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					USAGE MANUAL


    English Department
  Swampscott High School
 Swampscott, Massachusetts
                                                 Foreword


                                                To Students

Because you as Swampscott High School students will wish to be as well informed as any other high
school student in our country, your English teachers have prepared for you this handbook. They ask you to
attack with interest and sincerity the problems of mastering your English language. To guide you in this
work, they have assembled here a few rules, definitions, and suggestions that will assist you in expressing
your ideas in correct, effective English. You need to know the principles contained in this booklet for use
in ordinary relationships of life so that you may express yourself with good taste.

This handbook is specifically designed as a study guide for the usage tests that will be administered each
term by the English department at the high school. At the beginning of the year, the dates for the four tests
will be announced by your English teacher. Be sure to write the dates in the spaces provided in the table of
contents located on pages 3 and 4 of this manual.
                                      Table of Contents




                                                                 PAGE
Foreword                                                          2

General Terms                                                     5




                                           Term I

                      Test Date: ____________________________

Agreement: subject /verb and pronoun/antecedent                   8

Faulty Diction: ability – different                               10

Common Misuses of Words: accept – avenge                          12

Troublesome Plurals / Gender                                      14

Spelling: accessory – until                                       15




                                          Term II

                      Test Date: _____________________________

Punctuation: commas                                               17

Case Agreement: nominative/objective/possessive                   20

Faulty Diction: doubt – line                                      24

Common Misuses of Words: beside – disinterested                   28

Spelling: abbreviate – wrought                                    30
                                 Table of Contents cont.,



                                        Term III

                      Test Date: ______________________________

                                                                  PAGE

Principles for Adjectives                                            32

Principles for Adverbs                                               34

Principles for Pronoun Reference                                     35

Punctuation: semi-colons and colons                                  38

Capitalization                                                       39

Faulty Diction: loan – reason                                        40

Common Misuses of Words: emigrate – mad                              43

Spelling: accelerate – hopping                                       45




                                        Term IV

                   Test Date: _______________________________


Verbs: tense/mood/active and passive voice/ irregular forms          47

Punctuation: hyphens                                                 52

Punctuation: dashes                                                  55

Faulty Diction: regard – while                                       56

Common Misuses of Words: notorious – sensual                         58

Spelling: abscess – vacuum                                           59
                                              General Terms

Antecedent: a word or a group of words that to which a pronoun refers.

Archaic language: a word that is no longer in use.

         Examples:         Archaic                     Proper

                           Erstwhile                   former
                           Meseems                     I think
                           Oft                         often

Clipped forms: a clipped form is a word that is shortened. Clipped words are colloquial in nature and are
generally acceptable in speech or familiar discourse; they are unacceptable in formal writing.

         Examples:         Clipped                     Proper

                           Prof                        professor
                           Auto                        automobile
                           Bio                         biology
                           Lab                         laboratory
                           Jell                        jelly
                           Bike                        bicycle
                           Vet                         veteran

Colloquialism: a word or expression that is customarily restricted to conversation or familiar letters.
While it is proper or even effective on occasion, it is definitely unacceptable in formal writing.

         Examples:         Colloquial                  Proper

                           Exam                        examination
                           Faze                        daunt
                           Put in                      spend
                           Cute                        amusing, vivacious
                           Bunch                       set, group
                           Deal                        transaction
                           A lot of                    a great deal, much many
                           Wire                        telegraph
                           Mighty                      very

Clause: a sentence inside a sentence.

         Example: When I get there, I will call you.

Dialectical speech: a word or expression that is restricted to a certain locality rather than in common use
nationwide. A dialectical word may also be referred to as provincial.

         Examples:         Dialectical                 Proper

                           Tonic                       carbonated beverage
                           Out of kilter               in disrepair
                           Wicked                      very
Impropriety: any lapse of proper usage, such as a vulgarism (a coarse or illiterate expression), a
malapropism (one word that is confused in meaning with another – irrelevant for irreverent), a barbarism
(an unauthorized formation of a word from another – irregardless for regardless, complected for
complexioned).

Modify: to describe or limit the meaning of a word or group of words.

Phrase: a group of words that do not express a complete thought.
Examples: a good boy, in the morning

Slang: A word that is newly coined for the purpose of vividness and has not yet been accepted by the
authority of well-educated people or by dictionary authorities.

Slang has its place even in good writing, provided it is fresh, expressive and to the point. When used
properly and sparingly, it may add color and force to writing and speech. However, it must be used only
for a desired effect. The trouble with most slang expressions is that they go out of current use so quickly
that they soon become meaningless and therefore pointless, except to the person employing them.

         Examples:         Slang                       Proper

                           Dumb                        stupid
                           Ritzy                       wealthy, rich
                           Hard-boiled                 tough
                           Hullabaloo                  commotion
                           Lousy                       bad
                           Pain in the neck            annoying

Tautology:        redundancy or excessive use of language.

         Examples:         Tautology                   Proper

                           Have got                    possess
                           As to whether               whether
                           Most unique                 unique
                           Little tiny                 tiny
                           I personally                I
                           Throughout the entire       throughout
Term I
                                    USAGE MANUAL

                                              Term One

                                             Agreement



1.   A verb should agree with its subject in number. Additions, such as phrases in apposition,
     connected with the main subject by with, as well as, together with, in additions to, etc., do not
     affect the grammatical number of the subject.

                   Ex: Not a single one of the thousands who came with a blue ticket was
                   admitted.

                   Ex: The preface, together with the play itself, is stimulating.

                   Ex: I, his accountant, am expected to verify his statement.


2.   The sense of collective nouns like number, remainder, committee, half, class, jury, audience,
     etc., is to be construed logically and consistently in the same sentence. A collective noun
     takes a singular verb if it refers to persons or things as a group, that is, when it expresses a
     single idea, one of unanimity; if
     thought of as separate individuals, it takes a plural verb.

                   Ex: The committee (that is, as one unit) is submitting its recommendation.

                   Ex: The jury (that is, as separate individuals) have disagreed on their verdict


3.   A fraction is considered singular in number if the object of the prepositional phrase which
     the fraction follows is singular; it is plural if the object is plural.

                   Ex: Half of the meat was frozen solid.

                   Ex: Two-fifths of the papers were blue in color.

                   Ex: Two-thirds of the time has already passed.


4. The words each, every, neither, anyone, anybody, someone, somebody require a singular verb.

                   Ex: Neither of them desires to speak for the candidate.


5.   In sentences beginning with There is or There are or Here or There, the number of the verb
     should
     agree with the subject.

                   Ex: Here come Margie and her friend.

                   Ex: There are many books still waiting to be written.

                   Ex: There’s the snow-capped mountain!
6.   A verb agrees with its subject rather than with its predicate noun.

                   Ex: The highlight of the trip is the visits to Yellowstone and the National
                   Glacier
                       Park.

                   Ex: Automobiles are the largest part of the exhibit.

7.   When two subjects are joined by and,, the number of the verb is usually plural.

                   Ex: Sam and his best friend Eric are leaving for vacation.

8.   When two subjects are joined by or, nor, or for, the number of the verb is decided by the
     subject which follows the or, nor, or for. {Note: Remember, either/or belong together and
     neither/nor belong together.}

                   Ex: Neither the book nor the movie is interesting.

                   Ex: Neither the book nor the movies are interesting.

                   Ex: Either they or he is responsible.

                   Ex: Either he or they are responsible.

9.   In a relative clause following an expression like one of the best, one of those, the first of many,
     the verb is plural because it agrees in number with its antecedent.

                   Ex: Bayard is one of the best candidates who have yet thrown their hats into the
ring.

                   Ex: She is one of those who write letters better than talk.

10. The number of a pronoun is determined by its antecedent. Every, each, everyone, anybody, no
one,
     etc., are singular antecedents.

                   Ex: If anybody is looking for an exciting plot, let him (not them) read this book.

                   Ex: Every one of them spoke up for her own point of view.

                   Ex: Every boy and every girl in the class is making his or her oral report today.
                                         Faulty Diction – Term I

ABILITY is followed by the preposition to.
      Example: Hannah has the ability to write well.

AGGRAVATE means “to intensify, to make worse.”
Do not use it to mean provoke or annoy.
        Example: Loud music will aggravate her headache.

AGREE One agrees to a plan and with a person.
     Examples: We agreed to her proposal
                I agree with Courtney.

ALL-ROUND should not be confused with all-around, which is improper usage.
      Example: Tracy is an all-round great person.

ALLUDE means “to hint or suggest indirectly.” Refer means “to mention directly.”
     Examples: Ms. Lund often alluded to (not referred to) the corruption in government.
               She referred to the article about the scandal written yesterday.

AS is a weak substitute for because.
In negative comparisons, use so in place of the first as.
         Examples: Because (not As) it is late, we are going to bed.
                    George is not so attractive as his brother.

AT ABOUT should not be used for about. The word at is redundant.
      Example: The mail arrives about (not at about) noon.

AVAIL The expression of no avail should be used with a form of the linking verb be.
      INCORRECT: Tammy has been frequently reprimanded but of no avail.
      CORRECT: Tammy’s frequent reprimands were of no avail.

BACK OF should not be confused with behind. Back of denotes “the rear area of.”
      Examples: The pitcher is behind the mound.
                 The checks are in back of (in the rear area of) the safe.

BADLY is slang when it is used to mean “a great deal.”
BADLY, as an adverb, is properly used to describe an action indicated by the verb.
BAD may be used as an adjective after linking verbs “feel” and “look.”

         Examples: I need this pen very much (not badly).
                   The man drove the car badly.
                   I feel bad about hitting his car.
                                   Faulty Diction – Term I (continued)

CANNOT SEEM is a colloquial expression. It should be replaced by seem unable to.
     INCORRECT: Henry cannot seem to master French verbs.
     CORRECT:      Henry seems unable to master French verbs.

CAUSE is properly followed by a noun clause of a predicate noun. Its use with the redundant phrase on
account of is illogical.
        ILLOGICAL: The cause of the wreck was on account of the fog.
        IMPROVED: The cause of the wreck was the fog.
                         The cause of the wreck was that fog covered the whole area.

