establishment commands exist to support the mission of the seaborne fleets through the use of facilities on land. Focusing on logistics and combat-readiness, they are essential for the smooth, continuous and complete operation of naval forces. The variety of commands reflect the complexity of the modern US Navy and range from naval

6

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

United States Navy
Navy personnel, but by civil service or contracted merchant mariners.

Naval Special Warfare Command

USS Kitty Hawk (CV-63) docks at the U.S. Navy base in Yokosuka, Japan. intelligence to personnel training to maintaining repair facilities. Two of the major logistics and repair commands are Naval Sea Systems Command and Naval Air Systems Command. Other commands such as the Office of Naval Intelligence, the United States Naval Observatory, and the Naval War College focus on intelligence and strategy. Training commands include the Naval Strike and Air Warfare Center and the United States Naval Academy. The Navy maintains several "Naval Forces Commands" which operate naval shore facilities and serve as liaison units to local ground forces of the Air Force and Army. Such commands are answerable to a Fleet Commander as the shore protector component of the afloat command. During times of war, all Naval Forces Commands augment to become task forces of a primary fleet. Some of the larger Naval Forces Commands in the Pacific Ocean include Commander Naval Forces Korea (CNFK), Commander Naval Forces Marianas (CNFM), and Commander Naval Forces Japan (CNFJ).

SWCC crewmen man a special operations craft U.S. Naval Special Warfare Command was commissioned 16 April 1987, at Naval Amphibious Base Coronado, in San Diego, California. It acts as the Naval component of the United States Special Operations Command, headquartered in Tampa, Florida. Naval Special Warfare Command provides vision, leadership, doctrinal guidance, resources and oversight to ensure component maritime special operations forces are ready to meet the operational requirements of combatant commanders. The NSW has 5,400 total activeduty personnel, including 2,450 SEALs and 600 Special Warfare Combatant-craft Crewmen. NSW also maintains a 1,200-person reserve of approximately 325 SEALs, 125 SWCC and 775 support personnel.[24]

Military Sealift Command
Military Sealift Command (MSC) serves not only the United States Navy, but the entire Department of Defense as an ocean carrier of materiel. It transports equipment, fuel, ammunition, and other goods essential to the smooth function of United States armed forces worldwide. Up to 95% of all supplies needed to sustain the U.S. military can be moved by Military Sealift Command.[23] MSC operates approximately 120 ships with 100 more in reserve. The command is unique in that its ships are manned not by active duty

Relationships with other service branches
United States Marine Corps
In 1834, the Marines came under the Department of the Navy.[25] Historically, the United States Navy has enjoyed a unique relationship with the United States Marine Corps (USMC), partly because they both specialize in seaborne operations. At the very top level of civilian organization, the USMC is part of

7

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
the Department of the Navy and reports to the Secretary of the Navy. However, it is considered to be a distinct, separate service branch and not a subset of the Navy; the highest ranking Marine officer, the Commandant of the Marine Corps, does not report to a Navy officer. Marine Corps Medal of Honor recipients are awarded the Navy variant and Marines are eligible to receive the Navy Cross. The United States Naval Academy trains Marine Corps commissioned officers while Navy officers undergo instruction by Marine NCO Drill Instructors, in addition to their normal Recruit Division Commander. Naval Aviation includes Navy and Marine aviators, flight officers, and aircrew. The relationship extends to the operational theater as well. As amphibious assault specialists, Marines often deploy on, and attack from, Navy vessels; while being transported on Navy ships, they must obey the orders of the captain of the vessel. Marine aviation tailhook squadrons train and operate alongside Navy squadrons, flying similar missions and often flying sorties together. Other types of Marine air squadrons operate from amphibious assault ships in support of Marine amphibious operations. Navy and Marine squadrons use the same NATOPS aviation manuals and procedures. The USMC does not train chaplains, hospital corpsmen or medical doctors; thus officers and enlisted sailors from the Navy fulfill these roles. They generally wear Marine uniforms that are emblazoned with Navy insignia and markings to distinguish themselves from Marines. Corpsmen and chaplains enjoy a great sense of camaraderie with the Marines due in part because they work closely with them and often are embedded with Marine units. They operate under the command of the Marine Corps under the auspices of the Fleet Marine Force, often called "green side" corpsman.[26]

United States Navy
Detachments (LEDETs) to Navy vessels, where they perform arrests and other law enforcement duties during Navy boarding and interdiction missions. In times of war, or when directed by the President, the Coast Guard operates as a service in the Navy and is subject to the orders of the Secretary of the Navy until it is transferred back to the Department of Homeland Security.[27] At other times, Coast Guard Port Security Units are sent overseas to guard the security of ports and other assets. The Coast Guard also jointly staffs the Navy’s Naval Coastal Warfare Groups and Squadrons (the latter of which were known as Harbor Defense Commands until late-2004), which oversee defense efforts in foreign littoral combat and inshore areas.

Personnel

A "shooter" in working uniform gives the signal to launch an F/A-18 Super Hornet from the USS Enterprise (CVN-65). The United States Navy has nearly 500,000 personnel, approximately a quarter of whom are in ready reserve. Of those on active duty, more than eighty percent are enlisted sailors, and around fifteen percent are commissioned officers; the rest are midshipmen of the United States Naval Academy, NROTC units at over 180 universities around the country and officer candidates at Officer Candidate School.[2] Sailors prove they have mastered skills and deserve responsibilities by completing Personnel Qualification Standards (PQS) tasks and examinations. Among the most important is the "warfare qualification", which denotes a journeyman level of capability in Surface Warfare, Aviation Warfare, Naval Aircrew, Special Warfare or Submarine

United States Coast Guard
Although the Posse Comitatus Act, which prevents federal military personnel from acting in a law enforcement capacity, applies only to the Army and Air Force, Department of Defense rules effectively require the Navy and Marine Corps to act as if Posse Comitatus did apply, preventing them from enforcing the law. The United States Coast Guard fulfills this law enforcement role in naval operations. It provides Law Enforcement

8

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Warfare. Many qualifications are denoted on a sailor’s uniform with U.S. Navy badges and insignia.

