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Western swing

Western swing
Western swing Stylistic origins Country & Western Blues Folk Swing Dixieland jazz 1920s and 1930s; Small towns in USA Strings • Piano • Drums • Vocals • Fiddle • Violin • Banjo • Double bass • Steel Guitar Early to mid-1940s; Huge Rockabilly • Rock ’n’ roll

Cultural origins Typical instruments Mainstream popularity Derivative forms

This article is about the musical genre. For the dance West Coast Swing formerly known as Western Swing see West Coast Swing . For the popular western swing steel guitar tuning, see E9 tuning. Western swing is a style of popular music that evolved in the 1920s in the American Southwest among the region’s popular Western string bands.[1][2] Fundamentally an outgrowth of jazz[3][4][5], much Western Swing is dance music with an up-tempo beat[6][7] consisting of an eclectic combination of rural, cowboy, polka, and folk music, New Orleans jazz, or Dixieland, and blues blended with a jazzy "swing".[8] and played by a hot string band often augmented with drums, saxophones, pianos and, notably, the steel guitar.[9] Later incarnations have also included overtones of bebop. The similarities between Western Swing and Gypsy jazz are often noted.

History
Western swing originated in the dance halls of small towns throughout the Lower Great Plains in the 1920s and 1930s[10][11] evolving from the old house parties and ranch dances where fiddlers and guitarists entertained dancers. According to guitarist Merle Travis, "Western Swing is nothing more than a group

of talented country boys, unschooled in music, but playing the music they feel, beating a solid two-four rhythm to the harmonies that buzz around their brains. When it escapes in all it musical glory, my friend, you have Western Swing." During the early developmental phase an uncoordinated but parallel progression occurred with scores of groups from San Antoinio to Shreveport to Oklahoma City playing different repertories with same basic sound."[12] Bob Wills and Milton Brown are considered to be the seminal band in this style when in the early 1930s they co-founded the stringband that became the Light Crust Doughboys, playing dancehalls and taking advantage of radio broadcasting. Photographs of the Light Crust Doughboys taken as early as 1931 show two guitars along with fiddle player Bob Wills.[13] On February 9,1932 the Fort Worth Doughboys: Milton Brown, Durwood Brown, Bob Wills, and C.G. "Sleepy" Johnson were recorded by Victor Records at the Jefferson Hotel in Dallas, Texas. Brown played guitar and Johnson played tenor guitar. Both "Sunbonnet Sue" and "Nancy Jane" were recorded that day. This record was released by Victor (23653), Blue Bird (5257), Montgomery Ward (4416 & 4757), and (Canadian) Sunrise (3340). Montgomery Ward credited Milton Brown and his Musical Brownies.[14] When Milton Brown left the Doughboys in 1932, he took his brother Durwood along with him to play rhythm guitar in what would be called the Musical Brownies.[15] In January 1933, fiddler Cecil Brower, playing harmony, joined Jesse Ashlock to create the first example of harmonizing twin fiddles.[16] Brower, a classically-trained violinist, was the first to master Joe Venuti’s "double shuffle" and his improvisational style was a major contribution to the genre. Photos from 1933 show three guitar players in the Doughboys.[17] In October 1933, Wills was fired and a new group of Doughboys went to Chicago for a recording session with Vocalion (later Columbia) Records. The years between 1935 and World War II were the most successful