COULD OF is not an acceptable replacement for COULD HAVE.
     Example: We could have (not could of) reached the summit had it not begun to rain.

COUPLE should not be used to refer to more than two.
     Examples: There were several (not a couple) people at the meeting.
                A group (not a couple) of children went to the park.
                Three married couples were dancing on the gymnasium floor.

DIFFERENT is preferably followed by the preposition from, not than.
      Examples: This version is different from (not different than) any other.

Note: In order to avoid awkwardness, the use of different than is permissible when the object is a clause.
        Example: The revised composition is considerably different than what it looked like last week.
                                  Common Misuses of Words- Term 1


accept – except
        accept- to receive what is offered
                Ex. Tommy’s mother accepted the offer to be a part of the pre-school reading group.
        except- to exclude (verb)
                Ex. Terrible Tommy was excepted from the reading group after screaming for hours.
        except- with the exception of (preposition)
                Ex. All the children stayed in the reading group except for Tommy.

addicted to – subject to
        addicted to- a habit or indulgence
                 Ex. The retired couple was addicted to gambling in the casino.
        subject to- an influence
                 Ex. The influences that we are subject to in childhood have a lasting effect.

advice – advise
        advice- counsel; suggestions
                Ex. What advice would you give to a middle school student about high school?
        advise- to give counsel or to make a recommendation
                Ex. I would advise a middle school student to use an assignment notebook.

affect – effect
         affect- to influence in some measure (verb)
                  Ex. The novel The Hours affected me strongly.
         effect- to bring about; to accomplish (verb)
                  Ex. The hurricane effected many changes to the landscape along the beach.
         effect- result (noun)
                  Ex. What effects of the hurricane are evident on King’s Beach?

aggravate – annoy
       aggravate- to make worse or more intense
                Ex. The peroxide aggravated the wound on the boy’s leg.
       annoy- to irritate
                Ex. I was annoyed as I awoke to the sound of the lawn mower outside my window.

all ready – already
         all ready- fully prepared
                  Ex. The technician was all ready to install the cable modem.
         already- beforehand; by this time
                  Ex. I have already completed my homework.

all together – altogether
         all together- in a group
                  Ex. The puppies were huddled all together in the corner of the room.
         altogether- entirely; completely
                  Ex. During the thunderstorm, we lost the TV reception altogether.
allot – a lot
          allot- to assign as a portion or distribute as shares
                    Ex. The school shall allot each classroom a number of computers.
          a lot- a large number or a great deal (informal usage)
                    Ex. There are a lot of people waiting in the office.
                         (preferred: There are many people waiting in the office.)

                                      Common Misuses of Words-Term 1


allude – elude
         allude- to refer to a matter indirectly
                  Ex. My grandfather often alludes to his experiences in World War II.
         elude- to evade or escape
                  Ex. The fugitive eluded the detectives.

allude to – refer to
         allude to- to refer to a matter indirectly
                  Ex. My grandfather often alludes to his experiences in World War II.
         refer to- to refer to a matter openly and directly
                  Ex. For the first time, my humble grandfather referred to his war medal of honor.

amend – emend
       amend- to alter; to change
               Ex. It requires a two-thirds vote in the Senate to amend certain laws.
       emend- to correct
               Ex. It takes hours of writing revision to emend errors of organization and word choice.

among – between
       among- used in referring to more than two
               Ex. The general decision among the twenty members was to leave early.
       between- used in referring to only two
               Ex. Choosing between the two flavors of ice cream proved a difficult task.

anxious – eager
        anxious- uneasy or painful with suspense
                Ex. I am anxious about my dentist visit tomorrow.
        eager- pleasantly enthusiastic
                Ex. I am eager to receive my bonus at work.

apt – liable – likely
         apt- exactly suited; appropriate
                   Ex. Michele is an apt basketball player because of her height.
         liable- responsible; at risk of suffering unpleasantly
                   Ex. Jaywalking in California makes the pedestrian liable to punishment.
         likely- probable
                   Ex. It is likely to snow tonight.

as – like
            as- a conjunction that introduces a clause
                      Ex. Do as you are told during practice.
            like- a preposition
                      Ex. The town was like a desert during the air raid.

avenge – revenge
        avenge- seek to make right an injustice, not necessarily our own
                   Ex. The country entered the war to avenge the cruelty of the dictator.
           revenge- to seek or take vengeance for oneself or another in a spirit of malice or spite
                   Ex. Macduff revenged himself for the slaughter of his wife and children.




                                        Troublesome Plurals – Term I


SINGULAR                              PLURAL                               SINGULAR
      PLURAL

alumna                                alumnae                              index                      indices,
indexes
alumnus                               alumni                               Kelly                      Kelly’s
analysis                              analyses                             lieutenant
          lieutenants
antithesis                            antitheses                           junior grade               junior
grade
attorney general                      attorneys general                    looker-on                  lookers-
on
axis                                  axes                                 medium                     media
bacillus                              bacilli                              Miss Jones                 the
Misses Jones/
                                                                                                      the Miss
Joneses
bacterium                             bacteria                             oasis                      oases
Chamber of Commerce                   Chambers of Commerce                 parenthesis
        parentheses
                                                                           passer-by                  passers-
by
crisis                                crises                               phenomenon
           phenomena
datum                                 data                                 radius                     radii
diagnosis                             diagnoses                            runner-up                  runners-
up
editor-in-chief                       editors-in-chief                     secretary general
         secretaries

general
ellipsis                              ellipses                             sister-in-law              sisters-
in-law
fungus                                fungi / funguses                     spoonful
           spoonfuls
genus                                 genera                               stratum                    strata
German                                Germans                              thesis                     theses
hypothesis                            hypotheses




                                                     Gender
MASCULINE                       FEMININE                           MASCULINE
     FEMININE

actor                           actress                            monk                   nun
benefactor                      benefactress                       widower                widow
baron                           baroness                           nephew                 niece
duke                            duchess                            administrator
        administratrix
enchanter                       enchantress                        executor
        executrix
god                             goddess                            buck                   doe
host                            hostess                            cock                   hen
ogre                            ogress                             drake                  duck
patron                          patroness                          gander                 goose
prince                          princess                           hart                   hind
tiger                           tigress                            horse                  mare
abbot                           abbess                             stag                   hind
hero                            heroine                            ram                    ewe
lord                            lady




                                        Spelling: Term I




accessory                accidentally                      accumulate              address
aggravate                allotted                          analyze                 anonymous
caffeine                 calendar                          coach                   commitment
complement               compliment                        conceive                condescend
considerably             convenience                       courageous              description
deteriorate              dilapidated                       disagreeable            dissipate
eighth                   employee                          exorbitant              facilities
feasible                 freight                           genius                  gracious
gruesome                 happen                            happiness               harass
having                   hoarse                            illiterate              independent
individual               interrupt                         interview               intimate
justice                  justifiable                       label                   lawyer
legal                    lightning                         lovely                  machine
maintenance              majority                          menus                   mileage
missile                  misspell                          naïve                   necessary
necessity                neighborhood                      nineteenth              ninety
paid                     pamphlet                          pastime                 patience
permanent                pumpkin                           quarter                 quite
raise                    realize                           really                  receipt
receive                  rhyme                             rhythm                  salary
Saturday                 sophomore                         source                  speech
sphere                   sponsor                           succeed                 success
symphony                 therefore                         thief                   thorough
though    tired               tomorrow      tonight
tragedy   traitor             unnecessary   until




                    Term II
                                    USAGE MANUAL

                                        Term Two

                                             Punctuation

1. A comma is used to indicate the smallest degree of separation of thought. A comma should not
be used
between coordinate principal clauses that are not linked by the conjunctions but, or, and, etc.
unless these clauses are short, are closely parallel in idea and structure, or have no commas within
their own structure.
When separating two independent clauses, use a semicolon.

                  Ex: {Incorrect}: The Renaissance was a period of glorious action, it was an
                  epoch of individuality and greatness.

                  Ex: {Correct}: The Renaissance was a period of glorious action; it was an
                  epoch of individuality and greatness.

                  Ex: {Correct): We saw the parade, we went downtown, we ate lunch.

                  Ex: {Incorrect}: The critic, who was a venerable gentleman, was the speaker,
                  he spoke long, he assailed the modernist trend.

                  Ex: {Correct}: The critic, who was a venerable gentleman, was the speaker; he
                  spoke long; he assailed the modernist trend.


2. A restrictive phrase or clause is one that is essential to the meaning of the word it modifies. It
limits the word it modifies. It should not be separated by a comma from the word it modifies.
                             Ex: I used the pencil (not the pencil, which) which had the sharpest point.

           3. A non-restrictive phrase or clause is one that is not essential to the meaning of a word it
           modifies.
           It is actually a parenthetical expression. It should be separated from the word it modifies by
commas.

                            Ex: {Correct}: Mary, who is usually calm, this time showed signs of
                    uneasiness.

                             Ex: {Incorrect}: I am reading Lilliam Hellman’s play, The Children’s Hour.
                    (The
                              Children’s Hours is not parenthetical. It limits the word it modifies.)

                             Ex: {Correct}: I am reading Lilliam Hellman’s play The Children’s Hour.
                             (Now The Children’s Hours limits the word it modifies.)


                             Ex: {Incorrect}: Sally was referring to the old man, who was in a stupor. (This
refers
                             not to any old man but to a definite old man; that is, the clause “who…stupor” is
a
                             limiting essential clause.)

                             Ex: {Correct}: Sally was referring to the old man who was in a stupor.

                            Ex: {Incorrect}: I admire that great American Harriet Beecher Stowe who was
                    a famous
                             abolitionist.

                             Ex: {Correct}: I admire that great American Harriet Beecher Stowe, who was a
                    famous
                             abolitionist.


           4. Use a comma before a clause introduced by the conjunction for.

                             Ex: The pitcher withdrew from the game, for he had sprained his ankle.

           5. Use a comma to separate an introductory subordinate adverbial clause from the main clause.

                             Ex: Since the Allies were divided, the enemy planned to attack.