United States Navy
Commissioned Officer Rank Structure of the United States Navy Fleet Admiral Admiral Vice Rear Rear Admiral Admiral Admiral (upper (lower half) half) O-9 O-8 O-7

Commissioned officer
See also: List of United States Navy staff corps Commissioned officers in the Navy have pay grades ranging from O-1 to O-10, with O-10 being the highest; those with paygrades between O-1 through O-4 are considered junior officers and O-5 and O-6 as senior officers. Officers in the O-7 to O-10 range are called flag officers or "the admiralty." Promotion through O-8 is based on performance in an officer’s current paygrade, which is recorded in "FITREPS" (fitness reports), usually self-written by the officer and edited by superiors. Promotions to Vice Admiral (O-9) and Admiral (O-10) are based on assignment to specific positions and subject to U.S. Senate confirmation. Above the rank of Admiral is Fleet Admiral (O-11), which was awarded to only four officers in World War II and is intended to be used only during a declared war. In 1899, a special rank called Admiral of the Navy was created for Admiral George Dewey, a war hero of the Spanish-American War, with the condition that it would cease to exist upon his death.[28][29] Commissioned officers originate from the United States Naval Academy, Navy Reserve Officer Training Corps (NROTC), Officer Candidate School (OCS), and a host of other commissioning programs such as the Seaman to Admiral-21 program, the Limited Duty Officer and Chief Warrant Officer Selection Programs, and the United States Merchant Marine Academy. Commissioned officers can generally be divided into line officers and staff corps; line officers can be further split into unrestricted and restricted communities. Unrestricted Line Officers are the warfighting command element and are authorized to lead ships, aviation squadrons, and special operations units. Restricted Line Officers, on the other hand, concentrate on non-combat related fields, such as engineering and maintenance; they are not qualified to command combat units. Staff Corps officers are specialists in fields that are themselves professional careers and not exclusive to the military, for example: medicine, science, law, and civil engineering.

O-10 (Inactive)

O-10

Captain Commander

Lieutenant Lieutenant Lieu Commander J G O-4 O-3

O-6

O-5

Chief Warrant Officer
Chief Warrant Officer (CWO) pay grades range from W-2 to the highest rank of W-5. United States Navy CWOs are officers whose role is to provide leadership and skills for the most difficult and demanding operations in a particular technical specialty. They occupy a niche that is not as well served by the line officer community, who tend to have a broader focus. CWOs come from the senior non-commissioned officer ranks of the enlisted and receive their commission after completing the Chief Warrant Officer Program. They typically become CWOs in specialties that are most related to their previous enlisted rating. Like Staff Corps officers, CWOs wear special insignia above the rank devices on their shoulder boards and sleeves to indicate their field of expertise. Commissioned Warrant Officer Rank Structure of the United States Navy Chief Warrant Officer Five W-5 Chief Warrant Officer Four W-4 Chief Warrant Officer Three W-3 Chief Warrant Officer Two W-2

9

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

United States Navy
Non-Commissioned Officer and Enlisted Rate Structure of the United States Navy Master Fleet/ Command Master Senior Chief Chief Force Master Chief Chief Petty Petty Master Chief Petty Petty Officer Officer Chief Petty Officer Officer of the Petty Officer Navy Officer E-9 E-8 E-7

Enlisted sailors

Petty Officers wearing service uniforms pose for a photograph See also: List of United States Navy ratings Enlisted members of the Navy have pay grades from E-1 to E-9, with E-9 being the highest. All enlisted sailors with paygrades of E-4 and higher are considered Petty Officers while those at E-7 and higher are further named Chief Petty Officers. Those who demonstrate superior performance are given an increase in paygrade; the official Navy term is to be advanced. Two notable advancements are from Seaman to Petty Officer Third Class (E-3 to E-4) and from Petty Officer First Class to Chief Petty Officer (E-6 to E-7). Advancement to Chief Petty Officer is especially significant and is marked by a special induction ceremony. Enlisted members of pay grades E-4 and above are said to be "rated," meaning that they possess a rating, or occupational specialty. Members of grades E-1 to E-3 can become "strikers," meaning they have rating designations like Petty Officer (example: a BM3 is a Petty Officer Third Class rated as a Boatswain’s Mate; BMSN is a Seaman designated as a Boatswain’s Mate striker), but do not necessarily have to be. Whether a designated striker or not, personnel in the pay grades of E-3 and below are all considered "Non-Rates." There are more than 50 ratings covering a broad range of skills and subspecialties. For example, SA SMITH, MARY. would be considered a Seaman Apprentice. Prior to her rank of SA a rating would be placed. Therefore, her entire title would be ITSA SMITH, MARY. IT indicating Information Systems Technician. As for ENFN THOMPSON, JOHN. EN specifying the occupation as Engineman and FN as Fireman.

Petty Petty Petty Seaman Seaman Seam Officer Officer Officer Apprentice Recru First Second Third Class Class Class E-6 E-5 E-4 E-3 E-2

E-1

No insign

Uniforms and appearance

A Vice Admiral returns salute from enlisted sailors in dress uniform at a ceremony. The uniforms of the United States Navy are designed "to combine professionalism and naval heritage with versatility, safety, and comfort".[30] The Navy currently incorporates many different styles that are specific for a variety of uses and occasions. In most cases, distinctions are made to distinguish officers and enlisted men in their uniformed appearance. U.S. Navy uniforms can generally be divided into three categories: dress uniforms, service uniforms, and working uniforms.

10

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
• Dress uniforms are worn during militaryrelated formal occasions, such as ceremonies and other official functions. Many types of dress uniforms are used in the Navy with the full range of formal requirements represented. Service dress is the least formal dress uniform, full dress is one step higher in formality, and mess dress is the most formal dress available. • Service uniforms are designed for daily wear and are most often worn in office or classroom-type settings, as well as other occasions in which physical activity is at a minimum.[31] The most visible distinction between officers and enlisted personnel are the color of the service uniform. Only officers and chief petty officers are authorized to wear service khaki; all other personnel must wear winter blue or summer white. • Working uniforms prioritize comfort and safety first and thus are the most utilitarian of the Navy uniforms. They are intended for use in underway ships and in occasions that involve dirty, physical labor. Many working uniforms are variations of the service uniforms except with less formal requirements. This category includes Navy coveralls, which are authorized to be worn by members of all ranks. Recently, the Navy completed a project named "Task Force Uniform" to streamline Navy uniforms. Among the changes are that enlisted personnel from Seaman Recruit to Petty Officer First Class (E1-E6) will have one year-round service uniform instead of winter blues and summer whites. All personnel from Seaman Recruit to Admiral will also have new working uniforms dubbed Navy Working Uniform (NWU) to replace the wash khakis, coveralls, dungarees, and aviation working greens currently in use. The uniform is a digital patterned camouflage in predominantly haze gray and blue hues.[32] Grooming for both male and female sailors is regulated to a high degree, with exact standards in regards to hair, facial hair, use of cosmetics, and jewelry. New male recruits are given the military crew cut and are prohibited from having hair longer than four inches (102 mm) while in the service. Men are required to be clean shaven at all times, although mustaches are allowed. Women do not have a hair length regulation, however

United States Navy
hair cannot fall past the bottom edge of the uniform collar and the style of hair is strictly controlled. Multicolored hair, body piercing, and tattoos on the head are banned for both sexes.[33]

Bases

Map of Navy bases in the United States. The size, complexity, and international presence of the United States Navy require a large number of navy installations to support its operations. While the majority of bases are located inside the United States itself, the Navy maintains a significant number of facilities abroad, either in U.S.-controlled territories or in foreign countries under a Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA).

