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									Final Report and Recommendations of the Implementation Road Map Working Group




     The Intelligent Infrastructure
             Report 2010

                         Draft v 0.12
Control sheet:


Version      Date            Main author                  Summary of changes
V0.1      25-11-2009   Frans op de Beek          First draft
V0.11     20-01-2010   Frans op de Beek          Change of chapter definition;
                                                 Add input from partners;
                                                 The input consists of separate pieces,
                                                 which still need to be integrated.
V0.12     09-02-2010   Frans op de Beek, Eline   Integration of separate pieces in report
                       Jonkers
Contents

Legal notice ................................................................................................................................ 5
Executive summary .................................................................................................................... 6
1       Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 7
    1.1         Context ................................................................................................................................... 7
    1.2         The establishment of the eSafety Forum and IIWG ............................................................... 7
2       Objective of this report ...................................................................................................... 9
    2.1         Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 9
    2.2         Focus is to cooperative systems ............................................................................................. 9
    2.3         The key questions to be answered .......................................................................................... 9
3       The Intelligent Infrastructure Working Group ................................................................. 10
    3.1         Terms of Reference .............................................................................................................. 10
       3.1.1 Objectives .........................................................................................................................................10
       3.1.2 Focus .................................................................................................................................................10
       3.1.3 Organisation and Structuring of the Work ........................................................................................11
    3.2     Stakeholders ......................................................................................................................... 11
    3.3         Working method: ................................................................................................................. 12
4       The definition of Intelligent Infrastructure ...................................................................... 12
5       Identification of Intelligent Infrastructure related services .............................................. 16
    5.1         Selected services .................................................................................................................. 16
    5.2         Level of service .................................................................................................................... 17
6       Added value of Intelligent Infrastructure ......................................................................... 18
    6.1         Which problems does it solve/ which barriers to overcome ................................................ 18
    6.2         Impact assessment of II services (congestion, safety, environment) Cost/Benefits ............. 20
7       Road categories and related services per category .......................................................... 34
    7.1         Categorisation of urban roads .............................................................................................. 34
8       (Basic) requirements for Intelligent Infrastructure services ............................................ 36
    8.1         At the level of functional requirements ................................................................................ 36
    8.2         How do the different stakeholders cooperate ....................................................................... 40
9       Current roadside infrastructure ........................................................................................ 41
    9.1         What is already available ..................................................................................................... 41
    9.2         Issues with current infra/Identification of problems ............................................................ 45
    9.3         How to grow to Intelligent ................................................................................................... 45
10 The Intelligent Vehicle .................................................................................................... 46
    10.1        Definition of Intelligent vehicle ........................................................................................... 46
    10.2        The II link with Intelligent Vehicles .................................................................................... 46
    10.3        Requirements from the vehicle side (electric vehicles) ....................................................... 46



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   10.4       Cooperation with vehicle manufacturers ............................................................................. 46
11 IT architecture .................................................................................................................. 47
   11.1       Communications architecture............................................................................................... 47
12 Communication & Protocols............................................................................................ 54
13 Specification and standards.............................................................................................. 55
14 Recommendations for the deployment of II services ...................................................... 56
   14.1       Business models ................................................................................................................... 56
   14.2       Cooperation techniques ........................................................................................................ 56
   14.3       Organisational issues............................................................................................................ 56
   14.4       Development and implementation roadmaps ....................................................................... 56
   14.5       Field Operational tests ......................................................................................................... 56
   14.6       Barriers to overcome ............................................................................................................ 56
   14.7       Technical versus economics ................................................................................................. 56
Annex 1: result of questionnaire definition of II Services ....................................................... 58
Annex 2: Relevant developments and projects ........................................................................ 62
Annex 3: Participants of IIWG ................................................................................................ 67
Annex 4: references /documents used...................................................................................... 70




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LEGAL NOTICE

Legal notice by the European Communities, Information Society Directorate-General
This report was produced by the eSafety Forum Working Group for Directorate-General
Information Society of the European Commission. It represents the view of the experts on the
Intelligent Infrastructure in Europe with eSafety systems. These views have not been adopted
or in any way approved by the European Commission and should not be relied upon as a
statement of the European Commission‟s or its Information Society Directorate-General‟s
view. The European Commission does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this
report, nor does it accept responsibility for any use made thereof. In addition, the European
Commission is not responsible for the external web sites referred to in this publication.




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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY




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 1     INTRODUCTION


     1.1   Context

            Within the general road safety framework, eSafety is a joint industry-
            public sector initiative aiming at well established targets related to safety
            and efficient management by using Information and Communication
            Technologies (ICT). Advanced Information and Communication
            Technologies contribute significantly to road safety and efficiency by
            enabling the development of sophisticated intelligent vehicle and
            Infrastructure systems and also taking a more and more important role in
            energy efficiency and sustainability.

     1.2   The establishment of the eSafety Forum and IIWG

            The establishment of the eSafety Forum was one of the key
            recommendations of the EC to promote and develop deployment and use
            of intelligent e-Safety Systems in Europe. It aims at removing the
            bottlenecks that prevent Intelligent Vehicles and Infrastructure Systems
            entering the market, through consensus building among stakeholders and
            recommendations to the Member States and the EU.


            Constitution of the Intelligent Infrastructure Working Group

            The e-Safety Forum confirmed in its Plenary Session in Ljubljana on 25th
            April 2008 as main objectives of the ITS Action Plan:
            A. Green transport
                     a. Target 1: Optimised use of infrastructure: better European
                        Road Traffic Management including the interaction with other
                        transport modes
                     b. Target 2: Less congestion on European freight corridors and
                        in cities by developing European solutions for demand
                        management (tolling and road pricing, congestion
                        management).
                     c. Target 3: Enhancing the use of more environmentally friendly
                        and energy efficient transport solutions


            B. Safety and security
                     a. Target 4: Improve safety/security of commercial transport
                        operations (including control/respect of regulations on the
                        social side, dangerous goods, etc.)
                     b. Target 5: Improve road safety with Driver Assistance Systems
                        such as ESC, e-Call, ACC, Lateral Support, Driver hypo-
                        vigilance systems, “speed alert” and “alcohol-lock”.



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         C. Mobility priority of people and goods
                a. Target 6: Providing more reliable real-time traffic and travel
                   information in a safe way.
                b. Target 7: Improving the efficiency of logistics chains

         These objectives led the e-Safety Forum Steering Group of 28 May 2008
         to propose the constitution of an Intelligent Infrastructure Working Group,
         with co-chairs from CEDR and ASECAP, with the first tasks:

         1. To work out the Terms of Reference and elaborate on the organisation
            and structuring the work
         2. To invite representatives from Road Authorities, Road Users and
            Automotive and ICT Industry to support the working group




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 2     OBJECTIVE OF THIS REPORT

     2.1   Introduction

           This report is a first attempt to define „what is the Intelligent Infrastructure‟.
           It elaborates on what services one may expect to be delivered by the road
           infrastructure. It will give the road operators and administrators a definition
           of the minimum level of required technical infrastructure in order to make
           the delivering possible of defined cooperative services.
           .
     2.2   Focus is on cooperative systems

           The Terms of Reference for this Intelligent Infrastructure working group
           define a focus on the road infrastructure side of cooperative systems. Within
           this context all aspects related to "Infrastructure" which means V2I (vehicle
           to infrastructure), I2V (infrastructure to vehicle), I2I (infrastructure to
           infrastructure systems) and in the near future also the link to nomadic
           devices (pedestrians and cyclists); With respect to this road infrastructure
           this means all the ICT systems at the roadside as well as the back-office
           systems (e.g. traffic management centre, data warehouses, etc.).

     2.3   The key questions to be answered
               Just a reference to the questions is expected here




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 3     THE INTELLIGENT INFRASTRUCTURE WORKING GROUP

     3.1   Terms of Reference

           The Terms of Reference for the eSafety Forum Intelligent Infrastructure
           Working Group (IIWG) were discussed and agreed upon at the eSafety
           Steering Committee of 23 October 2008. A summary of the main items is
           highlighted in this chapter

     3.1.1 Objectives

            1. Contribute to the general objectives of the e-Safety Forum;
            2. Identify the expectations towards intelligent infrastructure;
            3. Achieve a balance between the goals of the road operators,
               administrations and the industry;
            4. Identify issues, which need to be solved at infrastructure level, in order
               to ensure the implementation of cooperative systems on the road
               infrastructure side with a focus on the trunk road network and the final
               objective to improve safety and contribute to clean and efficient
               mobility;
            5. Reach consensus amongst its working group members on discussed
               issues, and to produce specific, detailed recommendations for the e-
               Safety Forum Steering Group as well as the Forum Plenary.
            6. The IIWG aims at developing detailed recommendations. For this
               purpose, the IIWG will organise Workshops and Expert Meetings.



     3.1.2 Focus

            1. On the road infrastructure side of cooperative systems;
            2. To all aspects related to "Infrastructure" which means V2I, I2V and I2I
               and in the near future also the link to nomadic devices (pedestrians
               and cyclists);
            3. On both the ICT systems on the roadside as well as the back-office
               systems (e.g. traffic management centre, data warehouses, etc.).


            Explanatory remarks:

            1.   Cooperative means in this context cooperation or communication
                 among systems. This communication can be between vehicles (V2V),
                 between vehicle(s) and Infrastructure (V2I), Infra to Vehicle (I2V) and
                 infra-infra (I2I). The IIWG focus to all aspects related to "I" who means
                 V2I, I2V and I2I.

            2. Within the near future the U (User system/device) as nomadic
               devices brings communication devices also to pedestrians and cyclists
               (in addition to bringing the system into the vehicle with the driver),
               enabling them to communicate with vehicle or infrastructure




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              embedded systems. This will significantly improve e.g. intersection
              safety systems.

          3. This will safeguard the future building of a holistic approach of
             cooperative systems having as ingredients: the road infrastructure
             side, the vehicle side and the infrastructure-vehicle communication.

          4. The recommendations coming from the eSafety Working Groups,
             especially the Implementation Road Maps WG will be considered.
             Such issues can be technical or related to other deployment aspects,
             such as regulation, taxes and incentives, standardisation and
             harmonisation, liability issues, privacy, security and business models.


   3.1.3 Organisation and Structuring of the Work

          The IIWG will be co-chaired by the representatives from ASECAP and
          CEDR.

          The co-chairs (will be nominated by the eSafety Forum Steering Group
          following proposals from ASECAP and CEDR respectively.

          The IIWG is expected to meet three to four times per year.

          The IIWG will contribute to the setting up of Workshops related to
          specific topics on the infrastructure side of the cooperative systems.
          These workshops are organised in coordination with the ongoing R&D
          projects on cooperative systems and the other eSafety WGs.

          The IIWG will also organise targeted Expert Meetings, as necessary.

          The IIWG meetings will normally take place in Brussels; eSafetySupport
          will support the IIWG as the other WGs, as described in its Description of
          Work.

   3.2   Stakeholders

         The IIWG is a European Group, open to all active participants. It will focus
         its membership on the Road Authorities/Road Operators, Road Users and
         Automotive and ICT Industry stakeholders interested in cooperative
         systems.
            o   Road Authorities:     CEDR members:
            o   Road Operators:       ASECAP members;
            o   Road Users:           FIA, IRU, IRF/ERF;
            o   Automotive Industry:  ACEA, Clepa and their members;
            o   ICT Industry:         Oracle, Arsenal, Vialis, Cobra Automotive
                                      Technologies;
            o   Int’l Laboratories:   VTT, INRETS, TNO;
            o   Universities;
            o   Cooperative Projects: EASYWAY, COOPERS, CVIS, SAFESPOT,
                                      COM E-SAFETY, European Architecture for
                                      Cooperative Systems, COM WG, SOA WG,
                                      ICT for Clean and Efficient Mobility WG;




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     3.3     Working method:

            The IIWG elaborated on the approach how to achieve the objectives.

            Picture of approach as drafted/designed by ASECAP

 4     THE DEFINITION OF INTELLIGENT INFRASTRUCTURE

           The terms “Intelligent infrastructures”, “Intelligent Highways”, road experts
           and managers, car manufacturers, equipment providers largely use “Intelligent
           Roads” today. Surprisingly, there are not so many explicit definitions of these
           terms. The need for a definition for Intelligent Infrastructure is in first instance
           for the Intelligent Infrastructure Working Group (IIWG) itself. To be able to
           discuss the topics as mentioned in the IIWG Terms of Reference and also to
           have discussions with external stakeholders it is important to have a common
           understanding and also a common framework. The results of the IIWG, and in
           this respect the Intelligent Infrastructure definition, can be promoted for
           further and broader use.




           The increasing demand for mobility (both people and goods), the
           environmental problems and road safety require a high performance road
           transport system where road users, vehicles and infrastructure are integrated
           into one reliable, efficient and smart transport system. These objectives can be
           realised by services and systems supported by an integrated approach of
           intelligent vehicles and intelligent infrastructure supporting the driver. These
           intelligent systems and the interaction between vehicles and roadside are today
           enabled by advanced information and communication technologies. These
           services/systems are dealing with:
            Up-to-date traffic information, traffic management, demand management,
               congestion reduction, improved mobility
            Increased road safety and security,
            Reduction of environmental problems,
            Development of sustainability.

           The intelligent infrastructure is the key component in the support, management
           and interaction between the road users/vehicles and the network operator.
           Various steps in the development (roadmap) of the Intelligent Infrastructure
           can be distinguished: from the „not intelligent‟ infra (only asphalt) via the


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      intelligent roadside (applying sensors, VMS, etc.) till the interactive/integrated
      intelligent infrastructure (communication with vehicles and back office).




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      The following definition is proposed for Intelligent Infrastructure:


       The Intelligent road Infrastructure is the organisation and technology of
       the roadside and back office for Information and Communication
       Technology (ICT) based (cooperative) traffic and transport services
       beneficial for road users and/or road network operators.


      That the Infrastructure is Intelligent and provides ICT based technology results
      in responsive, interactive and if needed pro-active services and systems.
      In this definition:
      - Organisation means the cooperation between all stakeholders in the
          service value chain necessary to operate all roadside and back office based
          services and systems. It also includes the necessary context such as the
          legal framework, business model etc. in which the organisation should act;
      - Technology means all dedicated Intelligent Transport Services/Systems
          (ITS) along the roadside and in back offices to support the (cooperative)
          transport services. This includes all ITS systems along the roadside, the
          communication between fixed systems and service/traffic
          management/operator centres as well as the system in the back offices
          providing the necessary information management and support to the
          services;
      - Roadside and back office means the fixed infrastructure along and
          beyond the road not being the in-car technical infrastructure/systems. It
          includes the road pavement, borders, until the control/service centres (the
          back-office/end)
      - ICT-based road traffic and transport services means those road
          traffic/transport services provided from the roadside directly to the road
          users via roadside systems (e.g. VMS, ramp metering, warning and
          signalling) and to the vehicle via short/long range communication (as
          information to the driver or data for the in-vehicle systems). Also data (e.g.
          sensor data) back from the cars to the roadside is part of this. It also
          includes data to and from Nomadic devices.
      - Cooperative means in this context cooperation or coordination among
          systems. This coordination is between vehicle(s) and Infrastructure (V2I),
          Infra to Vehicle (I2V), Nomadic devices to Infrastructure (N2I),
          Infrastructure to Nomadic devices (I2N) and infra-infra (I2I). Vehicle to
          Vehicle is not excluded because this communication can, in first instance,
          be provided via the infrastructure as intermediate step V2I>I2V.
      - Communication means both short and long-range communication via all
          different media.




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      The definition must be read in the following context and is based on the
      following characteristics:

       Future intelligent/cooperative vehicle and infrastructure systems
        necessitate the co-operation of various stakeholders (e.g. public
        organisations, telecom and service providers, car manufacturers, etc).
       The concept of an „intelligent infrastructure‟ will develop with the
        integration of in-vehicle technologies and systems that can interact with
        the already existing roadside and back office infrastructure.
       Collect data from the standard vehicles (measured by on-board sensors),
        fixed traffic or meteo stations, monitoring devices, etc. via wireless or
        fixed communications;
       Collect aggregated information from vehicles or fleets of vehicles, fixed
        traffic or meteo stations, monitoring devices via wireless or fixed
        communications; and /or
       Access services offered by vehicles or fleets of vehicles (including public
        transport), fixed traffic or meteo stations, monitoring devices, etc. via
        wireless or fixed communications
       Store/compute/consume, in a centralised or distributed computing
        infrastructure, these data/information/services
       Process all these data/information/services to produce relevant aggregated
        information and value added services;
       Provide new and customized services to all users as well as to the road
        managing authorities.
       Communicate with all “intelligent vehicles” (based on standardized
        wireless communication technologies)
       Understand data coming from these vehicles, with their localization
        (thanks to standardised or otherwise harmonised data format) and/or
       Understand information coming from these vehicles (thanks to
        standardised or otherwise harmonised information schemes) and/or
       Consume services coming from these vehicles (thanks to standardised or
        otherwise harmonised service description schemes)
       Process these data together with data coming from other sources (fixed
        stations, monitoring devices, embedded sensors, etc)
       Use information and services coming from vehicles, or other sources
       Generate location-based (relevant for a specific position) aggregated
        information and services useable to improve traffic fluidity, safety,
        security and environmental impact
       Offer to vehicles and other users the relevant services, at the right time and
        the right location




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 5     IDENTIFICATION OF INTELLIGENT INFRASTRUCTURE
       RELATED SERVICES

     5.1     Selected services

           Within the IIWG a survey took place about which services should be taken
           into account when discussing the Intelligent Infrastructure. It was also asked
           which stakeholder (Road operator/authority, service provider, car
           manufacturer) is the leading/prime stakeholder. Finally, the maturity of the
           services was questioned.
           A list of services was composed taking into account the services defined
           within the eSafety Implementation Roadmap studies, the existing list from the
           EasyWay project and ideas from CEDR and ASECAP themselves. At a later
           stage of this stocktaking a list with ITS services from ETSI was taken into
           account. This list was checked with the existing list and those services relevant
           and in line with the Intelligent Infrastructure definition was included in the list.
           Finally a survey took place with the members of CEDR Thematic domain
           Operations.
           In Annex 1 the results from the two questionnaires are presented.