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for the group. By 1937, some of the best musicians in the history of Western swing had joined the band. Kenneth Pitts and Clifford Gross played fiddles, and in 1939, Brower joined the Doughboys, replacing Buck Buchanan as fiddler in the string section but playing lead (Buchanan had played harmony). In late 1933, Wills organized the Texas Playboys in Waco. Recording rosters show that from September 1935 on, Wills utilized two fiddles, two guitars plus Leon McAuliffe playing steel guitar, banjo, drums and other instruments during recording sessions.[18] In 1935, Brown and the Musical Brownies recorded W.C. Handy’s "St. Louis Blues" (Decca 5070) using a shortened arrangement of what they did while playing at dances at the Crystal Palace outside of Fort Worth. In the dance hall arrangement the band would play at slow-drag tempo for as long as 10 - 15 minutes with an accompanying vocal. The tempo would then increase to presto for the final choruses. The crowds of dancers loved the arrangement and eagerly anticipated the change in tempo.[19] Waltzes and ballads were interspersed among faster songs if the dancers, who would dance two-step or round dances at that time, became worn out after faster numbers.[20] 1938, session rosters for Wills recordings show both "lead guitar" and "electric guitar" in addition to guitar and steel guitar.[21] The "front line" of Wills’ orchestra consisted of either fiddles or guitars after 1944.[22] That helped the style gain a much wider following through the music of Wills and his Playboys in Tulsa, Brown in Fort Worth and the Light Crust Doughboys, also in Fort Worth. Wills recalled the early days of Western swing music in a 1949 interview. "Here’s the way I figure it" he said, "We sure not tryin’ to take credit for swingin’ it." Speaking of Milt Brown and himself—working with popular songs done by Jimmie Davis, the Skillet Lickers, Jimmie Rodgers, songs he’d learned from his father and others—he said that "We’d ... pull these tunes down an set ’em in a dance category. ... They wouldn’t be a runaway ... and just lay a real beat behind it an’ the people would began to really like it. ... It was nobody intended to start anything in the world. We was just tryin’ to find enough tunes to keep ’em dancin’ to not have to repeat so much."[23]

Western swing
By the mid-1930s, Fort Worth was a hub for western swing music, and The Crystal Springs Dance Pavilion was at the center, and the pavilion continued to prosper as a country music venue until the 1950s. On New Year’s Eve 1955, about 1,800 persons danced there.[2] Fred "Papa" Calhoun recalled that around 1930 he played in a band in Decatur, Texas that played "a lot of swing stuff like the Louisiana Five was playing back in those days. We also liked Red Nichols and Bix Beiderbecke."[24] Western swing differed in several ways from the music played by the nationally popular horn driven big swing bands of the same era. In Western bands—even the fully orchestrated bands—vocals and the other instruments followed the fiddle’s lead. Additionally, most Western bands improvised freely, either by soloists or collectively. Popular horn bands tended to arrange and score their music.[25] Western swing bands played to accommodate a wide range of dance steps, with the most common being two-step (Country-western two-step or Texas two-step), polka, and waltz which were already common in Texas and Oklahoma at the time of the development of the genre, as well as jitterbug which developed somewhat later. For example, like many of the up-tempo tunes of the Western Swing genre "San Antonio Rose" and "Take me Back to Tulsa" can be both be danced as either a two-step or polka, often with jitterbug or swing styling. A slower tune for twostep is "Faded Love". (Note that West Coast Swing, once referred to as Western Swing, is a dance step or style derived for the slower blues beat, and is itself not a genre of music, though some of the bluesy Western Swing tunes can be danced in the West Coast Swing style.) The rhythm and the use of electrically amplified stringed instruments, especially the steel and guitar, also gave the music a distinctive sound.[26] As early as 1934 or 1935 Bob Dunn electrified a Martin O-series acoustic guitar while playing with Milton Brown’s Brownies.."[27] According to Jimmy Thomason "It happened when Dunn was working at Coney Island in New York... he ran into this black guy who was playing a steel guitar with a homemade pickup attached to it...hooked up to this old radio or something and was

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playing blues licks... and he got this guy to show him how he was doing it. I never knew this black musician’s name but both Bob and Avis talked to me about him often."[28]