Eastern United States
The second largest concentration of installations is in Hampton Roads, Virginia, where the Navy occupies over 36,000 acres (146 km²) of land. Located in Hampton Roads are NS Norfolk, homeport of the Atlantic Fleet, NAS Oceana, a Master Jet Base, Naval Amphibious Base Little Creek, as well as a number of Navy and commercial shipyards that service Navy vessels. The state of Florida is the location of three major bases, Naval Station Mayport, the Navy’s fourth largest, near Jacksonville, Florida, Naval Air Station Jacksonville, a Master Air Anti-submarine Warfare base, and Naval Air Station Pensacola, home of the Naval Education and Training Command, the Naval Air Technical Training Center that provides specialty training for enlisted aviation personnel, and the primary flight training base for Navy and Marine Corps Naval Flight Officers and enlisted Naval Aircrewmen. The main U.S. Navy submarine bases on the east coast are located in

11

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Groton, Connecticut and Kings Bay, Georgia. There are also naval bases in Portsmouth, New Hampshire and Brunswick, Maine.[34]

United States Navy
ordnance training area on nearby Vieques Island.[34]

Western United States and Hawaii
The Navy’s largest complex is China Lake, California, which covers 1.1 million acres (4500km²) of land, or approximately 1/3 of the United States Navy’s total land holdings.[34] Naval Base San Diego, California is principal home to the Pacific Fleet (although the headquarters is located in Pearl Harbor). NAS North Island is located on the north side of Coronado, and is home to Headquarters for Naval Air Forces and Naval Air Force Pacific, the bulk of the Pacific Fleet’s helicopter squadrons, and part of the West Coast aircraft carrier fleet. The Naval Special Warfare Center is the primary training center for SEALs, and is also located on Coronado. The other major collection of naval bases on the west coast is in Puget Sound, Washington. Among them, Naval Station Everett is one of the newer bases and the Navy states that it is its most modern facility.[35] NAS Fallon, Nevada serves as the primary training ground for Navy Strike aircrews, and is home to the Naval Strike Air Warfare Center. Master Jet Bases are also located at NAS Lemoore, California and NAS Whidbey Island, Washington, while the carrier-based airborne early warning aircraft community and major air test activities are located at NAS Point Mugu, California. The naval presence in Hawaii is centered on Pearl Harbor Naval Base, which hosts the headquarters of the Pacific Fleet and many of its subordinate commands.[34]

Foreign countries
The largest overseas base is in Yokosuka, Japan,[37] which serves as the homeport for the Navy’s largest forward-deployed fleet and is a significant base of operations in the Western Pacific. European operations revolve around facilities in Italy and Greece with Naples as the homeport for the Sixth Fleet and CNRE Command Naval Region Europe. In the Middle East, naval facilities are located almost exclusively in countries bordering the Persian Gulf, with Manama, Bahrain serving as the headquarters of U.S. Naval Forces Central Command and U.S. Fifth Fleet. Guantánamo Bay in Cuba is the oldest overseas facility and has become known in recent years as the location of a detention camp for suspected al-Qaeda operatives.[38]

Ships
See also: List of United States Navy ships The names of commissioned ships of the U.S. Navy are prefixed with the letters "USS," designating "United States Ship".[39] Noncommissioned, civilian-manned vessels of the Navy have names that begin with "USNS," standing for "United States Naval Ship" The names of ships are officially selected by the Secretary of the Navy, often to honor important people or places. Additionally, each ship is given a letter-based hull classification symbol (for example, CVN or DDG) to indicate the vessel’s type and number. All ships in the Navy inventory are placed in the Naval Vessel Register, which tracks data such as the current status of a ship, the date of its commissioning, and the date of its decommissioning. Vessels that are removed from the register prior to disposal are said to be stricken from the register. The Navy also maintains a reserve fleet of inactive vessels that are maintained for reactivation in times of need. The U.S. Navy was one of the first to install nuclear reactors aboard naval vessels;[40] today, nuclear energy powers all of U.S. active aircraft carriers and submarines. In the case of the Nimitz-class carrier, two naval reactors give the ship almost unlimited range and provide enough electrical energy to power a city of 100,000 people.[41] The U.S. Navy previously operated nuclear-

United States territories
Guam, an island strategically located in the Western Pacific Ocean, maintains a sizable U.S. Navy presence. The westernmost U.S. territory, it contains a natural deep water harbor capable of harboring even aircraft carriers in emergencies.[36] Its naval air station was deactivated in 1995 and its flight activities transferred to nearby Andersen Air Force Base. Puerto Rico in the Caribbean formerly housed Roosevelt Roads Naval Station, which was shut down in 2004 shortly after the controversial closure of the live

12

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
powered cruisers and destroyers, but all have been decommissioned.

United States Navy
electronic warfare, assist in special operations, and carry out search and rescue missions. The carriers themselves, in addition to enabling airborne operations, serve as command platforms for large battle groups or multinational task forces. U.S. Navy aircraft carriers can also host aircraft from other nations’ navies; the French Navy’s Rafale has operated, during naval exercises, from U.S. Navy flight decks.[47] A carrier is typically deployed along with a host of additional vessels, forming a carrier battle group. The supporting ships, which usually include three or four Aegis-equipped cruisers and destroyers, a frigate, and two attack submarines, are tasked with protecting the carrier from air, missile, sea, and undersea threats as well as providing additional strike capabilities themselves. Ready logistics support for the group is provided by a combined ammunition, oiler, and supply ship. • Enterprise-class (1 in commission) • Nimitz-class (10 in commission) • Gerald R. Ford-class (1 under construction, at least 2 more planned)

Aircraft carriers

Amphibious warfare vessels
USS Nimitz (CVN-68), a Nimitz class aircraft carrier Due to their ability to put most nations within striking distance of U.S. air power, aircraft carriers are the cornerstones of the United States’ forward deployment and deterrence strategy.[42] Multiple carriers are deployed around the world to provide military presence, respond quickly to crises, and participate in joint exercises with allied forces;[43] this has led the Navy to refer to their Nimitzclass carriers as "4.5 acres of sovereign and mobile American territory."[44] Former President Bill Clinton summed up the importance of the aircraft carrier by stating that "when word of crisis breaks out in Washington, it’s no accident the first question that comes to everyone’s lips is: where is the nearest carrier?"[45] The power and operational flexibility of a carrier lie in the aircraft of its carrier air wing. Made up of both fixed-wing and rotarywing aircraft, a carrier air wing is able to perform over 150 strike missions at once, hitting over 700 targets a day.[46] Carrier air wings also protect friendly forces, conduct