           6. Use a comma after each of a series of words or phrases in the same construction, unless they
           are connected by conjunctions. The first member of a series should not be preceded by a comma,
           nor should a comma be put after the last member of the series.

                             Ex: {Correct}: The grocer sold pears, apples, peaches, and bananas.

                             Ex: {Correct}: The candidate rose, moved to the podium, and greeted the
cheering
                                               audience by making a gesture for victory.

                             Ex: {Incorrect}: I like, plays, poems, and essays.

                             Ex: {Correct}: I like plays, poems, and essays.
                 Ex: {Incorrect}: The speaker was a tired, worried, and pessimistic, person.

                 Ex: {Correct}: The speaker was a tired, worried, and pessimistic person.


7. A series of adjectives of equal value that qualify the same noun should be set off by commas.
If the adjectives can be interchanged or connected by the conjunction and, they need to be
separated by a comma.

                 Ex: Hardwich was an observant, meticulous writer.

                 One can say, Hardwich was an “observant and meticulous” writer or a
                 “ meticulous and observant” writer; hence, the comma.

                 Ex: I saw an interesting, impressive picture.

                 One can say, I saw an “interesting and impressive” picture or an “impressive and
                 interesting” picture; hence, the comma.

                 Ex: Linda bought a new white dress.

                 One may not say, Linda bought a “ new and white” dress or a “white and new”
                 dress; hence, no comma.

                 Ex: I found a soiled gray glove on the street.

                 One may not say, I found a “ soiled and gray” glove or a “gray and soiled”
                 glove; hence, no comma.




8. Note the use of the period, the question mark, the comma, and quotation marks in the
         following sentences:

                 Incorrect: I inquired why the order had not been filled?
                 Correct: I inquired, “Why hasn’t the order been filled?”

                 Correct: I said, “Maggie is right.”

                          Did I say, “Maggie is right”?

                          Fred asked whether I had said that Maggie is right.

                          I read Willa Cather’s O Pioneers!

                          Lisa repeated, “I read Willa Cather’s O Pioneers!”

                          “Lisa,” he asked, “what did you say?”

                 Incorrect: The general exclaimed that “Our enemies are fast approaching!”
                 Correct: The general exclaimed, “Our enemies are fast approaching!”
        9. Words or phrases in apposition are set off by commas.

                          Ex: William Pitt, the Prime Minister of England, was precocious as a youngster.

                          Ex: Joseph, a hard-working student in my class, earned an “A” this quarter.

        10. Conjunctions like however, moreover, etc. that serve to join principal clauses are usually set
off
                 by a semi-colon. Note that a comma often follows such conjunctions.

                          Ex: The film was beautiful; moreover, it was an excellent teaching device.

                          Ex: Judy studied long hours; consequently she earned an “A” in this class.

        11. Use the comma between two sentence elements to prevent ambiguity.

                          Ambiguous: Ever since he has been taking lessons to cure his speech defect.
                          Clear: Ever since, he has been taking lessons to cure his speech defect.

                          Ambiguous: While I was reading the book fell of my lap.
                          Clear: While I was reading, the book fell off my lap.




                                            Case Agreement

        There are three cases in the English language: nominative, objective, and possessive.
                            Nouns and pronouns are used in these cases.

Note:   There is no difference between the spelling of a noun in its nominative and objective cases.
        Only personal pronouns change form, depending upon case uses.

                           The case forms of personal pronouns are as follows:

                                            Nominative Case

                                            Singular                    Plural

                          First Person:         I                         we
                          Second Person:       you                        you
                          Third Person:        he, she it                 they
                                               Objective Case

                                              Singular                 Plural

                            First Person:         me                        us
                            Second Person:        you                      you
                            Third Person:         him, her, it             them

                                               Possessive Case

                                              Singular                 Plural

                            First Person:   my, mine                   our, ours
                            Second Person: you, yours                  your, yours
                            Third Person: his, her, hers, its          their, theirs



                                         Uses the Nominative Case

1.   As the subject of a verb:

     Examples:              The sun rises.
                            He is rising.
                            Who is coming to dinner?

2.   As a predicate noun (nominative) which renames the subject and appears after the verb forms am, are,
     is, was, were, be, been, and any other linking verb.

     Examples:              The soldier became captain.
                            This is she.
                            This is who?

3.   In apposition with (to rename) another word in the nominative case.

     Example:               Charles, the driver, lost his way.


4.   In direct address.

     Example:               John, where have you been?

5.   Absolutely with a participle.

     Example:               The rain being over, we returned home.



                                         Uses of the Objective Case

1.   As the direct object of a verb.

     Examples:              The hunter killed a deer.
                            The hunter killed him.
                            The hunter killed whom?
2.   As the direct object of a verb.

     Examples:     Robert gave his brother the ball.
                           Robert gave him the ball.
                           Robert gave whom the ball?

3.   As the object of a preposition.

     Examples:              He arrived before his sister.
                            He arrived before her.
                            He arrived before whom?

4.   In apposition to another noun in the objective case.

     Example:               I know your friend, the judge.

5.   As the objective complement, or second object with certain verbs.

     Example:               They elected his father governor.

6.   As adverbial noun to express time, distance, and similar relations.

     Examples:              I saw him Monday.
                            He stayed two weeks.
                            He ran a mile.

7.   As subject of an infinitive.

     Example:               We allowed John to go.
                            We allowed him to go.
                            We allowed whom to go?




                                          Uses of the Possessive Case

                              Possessive case denotes ownership: John’s book.

1. To form the possessive case of a singular noun, add an apostrophe and an s.

     Examples:     father father’s
                   Dickens, Dickens’s

2. To form the possessive case of a plural noun not ending in s, add an apostrophe and an s.

     Examples:     woman, women’s
                   Children, children’s

3. To form the possessive case of a plural noun ending in an s, add the apostrophe only.

     Examples:     girls, girls’
                   The Burnses, The Burnses’
4.    Only the last word is made possessive in

                   a.   compound (hyphenated) words

                        Example: mother-in-law’s, mothers-in-law’s

                   b.   names of business firms

                        Example: Lord and Taylor’s, Jordan Marsh’s

                   c.   joint ownership

                        Example: George and Jack’s car (both own the car)

          Note: If two or more people own separately, place an apostrophe after each name.

                   Examples: George’s and Jack’s cars
                             Cooper’s, Thackerey’s and Dickens’s novels

5. The words minute, hour, day, week, month, year, etc., and words indicating amounts in cents and
dollars, when
   used as possessive adjectives, require an apostrophe.

                   Examples: a week’s vacation, ten weeks’ vacation
                             Five cents’ worth of candy, a cent’s worth of candy




                    Rules Governing the Case of Relative and Interrogative Pronouns

                                   Relative and Interrogative Pronouns

                            Nominative                Objective                Possessive

                               who                     whom                        whose
                               whoever                 whomever                    whosever

1. The rules governing the use of the personal pronouns apply also to who and whom.

2. The choice of who or whom (whoever or whomever) in a clause is determined by its use in that clause –
subject,
   predicate nominative, object of verb, object of preposition).

     The following steps might help:
                   a.   Pick out the clause containing the word.

                   b.   Determine the word’s use (subject or object, etc.)

                            Examples: The boy who just came in is a stranger. (Who is the subject of
came.)
                                        The boy whom I met today is a stranger. (Whom is the direct object
of met.)
                                          Do the pupils know who the boy is? (Who is the predicate
                                     nominative
                                                                               following the linking verb
                                     is.)
                                          Give the book to whoever wants it. (Whoever is the subject of
wants.)

   Note: The relative pronouns who, which, and that area used as follows:

                   a.   The relative pronoun who in a subordinate clause has as its antecedent a person.

                        Example: The man who came is Jones.

                   b.   The relative pronoun which in a subordinate clause had as its antecedent an animal
                        or thing.

                        Example: The book (dog) which is on the porch is mine.

                   c.   The relative pronoun that in a subordinate clause may have anything as its antecedent
                        –
                        person, place, animal, or thing.

                        Example: The man and the dog that were lost passed the night in the forest.




                                          Faulty Diction - Term II


DOUBT is followed by whether.

           Example: I doubt whether it will rain.

Note: When the word not is used with doubt, the word doubt is followed by that.
        Example: I do not doubt that it will rain.

DOVE is an unacceptable past tense of dived.

EACH OTHER is used when referring to two persons; use one another when referring to more than two
persons.

        Examples: Paul and Tom have known each other for three years.
                  The four boys have known one another for three years.

EITHER is used with or; neither is used with nor.

        Examples: Either Mary or her sister will be valedictorian.
                  Neither Mary nor her sister will be valedictorian.

Note: The words either and neither are used only when referring to one or two persons or things, or to two
groups.

        Examples: Neither of the two girls is going.
                  Either of the two girls would be a good choice for the position.

Note: The words each and none are used when referring to more than two.

        Examples: Kate, Betty, or Mary can each write superb poetry.
                  Of the eighteen applicants for the position, none has been found acceptable.

ENTHUSED is slang or colloquial for enthusiastic.

        Example: My friends are enthusiastic (not enthused) over Edith Wharton’s novels.

EQUALLY AS GOOD is a tautology. Use equally good or just as good.

        Example: Although I enjoy coffee, I find mild or tea to be equally good (not equally as good).

ETC., being an abbreviation, should not be used in formal writing. Use the words and other things instead.

        Examples: I prefer plays and poetry to novels and other writings (not etc.).
                  He had pencils, pens, notebooks, and other things (not etc.) necessary for school.

EVERYBODY is always written as one word.

EVERYONE is written as one word unless the one is stressed.

        Examples: Everyone present agreed to the proposal.
                  Every one of my friends is a senior in high school.



EXPECT does not mean suppose or surmise.

        Example: I suppose (not expect) everyone in town will be at the meeting tonight.

Note: Except means to look forward to or regard something as likely.

        Example: I expect rain tonight.
FAZE is colloquial for the words bother and disconcert.

         Example: The screaming did not bother (not faze) the free-throw shooter.

FIX should not be used to mean repair.

         Example: My father repaired (not fixed) the lawnmower.

FUNNY is colloquial when used to mean strange, uncomfortable, or odd.

