Research and Technology for the Nation

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					Exploration Systems
Research & Technology

  NASA Institute of Advanced Concepts Fellows Meeting
                                       16 March 2005

                          Dr. Chris Moore
                          Exploration Systems Mission Directorate
                          NASA Headquarters
          Nation’s Vision for Space Exploration


                     Implement a sustained and affordable human and robotic
                     program to explore the solar system and beyond

                     Extend human presence across the solar system, starting
                     with a human return to the Moon by the year 2020, in
                     preparation for human exploration of Mars and other

                     Develop the innovative technologies, knowledge, and
                     infrastructures both to explore and to support decisions
                     about the destinations for human exploration; and

                     Promote international and commercial participation in
                     exploration to further U.S. scientific, security, and
                     economic interests.
                  Key Elements of the Nation’s Vision

•   Objectives
     – Implement a sustained and affordable human and robotic program
     – Extend human presence across the solar system and beyond
     – Develop supporting innovative technologies, knowledge, and infrastructures
     – Promote international and commercial participation in exploration

•   Major Milestones
     – 2008: Initial flight test of CEV
     – 2008: Launch first lunar robotic orbiter
     – 2009-2010: Robotic mission to lunar surface
     – 2011 First Unmanned CEV flight
     – 2014: First crewed CEV flight
     – 2012-2015: Jupiter Icy Moon Orbiter (JIMO)/Prometheus
     – 2015-2020: First human mission to the Moon
            Exploration Systems
             Spiral Objectives

•   Spiral 1 (2008-2014)
     – Provide precursor robotic exploration of the lunar environment
     – Deliver a lunar capable human transportation system for test and
        checkout in low Earth orbit

•   Spiral 2 (2015-2020)
     – Execute extended duration human lunar exploration missions
     – Extend precursor robotic technology demonstrations at Mars

•   Spiral 3 (2020-TBD)
     – Execute a long-duration human lunar exploration campaign using
        the moon as a testbed to demonstrate systems (e.g., Lander,
        habitation, surface power) for future deployment at Mars

•   Spiral 4 (~2025-TBD)
     – Execute human exploration missions to the vicinity of Mars

•   Spiral 5 (~2030-TBD)
     – Execute initial human Mars surface exploration missions
                Exploration Systems Mission Directorate
                            Exploration Systems
                            Mission Directorate

Requirements                   Development
                                for Exploration Systems                  Business
  Division                  Programs Division                       Operations Division


   Research &                                                         Nuclear Technology
  Technology                       Constellation
                                                                       & Demonstration
  Development                        Systems                         (Project Prometheus)

                               CEV                 Transition
Exploration Systems                                Programs            Advanced Systems
                              Space Trans                                & Technology
Research & Tech                 Systems               X-37
                               Supporting             DART
Human System                 Surface Systems                              Jupiter Icy
                                                      OSP                Moons Orbiter
Research & Tech
                                Supporting            NGLT
                             In-space Systems
                   ESR&T Strategic Technology/Systems Model

System Test,
Launch & Mission
Operations           TRL 9
System/              TRL 8                                                                                 (e.g., Lunar Orbiter
Subsystem                                                                                                         Mission)
                     TRL 7                                                        Development
                                                                                   Projects &
Technology                                                                          Programs
Demonstration                                                                       (e.g., CEV, Lunar
                     TRL 6
                     TRL 5                                    Capability-
Technology                                                      Focused
Development                                                   Technology
                                                               and Demo
                     TRL 4                                     Programs
                                            Advanced        “Applications Pull”
Research to                                  Space
Prove                TRL 3                 Technology
Feasibility                                 Research
                                            & Knowledge
                     TRL 2                     Push”
Basic                           Basic
                      TRL 1

                              e.g., SMD,     e.g., ESMD,    e.g., ESMD, SMD &       e.g., ESMD, SMD          e.g., SOMD, SMD
                              NSF, NIH     Other Agencies     Other Agencies      Specific Flight System       Specific Flight
                                                             (Mission-Unique)        Ø-C/D Projects             Missions…
                                      ESR&T Organization
                                      Headquarters Office