USS Bataan (LHD-5), a Wasp class amphibious assault ship Amphibious assault ships are the centerpieces of US amphibious warfare and fulfill the same power projection role as aircraft carriers except that their striking force comprises land forces instead of aircraft. They deliver, command, coordinate, and fully support all elements of a 2200-strong Marine Expeditionary Unit in an amphibious assault using both air and amphibious vehicles. Resembling small aircraft carriers, amphibious assault ships are capable of V/STOL, STOVL,

13

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
VTOL, tiltrotor, and rotary wing aircraft operations. They also contain a well deck to support the use of Landing Craft Air Cushion (LCAC) and other amphibious assault watercraft. Recently, amphibious assault ships have begun to be deployed as the core of an expeditionary strike group, which usually consists of an additional amphibious transport dock and dock landing ship for amphibious warfare and an Aegis-equipped cruiser and destroyer, frigate, and attack submarine for group defense. Amphibious assault ships are typically named after World War II aircraft carriers. • Tarawa class (2 in commission, 3 decommissioned) • Wasp class (7 in commission, 1 under construction) Amphibious transport docks are warships that embark, transport, and land Marines, supplies, and equipment in a supporting role during amphibious warfare missions. With a landing platform, amphibious transport docks also have the capability to serve as secondary aviation support for an expeditionary group. All amphibious transport docks can operate helicopters, LCACs, and other conventional amphibious vehicles while the newer San Antonio class of ships has been explicitly designed to operate all three elements of the Marines’ "mobility triad": Expeditionary Fighting Vehicles (EFVs), the V-22 Osprey tiltrotor aircraft, and the previously mentioned LCACs. Amphibious transport docks are named for cities, except for USS Mesa Verde (LPD-19), named for Mesa Verde National Park in Colorado, and two of the three ships named in memory of the September 11, 2001 attacks: USS New York (LPD-21), for the state of New York, and USS Somerset (LPD-25) for Somerset County, Pennsylvania.

United States Navy
• Austin class (5 in commission, 6 decommissioned, 1 converted to an auxiliary command ship) • San Antonio class (4 in commission, 2 under construction, 4 more planned) The dock landing ship is a medium amphibious transport that is designed specifically to support and operate Landing Craft Air Cushions (LCACs), though it is able to operate other amphibious assault vehicles in the United States inventory as well. Dock landing ships are normally deployed as a component of an expeditionary strike group’s amphibious assault contingent, operating as a secondary launch platform for LCACs. All dock landing ships are named after locations in the United States. • Whidbey Island class (8 in commission) • Harpers Ferry class (4 in commission)

Surface vessels

USS Port Royal (CG-73), a Ticonderoga class cruiser Cruisers are large surface combat vessels that conduct anti-air/anti-missile warfare, surface warfare, anti-submarine warfare, and strike operations independently or as members of a larger task force. Modern guided missile cruisers were developed out of a need to counter the anti-ship missile threat facing the United States Navy. This led to the development of the AN/SPY-1 phased array radar and the Standard Missile 2 with the Aegis combat system coordinating the two. Ticonderoga-class cruisers became the first to equip Aegis and were put to use primarily as anti-air and anti-missile defense in a battle force protection role. Later developments of vertical launch systems and the Tomahawk missile gave cruisers additional long-range land and sea strike capability, making them

USS San Antonio (LPD-17), a San Antonio class amphibious transport dock

14

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
capable of both offensive and defensive battle operations. All cruisers since CG-47 have been named for famous battles with USS Thomas S. Gates (CG-51) as the only exception. Previously, cruisers were either named for cities (until CG-12), former important navy figures (CG-15 to CG-35), or states (CGN-36 to CGN-41). • Ticonderoga class (22 in commission, 5 decommissioned) Destroyers are multi-mission medium surface ships capable of sustained performance in anti-air, anti-submarine, anti-ship, and offensive strike operations. Like cruisers, the guided missile destroyers of the Navy are primarily focused on surface strikes using Tomahawk missiles and fleet defense through Aegis and the Standard missile. Destroyers additionally specialize in anti-submarine warfare and are equipped with VLA rockets and LAMPS Mk III Sea Hawk helicopters to deal with underwater threats. When deployed with a carrier strike group or expeditionary strike group, destroyers and their fellow Aegis-equipped cruisers are primarily tasked with defending the fleet while providing secondary strike capabilities. Destroyers have been named for important navy personnel and heroes since the USS Bainbridge (DD-1). • Arleigh Burke class (52 in commission, three under construction, seven more planned)

United States Navy
torpedoes and LAMPS helicopters. Independently, frigates are able to conduct counterdrug missions and other maritime interception operations. The U.S. Navy expects to retire and replace its current class of frigates by 2020.[48] As in the case of destroyers, frigates are named after naval heroes. • Oliver Hazard Perry class (30 in commission, 20 decommissioned) All U.S. battleships have been decommissioned and stricken from the Naval Vessel Register. Designed to engage other capital ships in open sea warfare, battleships were the Navy’s largest and most important vessels until the mid-20th century. The rise of aircraft carriers in World War II led to the declining importance of battleships and the Navy relegated them to the roles of fire support and escort. Following a long period of inactivity, the Iowa-class battleships were recommissioned in the 1980s to augment the Navy’s size and were upgraded with Tomahawk cruise missile capability. They were decommissioned for the final time in the early 1990s due in part to their high maintenance costs and the Cold War’s end. All battleships except USS Kearsarge (BB-5) were named for states.

Submarines

USS Bainbridge (DDG-96), an Arleigh Burkeclass guided missile destroyer Modern U.S. frigates mainly perform antisubmarine warfare for carrier strike groups and amphibious expeditionary groups and provide armed escort for supply convoys and merchant shipping. They are designed to protect friendly ships against hostile submarines in low to medium threat environments, using

USS Kentucky (SSBN-737), an Ohio class ballistic missile submarine The primary missions of submarines in the U.S. Navy are peacetime engagement, surveillance and intelligence, special operations, precision strikes, battlegroup operations, and control of the seas.[49] The U.S. Navy operates two types: ballistic submarines and attack submarines. Ballistic submarines have only one mission: to carry and launch the

15

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
nuclear Trident missile. Attack submarines have several tactical missions, including sinking ships and other subs, launching cruise missiles, gathering intelligence, and assisting in special operations. Sea attack submarines are typically named for cities while land attack submarines (Virginia- and converted Ohio-class boats) are typically named for states. Earlier attack submarines were named for "denizens of the deep", while earlier ballistic missile submarines were named for "famous Americans" (although many of them were actually foreigners). • Ohio class ballistic missile submarines (18 in commission, with four converted into guided missile submarines) • Los Angeles class attack submarines (45 in commission, 17 decommissioned) • Seawolf class attack submarines (three in commission) • Virginia class attack submarines (five in commission, four under construction or ordered, at least nine more planned)