         Example: I feel uncomfortable (not funny) asking him to help me.

GIVE TO (a person); GIVE FOR (a purpose).

         Example: I always give money to the Community Chest for (not to) the relief of the unfortunate.

GOT means obtained. It is colloquial when used in the sense of possessed or must.

         Examples: I have (not have got) no patience with lazy people.
                   I possess (not have got) a good name in the community.
                   I have got (that is reached, not gotten) to the last page of Katherine Anne Porter’s
novel.
                     I must (not have got to) reach Westfield before noon.

GRADUATED is followed by the preposition from.

         Example: She graduated from UCLA in 1995.

HAD BETTER is correct usage.

         Example: I had better (not better) sign the letter now.

HAD OUGHT as well as HADN”T OUGHT is illiterate usage. Note the correct uses of the forms of
ought in the
         following sentences:

         I ought (present tense) to do my algebra carefully.
         I ought to have (past tense) done my algebra more carefully.
         I should (not had ought to) have done my algebra more carefully.
         I should not have (or ought not to have) subscribed to that magazine.

HARDLY, SCARCELY, BUT, and ONLY are negative in connotation and should not be used in
conjunction with
another negative.

         Examples: Grandmother is so nearsighted that she can (not cannot) hardly see street signs.
                   Fred has (not has not) but one suit in his wardrobe.
                   You have (not have not) only to look at the girl to know that she is poverty-stricken.



HAVE GOT is colloquial when used in the sense of to possess or must. When used correctly, it means
obtain.

         Examples:    I must (not have got to) see the manager.
                      Have you (not Have you got) a dime to spare?
         CORRECT: Have you got (that is obtained) the information that you are seeking?

HELP is colloquial for the formal word employees.

HIGH SCHOOL is capitalized when referring to the name of a particular school.

         Example: Margaret is a student at Lincoln High School.
                  My sister is going to enroll in high school next year.

HOME is colloquial for the expression at home.

         Example: There was no one at home (not home) when I arrived.

IF is a subordinating conjunction which introduces a condition. Whether is used to introduce an indirect
question or an expression of doubt.

         Examples: If it rains, I shall go.
                   He asked whether it would rain.
                   They were not sure whether Barbara could overcome her many handicaps.

IMPLY refers to a suggestion made by the write or speaker. One infers something from what one hears or
reads.

         Examples: He implied that he would file an unfavorable report on the incident.
                   He inferred from Ms. Sodan’s statement to the press that her political views were
                   undergoing a change.

INSIDE OF is colloquial usage. The preposition of in this expression is superfluous. Within is preferable
usage.

         Examples: I expect to go to Albany within (not inside of) a week.
                   We found two detectives inside (not inside of) the house.

INVITE, a verb, is colloquial usage when used as a noun.

         Example: To receive an invitation (not an invite) from Gertrude Stein was considered an honor.

JOB is a colloquial substitute for the formal word position.

KIND OF and SORT OF, being singular in number, should be followed by a singular adjective or noun.

         Example: Micawber was a particular kind of (not kind of a) person.
         Example: I feel rather (not kind of) tired today.

LATER ON is a tautology. Omit on.

LATEST refers to the most recent item in time; LAST refers to the final item in a series.

         Examples: Agatha Christie’s last mystery is considered inferior to her earlier works.
                   Barbara Tuchman’s latest work is a masterpiece.




LIKE, a preposition, should not be confused in usage with the conjunction as.
        Examples: Although she is only five, Doris speaks as if (not like) she were an adult.

LIKELY, an adverb meaning probably, is used after most, quite, etc..

        Example: It is very likely you will be successful in business.

LINE, meaning profession, is acceptable only in business usage.

        Example: Calvin Klein is in the clothing line.

Note: The following sentences are acceptable outside business usage:

        Calvin Klein is in the clothing business.
        The clothing line of Calvin Klein is very popular in the United States.

Note: The following sentence lacks precision:

        I spoke to Peter along those lines.
        IMPROVED: I spoke to Peter about those mistakes.




                                  Common Misuse of Words- Term 2
beside – besides
         beside- near to; at the side of
                  Ex. He stood beside me while I bought the movie tickets.
         besides- in addition to
                  Ex. Besides the popcorn, we purchased soda and gum.

borrow – lend – loan
       borrow- to receive a loan
                 Ex. I borrowed Ms. Ganci’s favorite pen.
       lend- to extend a loan
                 Ex. Ms. Ganci was not too eager to lend me the pen.
       loan- a noun meaning something lent for temporary use
                 Ex. The bank agreed to give me a loan for a new car.

bring – take
         bring- motion toward the speaker
                 Ex. Bring me the Sunday newspaper that is lying on the table.
         take- motion away from the speaker
                 Ex. Please take this letter to the post office.

can – may
        can- ability or power
                Ex. I can speak Spanish fluently after my time in Mexico.
        may- permission or possibility
                Ex. May I leave the room to use the restroom?

character – reputation
        character- a person’s real true nature
                Ex. The new principal is a man of strong character.
        reputation- what other people think of a person
                Ex. The committee members discussed the principal’s reputation for honesty.

compare – contrast
       compare- marks similarities as well as differences
               Ex. Please write an essay that compares the two main characters in A Separate Peace.
       contrast- marks the differences
               Ex. Did you notice the contrast of black and white in that photograph?

complement – compliment
       complement- a part that completes the whole
               Ex. Your shoes complement the rest of your outfit.
       compliment- praise
               Ex. The young hero graciously accepted the community’s compliments.

comprise – compose
       comprise- to include; to contain
               Ex. Our baseball league comprises three small teams.
       compose- to make up
               Ex. The three teams compose the entire baseball league.




                                 Common Misuse of Words- Term 2
continual – continuous
        continual- occurring frequently and repeatedly with interruption
                 Ex. I continually read my independent reading book during the week.
        continuous- occurring without interruption
                 Ex. It rained continuously for four hours yesterday.

convince – persuade
        convince- to bring another to a firm belief of something
                Ex. We convinced Ms. Tatum of the need for fresh air during class.
        persuade- to succeed in causing a person to do or consent to something
                Ex. We persuaded Ms. Tatum to allow us to go outside for class.

disinterested – uninterested
         disinterested- free of prejudice or bias
                  Ex. A jury member should be disinterested toward those involved in a criminal case.
         uninterested- apathetic or indifferent
                  Ex. The young children were uninterested in the adult’s dinner conversation.




                                          Spelling – Term II
abbreviate               accompany      achieve
          acquaintance
adapt                    advice         advise          affidavit
agreeable                aluminum       appearance
          appointment
argument                 arithmetic     bachelor        beautiful
bicycle                  bouillon       breath          breathe
brief                    budget         buoyant         business
capital                  capitol        cessation       chimney
chocolate                comparative    consignment     coolly
curriculum               deceitful      decision
          dictionary
eligible                 eliminate      environment
          equipped
equivalent               experience     explain
          explanation
fatigue                  February       grief
          hemorrhage
inferred                 inflammable    influential
          ingenious
ingenuous                inoculation    intelligence
          intercede
irreverent               kitchen        knowledge       knuckle
liaison                  lieutenant     literature      loose
lose                     losing         maintain
          mathematics
mayor                    medieval       mediocre
          mortgage
mysterious               opportunity    ordinarily
          physician
piece                    planned        playwright
          preliminary
principal                principle      pronunciation   pursuit
recommend                reimburse      reminisce       scissors
secretary                significance   skiing
          superiority
surveillance             weather        Wednesday       whose
wrestler                 writing        written         wrought
Term III
                                                  Term III

                                         Principles for Adjectives

Adjectives describe, limit, or point out nouns. Most adjectives are descriptive: red, square, cold,
angry.

1. Linking verbs such as appear, seem, become, taste, smell, feel, etc., require adjectives. These adjectives
are called predicate adjectives because they are in the predicate part of the sentence, and they describe the
subject.

         Ex. I feel bad about your situation. The bun tastes sweet. The pillow feels soft.

However, sometimes these linking verbs show action. In this case, they require adverbs.

         Ex. Being blind, he feels object cautiously. She tasted the bun slowly.

2. There are three degrees of comparison of adjectives:
        a. Positive degree, when no comparison is made between objects

                  Ex. red roses, warm days, beautiful dresses

         b.   The comparative degree, when two objects are compared. It is formed by adding –er to the
              positive form or by using the word more before it if the adjective is more than one syllable.

                  Ex. redder roses, warmer days, more beautiful dresses

         c.   The superlative degree, when three or more objects are compared. It is formed by adding -est
              to the
               positive form or by or by using most before it.

                  Ex. reddest roses, warmest days, most beautiful dresses

         d. There are a few adjectives which are compared irregularly:

                  Positive                             Comparative                           Superlative

                  good                                 better                                best
                  bad, ill                             worse                                 worst
                  much, many                           more                                  most
                  little                               less, lesser                          least
                  far                                  farther, further                      farthest, furthest
                  old                                  older, elder                          oldest, eldest
                                                       latter                                last
                                                       inner                               inmost,
innermost
                                                       outer                               outmost,
outermost
                                                       upper                               uppermost,
                           uttermost,

utmost




                                                Term Three

                                  Principles for Adjectives (continued)

3. When comparing two things, both of which belong to the same group, you must use the word other of
the word else.

           Ex.    He is taller than any other boy in the room.
                  He is taller than anyone else in the room.
                  New York is larger than any other city in the U.S.
                  New York is larger than any city in Europe. (Correct because New York is not in
Europe.)

4. Be sure that comparisons are logically completed.

           Ex.    Our pupils are better than those of any other school in the state. (Do not omit those of.)
                  The books used in my class are different from those used in hers.

5. Use the comparative degree of an adjective when comparing two objects, the superlative degree when
comparing more than two.

           Ex.    She is the better of the two swimmers
                  Who is the better swimmer, Vladamir or Jason?
                  Of the three competitors, who is the best swimmer?