           The following list of services is regarded being relevant for the Intelligent
           Infrastructure (according to more than 80% of the people who participated in
           the questionnaires). In the second column the leading/prime stakeholder
           (output from the questionnaires) is given.

            Service relevant for II                           Leading/prime stakeholder
            RT event information                              Road operator/authorities
            RT traffic condition information                  Road operator/authorities
            Travel time information                           Road operator/authorities (service providers also
                                                             high score)
            Weather information                               Service providers (road operator/authorities also
                                                             high score)
            Speed limit information                           Road operator/authorities
            Parking information and guidance                  Service providers
            Local hazard warning                              Road operator/authorities
            Multimodal traffic information                    Service providers
            Traffic management of sensitive             road Road operator/authorities
           segments
            Incident Management                               Road operator/authorities
            Road user charging                                Road operator/authorities
            Traffic management services / systems >           Road operator/authorities
           ramp metering, traffic controllers, etc
            Intelligent truck parking                         Road operator/authorities

           Besides the above-mentioned list, additional services relevant for Intelligent
           Infrastructure came up as result from the CEDR questionnaire outcome:

            Service relevant for II                           Leading/prime stakeholder
            Predictive traffic conditions information         Road operator/authorities
            Dynamic route guidance                            Service providers
            Emergency vehicle warning                         Road operator/authorities (service providers also


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                                                        high score)
       Wrong way driving warning                         Road operator/authorities
       Limited access warning, detour notification       Road operator/authorities
       Strategic traffic management for corridors and    Road operator/authorities
      networks
       Recommended speed profiles                        Road operator/authorities
       eCall                                             Service providers / car industry
       Priority lane                                     Road operator/authorities
       Requested green (in a cooperative way)            Road operator/authorities
       Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA)                Car industry

      The non road operators consider Parking information and guidance a less
      relevant service for Intelligent Infrastructure than the NRA‟s do.

      One of the NRA‟s added two services relevant for Intelligent Infrastructure to
      the list. They are not taken into account in the questionnaire.
           Slippery road information system
           Road condition information system


   5.2 Level of service
Quality




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 6     ADDED VALUE OF INTELLIGENT INFRASTRUCTURE

     6.1     Which problems does it solve/ which barriers to overcome

           According to the COOPERS project (document from Marko Jandrisits, no
           reference), the Intelligent Infrastructure – in combination with cooperative
           systems – has the following added values:
                Accurate, individual real-time traffic information provided in the car
                  supports safe, efficient and an ecological friendly way of driving
                Aggregated, interpreted FCD, considering the overall road network, is
                  giving benefit to all users
                Cooperative Services are gaining benefits to the receiving vehicle
                  irrespective of the penetration rate of equipped cars
                Cooperative Services are in relation to conventional technologies and
                  services like VMS much more flexible in terms of services offered
                Cooperative Services are driven by road operators to provide
                  information to ensure safe way of driving

      6.1.1       Electric Vehicles

           <Part of this paragraph should maybe be shifted to 10.3>

           Electric Vehicles have certain needs regarding Intelligent Infrastructure. The
           text under here about this is taken from the ELVIRE position paper „Intelligent
           Infrastructure Needs for the “Electric Vehicle in the Grid”‟ [ref].

           By 2015 there will be approximately 1.3 Million Electric Vehicles (EVs) on
           European Roads, which need a specific E-infrastructure in order to:
               allow reliable voyages across European roads free from concerns of
                 getting stranded
               navigate to the next available socket for a quick-charge in case of
                 electricity shortage
               enable the drivers to “Google” the electricity provider (in fact, this
                 needs to be done by the vehicle, automatically) and to pay for the
                 energy via a service provider, who is supported by an intelligent
                 infrastructure
               relate the various service providers with the “Smart Grid” operators, as
                 well as with the utilities
               support the charging and reverse charging processes (as appropriate),
                 as well as the respective communication systems and business models
               operate within a “secure” Intelligent Infrastructure respecting and
                 protecting the privacy and individual rights of the citizen.

           The Challenge and Need
           The necessary “Intelligent Infrastructure” for allowing reliable and seamless
           operation of EVs in the Grid has to comply with the following requirements:
               transmit information from the EV to a service provider (via II and
                  Control Centres) informing on the vehicle‟s “pre-trip” constellation,


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             destination and battery status; G2EV-inclusion to trustworthy data
             transfer from service provider to EVs;

            during the “on-trip” mode, compare the battery status and average E-
             consumption rate against the traffic situation on the selected route and
             recommend the nearest free socket for a quick-load –reserve the
             socket, if necessary (E-Horizon, E-Navigation);
            provide the requisite dock-side services, as far as “post-trip” charging,
             accounting and possible reverse-charging, is concerned (E-
             Infrastructure, E-Accounting).

      These features are addressing the very important topics of “where, when, how
      much and costs”. They translate technically into “spatio-temporal signal
      processing and draw upon hierarchical as well as distributed human behaviour
      learning & prediction processes. Buzz-words in this context are: “Real time,
      multi-parameter, distributed, scalable, standards, legal & privacy“. It needs to
      be underscored that the flow of information and guidance is not a one-way
      road but assumes both effective and secure V2G, as well as G2V interaction.

      A successful E-energy management for EVs can be implemented only, if the
      respective “Intelligent Infrastructure” is implemented, soon, which in turn
      calls for intensive development to support the charging options via the smart
      grid. These need to be flexible, save & secure, as well as reliable – and all this
      in context with an optimization of the charging points.

      Recommendations
      With regard to the fact that crucial developments in E-Mobility for Road
      Transport have to start now in order to enable effective support of E-Mobility
      by 2015 and to secure the global position of the European Automotive
      industry, it is obvious that the development and deployment of the Intelligent
      Infrastructure cannot be delayed.




      It is acknowledged that a considerable amount of on-going development work
      is being performed in the context of successful EU initiatives, such as AIDE
      (HMI), CIVIS and COOPERS (V2V & V2I), as well as the work performed


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         by the Car-to-Car Consortium. This does form a promising starting point that
         needs to be built upon – even be it for consistency reasons.
         The current scope of the IIWG is focused exclusively on eSafety issues, which
         are of highest social significance and will be the earliest to address on the
         timeline (e.g. from 2010 Variable Message Signs, etc.). It is obvious, however,
         that waiting until 2030 for ”something inside EVs” places the horses behind
         the carriage and will hamper – if not exclude - the European industry to
         maintain its role in global competition.
         It is therefore recommended to:
               Elaborate the technical, operational and legislative needs for the
                  necessary Intelligent Infrastructure for E-Mobility in more detail, on
                  the basis of relevant lighthouse RTD projects, such as “ELVIRE”,
                  addressing important fields of strong II relevance, such as:
                      o charging, prediction of charge & accounting
                      o where, when and how much to charge
                      o choice of energy to be “green”
                      o human behaviour learning & prediction
                      o predictive maintenance
                      o coupling with the smart grid
                      o secure information exchange
               Promote relevant developments through consistent and integrated RTD
                  projects
               Address the requisite standardization issues that are uncharted waters,
                  so far.

         An initial assessment of the RTD needs and efforts per area among the project
         Partners of “ELVIRE” revealed for future EVs the following hot spots for
         action:

                                      Technologies           Non-technical items


                                  Vehicle Infrastructure     Legal       Standards
                       pre trip

                       On trip

                      Post trip


               Paramount
               Very Important
               Important
               Relevant


   6.2     Impact assessment of II services (congestion, safety, environment)
           Cost/Benefits
               We are not evaluating the services just the II.



7fb88356-2a01-4c95-8dc6-8595d0fd8cf4.doc
      In various projects and reports, impact assessments and cost-benefit analyses
      of II (services) are described. Under here the most relevant parts are given.

         Impact Assessment ITS [ref]
         <Maybe shorten this piece>

      In the Impact Assessment ITS three policy options for ITS are assessed:
          
              against which the other options have been assessed
           Option B: concentration on enabling actions and coordination
                                     B extended with a comitology procedure
              (establishing a European ITS Committee)

      For the assessment of three policy options a multi-criteria analysis has been
      used, whereas effectiveness has been estimated against achievement of
      progress against a number of evaluation criteria that reflect both the direct and
      indirect impacts of the policy options:
      (1) the direct impacts of any action to accelerate the deployment of ITS are
      addressed by the following criteria:
           enhancing interoperability and continuity of service
           strengthening concertation and cooperation among stakeholders
           removing uncertainties regarding privacy and liability and defining the
              responsibilities of the actors involved
      (2) the indirect economic, social and environmental impacts resulting from
      a faster and higher level of harmonised ITS deployment are related to support
      in achieving the following (transport) policy objectives:
           the economic impact: reduction of congestion on roads,
              competitiveness (of industry, cost of ITS applications, innovation),
              consumers (prices, choices, services, protection of privacy and
              personal data and economic growth;
           the social impact: road safety, employment and security;
           the environmental impact: climate change, air quality and noise, energy
              efficiency and targets related to co-modality (passenger and freight,
              modal split, interconnections).

      Additionally a general cost assessment with regard to the impact on the EC
      budget and the consistency of the impacts (trade-offs) has been used.
      The time perspective under each option and indicator is considered to be from
      short to medium-term (up to 2020). Longer-term impacts (beyond 2020)
      typically result from increasing awareness, the application of new
      technologies, the establishment of greater market penetration and/or a change
      in the mindset of consumers and decision-makers.
      It has to be noted that this impact assessment does not attempt to assess the
      overall impacts of a better take-up of any of the very different ITS applications
      concerned. The present exercise is rather an attempt to show the impact of
      possible EU measures to influence the coordinated delivery mechanism for
      ITS deployment, which will then in a second step bring about the benefits
      ascribed to a wider deployment of ITS.



7fb88356-2a01-4c95-8dc6-8595d0fd8cf4.doc
      Therefore, an important additional criterion is the timescale, which influences
      the time at which positive impacts can be achieved.

      The assessment is basically a qualitative assessment. All criteria have been
      rated on a five-point Likert scale: positive (+ +), slightly positive (+), neutral
      (o), slightly negative (–) and negative (– –). The assessment was based on
      results from previous EU-financed research and deployment projects,
      stakeholder interviews, desk research and support from external consultants.
      A full cost-benefit assessment is not possible at this stage. This proposal
      mainly concerns the selection of priority areas to be addressed and different
      process alternatives and delivery mechanisms to foster enhanced cooperation.
      The concrete measures to influence deployment and the precise use of
      dedicated EU instruments will only be defined in a later stage. Only then can
      the associated costs be indicated in more detail. Consequently, a cost-benefit-
      analysis will be included in the subsequent impact assessments required for the
      concrete actions to be decided. The support of the private sector via the
      planned advisory forum will be useful in this respect.28
      Globally, studies and handbooks from Europe and North America show a clear
      cost benefit ratio in favour of many ITS applications. A recent example is the
      eImpact research project which assessed the impacts of intelligent vehicle
      safety systems. Their cost-benefit analysis shows that the majority of the
      twelve applications investigated are profitable from society‟s point of view
      with benefit-to-cost ratios from 1.6 to 4.

      Uncertainty surrounding the impact analysis
      ITS are enabling technologies whose deployment is subject to a variety of
      variables (factors), e.g. maturity of technology, market acceptance or
      willingness to invest and to buy, and is dependent on actions being
      implemented in a coordinated way by various independent stakeholders. The
      progress of these processes is difficult to predict.
      The effect of the instruments proposed in the context of this initiative,
      basically financial support, legislation, standardisation and support for
      voluntary agreements, are also difficult to assess.
      The overall result of the present analysis based on qualitative expectations,
      where possible supplemented by quantitative elements resulting from recent
      market analysis, forecasts and simulations, must however be approached with
      a certain degree of uncertainty.
      All benefits of ITS, such as reduced congestions, lower fuel
      consumption/costs, better reliability or improved safety enhance the
      attractiveness of driving. This might result in higher road transport demand
      both for passenger and freight (induced traffic). An increase in transport
      activity (pkm/vkm) would counter a part of the benefits of ITS.

      Impacts
      The present impact assessment should point out which actions are most
      effective, and the following tables give an overview on how the options have
      scored according to the evaluation criteria (compared to Option A).

      Direct impacts



7fb88356-2a01-4c95-8dc6-8595d0fd8cf4.doc
      Under Option A, non-existent progress in domains related to interoperability
      (and synergies, leading to cost reductions) and to privacy and liability issues is
      very likely. As for concertation and cooperation among stakeholders, it is
      currently happening through existing fora, but remains fragmented and misses
      the critical mass to trigger change and evolution. Under these circumstances, it
      is expected that ITS will remain in its current position: an instrument with high
      potential but unable to support achievement of policy objectives because
      penetration and take-up are too marginal.
      Option B and B+, with much better scores on all three criteria, present a
      serious improvement over Option A, with Option B+ scoring even higher on
      concertation and fostering cooperation.
      Under Option B+ the Commission will be able to effectively steer and manage
      the complex processes related to a policy-driven deployment of ITS; it would
      be assisted by a dedicated European ITS Committee, constituted by delegates
      from all Member States, and a separate advisory group bringing together
      (high-level) representatives from all industrial sectors. The Commission will
      have the possibility, whenever necessary, to realise progress in dedicated
      (enabling) areas of content directly affecting ITS deployment.

      Indirect impacts




      First of all, the analysis confirms that for both Options B and B+ EU action
      can have an added value contributing to most of the policy objectives.
      Compared to a baseline scenario of no additional new actions, both policy
      options will deliver a positive overall impact.




7fb88356-2a01-4c95-8dc6-8595d0fd8cf4.doc
      No weighting is applied, but the transport-related criteria of reduced
      congestion, higher road safety and less impact of road transport on the
      environment (greener transport) are considered important.
      The main difference between B and B+ is the replacement of a High Level
      Group by a European ITS Committee assisting the Commission through the
      comitology procedure.
      The main advantage of Option B+ is a faster and more harmonised
      deployment of ITS services. The positive impacts anticipated on congestion,
      road safety and emissions will thus be reached earlier. That is why this option
      is more effective: Option B+ will save more lives and more time otherwise
      spent in congestion, and reduce CO2 emissions most.

      Conclusion
      Overall, Option B+ can be regarded as the preferred option, because it will
      result in better impacts than the other options, in particular regarding
      cooperation and the potential to speed up agreements on particular issues
      hampering ITS deployment and to bring about harmonised deployment of ITS
      throughout Europe.
      The proposed legal instrument to set up this framework for Europe-wide
      deployment of
      ITS, including the European ITS Committee would be a Directive. A Directive
      is the appropriate instrument, as the obligations imposed to the Member States
      recognise the different levels of ITS use and deployment, allowing them to
      concentrate on their priorities for implementing, while at the same time
      leaving the power and responsibility to the Commission to define, with the
      European ITS Committee, the technical details in support of the
      implementation of the Directive. A regulation would be too prescriptive,
      considering that many of the required actions and the level of deployment of
      ITS vary from country to country. Only a Directive will enable Member States
      sufficiently to adjust the framework established according to their individual
      needs.

      Intelligent Transport Systems – 2005 [ref]
      (US Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration)

      In this study costs and benefits of 13 Intelligent Infrastructure applications are
      assessed in and for the US. The results from the ones that are relevant for
      Europe and for the IIWG are mentioned under here. Benefits are mentioned,
      costs however are very much dependent on the location and implementation of
      the service so they are not mentioned.

      Motorway Management Systems
      Motorway Management Systems employ traffic detectors, surveillance
      cameras, and other means of monitoring traffic flow on highways to support
      the implementation of traffic management strategies such as ramp meters, lane
      closures, and variable speed limits. These sensors can also be used to monitor
      critical transportation infrastructure for security purposes.
      Benefits (impact assessment of posting travel time and traffic information on
      dynamic message signs – 221 questionnaires)



7fb88356-2a01-4c95-8dc6-8595d0fd8cf4.doc
      12% of the respondents used the information more than five times per month
      to adjust travel routes during winter months, 18% of the respondents used the
      information more than five times per month to adjust travel routes during non-
      winter months.