United States Navy
between two steam-powered ironclads, known as the Battle of Hampton Roads. The Monitor was the first ironclad built by the U.S. Navy and its design introduced the rotating gun turret to naval warfare. was the first submarine built by the U.S. Navy. The submarine sank in 1863 while being towed during a storm and never saw combat. Though not technically a U.S. Navy vessel, H.L. Hunley (from the same war and era) was the first successful combat submarine. In January 1898, the Maine was sent from Key West, Florida, to Havana, Cuba, to protect U.S. interests during a time of local insurrection and civil disturbances. Three weeks later, on February 15 at 9:40 p.m., an explosion on board the Maine occurred in the Havana Harbor. The explosion was a precipitating cause of the Spanish-American War that began in April 1898. was a Pennsylvania class battleship, best known for her cataclysmic and dramatic sinking, with the loss of 1,177 lives, during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941, the event that brought about U.S. involvement in World War II. The USS Arizona Memorial is constructed over the shattered hull, which still contains the remains of most of the crew. It is commonly—but incorrectly—believed that Arizona remains perpetually in commission, likely due to the fact that naval vessels entering Pearl Harbor render honors to the remains of the vessel. , a Yorktown-class aircraft carrier, was the most decorated U.S. warship in World War II, earning 20 of 22 possible battle stars. She was the only ship outside of the British Royal Navy to earn the Admiralty Pennant, the highest award of the British, in the more than 400 years since its creation. an Iowa class battleship, was the last battleship built by the United States, and was the site of the surrender of the Empire of Japan which ended World War II. In 1955, she was decommissioned and assigned to the inactive reserve fleet (the "Mothball Fleet"), but reactivated and modernized in 1984 as part of the 600-ship Navy plan, and fought in the 1991 Gulf War. Decommissioned in 1995, she was the last actively serving battleship

•

•

•

Historically significant vessels

•

USS Constitution The U.S. Navy has operated a number of vessels important to both United States and world naval history: • , nicknamed "Old Ironsides," is the only surviving vessel of the original six frigates authorized by Congress in the Naval Act of 1794, which established the United States Navy. It served with distinction in the War of 1812 and is currently docked in Charlestown, Massachusetts, as the oldest commissioned warship afloat. • and CSS Virginia are together known for participating in the first engagement

•

16

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
in the world. She was donated to the USS Missouri Memorial Association in 1998 and became a museum ship at Pearl Harbor, moored opposite the USS Arizona. , a submarine commissioned in 1954, was the world’s first nuclear-powered ship. It demonstrated its capabilities by traveling 62,562 miles (100,684 km), more than half of which was submerged, in two years before having to refuel while breaking the record for longest submerged voyage, as well as being the first submarine to transit submerged under the North Pole in 1958.[50] , was a neutral United States Navy technical research ship, attacked by Israeli jet fighter planes and motor torpedo boats on June 8, 1967, during the Six-Day War while in international waters off the Sinai Peninsula. , a nuclear-powered submarine commissioned in 1957, was the first ship to physically reach the North Pole when she surfaced there in 1958. , a nuclear-powered submarine commissioned in 1959, made the first submerged circumnavigation of the world during its shakedown cruise in 1960, as well as being the only non-Soviet submarine to be powered by two nuclear reactors. was the first nuclear-powered surface warship in the world when she was commissioned in 1961 and signaled a new era of United States naval weaponry by being the first large ship in the Navy to have guided missiles as its main battery. was the world’s first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier when she was commissioned in 1961. was boarded and seized by the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea) on 23 January 1968 and is still under Korean control. The ship remains in commission to this day. The ship was struck on May 17, 1987, by two Exocet antiship missiles fired from an Iraqi Mirage F1 fighter during the Iran–Iraq War becoming the victim of the only successful anti-ship missile attack on a U.S. Navy warship. USS Vincennes (CG-49) is a U.S. Navy Ticonderoga class AEGIS guided missile cruiser. In 1988, the ship shot down Iran Air Flight 655 over the Persian Gulf,

United States Navy
killing all 290 civilian passengers onboard including 38 non-Iranians and 66 children. • On 12 October 2000, while at anchor in Aden, the Cole was attacked by Al-Qaeda suicide bombers, who sailed a small boat near the destroyer and detonated explosive charges. The blast created a hole in the port side of the ship about 40 feet (12 m) in diameter, killing 17 crewmembers and injuring 39.

•

Aircraft

•

•

•

•

•

•

Four Navy F/A-18F Super Hornets. See also: List of United States Navy aircraft squadrons Carrier-based aircraft are able to strike air, sea, and land targets far from a carrier strike group while protecting friendly forces from enemy aircraft, ships, and submarines. In peacetime, aircraft’s ability to project the threat of sustained attack from a mobile platform on the seas gives United States leaders significant diplomatic and crisis-management options. Aircraft additionally provide logistics support to maintain the Navy’s readiness and, through helicopters, supply platforms

•

•

17

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
with which to conduct search and rescue, special operations, anti-submarine warfare (ASW), and anti-surface warfare (ASuW). The U.S. Navy began to research the use of aircraft at sea in the 1910s and commissioned its first aircraft carrier, USS Langley, in 1922.[51] United States naval aviation fully came of age in World War II, when it became clear following the Attack on Pearl Harbor, the Battle of the Coral Sea, and the Battle of Midway that aircraft carriers and the planes that they carried had replaced the battleship as the greatest weapon on the seas. Navy aircraft also played a significant role in conflicts during the following Cold War years, with the F-4 Phantom II and the F-14 Tomcat becoming military icons of the era. The Navy’s current primary fighter and attack airplanes are the multi-mission F/A-18C/D Hornet and its newer cousin, the F/A-18E/F Super Hornet. The F-35 Lightning II is presently under development and is scheduled to replace the C and D versions of the Hornet in 2012.[52]

United States Navy

Aviation Ordnancemen loading GBU-12 bombs. Naval fixed-wing aircraft employ much of the same weapons as the United States Air Force for both air-to-air and air-to-surface combat. Air engagements are handled by the heat-seeking Sidewinder and the radar guided AMRAAM missiles along with the M61 Vulcan cannon for close range dogfighting. For surface strikes, Navy aircraft utilize a combination of missiles, smart bombs, and dumb bombs. On the list of available missiles are the Maverick, SLAM-ER and JSOW. Smart bombs include the GPS-guided JDAM and the laser-guided Paveway series. Unguided munitions such as dumb bombs and cluster bombs make up the rest of the weapons deployed by fixed-wing aircraft. Rotary aircraft weapons are focused on anti-submarine warfare (ASW) and light to medium surface engagements. To combat submarines, helicopters use Mark 46 and Mark 50 torpedoes. Against small watercraft, they utilize Hellfire and Penguin air to surface missiles. Helicopters also employ various types of mounted anti-personnel machine guns, including the M60, M240, GAU-16/A, and GAU-17/A. Nuclear weapons in the U.S. Navy arsenal are deployed through ballistic missile submarines and aircraft. The Ohio-class submarine carries the latest iteration of the Trident missile, a three stage, underwater launched, nuclear ICBM with MIRV capability; the current Trident II (D5) version is expected to be in service past 2020.[53] The Navy’s other nuclear weapon is the air-deployed B61 nuclear bomb. The B61 is a thermonuclear device that can be dropped by strike aircraft such as the F/A-18 Hornet and Super Hornet at high speed from a large range of altitudes.