6. Adjectives should be placed as close as possible to the words they describe to avoid unclear statements.

           Ex.    Only I read the book. (This means that I read the book and no one else did.)
                  I only read the books. (This means that I read the book, but did nothing else. That is, I
                  did not
                                          write the book; I did not sell the book. I did nothing else.)
                  I read only the book. (This means that I did not read anything else. I did not read a
                  newspaper or
                                         a magazine, etc.)
                  I read the only book. (This means that there was no more than one book available.)
                  I read the book only. (This means that I read the book and nothing else.)
7. In stating a superlative, use one of the following forms:
          Ex.      Mary is the best pupil in the class.
                   Mary is the best pupil of all in the class.
                   Mary is the best of any of the pupils in the class.




                                                  Term Three

                                            Principles for Adverbs

                 An adverb describes or limits a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.

1. There are four classes of adverbs:

         a.   Adverbs of manner that answer the question how?

          Examples:         He did his work skillfully.
                            She answered truthfully.

         b.   Adverbs of place that answer the question where?

          Examples:         The train moved forward.
                            I say there.

         c.   Adverbs of time that answer the question when?

          Examples:          He came to class late.
                             He brought his new car today.

         d.   Adverbs of degree that answer the question how much or how many?

          Examples:          The river rose six inches.
                             He ate too much.
                             He was completely ruined.

2. Adverbs have these special uses:

         a.   Interrogative adverbs are used in asking questions:

          Examples:         How did you get to the base?
                           Where are you going?
                           When did you climb the mountain?
                           Why did you want to go?

         b.   Adverbs used like conjunctions are called conjunctive adverbs and are usually set off by
              commas:
         therefore, moreover, nevertheless, accordingly, etc.

          Examples:        However, he was not the first person to question this decision.
                           He, however, was not the first person to question the decision.
                           He was not the first person to question the decision, however.

3. Comparison of adverbs:

         a.   Adverbs, like adjectives, have three degrees of comparison and are used in the same way.

         b.   Most adverbs are compared by the use of more or most.

4. Place the adverbs hardly, only, almost, and ever immediately next to the words they describe.

         Examples:         He wrote only five letters.
                           I have finished almost the whole book.
                           I don't recall ever having met Sally.
                                                  Term Three

                                          Principles for Pronoun Reference

                           A pronoun is a word that stands for a noun or another pronoun.

                               An antecedent is a word for which a pronoun stands.

1. Every pronoun must have a definite antecedent that is expressed clearly. If a pronoun cannot be used
clearly, the writer should use a noun as a substitute or rewrite the sentence.

EX:     Incorrect: Every animal has the instinct for self-preservation. Without it, (referring to self-
preservation or
                   instinct? it ( referring to animal, instinct, or self-preservation?)would die.

        Correct: Every animal has the instinct for self-preservation. Without this instinct, the animal
would die.

         Correct: Without the instinct for self-preservation, which every animal must have, an animal is
         bound to
                  suffer.

EX:      Vague and comical: All students are requested to cover their books; otherwise they will be
confiscated.

         Correct and clear: All students are requested to cover their books; otherwise their books will be
                            confiscated.

         Correct and clear: Students are hereby notified that all books not covered will be confiscated.

2. A pronoun must refer to a noun, not an adjective, an adverb, a phrase, or a clause. To correct faulty
reference of this nature, make the relative pronoun (who, whom, whose, which, that) refer to an expression
that summarizes the statement or clause. The pronoun which should at no time be used to refer to a whole
statement.

           Incorrect: Many people enjoyed this movie, which suggests that it will be successful at the box
office.

     Expressions such as a fact, a situation, a condition are useful in correcting this error.

         Correct: Many people enjoyed this movie, a fact which suggests that it will be successful at the
box office.

     Another way to address this problem is to revise the whole sentence to clarify the reference.

           Correct: The fact that many people enjoyed this movie suggests that this movie will be
           successful at the
                     box office.

    A third way to correct this problem is to join two independent statements with a coordinating
conjunction
    (and, but, or, nor) or by a strong piece of punctuation.

           Correct: Many people enjoyed this movie; it will be successful at the box office.


3. This or that should not be used to refer to a whole statement.

           Incorrect: Paula sings beautifully; this makes her confident on the stage.

           Correct: Paula sings beautifully; this fact makes her feel confident on the stage.

           Correct: The fact that Paula sings beautifully makes her feel confident on the stage.


4.    A double reference by a pronoun creates an ambiguous or unclear statement.

                    Incorrect: Lenore told her roommate that she must attend the meeting.
                               (The reader does not know whether Lenore or her roommate must attend the
meeting.)

      One way to correct this problem is to replace the pronoun with a noun.

                    Correct: Lenore told her roommate that her roommate must attend the meeting.

                    Correct: Lenore told her roommate that Lenore must attend the meeting.

      Another way to correct this problem is to put the sentence into dialogue.

                    Correct: Lenore told her roommate, "You must attend the meeting."

                    Correct: Lenore told her roommate, "I must attend the meeting."

      Additional examples of double referencing and their corrections:

                    Incorrect: There are many books on the shelves, but since they were in a corner of the
room, it
                                 was hard to see them. ( The pronoun they could refer to books or shelves.)
                    Correct:     There were many books on the shelves, but since the volumes were in a
corner of the
                                  room, it was hard to see them.

                     Correct:    The fact the shelves were in a corner of the room made it hard for the people
           to see the
                                 volumes.


5. The pronoun they should not be used impersonally to refer to people or things in general.

                    Incorrect: In the article they say that California is the largest producer of wine in the
country.

                    Correct:    The article says that California is the largest producer of wine in the country.

                    Correct:     According to the article, California is the largest producer of wine in the
country.


                    Incorrect: In the newspaper, it says that the United States is preparing for war with Iraq.

                    Correct:     The newspaper states that the United States if preparing for war with Iraq.


                    Incorrect: They say that Paris has many open air markets.

                    Correct:    Travelers say that Paris has many open air markets.

6. A pronoun should not refer to a noun that is acting like an adjective or some other part of speech in the
sentence.

                    Incorrect: In Ibsen's play about democracy, he protests against the smug tyranny by the
majority.
                                 (The pronoun he refers to Ibsen which is acting as an adjective in the
sentence.

                    Correct:    In his play about democracy, Ibsen protests against the smug tyranny by the
majority.

                    Correct:     In Ibsen's play about democracy, the author protests against the smug
           tyranny by the
                            majority.
7. A pronoun should not refer vaguely to a phrase or a word.

                    Incorrect: Shakespeare really comes to life when his plays are read with understanding.
                               Everybody who has done this knows about it. (The antecedents for the
pronouns
                                this and it are unclear.)

                    Correct:    Shakespeare really comes to life when his plays are read with understanding,
                                Everybody who has read his plays knows this fact.

                    Correct:    Shakespeare really comes to life when his plays are read with understanding.
                                Everybody who has read them in this manner knows this fact.
                 Incorrect: My sister is an expert golfer. She has practices it for years.

                 Correct:   My sister is an expert at golf. She ahs practices this game for years.

8. The indefinite use of the pronoun you should be avoided.

                 Incorrect: You are not supposed to walk on those lawns.

                 Correct:   Walking on the lawns is prohibited.




                                                 Term III

                                               Semi-colons

A semi-colon is used instead of a comma to indicate a wider degree of separation of thought between
two or more equally important ideas in the same sentence. It is not as strong as a period but stronger
than a comma.

Various Uses:
a. in a compound sentence to separate the clauses which are closely related in thought but not joined by a
conjunction.

         Example: Your facts are not facts; they must be discarded.

b. to separate coordinate parts when there are commas within them.

         Example: Mr. Jones, the president of the company, will probably reach New York about noon
         today; but if
                     he is unavoidably detained in Washington, you will excuse him.

c. to separate the clauses of a compound sentence joined by adverbial conjunctions like then, therefore,
hence, consequently, however, etc..

         Example: The book is entirely wrong; therefore, you need pay no attention to its conclusions.

d. When namely, for instance, for example, and that is introduce explanations or examples that are
statements, they are usually preceded by a semi-colon and followed by a comma.

         Example: I shall vote for him for two reasons; that is, he is honest and he is wise.

                                                    Colons

The colon should be preceded by a complete thought and followed by a list, a quotation, or
example(s). Or, it should be used in the salutation of a letter.

Various uses:

a. after the salutation of a business letter.

         Example: Dear Sir:, Gentlemen:, Dear Madame:

b. Before a list, an illustration, or a long formal quotation when the statement proceeding it is independent
and requires information.

         Examples: Christopher Morley’s delightful “What Men Live By” begins as follows: “What a
         delicate and
                     rare and gracious art is the art of conversation.”

                      Each first aid kit must contain the following articles: bandages, adhesive tape, gauze,
antiseptic,
                      and something for burns.

c. in time expressions:

         Example: at 2:30 P.M.

d. in biblical references:

         Example: as Isaiah 1:16.
                                                       TERM III

                                                    Capitalization

Capitalize the following:
1.   First word of every sentence

2.   First word of every direct quotation that is a complete sentence ( I said, “Who just arrived late?”)

3.   First word of each division of an outline

4.   Important words of titles of books, articles, poems, essays, thesis papers, etc. Do not capitalize a
     preposition or an article unless it comes first (Gone with the Wind, The Last of the Mohicans, Of
     Human Bondage)