      Transit Management Systems (European name?)
      Transit ITS services include surveillance and communications, such as
      automated vehicle location systems, computer-aided dispatch systems, and
      remote vehicle and facility surveillance cameras, which enable transit agencies
      to improve the operational efficiency, safety, and security of the nation‟s
      public transportation systems. Public access to bus location data and schedule
      status information is increasingly popular on transit Internet websites and at
      bus stops.
      Benefits (electronic message signs in a national park to inform visitors of bus
      arrival and departure times)
      In a survey, 90% of the people indicated that the information signs made it
      easier to get around.

      Incident Management System
      Incident Management systems can reduce the effects of incident-related
      congestion by decreasing the time to detect incidents, the time for responding
      vehicles to arrive, and the time required for traffic to return to normal
      conditions. IM systems make use of a variety of surveillance technologies,
      often shared with motorway and arterial management systems, as well as
      enhanced communications and other technologies that facilitate coordinated
      response to incidents.
      Benefits
      Delay savings identified in studies of freeway service patrols implemented in
      Minneapolis - St. Paul, Minnesota; Denver, Colorado; and Northwest Indiana
      documented annual benefits of $1.2 to $1.8 mill ion, through reductions in the
      duration of incidents, and related congestion.

      Emergency Management Systems
      ITS applications in emergency management include hazardous materials
      management, the deployment of emergency medical services, and large - and
      small - scale emergency response and evacuation operations.
      Benefits
      The Life Link project in San Antonio, Texas, enabled emergency room doctors
      to communicate with emergency medical technicians (EMTs) using two - way
      video, audio, and data communications. EMTs and doctors had mixed
      opinions about the system; however, it was expected that this technology
      would have more positive impacts in rural areas.

      Electronic Payment Systems
      Electronic payment systems employ various communication and electronic
      technologies to facilitate commerce between travellers and transportation
      agencies, typically for the purpose of paying tolls, transit fares, and parking
      fees.
      Benefits



7fb88356-2a01-4c95-8dc6-8595d0fd8cf4.doc
      Three projects in Europe demonstrated the coordinated use of a smart card as a
      payment system for public transit, shops, libraries, swimming pools, and other
      city services. User acceptance and satisfaction with these systems was very
      high, ranging from 71–87%.

      Traveller information
      Traveler information applications use a variety of technologies, including
      Internet websites, instant messaging, telephones, satellite radio, and local
      television and radio, to allow users to make more informed decisions
      regarding trip departures, routes, and mode of travel. Ongoing implementation
      of the designated 511 telephone number will improve access to traveler
      information across the country.
      Benefits
      In Montana, 81% of survey respondents were satisfied or very satisfied with
      road conditions information available through a 511 telephone service
      provided by the Greater Yellowstone Regional Traveler and Weather In
      formation System (GYRTWIS). In Virginia, 90% of users who agreed to
      participate in a follow – up telephone survey found the 511 service deployed
      there useful, and nearly half of them indicated they had changed their travel
      plans on at least one occasion as a result of the information provided.

      Information Management
      ITS information management supports the archiving and retrieval of data
      generated by other ITS applications and assists in analysis functions that
      benefit transportation administration, policy evaluation, safety, planning,
      program assessment, operations research, and other applications. Data
      archiving systems are scalable to support a single agency‟s operations center
      and to support multiple agencies through regional data warehouses.
      Benefits
      No data to report.

      Crash Prevention and Safety
      Crash prevention and safety systems make use of sensor technology and active
      warning signs, including flashers, beacons, and dynamic message signs
      (DMS), to warn drivers of dangerous curves, excessive speed on down hill
      road segments, at - grade rail road crossings, and other dangerous conditions.
      Benefits
      Installation of a “Second Train Coming” warning system at a light rail transit
      grade crossing in the suburbs of Baltimore, Maryland, led to a reduction of
      26% of vehicles crossing the tracks between the two trains. The number of
      drivers beginning to move their vehicles under the rising crossing gate before
      realizing a second train was approaching decreased by 86% after the system
      began operation. These benefits were determined by comparing data from a
      one - month evaluation period just before the system was installed and data
      from the two months immediately after installation.

      Roadway Operations and Maintenance
      ITS applications in operations and maintenance focus on integrated
      management of maintenance fleets, specialized service vehicles, hazardous
      road conditions remediation, and work zone mobility and safety. These


7fb88356-2a01-4c95-8dc6-8595d0fd8cf4.doc
      applications monitor, analyze, and disseminate roadway and infrastructure
      data for operational, maintenance, and managerial uses. ITS can help secure
      the safety of workers and travelers in a work zone while facilitating traffic
      flow through and around the construction area. This is often achieved through
      the temporary deployment of other ITS services, such as elements of traffic
      management and incident management programs.
      Benefits
      Average clearance times for incidents were reduced 44% with the
      implementation of motorist assistance patrols and a temporary traffic
      management center during a construction project at the “Big I” interchange in
      Albuquerque, New Mexico.
      During weekday operations, the Highway Department allocated two courtesy
      patrol units to patrol the construction zone between 5 a.m. and 8 p.m., and a
      wrecker was on call from 6 a.m. to 6 p.m.

      Road Weather Management
      Road weather management activities include road weather information
      systems (RWIS), winter maintenance technologies, and coordination of
      operations within and between state DOTs. ITS applications assist with the
      monitoring and forecasting of roadway and atmospheric conditions,
      dissemination of weather- related information to travelers, weather- related
      traffic control measures such as variable speed limits, and both fixed and
      mobile winter maintenance activities.
      Benefits
      The Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) installed a
      system in the rural and mountainous region of Spokane to collect and
      communicate weather and road conditions, border crossing status, and other
      information to commercial drivers, the motoring public, and WSDOT
      maintenance crews. Ninety-four percent of surveyed users of a road weather
      information website covering roadways in Washington State agree that the
      weather information made travellers better prepared for their trips. More than
      half of the respondents (56 percent) agreed the information helped them avoid
      travel delays.

      Commercial Vehicle Operations
      ITS applications for com merci al vehicle operations are designed to enhance
      communication between motor carriers and regulatory agencies. Examples
      include electronic registration and permitting programs, electronic exchange of
      inspection data between regulating agencies for better inspection targeting,
      electronic screening systems, and several applications to assist operators with
      fleet operations and security.
      Benefits
      Three motor carriers surveyed during the Commercial Vehicle Information
      System and Network (CVISN) model deployment initiative indicated that
      electronic credentialing reduced paperwork and saved them 60 to 75% on
      credentialing costs. In addition, motor carriers were able to com mission new
      vehicles 60% faster by printing their own credential paperwork and not
      waiting for conventional mail delivery.

      Intermodal Freight


7fb88356-2a01-4c95-8dc6-8595d0fd8cf4.doc
      ITS can facilitate the safe, efficient, secure, and seam less movement of
      freight. Applications being deployed provide for tracking of freight and carrier
      assets such as containers and chassis, and improve the efficiency of freight
      terminal processes, drayage operations, and international border crossings.
      Benefits
      An electronic supply chain manifest system implemented biometric and smart-
      card devices to automate manual paper- based cargo data transfers between
      manufacturers, carriers, and airports in Chicago, Illinois, and New York, New
      York.
      Although participation was limited, the system was expected to improve
      efficiency. The time required for truckers to accept cargo from manufacturers
      decreased by about four minutes per shipment, and the time required for
      airports to accept the deliveries decreased by about three minutes per
      shipment.

      CODIA results
      Impact of five cooperative systems [ref]

      I2V Speed adaptation due to weather conditions, obstacles or congestion
          much of benefits due to speed limit variant
          small negative traffic and environment effects at low penetrations
          V2I coverage essential

      I2V Reversible lanes due to traffic flow
          considerable benefits
          only small part of network feasible

      V2V Local danger/hazard warning
      V2V Post crash warning
         beneficial, penetration rates!
         should be integrated

      I2V/V2V Cooperative intersection collision warning
          considerable safety benefits
          different variants, “communication only” included; choice affects both
            costs and benefits

      Benefit-Cost Analysis of the US Vehicle-Infrastructure Integration (VII)
      Program [ref]
      Eleven applications are evaluated:
          Signal Violation Warning
          Stop Sign Violation Warning
          Curve Speed Warning
          Electronic Brake Lights
          Advance Warning Information
          Localized Weather/Road Condition Warning
          In-vehicle Signing
          Ramp Metering
          Signal Timing and Adjustment


7fb88356-2a01-4c95-8dc6-8595d0fd8cf4.doc
            Traveller Information
            Winter Maintenance

      The benefits of the Safety Applications:
          Signal and Stop Sign Violation Warning:
                 o Subject Crash Counts from GES
                 o Effectiveness (25%) Estimates from Nissan SKY
                 o Signal App. Based on 70% Estimate of RSE Coverage
          Curve Speed Warning & Electronic Brake Lights:
                 o Subject Crashes Counts from GES
                 o Effectiveness Estimates from SKY
                 o CSW: Adjusted for ESC Mandate To Avoid Possible Double
                     Counting of Crash Reduction Benefits

      The benefits of the Mobility Applications:
          Ramp Metering and Signal Timing: uses most recent TTI data
          Traveller Info: Estimate Reflects Cost Savings from Phase-out of
             Variable Message Signs
                 o Provided illustrative calculation of potential mobility benefits

      Cost Components ($27.3 B, Present Value 2008)




      Benefits Summary
      Total Estimated Benefits $44.2 B (40-yr. Present Value)




      VII BCA Sensitivity




7fb88356-2a01-4c95-8dc6-8595d0fd8cf4.doc
      VII Benefits vs. Benefit Opportunity
          Baseline Costs of all motor vehicle crashes:
                o Total direct costs $231B/Year (NHTSA, 2000)
                o Comprehensive costs, new VOL, 2008 Dollars ~ $733B/Yr
          Baseline Costs of congestion:
                o Calculated by TTI (Urban Mobility Study, 2007) – difference
                     between actual and free flow travel times
                o Annual total for 437 urban areas: $78B
          Crashes:
                o Full Deployment - Estimated Benefits of VII Safety
                     Applications ~ 1% of Annual Total Crash Costs
          Congestion:
                o Full Deployment - Estimated Benefits of Mobility Applications
                     ~1% of Annual Congestion Costs

      Dutch ITS Database
      In a Dutch project for the Ministry of Transport, a database with costs and
      benefits of cooperative systems and intelligent vehicles is made. With colours
      an indication of the range of effects is given (the normative scale is from the
      ADASE II workshop). The descriptions are in Dutch, but the colouring can be
      used.

                  Effectrange                        Normatieve schaal                  Waardering
                     > 10%                                  ++                             10
                    2 - 10%                                  +                              5
                  -2% - +2%                                  0                              0
                  -10% - -2%                                  -                             -5
                    < -10%                                   --                            -10
      normatieve schaal komt uit ADASEII workshop (Malone, 2004)




7fb88356-2a01-4c95-8dc6-8595d0fd8cf4.doc
                                                                                                                                                              Kwantitatief                                                                                                                        Kwalitatief
      Nr. Naam systeem      Comm.   Definitie                      Evaluatie   Bereikbaarheid                                   Betrouwbaarheid                           Veiligheid                                          Duurzaamheid                                    Bereikba Betrouw Veilig   Duur    Bron              Kosten           Status
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              ar       baar    heid     zaam
                                                                   techniek                                                                                                                                                                                                   heid     heid             heid

      1   Real-time Traffic I2V     Het verstrekken van            Simulaties * 8,1% gemiddelde jaarlijkse                                                                    * aantal ongevallen neemt                 * brandstofgebruik neemt                                 +       ++               +     DGP studie                         * Er bestaan n
          and Travel                informatie over de actuele                 reistijd vermindering in Texas VS door                                                          af met 4.6% in Texas VS bij dynamische    af met 3% in Texas VS bij dynamische                                                                                       die gebruik m
          Information               verkeerstoestand en real-                 dynamische navigatie(Carter, 2000)                                                              navigatie(Carter, 2000)                   navigatie (Carter, 2000)                                                                                                   TMC (ook GP
          (RTTI)                    time route informatie.                                                                                                                    * Simulatie: minder verkeerde afslagen,                                                                                                                              kanaal om file
                                                                                                                                                                              beter gebruik wegennet, 4% minderd risico                                                                                                                            in hun routead
                                                                                                                                                                              op ongelukken (benefitscosts.its.dot.gov,
                                                                                                                                                                              2003).

                                                                   Veld        * afname reistijd van 10-20% in Japan door
                                                                   proeven     dynamische navigatie (Nakuma, 2007)
                                                                               * DRIP: filezwaarte en voertuigverliesuren
                                                                               nemen fors af in een zwaarbelast netwerk
                                                                               (AVV, 2007)
                                                                               *Reistijdbesparing > 10% voor auto's met
                                                                               navigatie systeem in Turijn in Italië in het
                                                                               CLEOPATRA project
                                                                               (benefitscosts.its.dot.gov, 2003).


                                                                   Enquetes/                                                    * 34% van de individueel geïnformeerde
                                                                   experts                                                      verplaatsingen wordt route gewijzigd versus
                                                                                                                                22% van de geïnformeerde verplaatsingen
                                                                                                                                (AVV, 2007)
                                                                                                                                * op basis van pre-trip verkeersinformatie
                                                                                                                                past ruim 20% wel eens de route aan, 15%
                                                                                                                                vertrekt wel eens eerder en 10% vertrekt
                                                                                                                                wel eens later (Rijkswaterstaat, 2004)

      2   Intelligent Speed I2V     Een systeem dat de           Simulaties                                                                                                   * 18-24% minder verkeersdoden (SWOV)                                                               +        +       ++      +     DGP studie        * unit cost:     * In Nederland
          Adaptation (ISA)          gebruiker informeert over de                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  500 euro         UK zijn proev
                                    snelheidslimiet en veilige                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Bogeland,       voertuigen uit
                                    snelheid, en ingrijpt voor   Veldproeven                                                                                                  * veldproeven in Zweden: bij volledige          * brandstof besparing van 5-6%,                                     ++      +     SWOV, 2006        2006)            Technisch we
                                    snelheidsovertredingen.                                                                                                                   penetratie 20 tot 30% minder                    ingrijpende variant (Vlaar, 1998 en                                               (uitschakel                        naar behoren
                                                                                                                                                                              verkeersdoden (van der Brug, 2004)              Vermeulen, 2002)                                                                  baar)
                                    Dynamische                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     plannen voor
                                    sneldheidslimieten worden                                                                                                                 * Engelse veldproeven wezen uit dat bij         * Zweden, vooral afname uitstoot op twee-                                                                            invoering (Am
                                    doorgeven aan de hand van                                                                                                                 volledige penetratie er maximaal 59%            richtings 50 km wegen. -11% CO, -7%NOx,                                                                              * bij do-nothin
                                                                                                                                                                              minder verkeersdoden zou zijn (van der          -8%HC (Varhelyi et al. 2004 in SWOV,
                                    locatie/tijd.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  penetratie van
                                                                                                                                                                              Brug, 2004)                                     2006)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   20% in 2020 (
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              * Australië, -4% brandstofverbruik, -4%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              CO2 uitstoot voor ISA én volgafstand
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              waarschuwing alleen in 80 km zones
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (Regan et al. 2006 in SWOV 2006)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              * Australië, -4% NOx, -7% HC uitstoot voor
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              ISA én volgafstand waarschuwing (Regan
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              et al. 2006 in SWOV 2006)
                                                                   Enquetes/   Bij lagere verkeersintensiteit zal de reistijd                                                 * 20% minder verkeersdoden bij dwingende * 11% minder brandstofkosten (Ammerlaan,                                   +++     +     SWOV, 2006
                                                                   experts     toenemen bij toenemende ISA                                                                    variant (Ammerlaan, 2003)                  2003)                                                                                  (verplicht)
                                                                               penetratiegraad vanwege een lagere                                                             * best estimate afname dodelijke
                                                                               gemiddelde snelheid (SWOV, 2006)                                                               ongelukken (ingrijpend maar
                                                                                                                                                                              uitschakelbaar) 19-32% bij 100% penetratie
                                                                                                                                                                              (Carsten en Tate, 2005 in SWOV, 2006)
                                                                                                                                                                              * best estimate afname dodelijke
                                                                                                                                                                              ongelukken (ingrijpend) 37-59% bij 100%
                                                                                                                                                                              penetratie (Carsten en Tate, 2005 in
                                                                                                                                                                              SWOV, 2006)
                                                                                                                                                                              * ISA zorgt voor een reductie van de kans
                                                                                                                                                                              op een dodelijk ongeluk met 50%
                                                                                                                                                                              (Bogeland, 2006)

      3   Intelligent Speed geen    Een systeem dat de           Simulaties * lichte toename reistijd 1-7%                                                                                                                                                                       +        +        +      +     DGP studie                         * penetatrie p
          Information               gebruiker informeert over de            (computersimulaties, Effecten ITS (rapport                                                                                                                                                                                                                             2010 tussen 2
          (ISI)/Speed alert         snelheidslimiet en veilige              TNO))                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  penetratie 202
                                    snelheid, en waarschuwt      Veldproeven                                                                                                  * alle ongelukken met gewonden -20% (e-                                                                              +      +     SWOV, 2006                         39% (Wilmink
                                    voor                                                                                                                                      safety, 2005)                                                                                                                     (adviserend)
                                    snelheidsovertredingen.
                                    Statische snelheidlimieten
                                    zitten opgeslagen in in-car
                                    database.