                                        Explorations Systems
                                       Research & Technology

                                                                            Program Integration

Advanced Space Technology               Technology Maturation               Innovative Partnerships
        Program                               Program                              Program
    Advanced Studies, Concepts and        High Energy Space Systems           Technology Transfer
    Tools R&T Program                     Technology Demos Program            Partnerships

    Advanced Materials & Structural       Advanced Space Systems &            Small Business Innovative
    Concepts R&T Program                  Platform Tech Demos Program         Research

    Communications, Computing,            Advanced Space Operations           Small Technology Transfer
    Electronics & Imaging R&T Progr       Technology Demos Program            Research

    Software, Intelligent Systems &       Lunar & Planetary Surface Ops       University-Led Partnerships
    Modeling R&T Program                  Technology Demos Program

    Power, Propulsion & Chemical          In-Space Technology Experiments     Industry-Led Partnerships
    Systems R&T Program                   Program (IN-STEP)
    Organized by Discipline,           Organized by Functional-Area,            Organized by Program
  Emphasizing the Longer-term            Emphasizing Technology             Function, Emphasizing Types of
                                                Validation                           Relationships
           Exploration Systems Research & Technology
                  Investment “Balance” - 2 Views

   ESR&T Strategic
Focus: TIMEFRAME                             Next 6
 (By which Technology                        Years            Next 9
                               Next 3
      Must be Proven)          Years
                                                                            Next 12
                                                                             Years    15+ Years

                                   (When Maturity Must be “Proven”)

   ESR&T Strategic                         System-of-
    Focus: IMPACT                           Systems
    (of the Technology                        Level
Expected to be Seen in       Sub-system
    Missions/Systems)                                      “Definition of
                                                           Goals” Level

                                             Scale of Impact
                         (What Influence Will the Technology Have, if “Proven”)
Advanced Space Technologies Program
Element Programs

    Advanced Studies, Concepts, & Tools
    Revolutionary exploration system concepts and architectures; technology assessments to
    identify and prioritize mission enabling technologies; advanced engineering tools for
    systems analysis and reducing mission risk; exploratory research and development of
    emerging technologies with high potential payoff.

    Advanced Materials & Structural Concepts
    Development of high-performance materials for vehicle structures, propulsion systems, and
    spacesuits; structural concepts for modular assembly of space infrastructure; lightweight
    deployable and inflatable structures; highly integrated structural systems for reducing
    launch mass and volume.

    Communications, Computing, Electronics, and Imaging
    Development of advanced space communications and networking technology; high-
    performance computers and computing architectures for space systems and data analysis;
    low-power electronics to enable operations in extreme environments; imaging sensors for
    machine vision systems and the characterization of planetary resources.

    Power, Propulsion, & Chemical Systems
    Development of high-efficiency power generation, energy storage, and power management
    and distribution systems to provide abundant power for space and surface operations;
    advanced chemical and electrical space propulsion systems for exploration missions;
    chemical systems for the storage and handling of cryogens and other propellants; chemical
    systems for identifying, processing, and utilizing planetary resources.
    Software, Intelligent Systems, & Modeling
    Development of reliable software and revolutionary computing algorithms; intelligent
    systems to enable human-robotic collaboration; intelligent and autonomous systems for
    robotic exploration and to support human exploration; advanced modeling and simulation
    methods for engineering design and data analysis.
Advanced Studies, Concepts, & Tools (ASCT)

 Advanced Concepts                  Technology Systems Analysis

    Systems Design &                   Technology Databases
Engineering Analysis Tools
              Exploration Systems Research & Technology
                             New Projects

•   In August 2004, 48 new technology development projects led by the NASA
    Centers were competitively selected through Intramural Call for Proposals.
      – Received over 1300 Notices of Intent outlining new ideas.
      – Awarded $573M over 4 years.