5.   A word indicating an important division of a book or series of books (Chapter II, Volume I)

6.   Proper nouns and proper adjectives

               a. Course subjects derived from names of countries (England = English, France =
     French)
               b. Specific course titles (Chemistry I, United States History II)
               c. The Deity, sections of the Bible, religions, gods of mythology (God and His universe,
               Roman
                  Catholic, Jewish, Baptist, Muslim, Allah, Genesis, Zeus)
               d. Days of the week, months, holidays -- not the seasons (spring, autumn, fall, winter) --
                   (Monday, January, Thanksgiving, Easter, Hanukkah, Labor Day, National Education
               Week,
                   Martin Luther King Day)
               e. Nationalities, races (American, British, Italian, Islam, Caucasian, European, Japanese,
     Apache)
             f. Historical events, periods, documents (Civil War, Revolutionary Period, Declaration
             of
                 Independence)
             g. Government bodies and political parties (Senate, Supreme Court, United Nations,
     Republican
                 Party, Democratic Party)
             h. Organizations (American Legion, Swampscott High School Drama Club, Safety First
             Moving
                Company, United States Air Force, Boston College, Peace Corps)
             i. Geographical names, sections of a country or continent, places (Atlantic Ocean,
             Mexico City,
                Brewster State Park, South America, Nova Scotia, the West Coast, the Far East, the
             Rocky
                Mountains, the Sahara Desert, Times Square, Bar Harbor, Lake Superior, Merrimac
             River,
                Brazil, East Street, Forest Avenue, the Red Sea)
             j. Official titles (Uncle Jack, Aunt Mary, Coach Knight, Chief of Naval Operations, the
             Queen of
                England, the Speaker of the House, the Attorney General, the Mayor of New York, the
                Governor, the President of the United States, the Senator from West Virginia)
             k. Buildings, planes, ships, spacecrafts (the Fleet Center, the Fox Theater, the Eiffel
             Tower, Air
                 Force One {plane}, USS Pueblo {ship}, Apollo II {Spaceship})
             l. Heavenly bodies, except the sun and moon (Saturn, the Litter Dipper, Mars, the Milky
             Way,
                North Star)
             m. Abbreviations of academic degrees, honors, etc. that follow a person’s name (Garth
             Hert,
                  Ph.D., Martin Luther King, Jr.)
                  n. Special events (the Senior Show, the Junior Prom, Pan American Games, the
                  Olympics,
                     Korean War)
                  o. Memorials (the Jefferson Memorial, the Washington Monument)

7.       Brand names (Mercedes-Benz, Coca-Cola, Tide laundry detergent, a Whirlpool dishwasher,
         Pontiac Sunbird, Oscar Mayer hot dogs)

8.       The Pronoun “I”


                                         Faulty Diction -Term III

LOAN the noun, should not be confused with lend, the verb.

         Examples: I obtained a loan from the bank.
                   The bank lent me the money.

LOT, LOTS OF are slang for much or a great deal.

         Examples: There was much (not a lot of) action in town.
                   Many (not lots of) students find English very hard to master.

MISS OUT ON is slang for the simple word miss. Lose out on is also for lose.

         Examples: Debbie missed (not missed out on) the play.
                   George did not lose (not lose out on) his opportunity to play for the Red Sox.

MYSELF is a form of me used for emphasis. It should not replace pronouns in either nominative or
objective case.

         Examples: Would you like Harry and me (not myself) to help you.
                   Everybody in class except me (not myself) was fascinated by the book.
                   John himself is the first to admit that he was wrong.

NEAR, the preposition, should never be confused with nearly, the adverb.

         Examples: The damn is nearly (not near) finished. (adverb)
                   The dog came near (not nearly) getting run over. (preposition)

NICE is colloquial for pleasant, agreeable, and delightful.

         Example: We had a pleasant (not nice) time at the movies.

NO GOOD, NO USE are adjectival and should be preceded by the preposition of. It is preferable to
substitute these expressions with worthless or useless.

         Example: Her skills were of no use.
         IMPROVED: Her skills were worthless.

NO PLACE is slang for nowhere.

         Example: The boy was to be found nowhere (not no place).

NO SOONER should be accompanied by than.
         Example: No sooner did the rains come than (not when) the farmers’ hopes lifted.

NOWHERE NEAR is colloquial for not nearly.

         Example: The doctors complained that there was not nearly (not nowhere near) enough vaccine.

OFF OF is repetitive. The of is unnecessary.

         Example: The suitcase fell off (not off of) the chair.

OK is a colloquial term to be avoided in formal English.

ON is unnecessary after verbs of planning and continuing and after the adverbs further and later.

         Example: Our club is planning (not planning on) a party.
                  The plot became interesting further (not further on) in the story.

ON THE SIDE is colloquial and should not replace the words occasional, incidental, or the expression in
addition.

         Example: Many college students earn money by doing occasional chores (not working in the
side).

OUT LOUD is colloquial for aloud, loudly, and audibly.

         Example: The teacher called each name aloud (not out loud).

OUTSIDE OF is repetitive. You do not need the of. Do not use this expression when meaning except,
aside from, or besides.

         Examples: Outside (not outside of) the class were two monsters.
                   Aside from (not outside of) a few critics, there were no opinions.

OVER should not be used to mean more than. The expression OVER WITH is repetitive.

         Examples: More than (not over) a hundred players scored 1000 points.
                   I am delighted that the examinations are over (not over with).

OWING TO is colloquial when used as a preposition.

         Example: Because of (not owing to) the test scores, I will have to fail you.

PER is a Latin word and should only be used with other Latin words.

         Example: Per annum (each year)
                  Per diem (each day)

Avoid the expression “as per.”

         Example: I did the work according to (not as per) your orders.

Per cent meaning “by the hundred” should only be used with an exact number. (exact amount)

         Example: Fifty per cent (not fifty %) of the students were graduated.

Use the word percentage where an exact numerical statement is not given.
         Example: A large percentage of the students passed the test.

PLENTY is colloquial when used as an adverb meaning amply or quite. When used in front of a noun use
plentiful or plenty of.

         Example: The room is amply large.
                  There is plenty of excitement in the old movies.

PREFER should be followed by to, not by rather than.

         Example: I prefer skateboarding to surfing.


PREVENTATIVE is the incorrect form of preventive.

         Example: I am taking preventative measures to ensure we do not crash the plane.

PUT IN used in the sense of “to spend, make, or devote” is slang.

         Example: To earn a good grade in college, a student must spend hours studying.

QUITE in the sense of slightly, not very, is a colloquialism. Correctly used, quite means greatly or wholly.

         Examples: My resources were quite (meaning wholly) exhausted.
                   I can see quite (meaning very) well from this seat.

QUITE A when used with few, deal, while, or little, is colloquial.

         Examples: Clay’s speech created a good deal of (not quite a) stir in the Senate.
                   We shall have to wait a long time (not quite a long time) before we get a seat at the
restaurant.
                   The investigation was ordered because there was a considerable amount (not quite a
         lot) of
                   accidents on that road.

RARELY EVER is incorrect for rarely if ever, seldom if ever, or never.

         Examples: One rarely sees buffaloes in the national parks today.
                   A person rarely if ever attains full height before sixteen.

REAL should not be used to mean very or extremely.

         Example: Wallace Stevens’ poems are very (not real) insightful.

REASON IS should be followed by that, not because.

         Example: The reason for his success is that he listens to direction.
                                 Common Misuse of Words- Term III

emigrate - immigrate (v.)
        emigrate- to leave a country to settle somewhere else
                Ex. The potato famine caused thousands to emigrate from Ireland to New York.
        immigrate- to enter a country
                Ex. My grandparents immigrated to America.

exceptional - exceptionable (adj.)
        exceptional- rare, superior or out of the ordinary
                 Ex. We had an exceptional number of snow days during March.
        exceptionable- objectionable, offensive
                 Ex. Her exceptionable behavior was not appropriate for the classroom.

farther - further (adj. /adv)
         farther- refers to physical distance
                  Ex. I moved my bed farther away from the window.
         further- refers to degree or extent; additional
                  Ex. Nothing could be further from the truth
                  Ex. I woke up because of the heat; I was further annoyed by the sound of my
                            neighbor’s lawnmower.

fewer – less (adj.)
         fewer- refers to number and is used before a plural noun that can be counted
                   Ex. We have fewer students in our classrooms the day before vacation.
         less- refers to degree or quantities that can be measured but not counted.
                   Ex. I have less time to spend with my friends this summer because of my new job.

good -- well
         good- adjective that refers to quality
                 Ex. Ms. Defeo is a good teacher.
         well- adverb that means “in a proper manner with regard to conduct or action”
                 Ex. My cousin plays the piano well.
               Note: Well may also be used as an adjective when referring to a condition of health.
                 Ex. I don’t feel well today.

hanged -- hung (v.)
        hanged- executed (refers to people)
                Ex. The prisoner hanged himself in his cell.
        hung- suspended (refers to objects)
                  Ex. Our family hung the outside lights for the holiday season.

in -- into (prep.)
          into- indicates motion from outside to inside; entry
                   Ex. We took off our shoes when we came into the house.
          in- indicates location or position
                   Ex. We swim in the lake in the summer.

imply -- infer (v.)
         imply- to suggest or hint indirectly (speaker or writer)
                   Ex. The author implies (makes implications) in the first chapter about the hero’s death.
         infer- to interpret; to deduce a conclusion from facts. (listener or reader)
                   Ex. A writer cannot help what a reader might infer.



                                    Common Misuse of Words- Term 3


lay – lie (v.)
          lay- to put down or place (an object)                   verb tense:
                    I lay down my book.                           present
                    I am laying down my book at this moment.      present participle
                    Yesterday I laid down my book.                past
                    I have laid down my book many times.          perfect
          Lie- to rest or recline
                    Do you lie in the grass?                      present
                    I am lying in the grass at this moment.       present participle
                    Yesterday I lay in the grass.                 past
                    I have lain in the grass many times.          perfect

leave -- let (v.)
          leave- to abandon or go away from; remove oneself; to give
                     Ex. Did your sister leave for college yet?
                     Ex. He left a note stating he was leaving the state for awhile.
          let- to allow or to permit
                     Ex. Will you let me go to the mall on Saturday?

lend – loan
         lend- (v.) to give or to allow the use of temporarily and conditionally
                  Ex. The bank will lend the company enough money to pay its debts.
         loan- (n.) something lent for temporary use; a sum of money with interest
                  Ex. My school loan is to be paid within ten years.

mad – angry (adv.)
       mad- implies abnormality or an extreme such as “insane” or “out of control”
                Ex. We all thought he was mad when he started screaming obscenities.
                Ex. Billy Bob paced his room in a mad frenzy trying to memorize his speech.
       angry- irate or inflamed at a thing, with a person or about a situation or event
                Ex. Mr. Jones was angry at his slow computer, angry with his dull co-worker, and
                    angry about the outcome of the department meeting.
                Spelling Term III




accelerate      accommodate         acquiesce
advisable       aerial              affect
all right       anniversary         analysis
anticipate      apologize           appropriate
approximately   ascend              athletic
average         beginning           bicycle
brief           budget              business
cafeteria       campaign            can’t
catastrophe     chauffeur           collateral
colloquial      commercial          commission
committee       competitively       concurred
congratulate    conscientious       corroborate
couldn’t        deductible          criticize
delicious       desperate           different
doesn’t         dyeing              ecstasy
enthusiastic    etiquette           exaggerate
excessive       feminine            forcible
foreign         forgo               formally
formerly        grammar             grief
gymnasium       hypocrisy           idiosyncrasy
illegible       irresistible        its (it’s)
laboratory      legislature         library
likable         loneliness          miscellaneous
mischievous     negligible          occurrence
omission        omitted             parallel
parenthesis     precede             proceed
professor       psychology          quiet
respectfully    respectively        separate
syllable        their               transferred
tried           truly               usable
vacancies   vehicle        visibility
whether     yesterday      personal
personnel   handkerchief   hoping
hopping




              Term IV
                                   USAGE MANUAL

                                       Term Four

                                         VERBS




                                     Tense of a Verb

    Tense indicates time. Each verb has three principal parts: the present, past, and past
    participle. All six tenses are formed from these principal parts. The past and past participle
    of regular verbs are formed by adding ed to the present form. The past and past participle of
    irregular verbs are usually different words; however, a few have the same form in all three
    principal parts.