                                                                   Enquetes/                                                                                                  * 9% minder verkeersdoden bij volledige
                                                                   experts                                                                                                    penetratie (Wilmink, 2008) (Carsten en
                                                                                                                                                                              Tate, 2005 in SWOV, 2006)@@
      4   Curve speed       I2V     Curve speed warning           Simulaties                                                                                                                                                                                                     +        +       ++            DGP studie        Colorado         Road side cur
          warning                   systemen gebruiken            Veldproeven                                                                                                 * 20% minder roll-over ongelukken en 33%                                                                                                            DOT              systems zijn b
                                    wegkant systemen om te                                                                                                                    procent minder ongelukken bij uitvoegen                                                                                                             ontwikkelde      getest. Ook in
                                    waarschuwen voor mogelijk                                                                                                                 (zonder andere voertuigen in de buurt) bij                                                                                                          een truck        curve speed w
                                    gevaarlijke snelheden bij het                                                                                                             gebruik van Roll Advisor and Control                                                                                                                speed            beschikbaar i.
                                    ingaan van een bocht. Dit                                                                                                                 (RA&C) (Intelligent Vehicle Initiative, 2005)                                                                                                       warning          navigatiesyste
                                    systeem zou ook op basis                                                                                                                  * Een advanced curve warning systeem op                                                                                                             systeem in       (Bosch, 2008)
                                    van een in-car kunnen                                                                                                                     een interstate route in noord California                                                                                                            Glenwood
                                                                                                                                                                              leidde tot een snelheidsvermindering bij 68
                                    worden uitgevoerd                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Canyon voor
                                                                                                                                                                              % van de weggebruikers (Tribbett, 2000).
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  $25,000 tot
                                                                                                                                                                              * Meer 76 % van de weggebruikers gaf aan
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  $30,000.
                                                                                                                                                                              de weergegeven informatie nuttig te vinden
                                                                                                                                                                              (Tribbett, 2000).




                                                                   Enquetes/
                                                                   experts
      5   Adaptive cruise   geen    Advanced Cruise Control:       Simulaties * 30% minder tijdverlies (Wilmink, 2007)                                                                                                                                                           -                ++      +     DGP studie       * unit cost:      * ACC is al en
          control (ACC)             houdt een door de gebruiker    Veldproeven                                                                                                * 8% afname aantal ongelukken (rij-             * afname emissies >= 10% op basis van              +                ++                             750€
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                ADASE II expert workshop           markt, vooral
                                    ingestelde snelheid                                                                                                                       assistent)                                      veldtest en simulatie, (rij-assistent)                                                              (Bogeland,       auto’s. De uitb
                                    vasthoudt (zoals een           Enquetes/   * Enkele procenten toename in                                                                  * 1% minder verkeersdoden bij volledige         * Veldproeven geven aan dat ICC de                                                                  2006)            ACC en varia
                                    standaard cruise control),     experts     wegcapaciteit (Van Arem & Zwanenveld,                                                          penetratie (Wilmink, 2008)                      verkeersstroom kan homogeniseren en de                                                              * in 2001 op     fileassistent z
                                    tenzij een ander voertuig er               1997)                                                                                          * bij bredere toepassing wordt een daling       brandstofconsumptie reduceren met 0.4-                                                              de markt voor    verkrijgbaar
                                    te dicht voor rijdt. In dat                * Bereikbaarheidsverbetering vooral bij                                                        van 20-30% verwacht van het totaal aan          3.6% (benefitscosts.its.dot.gov, 2003).                                                             $1500 -          * 3% van de v
                                    geval wordt de snelheid                    headway-tijden van 1.0s of minder.                                                             kop-staart botsingen (Ammerlaan, 2003)          * 6.2% afname van CO2 en 2.1% afname                                                                $2000            uitgerust in 20
                                    verlaagd om een door de                    (Malone, 2004)                                                                                 * mogelijk tot 25% minder kop-staart            van NOx, expertsessie [Kojima, F. and S.                                                            (Bishop,         voertuigen uit
                                                                               * Significante voordelen bij headway-tijden                                                    botsingen (TRACE, 2007)                         Katsuki, 1999]
                                    gebruiker ingestelde afstand                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2001)            (Abele, 2005)
                                                                               van 1.0 sec. Significante nadelen bij tijden                                                   * -5.9% ongelukken (Elvik,et al., 1997, cited   * bij bredere toepassing is door het stabiele
                                    aan te houden.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                *                * bij do-nothin
                                                                               van 2.0 sec (SWOV, 2006)                                                                       in OECD, 2003 in TRACE, 2007)                   verkeer een besparing van 10-20% van het
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  consumenten      penetratie in 2
                                                                               * flinke effecten mogelijk op de                                                               * alle gewonden -1.4% en dodelijke              energieverbruik mogelijk (Ammerlaan,
                                                                               doorstroming, zowel positief (korte                                                            ongelukken -0.7% (OCED, 2003 in TRACE,          2003)                                                                                               prijs: 750€ in   2020 (Bogela
                                                                               volgtijden, meer stabiliteit, snelle reacties)                                                 2007)                                                                                                                                               2010, 400€ in
                                                                               als negatief kunnen zijn (Ammerlaan, 2003)                                                                                                                                                                                                         2020 (Abele,
                                                                               * Minderhound and Bovy (1998) schatten                                                                                                                                                                                                             2005)
                                                                               een capaciteitstoename -1.6-12.4%                                                                                                                                                                                                                  * baten-
                                                                               afhankelijk van de headway en saturatie                                                                                                                                                                                                            kosten
                                                                               (TRACE, 2007)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      verhouding in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2010 is 0.9
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  en in 2020
      6   C-ACC             V2V     Cooperative Advanced        Simulaties * 35% minder tijdverlies (Wilmink, 2007)                                                           Het systeem kan eventueel de headway-                                                              +        +       ++      +     DGP studie        1.2 (Abele,      markt introduc
                                    Cruise Control: Uitbreiding            * Simulatie modellen: ICC die gebruik                                                              tijden verkleinen zonder verslechtering van                                                                                                                          voor 2010 (Bi
                                    op ACC waarbij de snelheid             maakt van TMC detector data om voertuig                                                            de veiligheid (SWOV, 2006)                                                                                                                                           SWOV, 2006)
                                    geleidelijker kan worden               snelheid en timing van signalering
                                    aangepast als reactie op de            optimaliseert kan de capaciteit van een link
                                    acceleratie en deceleratie             met 3-6% verhogen
                                    van de voorligger doordat              (benefitscosts.its.dot.gov, 2003).
                                                                           * C-ACC bij een headway-tijd van 0.5 sec
                                    de voertuigen met elkaar
                                                                           en een penetratie van 100% zou de
                                    kunnen communiceren
                                                                               verkeersstroom verdubbelen. (Bishop 2005
                                                                               in SWOV, 2006)

                                                                   Veldproeven
                                                                   Enquetes/                                                                                                  * -5.2% van de kop-staartbotsingen bij >
                                                                   experts                                                                                                    98km/h, -29% van de kop-staartbotsingen
                                                                                                                                                                              bij > 98km/h (Najm en Mironer, 1998 in
                                                                                                                                                                              TRACE, 2007)
      7   Stop & go         geen    Tijdens een stop & go         Simulaties * 60% minder voertuigverliesuren bij 50%                                                                                                                                                                              +            DGP studie                         * penetatrie p
                                    verkeerssituatie (filerijden)            penetratie (Van Driel, 2007)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2010 0.01%, p
                                    wordt de longitudinale                   * 7% hogere uitstroom bij 50% penetratie                                                                                                                                                                                                                              tussen 3.6 en
                                    besturing van een auto                   (Van Driel, 2007)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     2008)
                                    deels overgenomen door dit Veldproeven                                                                                                                                                                                                       +                ++            ADASE II expert
                                    systeem                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     workshop

                                                                   Enquetes/                                                                                                  * Circa 40% heeft het gevoel dat Stop&Go
                                                                   experts                                                                                                    een positieve bijdrage levert op het rij-
                                                                                                                                                                              comfort, 494 respondenten [Piao, J. et al.,
                                                                                                                                                                              2004]
                                                                                                                                                                              * Rijsimulator resultaten geven aan dat de
                                                                                                                                                                              gebruiker niet veel hulp ondervinden van
                                                                                                                                                                              het Stop&Go systeem




7fb88356-2a01-4c95-8dc6-8595d0fd8cf4.doc
                                                                                                                                              Kwantitatief                                                                                       Kwalitatief
      Nr. Naam systeem       Comm.   Definitie                       Evaluatie    Bereikbaarheid                            Betrouwbaarheid                  Veiligheid                                       Duurzaamheid   Bereikba Betrouw Veilig   Duur    Bron              Kosten       Status
                                                                     techniek                                                                                                                                                ar       baar    heid     zaam
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             heid     heid             heid
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 implementati
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 e
      8     Low speed        geen    Uitbreiding op Stop&Go.         Simulaties                                                                                                                                                                   +      +     DGP studie                     Onderzoeksfa
            automation               Neemt de rijtaak over van       Veldproeven                                                                                                                                                                                                              veldtesten ge
                                     de bestuurder in files, zowel   Enquetes/
                                     lateraal als longitudinaal.     experts
          9 Lane departure   geen    LDW: Wanneer een                Simulaties                                                                              * 35% afname vh aantal doden, 36%                                  +        +       ++            DGP studie        * unit cost:   * Het systeem
            warning/Lane             bestuurder te dicht bij het                                                                                             afname van het aantal gewonden en 24%                                                                               400 euro       * LDW verove
            Keeping                  onbedoeld afwijken van een                                                                                              afname van overige ongelukken (voor 100-                                                                            (Bogeland,     truck markt in
            assistent                rijstrook komt, waarschuwt                                                                                              120 km/h) [De Visser et al, 1999]                                                                                   2006)          een fabriekso
                                     het systeem de bestuurder                                                                                               * Veldtesten geven aan dat de                                                                                                      trucks (Bisho
                                     door middel van een                                                                                                     consequenties voor veiligheid onduidelijk                                                                                          * Tesamen m
                                     signaal.                                                                                                                zijn omdat gebruikers van het systeem                                                                                              van 0.6% in 2
                                                                                                                                                             geen afname van het aantal meldingen
                                     LKA: Dit systeem                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           2020 (Abele,
                                                                                                                                                             realiseren, de amplitude en frequentie van
                                     ondersteunt de bestuurder                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  * penetatrie p
                                                                                                                                                             de lijnoverschrijdingen niet afnemen en de
                                     door actief mee te sturen                                                                                               laterale positie niet verandert. [Alkim, T. et
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2010 tussen
                                     wanneer deze teveel afwijkt                                                                                             al., 2003].                                                                                                                        penetratie 20
                                     de normale lijn binnen zijn                                                                                                                                                                                                                                18% (Wilmink
                                     rijstrook.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 * bij do-nothin
                                                                     Veldproeven* 11% afname van het aantal files                                            * 9% minder ongevallen met vrachtwagens                            0                 +      0     LKA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               ADASE II expert
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                in 2006, and
                                                                                veroorzaakt door ongelukken (Korse, 2003)                                    (Korse, 2003)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               workshop                         (Bogeland, 20

                                                                     Enquetes/                                                                               * -4% dodelijke ongevallen (e-safety forum,                        0                ++            LDW
                                                                     experts                                                                                 2005)                                                                                             ADASE II expert
                                                                                                                                                             * 25% reductie van zijdelingse ongevallen                                                         workshop
                                                                                                                                                             (Schemers, 2000)
                                                                                                                                                             * Bij bredere toepassing zorgt het voor een
                                                                                                                                                             reductie van 24% in enkelzijdige
                                                                                                                                                             ongevallen en 37% reductie in zijdelingse
                                                                                                                                                             ongevallen (Ammerlaan, 2003)
                                                                                                                                                             * 15% minder verkeersdoden bij volledige
                                                                                                                                                             penetratie (Wilmink, 2008)
                                                                                                                                                             * LDW zorgt voor een reductie van de kans
                                                                                                                                                             op een dodelijk ongeluk met 25%
                                                                                                                                                             (Bogeland, 2006)

      10 Lane changing       geen    Het systeem detecteert snel Simulaties                                                                                                                                                     +                 +            DGP studie      *              * tesamen me
         assistent                   naderende voertuigen die    Veldproeven                                                                                                                                                    0                 +            ADASE II expert consumenten van 0.6% in 2
                                     een gevaar kunnen vormen                                                                                                                                                                                                  workshop        prijs: 300€ in 2020 (Abele,
                                     voor het wisselen van                                                                                                                                                                                                                       2010, 200€ in * penetatrie p
                                     strook.                     Enquetes/                                                                                   * 2% minder verkeersdoden bij volledige                                                                             2020 (Abele, 2010 tussen
                                                                     experts                                                                                 penetratie (Wilmink, 2008)                                                                                          2005)         penetratie 20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               9% (Wilmink,

      11 Blind spot          geen    Het ondersteunen van de    Simulaties                                                                                                                                                                       ++            DGP studie                       ongeveer 50.
         monitoring                  bestuurder het detecteren Veldproeven                                                                                   * Eaton-Vodar radar based system (rechter                                                                                          vrachtwagens
                                     van de aanwezigheid van                                                                                                 blind spot & forward zone) is geïnstalleerd                                                                                        Eaton Vorad
                                     voertuigen in de dode hoek                                                                                              op ongeveer 50.000 vrachtwagens.                                                                                                   system (right
                                     van de bestuurder                                                                                                       Sommige vloten rapporteerden een afname                                                                                            forward zone
                                                                                                                                                             van de ongelukken van meer dan 50%
                                                                                                                                                             (Bishop, 2001)
                                                                                                                                                             * Nadat een trasnportbedrijf radar sensors
                                                                                                                                                             heeft geinstalleerd om bestuurderes the
                                                                                                                                                             waarschuwen bij obstakels in de dode
                                                                                                                                                             hoek, at-fault accidents verminderd met
                                                                                                                                                             34% in 1 jaar (benefitscosts.its.dot.gov,
                                                                                                                                                             2003).


                                                                     Enquetes/
                                                                     experts
      12 Pedestrian          geen    Een systeem dat                 Simulaties                                                                                                                                                                   +            DGP studie                       beschikbaar i
         detection                   waarschuwt voor                 Veldproeven                                                                                                                                                                                                                600h L hybrid
                                     voetgangers op basis van        Enquetes/                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (IVsource, 20
                                     radar of camera detectie        experts                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Verschillende
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                beschikbaar (
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Group, 2003)
      13 Obstacle           geen     De bestuurder wordt         Simulaties                                                                                  * 90% van de kop-staart botsingen zouden                                    +       ++            DGP studie                       * beschikbaa
         detection/collisio          gewaarschuwd als een                                                                                                    voorkomen kunnen worden wanneer het                                                                                                met "break su
         n warning                   mogelijke botsing wordt                                                                                                 systeem 4 sec. voor de botsing                                                                                                     system"/obsta
                                     gedecteerd met bijvoorbeeld                                                                                             waarschuwt. Dit is 55% of 10% bij                                                                                                  avoidance (IV
                                     een ander voertuig of                                                                                                   waarshuwingen 3 of 2 seconden voor de                                                                                              * bij do-nothin
                                     obstakel.                                                                                                               botsing. (Schermers, 2000)                                                                                                         penetratie va
                                                                     Veldproeven                                                                                                                                                0                 +            Malone, 2004                     20% in 2020
                                                                     Enquetes/                                                                               * -6% dodelijke ongelukken (e-safety forum,
                                                                     experts                                                                                 2005)
                                                                                                                                                             * "Negen onderzoeken naar de Obstacle &
                                                                                                                                                             Collision Warning functionaliteit zijn
                                                                                                                                                             bekeken; vijf daarvan waren model studies.
                                                                                                                                                             Over het algemeen waren de restultaten
                                                                                                                                                             zeer positief, terwijl Obstacle & Collision
                                                                                                                                                             Warning een complex systeem is. Daarom
                                                                                                                                                             zou het interessant zijn om d.m.v. een Field
                                                                                                                                                             Operation Test te demonstreren of deze
                                                                                                                                                             zeer positieve resultaten ook gelden in
                                                                                                                                                             echte omstandigheden." (Malone, 2004)