Weapons systems
Current U.S. Navy shipboard weapons systems are almost entirely focused on missiles, both as a weapon and as a threat. In an offensive role, missiles are intended to strike targets at long distances with accuracy and precision. Because they are unmanned weapons, missiles allow for attacks on heavily defended targets without risk to human pilots. Land strikes are the domain of the BGM-109 Tomahawk, which was first deployed in the 1980s and is continually being updated to increase its capabilities. For antiship strikes, the Navy’s dedicated missile is the Harpoon missile. To defend against enemy missile attack, the Navy operates a number of systems that are all coordinated by the Aegis combat system. Medium-long range defense is provided by the Standard Missile 2, which has been deployed since the 1980s. The Standard missile doubles as the primary shipboard anti-aircraft weapon and is undergoing development for use in theater ballistic missile defense. Short range defense against missiles is provided by the Phalanx CIWS and the more recently developed RIM-162 Evolved Sea Sparrow Missile. In addition to missiles, the Navy employs Mark 46 and Mark 50 torpedoes and various types of naval mines.

18

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
It can be released through free-fall or parachute and can be set to detonate in the air or on the ground.

United States Navy
Warfare (NSW) Units. NSW units are charged with overall command and control and planning of special operations within their geographic jurisdiction. • Group THREE is made up of SEAL Delivery Vehicle (SDV) Teams. SEALs who are assigned to SDV teams specialize in the use of Swimmer Delivery Vehicles (known as "SEAL Delivery Vehicles" in American service) and Advanced SEAL Delivery Systems (ASDSs). These watercraft are submersibles that are designed to insert SEAL operators underwater, from long distances offshore. • Group FOUR comprises all of the Navy’s Special Boat Teams. • The U.S. Naval Special Warfare Development Group, also known as Dev Group or DEVGRU, is the United States military’s premier Maritime CounterTerrorism unit. While the Navy confirms the existence of the unit, it merely states that the role of Dev Group is to test, evaluate, and develop technology and maritime, ground and airborne tactics for Navy Special Warfare; no official mention of counter-terrorism concerning DEVGRU is made. Though much of the information regarding this unit is classified, it is estimated that the group consists of approximately 200 active operators.[56] • The Operational Support Group is the reserve element of NSWC, providing support to active units when necessary.[57] • The Naval Special Warfare Center, located in Coronado, California, is the main training center for Navy special operations personnel including the United States Navy SEALs. Although not under the jurisdiction of NSW Command, Navy Explosive Ordnance Disposal Units often work closely with special operations teams. Trained to be combat-ready and highly mobile, EOD units are entrusted with nullifying hazardous ordnance in a number of different maritime environments.[58] They are also able to conduct underwater anti-mine operations using marine mammals.[59]

Special warfare

SEALs coming ashore The major players in U.S. Navy special operations are the United States Navy SEALs and the Special Warfare Combatant-craft Crewmen (SWCCs, pronounced "swicks"). The SEALs derive their name from the environments in and from which they can operate: SEa, Air, and Land. Their distinguishing specialty, however, is maritime operations—striking from and returning to the sea.[54] The SEALs are a flexible group of naval Special Forces who are trained to conduct clandestine warfare, most often in smallunit actions. SWCCs are trained in small ship and watercraft special operations and often work closely with their SEAL counterparts. Organized into Special Boat Teams, SWCCs have expertise in inserting and extracting SEALs in hostile territory, conducting coastal patrols, carrying out surveillance missions and boarding vessels.[55] Navy special operations fall under the jurisdiction of Naval Special Warfare Command, the Navy branch of United States Special Operations Command. Within Naval Special Warfare Command are seven operational entities: four Special Warfare Groups, the Special Warfare Development Group, the Operational Support Group, and the Special Warfare Center. • Naval Special Warfare Group ONE and Group TWO each consist of four teams of Navy SEALs and a few Naval Special

19

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

United States Navy
protection conducted through fleet support with operations around the world. Anti-Terrorism and Force Protection missions include harbor and homeland defense, coastal surveillance, and special missions. Specialized units work together with MESF squadron staffs providing intelligence and communications. MESF units deploy worldwide to detect, deter, and defend an area, unit, or High Value Asset. Recent locations include the United States, Korea, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, United Arab Emirates, and Egypt. Two Maritime Expeditionary Security Groups in San Diego and Portsmouth, Va. provide centralized planning, control, training, coordination, equipping, and integration of coastal warfare assets trained to operate in high density, multi-threat environments. Units conduct force protection of strategic shipping and naval vessels operating in the inshore and coastal assets, anchorages and harbors, from bare beach to sophisticated port facilities. Coastal and harbor defense and protection of naval assets are placed under the jurisdiction of two Naval Coastal Warfare Groups: one for the Pacific Fleet and one for the Atlantic Fleet. Within these groups are Mobile Security Squadrons and Naval Coastal Warfare Squadrons. MSSs deploy Mobile Security Detachments that provide force protection for high value naval targets in ports and harbors where U.S. shore infrastructure is limited or does not exist. Naval Coastal Warfare Squadrons provide surveillance and security in harbors, coasts, and inshore areas. They comprise Mobile Inshore Undersea Warfare Units (MIUWUs) and Inshore Boat Units (IBUs). MIUWUs are charged with security, observation, and communications support for commanders operating in an inshore/coast environment, including anchorages and harbors. In the same operating environment, IBUs manage water craft for security, interdiction and surveillance.

Naval Expeditionary Combat Command
Navy Expeditionary Combat Command (NECC), established in January 2006, serves as the single functional command for the Navy’s expeditionary forces and as central management for the readiness, resources, manning, training and equipping of those forces.