   Present tense expresses action that is happening at the present time or action that happens
    continually, regularly.

    Ex: In September, sophomores smirk and joke about the “little freshies.”

   Past tense expresses action that is completed at a particular time in the past.

    Ex: They forgot that just ninety days separated them from freshman status.

   Future tense expresses action that will take place in the future.

    Ex: They will remember this fact in three years when they will be freshmen again.

   Present perfect tense expresses action that began in the past but continues in the present or is
    completed in the present.

    Ex: Our boat has weathered worse storms than this one.

   Past perfect tense expresses an action in the past that occurs before another past action.
          Ex: They reported, wrongly, that the hurricane had missed the island.

         Future perfect tense expresses action that will begin in the future and be completed by a
          specific time in the future.

          Ex: By this time tomorrow, the hurricane will have smashed into the coast.




II.   Principles for Tense and Mood




          I.        Use the present tense to express an action occurring at the present time.

                    Ex: I am happy to see you.

          II.      Use the past tense to express an action completed definitely in the past.

                    Ex: Last week I earned twenty dollars.

          III.      Use the present perfect indicative to represent an action recently completed or begun
                    in the past and continuing to the future. Words like just, ever, never, already afford
                    a clue to the proper use of the present perfect tense.

                    Ex: How long have you been in this country?
                    Ex: I have never met your sister.
                    Ex: The principal has just been selected to go on tour.

          IV.       Use the present tense to express universal or ever-present truths regardless of the
                    tense of the
                    principal verb.

                  Ex: Columbus argued from the proposition that the earth is round.
                  Ex: The lecturer declared that Louise Bogan’s poems show an abiding lover for
          humanity.

          V.        Mood denotes the attitude that one assumes toward the action of a verb. If the verb
                    is regarded as a truth or a fact, it is put into the indicative mood.

                   Ex {Indicative}: If I am given my way, I do my best work
                   Ex (Indicative): The mayor is suggesting that the records be impounded by the State.

          VI.      In instances of doubt, uncertainty, desire (a wish), or condition contrary to fact, the
                   subjunctive mood is used.

                    Ex {Subjunctive}: If I were the leader of the group (which I am not), I would set out
          on the
                       mission at once.
                       Ex {Subjunctive}: I wish I were the victor!
                       Ex {Subjunctive}: Alfred looks as if he were worrying over his debt.

            VII.        The present participle should be used to represent an action concurrent (happening at
                        the same time) with that of the principal verb.

                         Ex: Leaving New York for Bordeaux, the sailor bade farewell to his wife and
                   children.
                        (Both the leaving and the bidding farewell occur at the same time)

           VIII.       The past participle should be used to represent an action prior to that of the principal
verb.

                        Ex: Having left New York in June, John arrived in Bordeaux July 20.




            IX.         The perfect infinitive should be used to represent an action prior to that of the
                        governing verb.

                       Ex: By this Monday I expect to have received several answers to my advertisement.
                   (The
                       actual receiving of the answers occurs before the expectation expressed on Monday.)

           X.          The present infinitive should be used to denote action at all other times.

                       Ex: She expected to mail her letter Tuesday. (Both the mailing and the expectation
                   occur at
                       the same time.)




III.    Active/Passive Voice




                              Active Voice                                       Passive Voice

TENSE              Singular              Plural                  Singular                        Plural


PRESENT            I see                 we see                   I am seen                      we are seen
                   you see               you see                  you are seen                   you are seen
                   he, she, it sees      they see                 he, she, it is seen            they are seen

PAST               I saw                we saw                    I was seen                     we were seen
                   you saw              you saw                   you were seen                  you were seen
                   he saw               they saw                  it was seen                    they were seen
FUTURE      I will see          we will see               I will be seen                  we will be seen
            you will see        you will see              you will be seen                you will be seen
            he will see         they will see            it will be seen                  they will be
seen

PRESENT     I have seen         we have seen                 I have been seen             we have been
seen
PERFECT     you have seen       you have seen                you have been seen           you have been
seen
            he has seen         they have seen           it has been seen                  they have been
seen

PAST        I had seen          we had seen              I had been seen                  we had been
seen
PERFECT     you had seen        you had seen             you had been seen                 you had been
seen
            he had seen         they had seen            it had been seen                  they had been
seen

FUTURE      I will have seen    we will have seen      I will have been seen              we will have
been seen
PERFECT     you will have seen you will have seen      you will have been seen            you will have
been seen
            he will have seen   they will have seen    it will have been seen         they will have
been seen




                                       1.   Irregular Verbs

            PRESENT TENSE                   PAST TENSE                PAST PARTICIPLE

                     am, be                      was, were                      been
                     begin                       began                          begun
                     bite                        bit                            bitten
                     blow                        blew                           blown
                     break                       broke                          broken
                     bring                       brought                        brought
                     burst                       burst                          burst
                     catch                       caught                         caught
                     choose                      chose                          chosen
                     come                        came                           come
                     dive                        dove                           dived
                     do                          did                            done
                     drag                        dragged                        dragged
                     draw                        drew                           drawn
                     drink                       drank                          drunk
                     drive                       drove                          driven
                     drown                       drowned                        drowned
eat              ate              eaten
fall             fell             fallen
fight            fought           fought
flee             fled             fled
fly              flew             flown
forsake          forsook          forsaken
freeze           froze            frozen
get              got              gotten
give             gave             given
go               went             gone
grow             grew             grown
hang (execute)   hanged           hanged
hang (suspend)   hung             hung
hide             hid              hid, hidden
know             knew             known
lay (set)        laid             laid
lead             led              led
lie (recline)    lay              lain
lie (deceive)    lied             lied
raise            raised           raised
ride             rode             ridden
ring             rang             rung
rise             rose             risen
run              ran              run
see              saw              seen
set              set              set
shake            shook            shaken
shine (light)    shone, shined    shone, shined
shine (polish)   shined           shined
show             showed           shown
shrink           shrank           shrunk
sing             sang, sung       sung
sink             sank, sunk       sunk


sit              sat              sat
slay             slew             slain
speak            spoke            spoken
spring           sprang, sprung   sprung
steal            stole            stolen
strive           strove           striven
swear            swore            sworn
swim             swam             swum
swing            swung            swung
take             took             taken
teach            taught           taught
tear             tore             torn
throw            threw            thrown
wake             woke, waked      woken, waked
wear             wore             worn
weave            wove, weaved     woven, weaved
wring            wrung            wrung
write            wrote            written
                                                Term IV

                                                Hyphens

                Uses of the Hyphen:

                         I.       For word division

                         II.      With certain prefixes

                         III.     For clarity

                         IV.      With certain compounds

                         V.       For inclusive dates and pages

I. Word Division

       Use a hyphen after the first part of a word divided between the end of one line and the beginning
       of the next line. These words should be divided only between syllables. Use the dictionary as
       your guide.
II. Prefixes and Suffixes

          Use a hyphen after the prefixes ex-, self-, all-, quasi-, half-, and quarter-.

                   Examples: ex-sailor, all-encompassing, half-drunk, self-propelling

          Use a hyphen before the suffixes -elect, and -odd, and between any prefixes and a proper name.

                   Examples: secretary-elect, sixty-odd, pseudo-French, anti-American, trans-Siberian

III. Clarity

          Use a hyphen within a word to prevent ambiguity or misreading and to avoid a double “i” or the
          use of the same consonant three times in a row.

                   Examples:          two-bit players (insignificant players)
                                       two bit-players (two players with small roles)

                   Examples:          re-cover (meaning “to cover again” not recover meaning “to regain”)

                   Examples:          semi-industrial (not semiindustrial)
                                      hull-less (not (hullless)

IV. Compounds

          Accepted usage for the hyphenation of compound words changes fairly rapidly; the trend is toward
          writing formerly hyphenated compounds as single words without a hyphen. Choose one
          dictionary as you guide and use it faithfully and consistently.

          a.   Letters or numerals

                   Normally, a hyphen is used between the elements of a compound in which one element is
                   a letter or numeral. But practice varies, and some compounds of this type are often
                   written without a hyphen.

                             Examples: A-line, U-boat, 4-ply, DC-10; but E sharp, U-turn or U turn

          b. Compounds of Equal Weight

          Use a hyphen to connect compounds in which the elements are of equal grammatical weight.

                   Examples: city-state, Yankee-Red Sox game, soldier-statesman, yellow-green, Monday-
                             Wednesday-Friday classes

          c. Compound Modifiers

          Use a hyphen to connect compound modifiers when these modifiers appear before nouns, but do
          not hyphenate them when they follow nouns or when they are used adverbially.