      14 Near Field          geen    Dit systeem omvat de            Simulaties                                                                                                                                                          +       ++            DGP studie                       Volvo City Sa
         Collision                   detectie van met name           Veldproeven                                                                                                                                                                                                                voor het eers
         Warning                     voertuigen in de nabije         Enquetes/                                                                               verbetering van de veiligheid in termen van                                                                                        Collision warn
                                     omgeving zoals de dode          experts                                                                                 head-tail en singular accidents (Malone,                                                                                           the XC60 Co
                                     hoek. Het detectie gebied is                                                                                            2004)                                                                                                                              begin 2007. V
                                     gelimiteerd tot de directe                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Corporation w
                                     omgeving van het voertuig.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 2009 op de m
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (IVSource, 20
      15 Obstacle            geen    In een noodsituatue grijpt dit Simulaties * Volgens een simulatie studie leidde een                                     * Afname van headway-tijden < 1sec.                                +                ++            ADASE II expert                  beschikbaar i
         collission                  systeem in om een ongeluk                 actief gaspedaal tot een toename van                                          [Janssen, W, and L. Nilsson, 1990]                                                                workshop                         (IVsource, 20
         avoidance                   te vermijden, zowel                       headway tijden met een negatief gevolg op                                     * Afname kop-staart botsingen van 8%,
                                     longitudinaal als lateraal.               doorstroming [Heino, A. et al., 1995].                                        20% en 40% voor penetratiegraden van
                                                                                                                                                             10%, 25% en 50% [Hayward, M., 1999];
                                                                                                                                                             * 10% markt penetratie, 9% afname; 50%
                                                                                                                                                             markt penetratie, 60% afname van
                                                                                                                                                             botsingen wanneer het voorste voertuig
                                                                                                                                                             remt en 20% afname wanneer het voorste
                                                                                                                                                             voertuig stopt [Sala, G. and Mussone,
                                                                                                                                                             1999].
                                                                                                                                                             * 8% of 40% afname van kop-staart
                                                                                                                                                             botsingen op snelwegen; 8% geldt alleen
                                                                                                                                                             met een penetratie van 10% met 'Anti
                                                                                                                                                             Collision Assist'. 40% geldt met een
                                                                                                                                                             penetratie van 50% met 'Anti Collision
                                                                                                                                                             Assist' [Schermers, G., 2000].
                                                                     Veldproeven
                                                                     Enquetes/
                                                                     experts
      16 Emergency           geen    Volledig automatisch            Simulaties                                                                                                                                                 +        +       ++            DGP studie                       * penetatrie p
         Braking/                    systeem, voorkomt               Veldproeven                                                                                                                                                                                                                2010 0%, pen
         Collision                   longitudinale botsingen         Enquetes/                                                                               * 9% minder verkeersdoden bij volledige                                                                                            tussen 3.6 en
         mitigation                  (alleen remmen).                experts                                                                                 penetratie (Wilmink, 2008)                                                                                                         2008)
         braking                                                                                                                                             * 35% minder verkeersdoden bij volledige
                                                                                                                                                             implementatie (Scholiers, 2008)

      17 Side Collision      geen  In een stedelijk gebied           Simulaties                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Geen docum
         Warning                   waarschuwt het systeem de         Veldproeven                                                                                                                                                                                                                recenter dan
                                   bestuurder het systeem een        Enquetes/
                                   botsing verwacht wordt aan        experts
      18 Cooperative         I2V & Intersection collision            Simulaties                                                                                                                                                                   +            DGP studie                       * Bevindt zich
         intersection        V2V   avoidance systemen helpen         Veldproeven                                                                             afname gemiddelde verwachte time-to-                               0                 +            ADASE II expert                  onderzoeksfa
         collision                 weggebruikers die een                                                                                                     collision van 2.5 tot 3 sec., afname snelheid                                                     workshop                         * Testen vang
         avoidance                 kruispunt naderen om de                                                                                                   van 2.4 mi/h, wegkant systeem o.b.v.                                                                                               implementatie
                                   gebeurtenissen te overzien.                                                                                               lusdetectie in rural Virginia (Hanscom,                                                                                            (Hway-Liem,
                                   Cooperative intersection                                                                                                  2000)                                                                                                                              * penetatrie p
                                   collision avoidance systems       Enquetes/                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2010 0%, pen
                                   (CICAS) kunnen                    experts                                                                                                                                                                                                                    tussen 0.2 en
                                   weggebruikers daarnaast                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2008)
                                   ook waarschuwen over
      19 Local hazard        I2V & Als er zich een gevaar            Simulaties                                                                                                                                                 +        +       ++            DGP studie                       * Een systeem
         Warning             V2V   bevindt verderop in de baan                                                                                               alle ongelukken met gewonden -1% to -5%                            +                 +            Malone, 2004                     momenteel in
                                   van het voertuig, eventueel                                                                                               (e-safety, 2005)                                                                                                                   WILLWARN.
                                   buiten het zicht van de           Enquetes/    * 10 to 20% afname in congestie tijd.                                      * potentiele afname van 5% van de                                                                                                  wordt verwac
                                   bestuurder, zal het systeem       experts      Volgens enquets gedaan in Westerse                                         ongelukken (Vollmer, DC; and a German                                                                                              * penetatrie p
                                   een waarschuwing geven.                        Europese landen (Abele, 2005)                                              statistic.)                                                                                                                        2010 0%, pen
                                   Door middel van                                                                                                           * verkeersdoden in 5 tot 15% omgezet naar                                                                                          tussen 1.6 en
                                   communicatie is het                                                                                                       zwaargewonden, en zwaargewonden in 10                                                                                              2008)
                                   mogelijk informatie over                                                                                                  tot 15% omgezet naar lichtgewonden
                                                                                                                                                             (Abele, 2005)
                                   langere afstand te
                                                                                                                                                             * 5% minder verkeersdoden bij volledige
                                   vezenden.
                                                                                                                                                             penetratie (Wilmink, 2008)
      20 Urban/Rural drive geen      Combinatie van Stop&Go          Simulaties                                                                                                                                                                   +            DGP studie
         assistent                   en Lane Changing                Veldproeven                                                                                                                                                                                                                verwachte pe
                                     Assistance in een meer          Enquetes/                                                                                                                                                                                                                  in personenw
                                     robuuste uitvoering en          experts                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0.01%, penet
                                     geschikt voor een minder                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   3.6 en 11% (W
                                     gestructureerde omgeving                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   verwachte pe
                                     op landelijke en stedelijke                                                                                                                                                                                                                                personenwag
                                     wegen. (Ricardo Zich, 2005)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0.2 en 0.7%,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                tussen 3.3 en
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2008)

      21 Night vision        geen    Night vision helpt een          Simulaties                                                                                                                                                                  ++            DGP studie                       * Het systeem
                                     bestuurder verder vooruit te    Veldproeven                                                                                                                                                                                                                Japan (Carpa
                                     kijken dan mogelijk is en       Enquetes/                                                                               * 3% minder verkeersdoden bij volledige                                                                                            * penetatrie p
                                     obstakels op weg te             experts                                                                                 penetratie (Wilmink, 2008)                                                                                                         2010 tussen
                                     detecteren (onbelichte                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     penetratie 20
                                     wegen 's nachts).                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          9% (Wilmink,




7fb88356-2a01-4c95-8dc6-8595d0fd8cf4.doc
                                                                                                                                                          Kwantitatief                                                                                                                  Kwalitatief
      Nr. Naam systeem      Comm.   Definitie                      Evaluatie    Bereikbaarheid                            Betrouwbaarheid                                Veiligheid                                     Duurzaamheid                                Bereikba Betrouw Veilig   Duur    Bron         Kosten           Status
                                                                   techniek                                                                                                                                                                                         ar       baar    heid     zaam
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    heid     heid             heid
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   implementati
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   e
      22 eCall              V2I     Een systeem dat contact        Simulaties                                                                                                                                                                                          +        +                     DGP studie   * unit cost: 90- * Mogelijk wor
                                    legt met de alarmcentrale      Veld                                                                                                  * alle dodelijke ongevallen -2% to -15%,                                                                                                  500 euro         de EU verplic
                                    om voertuig- en                proeven                                                                                               zwaar gewonden -3% to -15% (e-safety                                                                                                      (Bogelund,       nieuwe voertu
                                    locatiegegevens door te                                                                                                              forum, 2005)                                                                                                                              2006)            Nederland he
                                    seinen en een gesproken                                                                                                              * notification time met systeem 1 minuut, en                                                                                                               getekend voo
                                    verbinding tussen voertuig                                                                                                           zonder systeem varierend van 3-46                                                                                                                          * penetatrie p
                                    en centrale tot stand te                                                                                                             minuten. Gebaseerd op een beperkt aantal                                                                                                                   2010 tussen 0
                                    brengen. Het systeem treedt                                                                                                          ongelukken in Erie County, New York                                                                                                                        penetratie 202
                                                                                                                                                                         (benefitscosts.its.dot.gov, 2003).
                                    automatisch in werking bij                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      50% (Wilmink
                                    een ongeval, of als de         Enquetes/                                                                                             * 4-5% minder verkeersdoden vanwege 40-                                                                                                                    * bij do-nothin
                                    gebruiker op een               experts                                                                                               50% kortere aanrijtijden voor hulpdiensten                                                                                                                 penetratie 0-1
                                    “noodknop” drukt.                                                                                                                    ((Van Hattem en Kengen, 2005, en e-                                                                                                                        in 2020 (Boge
                                                                                                                                                                         IMPACT)
                                                                                                                                                                         * 6% minder verkeersdoden bij volledige
                                                                                                                                                                         penetratie (Wilmink, 2008)

      23 Electronic     geen        Electronic Stability Control   Simulaties                                                                                                                                                                                          +        +        +            DGP studie   * 130 euro,      * Het systeem
         Stability                  (ESC) is een                   Veld                                                                                                  * alleen letsel ongelukken -10% to -15%,                                                                                                  wanneer het      * penetatrie p
         Programme/Cont             computergebaseerd              proeven                                                                                               dodelijke ongelukken -20 to -35% (type                                                                                                    als              2010 tussen 2
         rol (ESP/C)                systeem ontworpen om de                                                                                                              ongelukken: single accidents, verlies                                                                                                     toevoeging       penetratie 202
                                    voertuigcontrole te                                                                                                                  voertuigcontrole, natte/gladde weg;                                                                                                       op ABS wordt     75% (Wilmink
                                    verbeteren door het                                                                                                                  gebaseerd op ongelukken analyse) (e-                                                                                                      gekozen          * penetratie ro
                                    detecteren en voorkomen                                                                                                              safety forum, 2005)                                                                                                                       (Baum, 2007)     2008 (Baum,
                                    van slippen.                                                                                                                         * ESC vermindert ongelukken met 35%                                                                                                       * unit costs:    * bij do-nothin
                                                                                                                                                                         (NHTSA, 2007)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   250 euro; call   penetratie 9%
                                                                                                                                                                         * "ESC vermindert all dodelijke ongelukken
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   centre 40000     2020 (Bogela
                                                                                                                                                                         met 14% voor personnenauto's en met
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   euro,
                                                                                                                                                                         28% voor busjes en kleine vrachtwagens.
                                                                                                                                                                         Alleen de afname voor busjes en                                                                                                           opleiding call
                                                                                                                                                                         vrachtwagens is statistisch significant."                                                                                                 centre 900
                                                                                                                                                                         (NHTSA, 2007)                                                                                                                             euro
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   (Bogeland,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   2006)
                                                                   Enquetes/                                                                                             * -2 to -10% dodelijke ongelukken (type
                                                                   experts                                                                                               ongelukken: single accidents, verlies
                                                                                                                                                                         voertuigcontrole, natte/gladde weg;
                                                                                                                                                                         gebaseerd op expert schattingen) (e-safety
                                                                                                                                                                         forum, 2005)
                                                                                                                                                                         * 17% minder verkeersdoden bij volledige
                                                                                                                                                                         penetratie (Wilmink, 2008)
                                                                                                                                                                         * ESP zorgt voor een reductie van de kans
                                                                                                                                                                         op een dodelijk ongeluk met 17,5%
                                                                                                                                                                         (Bogeland, 2006)

      24 Driver Condition geen      Systeem ter voorkoming van Simulaties                                                                                                                                                                                                               ++            DGP studie                    * Operationele
         Warning/                   slaperigheid, versuftheid en Veld                                                                                                    Invoering in 20 commerciële voortuigen                                                                                                                     2001; implem
         Vermoeidheidsde            dergelijke bij bestuurders.  proeven                                                                                                 resulteerde in een verbetering van de                                                                                                                      2008 (Hway-L
         tectie                                                                                                                                                          veiligheid en meer comfortabele                                                                                                                            * penetatrie p
                                                                                                                                                                         werkomstandigheden                                                                                                                                         2010 tussen 0
                                                                                                                                                                         (benefitscosts.its.dot.gov, 2003).                                                                                                                         penetratie 202
                                                                   Enquetes/                                                                                             * 5% minder verkeersdoden bij volledige                                                                                                                    4.4% (Wilmink
                                                                   experts                                                                                               penetratie (Wilmink, 2008)                                                                                                                                 * bij do-nothin
                                                                                                                                                                         * fatigue detection zorgt voor een reductie                                                                                                                in 2006, and 1
                                                                                                                                                                         van de kans op een dodelijk ongeluk met                                                                                                                    (Bogeland, 20
                                                                                                                                                                         10% (Bogeland, 2006)
      25 Platooning         V2V     Meerdere auto's zijn           Simulaties                                                                                                                                                                                        +++       ++        +            DGP studie                    Nog niet besc
                                    electronisch verbonden         Veld
                                    (door middel van               proeven
                                    communicatie) en volgen        Enquetes/
                                    elkaar in een peloton.         experts
      26 Autonomous         I2V & Het voertuig wordt in iedere Simulaties                                                                                                                                                                                             ++        +        +            DGP studie                    6 teams hebb
         driving            V2I   situatie bestuurd door een Veld                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Grand Challen
                                  algorithme.                  proeven                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Challenge", su
                                                                   Enquetes/    * 300% toename van de doorstroming bij                                                                                                                                                                                                              afgerond. Dez
                                                                   experts      platooned automatische besturing                                                                                                                                                                                                                    96 km lang tra
                                                                                (Stevens, 1996)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     gebied dat mo
                                                                                *38 to 48 % afname van de reistijd,                                                                                                                                                                                                                 afgelegd in 6
                                                                                automatisch highway systeem op de Long                                                                                                                                                                                                              verkeersregel
                                                                                Island Expressway en de I-495 Capital                                                                                                                                                                                                               opgevolgd en
                                                                                Beltway (Stevens, 1996)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    onderhandeld
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    verkeer. (Wiki



      27 Bus lane         I2V & Toegang geven aan                  Simulaties                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Bestaat nog n
         allocation to    V2I   voertuigen om op de                Veld                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             wellicht in CV
         other road users       busstrook te gaan rijden           proeven
                                wanneer er geen openbaar           Enquetes/
                                vervoer op rijdt.                  experts
      28 Creation of a    I2V &     Systeem dat wanneer         Simulaties                                                2.4% snelle aanrijtijden (Bullock et al,                                                                                                                                                                  Bestaat nog n
         requested green V2I        gevraagd groen licht geeft                                                            1999)                                                                                                                                                                                                     wellicht in CV
         in a cooperative           aan speciale voertuigen als Veld       Verlengde groentijd voor vrachtwagens          * 16% tot 23% snelle aanrijtijden, veldproef
         way                        ambulances of vrachtwagen proeven      (Tovergroen) heeft duidelijk positieve         22 kruispunten (Traffic Engineers Inc,
                                    met gevaarlijke lading                 effecten op de doorstroming van het            1991)
                                                                                vrachtverkeer (Provincie Noord-Brabant,   * 14% tot 23% snellere aanrijtijden,
                                                                                2004)                                     veldproef 75 kruispunten (Denver Dep. of
                                                                                                                          Safety, 1978)

                                                                   Enquetes/
                                                                   experts
      29 Recommended        I2V & Voertuigen worden                Simulaties                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Bestaat nog n
         speed profiles     V2I   geadviseerd een bepaald          Veld       Coordinated signal timing New York:                                                                                                       Coordinated signal timing New York:                                                                         wellicht in CV
                                  snelheidsprofiel te volgens      proeven    * 1.15% to 34.20% reistijdvermindering                                                                                                    * 7% tot 14% afname brandstofverbruik                                                                       Bestaat al we
                                  zodanig dat de doorstroom                   ochtendspits (Harris, 2003)                                                                                                               (Harris, 2003)                                                                                              systeem
                                  in stedelijke gebieden met                  * -2.71% to 35.10% reistijdvermindering                                                                                                   * 9% tot 13% afname emissies (Harris,
                                  kruispunten beter verloopt.                 overdag (Harris, 2003)                                                                                                                    2003)
                                                                              * -13.88% to 31.18% reistijdvermindering
                                                                              tijdens de avondspits (Harris, 2003)

                                                                   Enquetes/
                                                                   experts
      30 In-Car data        V2I     Het systeem verzamelt      Simulaties                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Fleetmanagem
         collection (FCD,           verkeersgegevens op basis Veld                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  en tracing sys
         cell probe)                van gegevens gemeten door proeven                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               gebruik. Er zij
                                    individuele voertuigen     Enquetes/ geen direct effect, indirect effect via                                                         geen direct effect, indirect effect via                                                                                                                    in het gebruik
                                    (plaatsbepaling, snelheid, experts    verkeersmanagement en                                                                          verkeersmanagement en                                                                                                                                      mobiele telefo
                                    wegcondities,                         verkeersinformatie (TNO, 2005)                                                                 verkeersinformatie (TNO, 2005)                                                                                                                             zal een penet
                                    weercondities)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  50% worden b