Members of Inshore Boat Unit 24 patrol near Kuwait Naval Base. NECC consolidates, aligns and integrates diverse expeditionary capabilities and combat support elements to create consistent expeditionary practices, procedures, requirements and logistics in the battle space. NECC’s enterprise approach will yield improved efficiencies and effectiveness through economies of scale and common processes. NECC is a command element and force provider for integrated maritime expeditionary missions. NECC is a core expeditionary force providing effective waterborne and ashore anti-terrorism, force protection, theater security cooperation and engagement, and humanitarian assistance/disaster relief contingencies. Upon request, NECC supplements Coast Guard homeland security requirements while training and equipping forces to support mission requirements. NECC capabilities include; Explosive Ordnance Disposal, Maritime Expeditionary Security, Riverine, Diving Operations, Naval Construction, Maritime Civil Affairs, Expeditionary Training, Expeditionary Logistics, Expeditionary Intelligence, Combat Camera, Expeditionary Combat Readiness, and Maritime Expeditionary Security. The Maritime Expeditionary Security Force’s (MESF) (formerly known as Naval Coastal Warfare) primary mission is force

Naval culture
The current naval jack of the United States is the First Navy Jack, traditionally regarded as having been used during the American Revolutionary War. On 31 May 2002, Secretary of the Navy Gordon England directed all U.S. naval ships to fly the First Navy Jack for the duration of the War on Terrorism. Many ships chose to shift colors later that year on

20

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

United States Navy

First and current U.S. Naval Jack the first anniversary of the September 11, 2001 attacks. The previous naval jack was a blue field with 50 white stars, identical to the canton of the ensign (the flag of the United States) both in appearance and size, and continues to remain in use with vessels of the U.S. Coast Guard. A jack of similar design was used in 1794, though with 13 stars arranged in a 3–2–3–2–3 pattern. When a ship is moored or anchored, the jack is flown from the bow of the ship while the ensign is flown from the stern. When underway, the ensign is raised on the mainmast. The First Naval Jack, however, has always been flown on the oldest ship in the American fleet, currently the USS Constitution. Over the course of the Navy’s 207-year existence, a distinct jargon has evolved among American sailors and has become a normal part of their everyday speech. Modern U.S. Navy slang draws from a number of varied sources. It includes traditional sailing terms, archaic English words, and a plethora of acronyms, joke phrases, crude expressions, and abbreviations that have been created within the past hundred years.[60]

Former U.S. Naval Jack officers include John Paul Jones, James Lawrence (whose last words "don’t give up the ship" are memorialized in Bancroft Hall at the United States Naval Academy), Oliver Hazard Perry, Commodore Matthew Perry (whose Black Ships forced the opening of Japan), and Chester Nimitz, Admiral of the Pacific Fleet in World War II. A number of presidents served in the Navy before their political careers, including John F. Kennedy (who commanded the famous PT-109), Lyndon B. Johnson, Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford, Jimmy Carter, and George H.W. Bush. Both Theodore Roosevelt and Franklin D. Roosevelt were the Assistant Secretary of the Navy prior to their presidencies. Many

Notable sailors
Many past and present United States historical figures have served in the Navy. Notable

21

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

United States Navy

References
[1] "Navy Traditions and Customs". Naval Historical Center. United States Navy. http://www.history.navy.mil/trivia/ trivia01.htm. Retrieved on 2009-01-24. [2] ^ "Status of the Navy". U.S. Navy. http://www.navy.mil/navydata/ navy_legacy.asp?id=146. Retrieved on 1 December 2008. [3] Gates, Robert M. "A Balanced Strategy: Reprogramming the Pentagon for a New Age". Council On Foreign Relations. http://fullaccess.foreignaffairs.org/ 20090101faessay88103-p20/robert-mgates/a-balanced-strategy.html. Retrieved on 8 December 2008. [4] "Constitution of the United States". U.S. Government. http://www.archives.gov/ exhibits/charters/constitution.html. Retrieved on 1 December 2008. [5] ^ Palmer, Micheal A. "The Continental Period, 1775-1890". A History of the U.S. Navy. Naval Historical Centre. http://www.history.navy.mil/history/ history2.htm. Retrieved on 1 December 2008. [6] "The US Navy Organisation". Mission of the Navy. United States Navy. http://www.navy.mil/navydata/ organization/org-top.asp. Retrieved on 29 November 2008. [7] "Military requirements, basic (BMR) Revised Edition". Navy Advancement Training Manuals. U.S. Navy. http://www.tpub.com/content/ advancement/14325/css/14325_575.htm. Retrieved on 2 December 2008. [8] ^ "Famous Navy Quotes: Who Said Them... and When". Traditions of the US Navy. Naval Historical Centre. http://www.history.navy.mil/trivia/ trivia02.htm. Retrieved on 29 November 2008. [9] "Birth of the U.S. Navy". Department of the Navy – Naval Historical Center Official Website. Accessed 2 August 2006. [10] "Birthplace of the Navy". Department of the Navy — Naval Historical Center Official Website. Accessed 8 April 2006. [11] ^ Love, Robert W. Jr. History of the US Navy Volume One: 1775-1941. Harrisburg: Stackpole Books, 1992. [12] ^ Howarth, Steven. To Shining Sea: A history of the United States Navy

The Lone Sailor at the United States Navy Memorial in Washington D.C.

John Paul Jones, America’s first well-known navy hero. members of Congress served in the Navy, most notably U.S. Senators John McCain and John Kerry. Other notable former members of the U.S. Navy include astronauts, entertainers, authors, and professional athletes such as David Robinson and Roger Staubach.

22

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
1776-1991. New York: Random House, 1991. [13] "History of the US Navy". The Navy: The Continental Period, 1775-1890. Naval Historical Centre. http://www.history.navy.mil/history/ history2.htm. Retrieved on 29 November 2008. [14] Crocker III, H. W. (2006). Don’t Tread on Me. New York: Crown Forum. p. 302. ISBN 9781400053636. [15] Weighing the U.S. Navy Defense & Security Analysis, Volume 17, Issue 3 December 2001, pp. 259 - 265. [16] King, Ernest J., USN. "Major Combatant Ships Added to United States Fleet, 7 December 1941 - 1 October 1945". US Navy at War 1941-1945: Official Report to the Secretary of the Navy. Accessed 8 April 2006. [17] Palmer, Michael A. "The Navy: The Transoceanic Period, 1945-1992". Department of the Navy — Naval Historical Center Official Website. Accessed 8 April 2006. [18] "Overview—The Role of the Navy". US Navy in Desert Storm/Desert Shield. Naval Historical Centre. http://www.history.navy.mil/wars/dstorm/ ds1.htm. Retrieved on 29 November 2008. [19] "Forward...From the Sea". Department of the Navy Website. Accessed 25 July 2006. [20] Jim Garamone (17 October 2007). "Sea Services Unveil New Maritime Strategy". Navy News Service. http://www.navy.mil/ search/display.asp?story_id=32655. Retrieved on 26 May 2008. [21] The Coast Guard is often believed to act as the First Fleet in wartime; however, the United States has never officially used this reference and it is informal at best. "Numbered Fleets". From 1790-1798 there was no navy, and the only warships protecting the country were Revenue Cutters, the predecessors of the U.S. Coast Guard. This is why USCG ships are referred to as Cutters. Federation of American Scientists: Military Analysis Network. Accessed 8 April 2006. [22] "Navy Reestablishes U.S. Fourth Fleet", U.S. Navy, 24 April 2008. [23] "Military Sealift Command". Official U.S. Navy Website.Accessed 24 July 2006.