•   In November 2004, 70 new technology development projects led by industry,
    academia, and other external organizations were competitively selected through
    Broad Agency Announcement.
      – Received over 3700 Notices of Intent.
      – Awarded $1.1B over 4 years.

•   Intramural and Extramural projects will be implemented in two phases:
      – Phase 1: Initial development in pilot projects lasting 1 year. Continuation
         Review at end of Phase 1 to select projects that will proceed into Phase 2.
      – Phase 2: Full development projects lasting 3 years, delivering useful
         technology products by 2009.
                                                 ESR&T Strategic Technical Challenges
National Goals

  & Policies

                                                                            & Affordable
                                                                            Vision for Space

                                                                                                                               Flexible &

                          Affordable                                             Safe                                          Extensible

                                                     Reliable               Human Operations           Effective
                      Systems & Operations            Systems &               ‘As Safe as               Missions &             Robust in terms
                      (Development, Ownership,                                                                                    of Policy,
                                                      Operations              Reasonably                 Systems
                              Missions)                                                                                          Adaptive to

                                Margins and                    Modularity                  Energy-Rich                    In-Space
                                Redundancy                                              Systems and Missions              Assembly
Strategic Technical

                                 Autonomy                     Reusability                Data-Rich Virtual            Re-configurability
                                                                                            Presence                  (H/W, S/W, Systems)

                               ASARA Human                                              Space Resources              Affordable Logistics
                              Presence in Deep            Robotic Networks                 Utilization                 Pre-Positioning
                              Cost-Effective              Precise/ Repeatable         Affordable Launch of           Safe and Affordable
                             Achievement of              Surface Target Access            Cargo to LEO               Crew Space Access
                            Science Objectives
                           Strategic Technical Challenge
               Technologies                          System Concepts

       Modular Systems

Autonomous Rendezvous & Docking

                                                     Modular outpost in lunar orbit

  Mechanisms & Interconnects
                        Strategic Technical Challenge
                          In-Space Assembly
               Technologies                         System Concepts

 Modular Structures

Advanced Manipulators
    & Telerobotics

                                           Large space systems with capability for
                                          growth, maintenance, and reconfigurability

                      Strategic Technical Challenge
             Affordable Logistics Pre-Positioning
             Technologies                             System Concepts

 Electric                   High Specific Power
Propulsion                     Solar Arrays
                                                      Solar Electric Cargo
                                                       Transfer Vehicles

 Composite                Zero-Boil-Off
 Cryotanks              Cryogen Storage                    In-Space
                                                       Propellant Depots
                           Strategic Technical Challenge
                      Energy Rich Systems & Missions
                 Technologies                              System Concepts

Solar & Nuclear Power           Energy
      Generation                Storage

                                                           High Energy Space Systems

Chemical & Electric         Aero-Assist
   Propulsion                Systems
                            Strategic Technical Challenge
                Technologies                            System Concepts

   Intelligent Robotics

  Multi-Agent Teaming

                                              Autonomous & flexible exploration systems

Health Management Systems
                             Strategic Technical Challenge
                          Space Resources Utilization
                Technologies                           System Concepts

      Regolith handling

Propellant & oxygen production

                                                         Sustainable lunar base

   Common fuel rocket engines
                   Exploration Systems Mission Directorate
                          Upcoming Solicitations
•   Issued RFP for Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) on March 1, 2005.

•   RFP solicits proposals for preliminary design of CEV, and a flight test program to
    reduce risk by 2008.

•   Planning a research and technology Broad Agency Announcement (BAA) for
    May/June, 2005. BAA will solicit proposals for rapid maturation of critical
    technologies needed for Spirals 1 and 2.

•   Solicitations can be found on the web at:

•   The Advanced Space Technology Program is the front-end of the technology
    development pipeline that supplies new system concepts and technologies for
    future exploration missions.

•   NIAC is the leading edge of advanced concepts development for the Advanced
    Space Technology Program.

•   Technology development is guided by a set of Strategic Technical Challenges
    and target system concepts.

                           Human exploration of Jovian moons

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