      31 Belonitor PAYD     I2V & Systeem waarbij mensen           Simulaties                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Nederlands ve
         (lease)            V2I   beloond worden als zij           Veld       * bij volledige invoering, door minder                                                     * bij volledige invoering een daling van 15% * bij volledige invoering leidt het tot een                                                                   2005 (Mazure
                                  netjes volgens de regels         proeven    ongelukken 1.25% minder files (Mazureck,                                                   van verkeersdoden, en een daling van 9% reductie van het brandstrofverbruik van
                                  rijden (snelheid, afstand                   2005)                                                                                      van verkeersgewonden (Mazureck, 2005) 5.5% (Mazureck, 2005)
                                  houden).                                                                                                                               * in de pilot steeg het aantal mensen dat
                                                                                                                                                                         zich aan de limiet hielden van 68 tot 86%,
                                                                                                                                                                         en steeg het aantal dat op een veilige
                                                                                                                                                                         rijafstand reed van 58 tot 77% (Mazereck,
                                                                                                                                                                         2005)


                                                                   Enquetes/
                                                                   experts
      32 Multimodale        I2V     Via het in-Car display kan     Simulaties                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Bestaat nog n
         reisinformatie             informatie mb.t. multimodale   Veld                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             systeem. Wel
                                    verkeers (overstappen,         proeven                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          advies.
                                    alternatieven) door worden     Enquetes/
                                    gegeven                        experts
      33 In-Car DVM-info    I2V     informatie over speedAlert,    Simulaties                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Combinatie va
                                    kruispuntinfo, weer, bochten   Veld                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             genoemde sy
                                    en DRIPS komt binnen op        proeven
                                    een in-car display             Enquetes/
                                                                   experts




7fb88356-2a01-4c95-8dc6-8595d0fd8cf4.doc
 7     ROAD CATEGORIES AND RELATED SERVICES PER CATEGORY

     7.1     Categorisation of urban roads

           (Document from Melanie Kloth, no reference)
           The categorisation serves the discussion on the level of intelligent
           infrastructure needed in urban areas in order to deliver a level of cooperative
           services to be defined.
           The situation in the urban road network is very complex and it is difficult to
           summarise all different possible situations in just a few categories. We suggest
           using the following categories which define roads according to their function
           rather than the physical road design (as chosen in the EasyWay categories).
           From a traffic management perspective however, many cities have defined a
           strategic road network or a system of road priority which do not necessarily
           correspond with these function-based categories. The level of intelligent
           infrastructure needed will depend on a variety of factors which cannot easily
           be presented in the form of a few categories. These factors include for
           example the relevance of a road for public transport and freight transport, the
           mix of transport modes in combination with the physical design of the road
           (e.g. existence of segregated cycle lanes, one-way roads), and access
           restrictions (e.g. low-emission zones, areas around hospitals or schools).




7fb88356-2a01-4c95-8dc6-8595d0fd8cf4.doc
Category      Function                   Infrastructure, types of traffic, and              Ex. of cooperative
                                         problems                                           services
Primary       Transit function; urban    often physical segregation between                Dynamic routing
distributor   through roads                  vehicles and cyclists/pedestrians; no              applications
roads
                                             frontage access to shops/housing; no on-         Priority application
                                             street stops of public transport, often           (buses, emergency
                                             dedicated bus lanes                               vehicles)
                                            including tunnels and bridges
                                            usually traffic flow and/or safety problems
                                             due to higher traffic volumes and higher
                                             speeds
                                            often high environmental impact (air
                                             quality, noise)
District      Transit function; links       significant movement of buses and                Priority application
distributor   between local districts        cyclists (segregated or on-road), and             (buses, emergency
roads
                                             pedestrians crossing at certain spots             vehicles)
                                             (shops, schools, etc.); sometimes                Intersection safety
                                             dedicated bus lanes and/or relevance as           applications
                                             freight routes
                                            traffic flow and safety problems occur at
                                             certain stretches or spots, e.g. due to on-
                                             street un/loading activities or at highly
                                             frequented intersections which due to
                                             space limitations cannot be designed in
                                             the most appropriate way
                                            often high environmental impact (air
                                             quality, noise)
Local         Place function (where         All transport modes; significant movement        Safety applications
collector     neighbourhood and              of pedestrians and cyclists; residential          at certain hot spots
roads         community function
                                             and commercial frontage                           (e.g. pedestrian
              dominate, such as
              retail, recreation) rather    Traffic flow or safety problems only at           crossings)
              than transit function          certain spots                                    Freight delivery
                                                                                               applications (e.g.
                                                                                               loading bay booking)
Access        Place function;               mix of modes, low speeds                         No intelligent
roads         residential roads                                                                infrastructure
                                            no traffic flow or safety problems
                                                                                               needed




7fb88356-2a01-4c95-8dc6-8595d0fd8cf4.doc
 8     (BASIC) REQUIREMENTS FOR INTELLIGENT INFRASTRUCTURE
       SERVICES

     8.1     At the level of functional requirements

           CVIS High-level system requirements
           The CVIS project [ref] has formulated requirements for the CVIS system.
           These requirements can be used to formulate requirements for Intelligent
           Infrastructure services.

           <Needs to be shortened>

           High-level system requirements are requirements on the overall functionality
           of the CVIS system. They shall apply to the entire CVIS system, to every
           component, service, feature and application that are part of the CVIS world.
           The target of these requirements is to ensure that the overall functionality of
           the CVIS system fulfils certain criteria. A good example is Security. It needs
           to be considered throughout the entire CVIS system. The saying “a chain is as
           strong as its weakest link” is very illustrative for the Security implementation.
           Having a number of secure components does not help the overall security of
           the system if one of the components is non-secure.

           Only the General requirements are considered here. They can be divided into
           following categories:
            Architecture properties
            Data exchange
            Adaptability
            Constraints
            Continuity
            Cost/benefits
            Expandability
            Maintainability
            Quality of data content
            Robustness
            Safety
            Security
            User friendliness

           Architecture Properties
           The Cooperative Systems Architecture description shall include functional,
           information, physical and communication perspectives.
           The Cooperative Systems Architecture description shall include a number of
           reference models to describe the relationships between the services needed
           within the traffic and transport system.
           The Cooperative Systems Architecture description shall include a glossary to
           explain all the main concepts described in the architecture.
           The Cooperative Systems Architecture shall be provided in a form which
           enables it to be up-dated after delivery.


7fb88356-2a01-4c95-8dc6-8595d0fd8cf4.doc
      The Cooperative Systems Architecture shall be technology independent.
      The Cooperative Systems Architecture shall facilitate the creation of modular
      and flexible designs, so that manufacturers can produce their own versions of
      equipment and systems may be scaled to cover different range of functionality.
      The Cooperative Systems Architecture shall allow equipment performing the
      same service to be provided by various suppliers.
      The Cooperative Systems Architecture shall allow the same service to be
      provided by various service providers.
      The Cooperative Systems Architecture shall support interaction between
      services provided by private and public bodies.
      The Cooperative Systems Architecture shall allow the user to select from one
      of a number of suppliers of the same service.
      The Cooperative Systems Architecture shall support interaction between
      services provided by private and public bodies.
      The Cooperative Systems Architecture shall allow current organisational
      responsibilities and legal liabilities to be retained.
      The Cooperative Systems Architecture shall, where possible, describe
      migration path(s) that can be followed to enable architectures defined for
      existing traffic and transport management, as well as other ITS control and
      information systems, to become compliant.
      The Framework Architecture shall allow the use of existing and emerging
      communication infrastructures, or describe possible migration paths to explain
      how they can become compliant.
      The Framework Architecture shall support the integration of Traffic
      Information Centres and Traffic Control Centres into national and
      international networks.
      The Framework Architecture description shall identify clearly the relevant
      interfaces to other modes of transport.

      Data exchange
      The Cooperative Systems Architecture shall provide a high level description
      of the message sets and data communication protocols to be used in data
      transfers.
      The Cooperative Systems Architecture shall provide a high level description
      of data stores and data flows, and shall have a single data dictionary.
      Systems that conform to the Cooperative Systems Architecture shall exchange
      information in a manner that permits a given geographic location to be
      understood by all parties.
      Systems that conform to the Cooperative Systems Architecture shall exchange
      information in a manner that permits road and traffic conditions to be
      understood by all parties.
      The Cooperative Systems Architecture shall provide a high level description
      of the message sets used to exchange data with external interfaces.
      The Cooperative Systems Architecture shall support the use of seamless
      communications. This shall mean that the use of different communication
      networks is transparent i.e. switches are made without the intervention of the
      final user.
      The Cooperative Systems Architecture shall permit all traffic management
      systems, existing or future, to receive and to use specific parts of the
      information. [SAFESPOT]


7fb88356-2a01-4c95-8dc6-8595d0fd8cf4.doc
      The systems should be able to provide non-equipped users with, as much as
      possible, safety-related information available inside the Cooperative system
      [~SAFESPOT]

      Adaptability
      Systems that conform to the Cooperative Systems Architecture shall be able to
      provide facilities that accommodate the needs of disabled and elderly persons,
      when relevant.
      Systems that conform to the Cooperative Systems Architecture shall be able to
      provide facilities to enable data about the travel network to be entered and
      updated.
      The Cooperative Systems Architecture shall not constrain its functionality to
      be implemented in a single topographical domain, be it urban, inter-urban or
      rural.
      The Cooperative Systems Architecture shall not constrain its functionality to
      be implemented by specific local organisations.
      The Cooperative Systems Architecture shall not constrain user interfaces to be
      of a particular type, or from a particular manufacturer.
      The Cooperative Systems Architecture shall not require that each of its user
      interfaces must operate on a specific item of equipment, unless it is for safety
      reasons.

      Constraints
      The Cooperative Systems Architecture shall require all systems developed
      from it to comply with current European and National laws concerning data
      security, user anonymity and the protection of individual privacy.
      The Cooperative Systems Architecture shall require all systems developed
      from it to comply with the traffic laws and regulations that apply in Europe.
      The Cooperative Systems Architecture shall conform to relevant MoU,
      European directives and guidelines, and European (de facto-) standards.

      Continuity
      The Cooperative Systems Architecture shall provide functionality such that the
      quality of information content is continuous and consistent, both in time and
      space (i.e. as the traveller moves).
      The Cooperative Systems Architecture shall provide functionality that can
      accommodate environmental stress and infrastructure failures.

      Cost/benefit
      Whenever possible and practical, the Cooperative Systems Architecture shall
      use the same data as input to several parts of its functionality.
      The Cooperative Systems Architecture shall avoid the need for unnecessary
      multiple data sources or redundant data management, if these do not lead to
      better data accuracy.
      The Cooperative Systems Architecture shall require all systems developed
      from it to be able to use the most cost-effective means of communication
      available.
      The Cooperative Systems Architecture shall require all systems developed
      from it to provide safety functionalities free of charge. [SAFESPOT]



7fb88356-2a01-4c95-8dc6-8595d0fd8cf4.doc
      The Cooperative Systems Architecture shall require all systems developed
      from it to enable operating costs to be reduced whenever possible, when
      compared with the systems that they replace.
      The Cooperative Systems Architecture shall require all systems developed
      from it that require payment from a user to be able to manage fees/fares.
      The Cooperative Systems Architecture shall require all systems developed
      from it that require payment from a user to be able to receive fees/fares.
      Systems upgraded to conform to the Cooperative Systems Architecture, and
      providing the same services, shall produce financial benefit to their owners.
      The technologies adopted by the Cooperative Systems Architecture shall be
      potentially low-cost to ensure future high level penetration of the Cooperative
      systems.

      Expandability
      The Cooperative Systems Architecture shall allow systems developed from it
      to have an evolutionary development strategy that enables their continuous
      upgrading.
      The Cooperative Systems Architecture shall provide services that are not
      constrained to operate in a particular geographic region.

      Maintainability
      The Cooperative Systems Architecture shall require all systems developed
      from it to be capable of being repaired.
      The Cooperative Systems Architecture shall require all systems developed
      from it to be easily maintainable with minimum disturbance.

      Quality of data content
      The Cooperative Systems Architecture shall enable all information systems
      developed from it to provide data with a stated accuracy, either as additional
      information or as part of the documentation, at all times.
      The Cooperative Systems Architecture shall require all systems developed
      from it to check all input data for validity, whenever possible, and to report
      failures.
      The Cooperative Systems Architecture shall enable all systems developed
      from it to check data values by comparing different sources, when available,
      so as to ensure high-accuracy and completeness.
      The Cooperative Systems Architecture shall require all systems developed
      from it to manage local/regional/national databases in a consistent way.

      Robustness
      The Cooperative Systems Architecture shall allow all systems developed from
      it to be able to detect errors in operation, when higher integrity is required, e.g.
      for financial, security or safety reasons.
      Systems that conform to the Cooperative Systems Architecture shall be able to
      monitor each safety-related component (including software), warn the user in
      case of problems, and disable it, or reduce it to a safe state.
      The Cooperative Systems Architecture shall require all safety-related systems
      developed from it to be fault-tolerant.




7fb88356-2a01-4c95-8dc6-8595d0fd8cf4.doc
         The Cooperative Systems Architecture shall require all systems developed
         from it to be reliable with respect to the legal and/or quality requirements
         necessary for each application.
         The Cooperative Systems Architecture shall require all systems developed
         from it to be able to operate in all potential climatic and traffic conditions.

         Safety
         The Cooperative Systems Architecture shall provide functionality that
         operates in a manner that does not generate a safety hazard for its users.
         The Cooperative Systems Architecture shall provide functionality that
         operates in a manner that does not encourage unsafe behaviour.
         The Cooperative Systems Architecture shall provide functionality that
         operates in a safe manner during degraded modes of operation.
         The Cooperative Systems Architecture shall provide functionality that is
         ultimately under the control of the human operator.

         Security
         The Cooperative Systems Architecture shall require that systems developed
         from it are capable of surviving accidental and intentional attacks on their
         integrity.
         The Cooperative Systems Architecture shall require systems developed from it
         to provide protection against unauthorised access.

         User friendliness
         The Cooperative Systems Architecture shall require all systems developed
         from it to follow HMI guidelines. Specify!
         The Cooperative Systems Architecture shall require all systems developed
         from it to provide facilities that enable their users to control the speed and
         frequency of information presentation.
         The Cooperative Systems Architecture shall ensure that the safety and security
         of systems developed from it are not compromised by their ease of use.


   8.2     How do the different stakeholders cooperate




7fb88356-2a01-4c95-8dc6-8595d0fd8cf4.doc
 9     CURRENT ROADSIDE INFRASTRUCTURE

     9.1     What is already available
                As a complete overview would exceed the resources of the IIWG,
                typical situations will be described as examples.

           Austrian test site COOPERS
           (Document from Marko Jandrisits, no reference)
           <Needs to be shortened>
           The following paragraph gives an overview on the current road side
           infrastructure. As an example the road segment of the COOPERS test stretch
           of ASFINAG in Austria is described although the level and quality definitely
           differs on different road stretches, among different road operators and the
           classification of the roads (TERN, secondary road network, urban network).
           The test corridor within the project COOPERS covers the highways A12
           Inntal Motorway (78 km) as well as the A13 Brenner Motorway (36 km) from
           the Austrian/German border Kiefersfelden/Kufstein via Innsbruck to the
           Austrian/Italian border on the Brenner pass. On the total corridor a Traffic
           Management System including traffic and weather sensors, VMS, information
           panels and Traveller information services is in operation.
           There are 3 interchanges, 25 exits and 1 tolling station on the COOPERS
           corridor, and there are 11 tunnels and 16 bridges. The corridor is in most of the
           parts two-laned with some exceptions where there are three lanes.

           Technical structures
           On the COOPERS corridor there are different types of gantries: Variable
           message signs, Information panels, Gantries with VMS are equipped with one
           VMS per lane for the speed limits as well as with one VMS between two lanes
           for warnings. The information panels are equipped with on VMS (freely
           programmable) as well as with 3 lines of text (alphanumeric characters). These
           gantries are all overhead mounted.

           Infrastructure - Telematics and electronic/electric systems (Inventory)
           The construction of the traffic control system TCU Tirol is an important step
           on the path of ASFINAG, regarding the implementation of the traffic
           management and information centre.
           All sensors that are used by ASFINAG are overhead sensors using three
           technologies for detecting the traffic. The detection is based on the
           “Technische Lieferbedingungen fur Streckenstationen”(TLS), which is a
           standard from the german BAST. The sensors detect the average speed of the
           vehicles per lane as well as the number of vehicles in the classification 2+0,
           5+1 and 8+1.

           All existing and planned video systems of the ASFINAG network are being
           integrated in a digital video management, in order to observe particularly
           critical road sections as well as intersection areas and further to enable future
           traffic monitoring with the support of automatic video image detection. This
           centralised video management provides access to all integrated video systems
           not only from the TMIC, but also from the motorway maintenance agencies,


7fb88356-2a01-4c95-8dc6-8595d0fd8cf4.doc
      as well as from the command & control centres of the regional police.
      Furthermore it enables the provision of the video images of all integrated
      video systems for internal and external users, the distribution of digital video
      streams to communication networks and the application of Austria wide
      standardized video subsystems. At two test sites, on the A2 and the A2,
      cameras are being installed for the introduction of automatic video image
      detection, in order to register “ghost drivers” (vehicles driving against the
      traffic), lane blocks, traffic jams and traffic congestions, as well as stop-and go
      traffic and also in order to refine the camera technology.