United States Navy
[24] "Naval Special Warfare Command"Official U.S. Navy Website. Accessed 1 February 2008. [25] Navy and Marine Corps History, Customs, and Courtesies -Fundamentals [26] USMC Public affairs -- Recon Marines seek green-side corpsmen. [27] [1] 14 USC 3. Relationship to Navy Department. [28] Admiral of the Navy George Dewey, USN. Naval Historical Center Official Website. Accessed May 16, 2007. [29] Naval Traditions: Names of Ranks. Naval Historical Center Official Website. Accessed 16 May 2007. [30] "Task Force Uniform". Navy Personnel Command. Accessed 8 April 2006. [31] Foutch, Michael, USN. "New Navy Working Uniform and Service Uniform Concepts Approved". Navy newsstand. Accessed 8 April 2006. [32] [2]. New Navy Working Uniform and Service Uniform Concepts Approved. Accessed 2 March 2006. [33] "Chapter 2: Grooming Regulations". U.S. Navy Uniform Regulations. Accessed 21 July 2006. [34] ^ "Navy facilities within the U.S.". United States Navy. http://www.navy.mil/ navydata/navy_legacy_hr.asp?id=195. Retrieved on 29 November 2008. [35] Naval Station Everett. Naval Station Everett Official Site. Accessed 18 April 2006. [36] Guam. Globalsecurity.org. Accessed 19 May 2007. [37] Yokosuka, Japan. Globalsecurity.org. Accessed 19 April 2006. [38] "Naval facilities outside the US". United States Navy. https://www.dmdc.osd.mil/ sites/owa/ Installation.prc_Home?p_SID=&p_DB=P. Retrieved on 29 November 2008. [39] USN Ship Naming. Naval Historical Center. Accessed 19 May 2007 [40] "CVN-65 Enterprise". GlobalSecurity.org. Accessed 7 March 2007 [41] "CVN-68 Nimitz Class". GlobalSecurity.org. Accessed 8 April 2006. [42] "Why the carriers?". Official United States Navy website. Accessed 7 March 2007. [43] "Fact file - Aircraft Carriers". United States Navy. Accessed 7 March 2007.

23

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
[44] "World Wide Aircraft Carriers". GlobalSecurity.org. Accessed 12 November 2006. [45] The US Navy Aircraft Carriers. Official U.S. Navy Website. Accessed 20 August 2006. [46] "Carrier Design". GlobalSecurity.org. Accessed 8 April 2006. [47] French Sailors Experience Flight Operations Aboard Roosevelt, US Navy Press Release, 22 July 2008 [48] "FFG-7 Oliver Hazard Perry-class Program Status". GlobalSecurity.org. Accessed 8 April 2006. [49] "Submarine Missions". GlobalSecurity.org. Accessed 8 April 2006. [50] "SSN-571 Nautilus." GlobalSecurity.org. Accessed 20 July 2006. [51] "A Brief History of U.S. Navy Aircraft Carriers: Part I - The Early Years". U.S. Navy Official Website. Accessed 9 April 2006. [52] "F-35C Joint Strike Fighter". Globalsecurity.org. Accessed 18 July 2006. [53] "Trident Fleet Ballistic Missile". U.S. Navy Official Website. Accessed 8 April 2006. [54] "SEAL Team Missions". About the SEALs. U.S. Navy SEALs. http://www.seal.navy.mil/seal/ missions.aspx. Retrieved on 2 December 2008. [55] "U. S. Navy Special Boat Squadrons". Global special operations online. http://www.globalspecialoperations.com/ seal-2.html. Retrieved on 2 December 2008. [56] "Naval Special Warfare Development Group". Specialoperations.com. Accessed 8 April 2006. [57] Naval Special Warfare Reshapes Reserves [58] "United States Navy Explosive Ordnance Disposal". Specwarnet.com. Accessed 8 April 2006. [59] "U.S. Navy Marine Mammal Fleet Systems". U.S. Navy Marine Mammal Program. Accessed 8 April 2006. [60] Naval Ceremonies, Customs, and Traditions / William Mack and Royal Connell — Naval Institute Press, 2004 ISBN 1557503303 • Globalsecurity.org United States Navy section • • • •

United States Navy
Naval Open Source Intelligence (NOSI) United States Navy Official Website U.S. Navy in WW II Howarth, Steven. To Shining Sea: A history of the United States Navy 1776-1991. New York: Random House, 1991. ISBN 0-394-57662-4 • Love, Robert W. Jr. History of the U.S. Navy Volume One: 1775-1941. Harrisburg: Stackpole Books, 1992. ISBN 0-8117-1862-X

External links

• "United States Navy official website". http://www.navy.mil/. • "Naval History & Heritage Command’s official website". http://www.history.navy.mil/. • "U.S. Naval Institute". http://www.usni.org/. • A Cooperative Strategy for 21st Century Seapower • "Navy.com, USN official recruitment site". http://www.navy.com/. • "U.S. Navy News website". http://www.news.navy.mil/swf/index.asp. ; official news • "United States Navy Memorial". http://www.navymemorial.org/. • "Congressional Research Service (CRS) Reports regarding the U.S. Navy". University of North Texas Libraries. http://digital.library.unt.edu/govdocs/crs/ search.tkl?q=navy&search_crit=title&search=Search& • "Photographic History of The U.S. Navy". Naval History. NavSource. http://www.navsource.org. • "Haze Gray & Underway — Naval History and Photography". HazeGray.org. http://www.hazegray.org/. • "U.S. Navy Ships". Military Analysis Network. Federation of America Scientists. http://fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/ ship/. • "United States Navy in World War I". World War I at Sea.net. http://www.worldwar1atsea.net/ WW1NavyUS.htm. Retrieved on 3 February 2007. (Includes warship losses.) • "U.S. Navy in World War II". World War II on the World Wide Web. Hyper War. http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/USN/. (Includes The Official Chronology of the U.S. Navy in World War II.)

24

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
• "Our Fighting Ships"". U.S. WW II Newsmap. Army Orientation Course. 29 June 1942. http://digital.library.unt.edu/ permalink/meta-dc-1023:2. Hosted by the UNT Libraries Digital Collections • "Strict Neutrality — Britain & France at War with Germany, September 1939 - May 1940". United States Navy and World War II. Naval-History.net. http://www.naval-

United States Navy
history.net/WW2USN193909.htm. Retrieved on 3 February 2007. (Chronology of the lead up of U.S. entry into WWII.) • "The National Security Strategy of the United States of America". http://www.whitehouse.gov/nsc/nss/2006/ intro.html.

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Navy" Categories: United States Navy, Uniformed services of the United States This page was last modified on 23 May 2009, at 03:29 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers

25


				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:139
posted:5/23/2009
language:English
pages:25