                   Examples: icy-cold water                        but       The water was icy cold.
                             spur of the moment decision           but       He decided on the spur of the
moment.
                               across-the-board increases          but       Increases were granted across the
board.
                              all-purpose cleaner
                              evil-smelling water
                              off-season rates
                              twice-told tales

         Do not hyphenate a compound modifier if the word is an adverb ending in –ly, even when the
         modifier precedes the noun.

                  Examples:         sorely needed improvements
                                     fully annotated improvements
                                    rapidly growing cities
                                     heavily perfumed women

         If the compound is very long, quotation marks might be substituted for hyphens.

                  Examples:         an I-told-you-so expression on his face
                                    an “I told you so” expression on his face

         Do not hyphenate compound words that are properly written as single words or as two separate
words.

                  Example:          Incorrect          Correct            Incorrect         Correct

                                    to-day             today              none-the-less     nonetheless
                                    all-right          all right          in-so-far         insofar
                                    out-side           outside            never-the-less    nevertheless
                                    now-a-days         nowadays           where-as          whereas

         Use a hyphen to connect the two parts of a written-out compound number up to ninety-nine, even
         when the compound is part of a larger number.

                  Examples:         thirty-three       but       five thousand and six
                                    sixty-eight        but       two hundred and sixty-eight




         Use a hyphen to connect parts of a fraction that is written out unless either the numerator or
         denominator contains a hyphen.

                  Examples:         one-half           but       a half
                                    seven-eighths      but       seven forty-fifths

         Use a so-called suspended hyphen when a series of compounds all have the same second element.
         Put a space after the hyphen and before the following word.

                  Examples:         four- and five-year programs
                                    pro- or anti-British

V. Inclusive Dates and Pages

         Use a hyphen to express inclusive dates and pages.

                  Examples: pp.276-381; A.D. 54-84; 1899-1906
                                                Term IV
                                                  Dashes

                 Uses of the dash:

                           I. around parenthetical statements

                          II. before summary statements

                          III. in dialogue for interrupted speech


I. Parenthetical Statements

        Use a dash to mark sharp break in the thought or syntax of a sentence or to insert a parenthetical
        statement into a sentence. Sometimes the material set off by dashes is an appositive.
                 a. Break in thought

                     Examples: We were asked ---well, actually we were told --- to pick up our belongings
        and leave.
                                The Dark Ages ---though the term is really a misnomer --- lasted from the
                                fall of Rome until the eleventh century.

                 b. Appositive

                  Examples: The Cyclops --- a drama first produced about 44 B.C. --- is a burlesque of
                 Homer’s
                            Story about Odysseus and Polyphemous.

II. Summary Statements

        Before a summary statement and after an introductory list, the dash can be used as an informal
        substitute for a colon.

        Example: Biology, chemistry, calculus, --- these courses are familiar to freshman premedical
        students.

III. Dialogue

        In dialogue, use a dash to indicate hesitant or interrupted speech.

        Examples: “To tell the truth, I ---we --- aren’t interested.”
                  “He is a complete idi --- uh --- he’s been acting rather foolishly.”




                                          Faulty Diction-Term IV

REGARD is a noun and should not be confused with the verb form regards.

        Examples: My teacher spoke to me with regard (not regards) to my paper.
                  As regards what Ms. Ganci said about Ms. Coppens, critics dismiss it as utter
nonsense.
                  Ms. Defeo wrote an interesting paper in regard (not regards) to the behavior of high
                  school students.

RIGHT AWAY, RIGHT OFF are colloquial expressions for the formal at once, immediately, and
directly.
          Examples: We could understand Courtney’s motives immediately (not right off) by the tone of her
voice.
                      Will you take care of this bill directly (not right away)?

SAME is an expression that should not be used for just as or in the same way as.

          Example: The recruit was treated in the same way as (not the same as) any veteran.

SHAPE meaning “condition or manner of execution,” is acceptable only in the slang of sports.

          Examples: The doctor reported her patient to be in excellent condition (not shape).
                    The emigrants made their seemingly endless voyages in remarkable manner (not
shape).

SHOW is colloquial for chance, display, or opportunity. Show is also colloquial for any kind of public
performance. Correct usage of show requires that the word be used to refer to a display of grand scale.

          Examples: Our debate team made an excellent display (not show) of its persuasive powers.
                    What Craig wanted from his teacher was to give him an opportunity (not show).
                    The seniors staged a remarkable performance (not show) as part of Class Night.
                    Dr. Jack made a magnificent show (that is, display) of his strength in the boxing arena.

SHOW UP, meaning “to put in an appearance,” or “to be present” is colloquial.

        Example: We were disappointed that Ms. Defeo failed to put in an appearance (not show up) at
the prom.

SIGN UP is colloquial for enroll or enlist.

          Example: As soon as war was declared, thousands of college students attempted to enlist (not sign
up) for
                    the armed forces.

SIZE UP is colloquial for estimate or evaluate.

          Example: Before a student decides to defy Ms. Watts, he should evaluate (not size up) his chances
          of
                   success.

SO should not be used as an intensive adverb meaning very.

          Example: I don’t feel very (not so) tired tonight.

When so is used in the sense of “to such an extent, in such a way,” it should be followed by that.

          Example: The officer repeated the command twice so that (not so) everyone could hear him.

SOME is colloquial when it is used as an intensive adjective. Use a more precise word for it.

      Example: That was a beautiful (not some) dress Susie wore to the prom.
STAND FOR, meaning “to endure or put up with,” is colloquial.

          Example: I will not endure (not stand for) your bad behavior!

SUCH, when used as an intensive, should be complemented by a result clause.
           Example: There was such terrible weather at the resort that most of the visitors left before the end
of the
                      week.

Such should not be used as merely an intensive.

           Example: Rover is a very (not such) a clever dog.

SUPERIOR, INFERIOR should be followed by to, not than.

           Example: The fountain pen is superior to (not than) any other pen I’ve used.

SURE is colloquial when used to mean certainly or surely.”

           Example: The victims of the tornado are certainly (not sure) a pitiful sight to behold.

TAKE STOCK IN and BANK ON are colloquialisms. Use a substitute word like rely on or trust.

           Example: After the failure of the ten cars’ seat belts, people did not rely on (not take stock in) the
                    reliability of the car company.

TASTY should not be used to mean tasteful.

           Example: Home-made bread is often more tasteful (not tasty) than bought bread.

UNITED STATES should be preceded by the.

           Example: The United States is a fairly young country.

UP is colloquial usage when used after such verbs as rest, end, settle.

           Example: We were both asked to settle (not settle up) our accounts before the end of the school
year.

UP UNTIL is tautological.

           Example: Until, (not up until) 1900 there were few automobiles in this country.

WAY is incorrect when used adverbially for far or away.

           Examples: Next summer we intend to go away (not way) up north.
                     This stream starts far (not way) north.

Way, as an adverb, should be governed by a preposition.

           Example: Our horse acts in that way (not that way) because it doesn’t like people.

WHILE, being a conjunction of time, should not be misused for the conjunction but, whereas, etc.

           Examples: Ms. Meyer likes to read classic novels, whereas (not while) Ms. Raposa likes popular
fiction.
                       I found the study of Swahili very difficult, but (not while) my friend found the
language easy.

                                      Common Misuse of Words- Term 4
notorious – famous – infamous
        notorious- widely but unfavorably known
                Ex. The family of mobsters was notorious in Chicago.
        famous- widely and favorably known
                Ex. Mrs. Fields is famous for her chocolate chip cookies.
        infamous- having a reputation of the worst kind
                Ex. Billy the Kid is an infamous bank robber of the Old West.

observance – observation
       observance- act or ceremony of respecting
                Ex. The observance of Memorial Day is a patriotic demonstration.
       observation- the act of looking at
                Ex. The pre-med student completed his necessary observations in the hospital.

provided – providing
        provided- on the condition of ; with the understanding of;
                Ex. I will buy you a Popo’s hot dog, provided I have enough money.
        providing- to supply or to give
                Ex. Your mother is providing the money for your hot dogs!

perimeter – parameter
        perimeter- a border or outer boundary of an area
                Ex. Please make sure your dog stays within the perimeter of your backyard.
        parameter- any constant factor or guideline
                Ex. It is important to set clear parameters surrounding any legal agreement.

raise – rise
         raise- to elevate or build (requires an object for the action)
                   Ex. Did you raise the flag on the pole?
                        Please do not raise your voice during the assembly.
         rise- to get up after lying; to increase in size or volume (does not require an object)
                   Ex. The river rises each spring after the snow melts.
                        The boy rises each morning for school.

regard – regards
        regard- with respect to or concerning (preceded by in or with)
                 Ex. In regard to your request, I will send you a copy of the latest article.
        regards- expresses good wishes (never preceded by in or with)
                 Ex. Give my regards to your parents.

sensual – sensuous
        sensual- refers to the gratification of physical appetites with the implication of sex and pleasure
                Ex. Some regarded the sensual comments as inappropriate dinner conversation.
        sensuous- refers to aesthetic pleasures that appeal to the senses with the implication of
                intellectual appreciation.
                Ex. His sensuous nature is reflected in his appreciation of art, music, and poetry.




                                              Spelling Term IV
abscess                  absolute         abundance           accede
accomplish               advantageous     advertisement       aisle
annihilate               annoyance        anxious
          appreciate
arouse                   artificial       association         audience
available                bankrupt         becoming            believe
bought                   Britain          candidate           carriage
catalog                  civilization     clientele           column
coming                   competent        confidence
          contemptible
development              discipline       divisible
          electricity
extraordinary            gasoline         glorious
          government
guardian                 guerilla         holiday             hospital
hurriedly                immediately      immigrant
          impossible
incidentally             inferior         jewelry             leisure
management               manufacture      meant
          medicine
millionaire              monotonous       negotiate           nickel
nuisance                 obedience        occasional
          occupant
official                 opinion          optimism
          outrageous
participant              perhaps          politician
          precisely
recipe                   religious        remember
          restaurant
scenery

          sensible       several                   severely
sheriff                  shining          sophisticated
         stationary
stationery               seize            statistic           straight
strength                 superintendent   surprise
         technique
university               undoubtedly      vengeance           view
welfare                  weird            vacuum

				
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