      Weather data is provided to ASFINAG 24 hours a day by Austro Control –
      Osterreichische Gesellschaft fur Zivilluftfahrt GmbH. Austro Control is in
      charge of safe and efficient air traffic control. Precise weather reports and
      prognoses are fundamental elements of aviation. Within the realms of the co-
      operation with ASFINAG, Austro Control applies many years of know-how in
      flight meteorology in an area outside their core-business.

      The operational staff of the four ASFINAG service companies, who are in
      charge of road maintenance on Austria‟s motorways and expressways, are also
      provided with detailed prognoses to facilitate the planning and road service
      process. In future motorists will also have the possibility to recall current
      traffic and weather information over the internet portal of the ASFINAG
      (www.asfinag.at).
      The road weather information system is composed of three different types of
      prediction:
           General weather reports as text messages,
           Prognosis data for describing the exact weather development and
           Image information for obtaining a general overview of the weather
              situation.
      From these predictions, short-, medium- and long-term road weather
      prognoses are generated in hourly intervals, in order to provide safe driving
      conditions to the customers of ASFINAG – the road users.

      Currently there are 90 SOS boots along the A12 (Kufstein-Innsbruck) and 47
      SOS boots on the A13. For the A12 the SOS boots are connected to the service
      centers Worgl and Vomp and on the A13 they are connected to the service
      center Schonberg.
      The Corporate Network ASFINAG (CN.as) is available on the Brenner
      Corridor. CN.as is a fibre optical network with SDH implemented. Access
      points are normaly available on the A12 and A13 near the VMS gantrys.
      Currently, no wireless network is available on the A12 and the A13 on the
      Brenner corridor.
      Electric power supply is available at all tolling stations, and wherever Variable
      Message Signs or traffic sensors are installed.

      Tolling sensors
      In Austria there is an electronic toll system based on the Microwave DSRC
      technology as free flow multi-lane concept in operation. Every lorry >3,5t
      needs the so called GO Box which is used for the transaction. Tolls for



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      vehicles whose maximum admissible weight exceeds 3.5 t will be collected
      electronically.

      The toll system, which does not require the driver to stop or use a certain lane
      while the toll is collected, has been in operation since January 1, 2004. The
      system is as simple as can be: It consists of two components visible to the
      driver – the toll gantries and the on-board units, the so-called GOBoxes drivers
      are obliged to install in their vehicles. The size of the GO-Box is that of
      cigarette box. It ensures proper toll collection from inside the vehicle.
      Communication of the small unit that is mounted on the inside of the
      windscreen and the toll gantries is based on microwave technology, while the
      vehicle that is subject to pay toll passes underneath the gantry.

      Traffic Information
      The total COOPERS network in Austria (A12 and A13) is covered with the
      free to air RDS-TMC plus service operated by the Austrian broadcaster ORF.
      The RDS-TMC messages are available on the one hand via the national radio
      programme Hitradio o3 as well as on the regional programme of Radio Tirol.
      Coded TMC messages are available for the high level road network as well as
      for the second level road network.
      ASFINAG is also acting as service provider with its internet based internet
      services like the “Road Pilot” (www.asfinag.at). The internet based tool allows
      to access traffic information services coming from ASFINAG and ORF,
      webcams can be accessed and furthermore the LOS of certain road segments
      can be accessed. For the road pilot also a version for mobile devices is
      available to the public. Furthermore ASFINAG provides together with the
      federal railway company ÖBB and the Austrian air traffic controller an
      intermodal traffic information service under www.verkehrspilot.at.

      Road authorities
      The highway police is responsible for assuring the security of the traffic. The
      highway police operates on a “Lander” level and has access to the Traffic
      Management Centre of ASFINAG (via direct phone connection and can access
      all the information of ASFINAG TCC).

      The highway police is an independent body, and is allowed to perform patrols
      on the highway, without having to respond to the highway operator. The
      police can carry out speed measurements, and administer fines when asserting
      a malfeasance; and they can also directly access the infrastructure of the
      highway operator (cameras, traffic loops, weather information) for their
      information. The influencing of the VMS must happen via the TCC of
      ASFINAG.

      In case of incidents, the highway police is one of the involved bodies: the
      operator notifies its own maintenance crew: the maintenance crew is
      responsible for traffic management in the immediate vicinity of the incident,
      "restoration" of the traffic flow, and repair of damaged infrastructure; the
      highway police is responsible for carrying out the investigation of the course
      of events (however, if there are no casualties, the investigations could also be
      done directly by the service personnel of ASFINAG). Ambulance and fire


7fb88356-2a01-4c95-8dc6-8595d0fd8cf4.doc
      department are responsible for rescue of the injured persons, and the towing
      service for removing the vehicles. The fire department has also responsibility
      in case of incidents with vehicles carrying toxic substances, where it takes the
      lead of the operations.

      Traffic control centres
      There is one traffic information and management centre in Vienna Inzersdorf
      for the whole area of Austria. The fundamental part of the system technology
      is the “base system” and its functionality as central data distribution device.
      Due to the specially developed modular design, the performance of the data
      processor and the data archive can be gradually expanded along with the
      extension of the TCU and the subcentres.

      In collaboration with network operators in neighbouring countries, as well as
      in large cities within Austria, national and international linking of system
      technology is planned as precondition for the development of cross-border
      strategies. Therefore the functionalities traffic statistics and traffic prognostics
      are of substantial importance. In the TCU-areas subcentres are established,
      from there all data is transferred to the traffic management and information
      centre (TMIC) in Wien-Inzersdorf. From this central monitoring point, the
      required algorithms are recalled and then applied at the particular subcentre,
      the control unit for the route concerned. At first each TCU has to be
      configurated and parameterised according to the local conditions, so that at all
      times the information panels show the correct traffic signs for an optimum
      flow of traffic.

      Due to the ongoing flow of data from the measuring panels, the stored data in
      the TMIC, the “data warehouse”, grows rapidly. By applying the method “data
      mining” the stored data is manifoldly analysed and evaluated. In doing so, the
      data is classified in raw, master and analysis data. Thereby prognoses of future
      traffic flow can be developed, further temporal and geographical consequences
      of road works can be optimised, weather and road condition information can
      be passed on quickly and statistics in accordance with various query criteria
      can be compiled and displayed in specially designed thematic GIS map. The
      „data warehouse“ is therefore a significant basis for national and international
      net monitoring and traffic and co-operation management on the one hand, and
      for controlling and quality assurance of traffic technology on the other hand.

      The TCUs are monitored by operators (7 days a week, 24 hours). They are in
      close contact with the executive authority and the motorway maintenance
      agencies. Through automatic programmes and semi-automatic programmes or
      special programmes (manual shifting) the corresponding diagrams are
      generated and appear on the information panels for the road users. In this very
      short period of time one can react to all incidents, e. g. a blocking vehicle – the
      lane is closed and the blockade is passed on to the road users by displaying the
      necessary information. The operators are furthermore in charge of generating
      traffic messages, as well as in charge of constant control, whether the
      information is up-to-date. These messages are customised by various online
      services and are passed on to the customers.



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   9.2   Issues with current infra/Identification of problems

   9.3   How to grow to Intelligent




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 10 THE INTELLIGENT VEHICLE

   10.1 Definition of Intelligent vehicle

             Minimum characteristics for a vehicle to interact with the infrastructure
             and II alternatives to communicate with the other vehicles
             This chapter will be based on existing/approved information from the
             Car2Car Consortium.

   10.2 The II link with Intelligent Vehicles

             The wireless communication

   10.3 Requirements from the vehicle side (electric vehicles)

             These are independent from the electric vehicle


   10.4 Cooperation with vehicle manufacturers

             The setting of communication standards and minimum set of
             applications to allow the start of the exchange of information.




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 11 IT ARCHITECTURE

   11.1 Communications architecture

This chapter will be mainly based on materials from COMeSafety and eFrame.

       In COMeSafety [ref], possible approaches and process steps for the definition,
       setup of subsystems and validation for a future EU ITS Architecture are
       described. Hereby the top down approach from a European perspective and
       methodology point of view is complemented by the bottom of approach of
       several parallel running projects and their validated results of subsystems and
       components. The related organisational models of the projects are drafted
       briefly. This leads to the used communication technologies in the following
       chapter.
       The overall process to define the necessary viewpoints in this European ITS
       architecture document can briefly be described as follows and combines two
       approaches which are currently performed in parallel: A top-down approach
       for an Overall High Level Framework of a
       European ITS architecture, in short called FRAME, and a parallel technical
       proof of concept for single system definitions of that framework within the
       currently running EU research and development projects COOPERS, CVIS
       and SAFESPOT.
       These projects are collaborative efforts of project consortia and therefore
       include varying levels of functionalities, depending on the partners which
       work together. For this reason the technical and functional definitions have a
       “centre of gravity” for each of the projects. Apart from these centres of
       gravity, there is also in future space for further functionalities and elements of
       the system definition. The architecture allows for both other (e.g. non-
       communication related) system elements and future extensions of
       functionalities that they can be included in the overall EU ITS framework
       architecture.

       After the discussion between the projects involved it seems not possible for
       various reasons to include an organisational viewpoint of the overall ITS
       system architecture at this point in time, but rather several models that have
       been defined in the single research projects and which could lead to different
       organisational settings in the future ITS deployment of cooperative systems.
       Hereby the starting point for the organisational setting is the technical solution
       of the various systems and networks developed in COOPERS, CVIS and
       SAFESPOT projects with the following main aspects of organisations and
       entities involved.

       COOPERS – bidirectional data network with strong centralized functionality –
       Operator of the data network (and road infrastructure network) has the main
       responsibility for collecting, processing, coding and distribution of high
       quality traffic information for road safety relevant information to the
       travellers. Therefore he assures service quality, continuity and improvements
       with the data network built and operated for this purpose and extended to be



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       able to communicate traffic management information in the best and direct
       way to the driver.

       CVIS – generally a peer to peer type of network with changing characteristics
       of responsibility and roles between partners involved. System responsibilities
       for setup, service operation and improvement will be defined according to
       business and deployment models developed in the coming phases of the
       project.

       SAFESPOT – a vehicular ad-hoc network (VANET) based on accidental
       meetings between network nodes which have roles in the data communication
       depending on the specific scenario.
       Hereby the main responsibilities will generally not be defined for long periods
       but rather for short time frames related to a network session classified
       applications into two different categories.

       Applications are classified as vehicle based applications and infrastructure
       based applications.
       In the first case the vehicle is able to elaborate and fuse raw data from
       infrastructure, other vehicles and own sensors and then to define the warning
       to the driver. This kind of application could be seen as extended ADAS
       applications (e.g. cooperative collision warning). In the second case the
       vehicles are providing raw data to the infrastructure that elaborates specific
       warnings to be provided to the drivers. This second class is conceptually close
       to the COOPERS viewpoint. A SAFESPOT vehicle is able to manage
       contemporarily the two class of applications. In case of multiple applications
       providing warnings at the same time it is the responsibility of the vehicle to
       present the highest priority messages according to a predefined classification.
       For these aspects of project work the organisational setting has to be divided
       into two aspects: the starting projects demonstration phase and the future
       deployment phase of cooperative systems in Europe. In the currently running
       demonstration and validation phases of the projects the proposals for the
       organisational settings include all necessary stakeholders but are at the same
       time pragmatic decisions for facilitating technical project work without high
       additional burden from an organisational or legal point of view.
       After a conformation of the main technical elements and as a preparation for a
       deployment phase additional regulatory and legal aspects will need to be
       addressed. Some of them are mentioned in chapter 2, the main topics for
       implementation in chapter 14.

       European ITS Communication Architecture components
       The European ITS Communication Architecture (see Figure 8) is a
       communication system designed for ITS and made of four physically
       separated subsystem components:
      The vehicle subsystem component
   
      The central subsystem component
      The mobile subsystem component




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      These components are inter-linked by a communication network. The
      communication network is typically made of a backbone network and a
      number of edge networks and access networks.
      Communications are performed over a wide range of wireless or wired
      communication media.
      Any number of instances in each of the subsystems can be connected through
      the communication network. This means that there can be as many vehicles,
      mobile hand-held devices, roadside and central servers as needed for any
      specific purpose. Thus, the architecture allows both for direct vehicle-to-
      vehicle ad-hoc networks as well as infrastructure-based systems or any
      combination thereof.




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      The ITS Station
      Each of the four components described in Figure 2 contains an ITS Station
      (respectively Vehicle Station, Roadside Station, Central Station and Personal
      Station) and usually a gateway connecting the ITS Station to legacy systems
      (respectively Vehicle Gateway, Roadside Gateway and Central Gateway).
      An ITS Station comprises a number of ITS-specific functions and a set of
      devices implementing these functions (by ITS-specific we mean the necessary
      functions in order to communicate with other ITS communication architecture
      components).
      For the sake of clarity and referring to the bottom-left part of Figure 2 showing
      an example of an implementation of the ITS Station on-board the vehicle: the
      functions of a Vehicle Station may in one implementation be split onto several
      physically separated nodes communicating over a local area network (LAN)
      such as e.g. Ethernet. The communication function would be supported by a
      communication node (a mobile router) in charge of communication with
      outside the vehicle whereas applications may be supported by a number of
      other dedicated nodes (vehicle hosts). In another implementation instance, a
      unique node may support both the communication functions and the
      applications.
      The decision for how to implement the necessary set of functions of an ITS
      Station is out of scope of this present document and is left out to stakeholders
      who will deploy this ITS Communication Architecture.

      Communication Scenarios
      The communication network allows for any subsystem component to
      communicate with any other subsystem component (in theory; in practice
      some scenarios wouldn't make sense with today's know-how). The
      communication could be performed directly between two subsystem
      component instances or indirectly multi-hopping via intermediate subsystem
      component instances. For instance, in one specific instance, vehicles could
      communicate with one another without involving any of the other components
      (ad-hoc type of communication as illustrated in
      Figure 2); in another more general instance, vehicles could communicate with
      servers either directly reachable through the communication network or
      reachable through the roadside or even another vehicle (Internet-based type of
      communication as illustrated in Figure 9).
      Each component has to obey to a number of rules in order to communicate
      with other components in a particular communication scenario. In the specific
      ad-hoc type of communication mentioned earlier and illustrated in Figure 8, all
      vehicles are communicating over the air using the same communication media
      in the 5.9 GHz frequency band.
      Whereas the ad-hoc type of communication (see Figure 8) and other specific
      scenarios do not involve servers in the central subsystem at the particular point
      in time when this type of communication is under progress, all subsystem
      components must be able to talk to one another at some point in time in their
      lifetime in order to exchange some information, such as identifiers,
      credentials, security key, map update, toll payment, etc. For doing so, it is
      necessary that all subsystem components are inter-linked by a communication
      network using the same communication language, what is referred to as a
      protocol. This protocol must be of a wide-spread reach and use and must be


7fb88356-2a01-4c95-8dc6-8595d0fd8cf4.doc
       independent from any of the wireless or wired access network technologies
       and must also accommodate all types of applications. The Internet Protocol
       (IP) serves this purpose. This is illustrated in Figure 9.




IPv6-based Communication Network
Using IP (Internet Protocol) for the European ITS Communication Architecture brings
a number of benefits, including the possibility to interoperate ITS subsystem
components with the legacy Internet. By decreasing costs and increasing revenue, it
would ease the deployment of the ITS architecture.
There currently exist two versions of this protocol, IPv4 (Internet Protocol version 4)
the currently deployed version, and IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6), its successor
currently under deployment.
Many reasons drive to the selection of IPv6:
     The number of subsystem components that shall be supported: the far-end
        objective is to support all vehicles, i.e. 200 millions vehicles in Europe, not to
        mention the mobile hand-held devices (more than one per citizen).
     IPv4 address depletion: in 2011 according to converging studies, there will not
        be any IPv4 address block left to be allocated to regional registries which
        subsequently provide address space to Internet Service Providers and big
        companies.
     IPv6 enhanced features: IPv6 provides new features such as network mobility,
        auto-configuration, Quality-of-Service, multiple interface management etc.
        that are key to meet ITS requirements.
     European recommendations: in May 2008 and following a study of the impact
        of IPv6 on vertical sectors, the European Commission has published an IPv6


7fb88356-2a01-4c95-8dc6-8595d0fd8cf4.doc
       action plan setting up 2010 as a target to deploy IPv6 at a wide scale in
       Europe.
      OECD: the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development has
       issued a report urging governments to facilitate IPv6 deployment.
      ITS standardisation under progress: the ISO TC204 WG16, for example, is
       specifying the CALM architecture and uses IPv6.

The deployment of an IPv6-based ITS communication architecture is thus driven by
both:
    operational and technical reasons (IPv6 provide the features that meet ITS
       requirements),
    economical reasons (interoperability with other communication systems ;
       relatively few currently deployed systems operating in IPv4; off the shelves
       equipment available in IPv6 and wide-spread know-how in internet
       technologies as compared to a dedicated ITS network relying on another
       technology),
    political reasons (incentives to deploy IPv6 in order to boost European
       competitiveness), and
    societal reasons (the internet is deployed everywhere and there is no reason
       why the ITS communication network would not be part of the overall internet.
       It will ultimately simplify the living of everyone as it would allow the
       interoperability of the ITS communication system with other communication
       systems such as for example healthcare and emergencies).

EasyWay
In the EasyWay project [ref], the following is said on system architecture:

The main objectives for preparation of the system architecture are the efficient
construction of ITS as an integrated system, securing of the common use of
information, system expandability, and promotion of domestic and international
standardisation and tools. The promotion of the importance of using systems
architecture in deployment projects aims at:
      Formation of shared views about ITS
      Plans for project development and deployment
      Combination and use of user services for implementation of ITS measures
      Promotion of standardisation activities
EASYWAY is about the deployment of European ITS services. A key issue in the
deployment of European services is what makes a service European. Usually the
national or regional implementations of such European services must contain a
number of common elements at least for the users, but the national deployments
would certainly also benefit from other commonalities, which result in standardized or
at least harmonised solutions and Europe-wide competition in the provision of such
services. In other words, EASYWAY European ITS services require a common open
systems architecture on a suitable and acceptable level for all major stakeholders.

The framework system architecture comprises - to different levels of details –
typically the following components:
     Assessment of user needs
     Functional architecture with identification of functions and sub-functions



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      Communication architecture
      Data architecture and data management
      Organisational issues
      Physical architecture
      Cost-benefit studies
      Risk analysis
      Common terminology and definitions

The first four of these bullets will normally obtain the highest level of attention in
work with the system architecture.
The System Architecture work in EasyWay might be based on the KAREN/FRAME
work, but it may put different emphasis on some characteristics of the approach. In
ICT the central aspects and focus will be on infrastructure and interfaces for the sake
of interoperability, and in addition the further development of the system architecture
ought to be open. It may be attractive to follow a line of development comparable to
the situation for the Internet, with room for greater freedom and differentiation.




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 12 COMMUNICATION & PROTOCOLS




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 13 SPECIFICATION AND STANDARDS




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 14 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE DEPLOYMENT OF II SERVICES

      These are just for II deployment not for services deployment as these will be,
      partially, a consequence of the first.

   14.1 Business models

   14.2 Cooperation techniques

   14.3 Organisational issues

   14.4 Development and implementation roadmaps

   14.5 Field Operational tests

   14.6 Barriers to overcome

   14.7 Technical versus economics




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7fb88356-2a01-4c95-8dc6-8595d0fd8cf4.doc
ANNEX 1: RESULT OF QUESTIONNAIRE DEFINITION OF II SERVICES




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     TOTAL RESULT ONLY NRAs                          part of Intelligent   Road operators / service providers       car industry   existing        under
                                                     Infrastructure        authorities                                             service         development
                                                     services

EasyWay services are highlighted in blue

Travel information services
  pre-trip travel information
    predictive traffic conditions information                          9                  7                     4              0              5              3

  on-trip travel information
   RT event information                                              11                  10                     4              1               8             0
   RT traffic condition information                                  11                  10                     4              1               8             1
   traveltime information                                            11                   8                     5              0               8             2
   weather information                                               11                   6                     7              1              10             0
   speed limit information                                           11                   7                     4              0               7             2
   Dynamic route guidance                                             9                   3                     6              1               6             2
   Parking information and guidance                                  11                   6                     5              0               7             2
   Local hazard Warning                                               9                   7                     1              1               3             4
   Curve speed warning                                                8                   6                     1              2               1             5
   Obstacle detection/collision warning                               8                   1                     1              7               2             6
   In-car incident warning                                            8                   3                     0              6               4             3
   Emergency vehicle warning                                          9                   4                     3              1               0             6
   Wrong way driving warning                                         10                   8                     2              0               3             4
   Limited access warning, detour notification                       10                   8                     1              0               3             3

  Co-modal travel information
   multimodal travel planning                                         8                   2                     8              0              4              5
   multimodal traffic information                                    10                   2                     8              0              5              4


Traffic Management
   Strategic traffic management for corridors and
   networks                                                           9                   9                     0              0              4              1
   Traffic management of sensitive road segments                     10                  10                     0              0              4              2
   Incident Management                                               10                   9                     1              0              6              2
   Road user charging                                                11                  11                     1              0              5              3
   Traffic management services / systems >
   rampmetering, traffic controllers, etc                            10                  10                     0              0              8              0
   Recommended speed profiles                                         9                   6                     2              0              1              5
   eCall                                                              9                   2                     4              5              0              7
   Priority lane                                                     10                   9                     0              0              3              3
   Requested green (in a cooperative way)                            10                   9                     0              0              3              4

Freight & logistic services
   Access to abnormal and hazardous transport                         8                   9                     1              0              4              3
   Intelligent truck parking                                         10                   5                     3              1              1              7


Other services
   Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (C-ACC)                        6                   0                     1              9              0              6
   Adaptive cruise control (ACC)                                      4                   0                     1              8              7              2
   Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA)                                10                   3                     1              6              6              4
   Lane Keeping assistent                                             5                   0                     1              8              4              2
   Cooperative intersection collision avoidance                       7                   1                     1              8              1              6
   Lane changing assistent                                            4                   0                     1              7              2              5
   Near Field Collision Warning                                       5                   0                     1              8              4              3
   Pedestrian detection                                               6                   2                     1              5              2              5
   Blind spot monitoring                                              4                   0                     1              7              4              3
   Emergency Braking/ Collision mitigation braking
                                                                       4                  0                     1              7              5              2
    Decentralized floating car data                                    8                  2                     6              3              3              5




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      TOTAL RESULT NOT NRAs                          part of Intelligent   Road operators / service providers       car industry   existing       under
                                                     Infrastructure        authorities                                             service        development
                                                     services

EasyWay services are highlighted in blue

Travel information services
  pre-trip travel information
    predictive traffic conditions information                          6                  5                     2              0              2             3

  on-trip travel information
   RT event information                                                7                  5                     3              0              4             2
   RT traffic condition information                                    8                  6                     3              0              5             1
   traveltime information                                              7                  4                     5              0              5             2
   weather information                                                 7                  3                     4              0              5             1
   speed limit information                                             7                  6                     1              0              5             1
   Dynamic route guidance                                              5                  3                     4              1              5             0
   Parking information and guidance                                    5                  0                     6              0              3             3
   Local hazard Warning                                                7                  5                     1              2              4             1
   Curve speed warning                                                 5                  5                     1              2              2             3
   Obstacle detection/collision warning                                3                  1                     0              5              4             1
   In-car incident warning                                             4                  0                     3              5              2             3
   Emergency vehicle warning                                           5                  3                     1              0              1             2
   Wrong way driving warning                                           4                  5                     2              0              3             3
   Limited access warning, detour notification                         5                  7                     0              0              3             3

  Co-modal travel information
   multimodal travel planning                                          5                  0                     6              1              4             2
   multimodal traffic information                                      7                  0                     8              0              3             4


Traffic Management
   Strategic traffic management for corridors and
   networks                                                            6                  7                     0              0              5             1
   Traffic management of sensitive road segments                       6                  7                     0              0              4             2
   Incident Management                                                 6                  6                     1              0              3             2
   Road user charging                                                  6                  6                     2              0              3             2
   Traffic management services / systems >
   rampmetering, traffic controllers, etc                              6                  6                     1              0              4             1
   Recommended speed profiles                                          5                  4                     1              1              1             5
   eCall                                                               6                  2                     6              0              3             3
   Priority lane                                                       4                  6                     0              0              3             1
   Requested green (in a cooperative way)                              5                  5                     1              0              1             3

Freight & logistic services
   Access to abnormal and hazardous transport                          4                  3                     1              1              3             2
   Intelligent truck parking                                           6                  4                     3              0              2             3


Other services
   Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (C-ACC)                         5                  1                     0              6              0             5
   Adaptive cruise control (ACC)                                       1                  0                     0              5              3             1
   Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA)                                  4                  1                     2              4              1             3
   Lane Keeping assistent                                              2                  0                     0              5              2             2
   Cooperative intersection collision avoidance                        5                  2                     0              5              0             5
   Lane changing assistent                                             0                  0                     0              4              2             2
   Near Field Collision Warning                                        1                  0                     0              5              2             1
   Pedestrian detection                                                2                  1                     0              5              1             3
   Blind spot monitoring                                               1                  0                     0              5              2             2
   Emergency Braking/ Collision mitigation braking
                                                                       0                  0                     0              5              3             1
    Decentralized floating car data                                    4                  1                     3              1              0             3




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ANNEX 2: RELEVANT DEVELOPMENTS AND PROJECTS




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Starting list of “Relevant developments and projects”


Development / project           Source (where Relevant links                IIWG          Relevant for e.g.           Remarks
name                            it was                                      Contact
                                mentioned)                                  person
CVIS – Cooperative              IIWG meeting http://www.cvisproject.        Paul             Service questionnaire
Vehicle-Infrastructure          #1, 2, 4, 6   org                           Kompfner,        Added Value of II
Systems                                                                     René Jacobs      Car-roadside
                                                                                              communication
COOPERS – CO-                   IIWG meeting       http://www.coopers-      Marko            Service questionnaire
OPerative SystEms for           #1, 2, 6           ip.eu                    Jandrisits       Added Value of II
Intelligent Road Safety
and
Safespot                        IIWG meeting       http://www.safespot-     Tom Alkim        Service questionnaire   Also sup-project “SP6 –
                                #1. 2, 6           eu.org                                    Added Value of II       BLADE” was mentioned
                                                                                             Business models         as input for chapter
                                                                                                                      “business models”
EasyWay                         IIWG meeting       http://www.easyway-      Jacques          Roads categorisation
                                #1, 2, 4, 5        its.eu                   Boussuge,        Service questionnaire
                                                                            Rui              Business models
                                                                            Camolino
                                                                            and further
                                                                            colleagues
INTRO – Intelligent Road        IIWG meeting       http://intro.fehrl.org   FEHRL            Definition of II        The aim of INTRO was/is
                                #1, 2, 6                                    (Stefan                                   developing innovative
                                                                            Deix)                                     methods for increased
                                                                                                                      capacity and safety of the
                                                                                                                      road network.
European ITS Framework    IIWG meeting     http://www.frame-                       IT architecture
Architecture              #1               online.net
 E-FRAME
 KAREN
Interproject Heavy Road   IIWG meeting
                          #1
COMeSafety                IIWG meeting     http://www.comesafety.                  IT architecture         COMeSafety identified a
                          #1, 4            org                                     Service questionnaire   list of technologies for
                                                                                                            different services
eSafety Working Groups    IIWG meeting     http://www.esafetysupp     Rista        Service questionnaire   Rista Kulmala is co-chair
 Service Oriented        #2, 3            ort.org/en/esafety_activ   Kulmala                               of the IRM group
   Architecture (SOA)                      ities/esafety_working_g
 Implementation Road                      roups
   Map (IRM)
EU ITS Action Plan        IIWG meeting     http://ec.europa.eu/trans               Service questionnaire
                          #2, 3            port/its/road/action_pla
                                           n_en.htm
Pre-DRIVE C2X projects    IIWG meeting     http://www.pre-drive-     Paul                                   Mentioned during WG
                          #4               c2x.eu                    Kompfner                               meeting #4 as invitation
                                                                                                            for a joint workshop
                                                                                                            between EasyWay and
                                                                                                            Pre-DRIVE C2X
FESTA – FIELD             IIWG meeting     http://ec.europa.eu/infor
OPERATIONAL TEST          #1               mation_society/activitie
SUPPORT ACTION                             s/esafety/doc/rtd_projec
                                           ts/fp7/festa_final_report
                                           .pdf
FOT NET                   IIWG meeting     http://www.fot-net.eu     Melanie                                The FOT-Net project aims
                          #4                                         Kloth                                  to create a networking




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                                                                                                                       platform for anyone
                                                                                                                       interested in Field
                                                                                                                       Operational Tests, their
                                                                                                                       set-up and their results.
Information from the                IIWG meeting   http://www.car-to-                          Chapter “The
Car2Car Consortium                  #6             car.org                                      intelligent vehicle”
(Service list of) ETSI              IIWG meeting   http://www.etsi.org
                                    #6
US studies?                         IIWG meeting                               Willy Maes
                                    #6
Electric Vehicle?                   IIWG meeting                               Gloria
                                    #6                                         Pellischek
Cars21                              Terms of       http://ec.europa.eu/enter
                                    Reference      prise/sectors/automotiv
                                                   e/competitiveness-
                                                   cars21/cars21/index_en.
                                                   htm
TomTom                              IIWG meeting   http://www.tomtom.co                                                The Nomadic device
                                    #1             m                                                                   industry becomes more
                                                                                                                       interested and becomes
                                                                                                                       more important for data
                                                                                                                       provision. E.g. TomTom
                                                                                                                       made already contact with
                                                                                                                       the traffic controller
                                                                                                                       industry.

II.....Intelligent Infrastructure




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Remarks:
  1) During the IIWG meeting #3 Wolfgang Reinhardt proposed a document about already existing projects in the context of service
  definition.
  2)




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ANNEX 3: PARTICIPANTS OF IIWG
                Member                                 Organisation
Rui Camolino                     ASECAP (Co-chair)
Paul van der Kroon               CEDR (Co-chair)
Frans Op De Beek                 TNO
Risto Kulmala                    VTT


Kallistratos Dionelis            ASECAP
Roberto Arditi                   SINA
Jacques Boussuge                 ASFA
Marko Jandrisits                 ASFINAG
Manfred Harrer                   ASFINAG
Carlos Fuentes                   ASETA
Ulrich Zorin                     DARS
Wolfgang A. Reinhardt            ACEA
Daniel Gutiérrez                 Fundecyt
Jean-Baptiste Lesort             INRETS
Jean-marc Blosseville            INRETS
Stefan Deix                      Arsenal Research
Philippe Lepert                  LCPC
Reinhard Pfliegl                 Austriatech
Massimo Pannozzo                 Calearo Antenne
René Jacobs                      BRRC
Michelangelo Ruggiero            Cobra Automotive Technologies
Ari Sorsaniemi                   DG INFSO
Francisco Ferreira               DG INFSO
Elena de la Peña                 Spanish Road Association
Udin Christian                   Swedish Road Administration
Bengt Hallstrom                  Swedish Road Administration
Laure Dezes/Chris Nicodemos      ERF
Fulvio Sansone                   Oracle
Wim Broeders                     Vialis
Jörg Ortlepp                     European Assurance Association/GDV
Xavier Cocu                      BRRC
Gerben Bootsma                   MOT Netherlands
                                 Hungria Information Society Attaché Belgium
Lazlo Ignéczi                    Representation
Jaume Martin                     Atos Rosines
Paul Kompfner                    Ertico
                                 Afdeling Verkeerscentrum /Departement Mobiliteit en
Nele Dedene                      Openbare Werken
Gloria Pellischek                ERPC GmbH
Martin Pipa                      CDV (Transport Research Centre)
Melanie Kloth                    Polis
Luís Osório                      ISEL
Manuel Milli                     MIZAR AUTOMAZIONE S.p.A.
Olivier Lenz                     FIA
Willy Maes                       DG TREN
Eric Kenis                       DG TREN
eSS
Fabio Ricci                      Italian Motorway/ SINA SpA



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ANNEX 4: REFERENCES /DOCUMENTS USED

ELVIRE Position paper, Intelligent Infrastructure Needs for the “Electric Vehicle in
the Grid”, Gloria Pellischek, ERPC GmbH, February 7 2010.

Impact Assessment ITS
{COM(2008) 887 final}
{COM(2008) 886 final
{SEC(2008) 3084}

Intelligent Transport Systems – 2005 update, Benefits, Costs and Lessons Learned,
US Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, ITS benefits
FHWA 2005.pdf

Impacts of five cooperative systems - results from CODIA, Co-Operative systems –




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Deployment Impact Assessment. Risto Kulmala VTT, ITS World Congress 2008.
http://www.ibec-its.co.uk/files/VII%20Workshop%20Session%203%20-
%20Kulmala.pdf

Benefit-Cost Analysis of the US Vehicle-Infrastructure Integration (VII) Program.
Ronald Mauri, Volpe Center, US. IBEC Workshop, ITS World Congress, November
16, 2008. http://www.ibec-its.co.uk/files/VII%20Workshop%20Session%203%20-
%20Mauri.pdf

Ministerie van Verkeer en Waterstaat, Verkenning Benutten, actielijn 1. Slimme
voertuigen en coöperatieve Systemen, March 31 2008.

CVIS D.2.2 Use Cases and System Requirements, Andras Kovacs, Zeljko Jeftic,
Niclas Nygren, Torben Hilgers, November 30 2006.

COMeSafety D31, European ITS Communication Architecture – Overall Framework,
Proof of Concept Implementation, March 5 2009.

EasyWat VIKING ICT Infrastructure Guidelines 2009, Version 0.95 June 2009, Risto
Kulmala et al.




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