Western swing
watt signal. Regular shows continued until 1958 with Johnnie Lee Wills as the bandleader. [8] Burt (aka Bert) "Foreman" Phillips developed a circuit of dance halls and bands for each of them. Included in the venues beginning in 1942 were: the Los Angeles County Barn Dance at Venice Pier Ballroom, the Town Hall Ballroom in Compton, the Plantation in Culver City, the Baldwin Park Ballroom, and the Riverside Rancho. These "western" dances were a "huge" success. [36] According to Hank Penny, Phillips had said, "I don’t want any of that Western Swing!" But that’s what he got, and it got him huge eclectic crowds. Writer Gerald Vaughn wrote that , "a Dance band hopes to make people move, not stand and listen, so the emphasis has to be on beat, rhythm, syncopation." [37] One of the groups which played at the Venice Pier Ballroom was run by Jimmy Wakely with Spade Cooley on fiddle. Several thousand dancers would turn out on Saturday night to swing and hop. "The hoards of people and jitterbuggers loved him."[38] When Bob Wills played the Los Angeles Country Barn Dance at the Venice Pier for three nights shortly before he broke up his band to join the army during WWII, the attendance was beyond 15,000. Fearing that the dance floor would collapse, police stopped ticket sales at eleven o’clock. The line outside at that time was ten deep and stretched into Venice.[39] Another source states that Will attracted 8,600 fans.[40] Riverside Rancho, operated by Marty Landau, had a 10,000-square-foot (930 m2) dance floor, three bars, and a restaurant. According to Merle Travis, "At that time "Western Swing" was a household word. Al Dexter had had a million- seller on his "Pistol Packin’ Mama" record. Bob Wills was heard on every jukebox with this "San Antonio Rose." T. Texas Tyler was doing well with his "Remember Me (When the Candlelights Are Gleaming)." It was practically impossible to wedge your way into the Palace Barn where Red Murrell and his band were playing. A mile down the hill was the Riverside Rancho. You were lucky to find a ticket on a Wednesday Night. Tex Williams and his Western Caravan were playing there."[41] Other LA "country nightclubs", that is, places that weren’t "dives" (and there were plenty), included The Painted Post ("Where

Origin of the name
Western swing in its beginnings had no name—it was just dance music. Just the term "swing", meaning big band dance music, wasn’t used until after the 1932 hit "It Don’t Mean a Thing (If It Ain’t Got That Swing)".[29] Recording companies came up with several names before World War II trying to market it—"Hillbilly", "Old Time Music", "Novelty Hot Dance", "Hot String Band", and even "Texas Swing" for music coming out of Texas and Louisiana.[30] Most of the big Western dance bandleaders simply referred to themselves as Western bands and their music as Western dance music, many adamantly refusing the "hillbilly" label.[31] Bob Wills and others thought the term "Western swing" was used for his music while he and his band were still in Tulsa, Oklahoma between 1939 and 1942.[32] Circa 1942, Spade Cooley’s promoter, Foreman Phillips, began using "Western swing" to advertise his client.[33][34] The first use in print was a 1944 Billboard item mentioning an forthcoming song book by Spade Cooley titled Western Swing.[35] After that the music was "Western swing." Some credit Spade Cooley with coining the term ’Western swing’ in the early 1940s, as a play on Benny Goodman’s reputation as the "King of Swing." At least one historian and two web sites, however, credit Cooley’s then manager Bert “Foreman” Phillips with creating the term. [3][4][5]

Height of popularity
Western swing reached its "golden age" during the years preceding WWII, blossomed on the West Coast during the war, and was extremely popular throughout the West. [6] In the 1940s the Light Crust Doughboys broadcasts went out over 170 radio stations in the South and Southwest, and were heard by millions of people.[7] Bob Wills and The Texas Playboys played Western swing nightly at the Cain’s Ballroom in Tulsa from 1934 until 1943. Crowds at Cain’s were as large as 6,000 people. Daily shows were broadcast on KVOO radio, which had a far-reaching 50,000

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the sidewalk ends and the West begins"), Willow Lake, Cowtown, Valley Ballroom, Cowshed Club, Dick Ross’s Ballroom, and Dave Ming’s 97th Street Corral. In 1950 Hank Penny and Armand Gautier opened the Palomino in North Hollywood, "one of country music’s most fabled venues, the commercial and social focal point of Hollywood’s coutnry set." "Western jazz" brought it its initial popularity.[42] According to one report crowds of ten thousand people were not uncommon at Western swing dances in the Los Angeles area. Another eyewitness report describes the California crowds as "huge."[9] Western swing bandleader Hank Thompson, who was stationed in San Pedro during WWII, said that it was not uncommon to see "ten thousand people at at the pier," referring to Redondo Beach.[43] Fred "Poppa" Calhoun, piano player for Milton Brown, vividly remembered how people in Texas and Oklahoma danced when Bob Wills played. "They were pretty simple couples dances, two steps and the Lindy Hop with a few western twirls added for good measure. By 1937 the Jitterbug hit big in the West and allowed much greater freedom of movement. But the Jitterbug was different in the West. It wasn’t all out boogie woogie; it was ’swingier’ - more smooth and subdued."
[44]

Western swing
promotors, couldn’t afford to pay the city tax, state tax, government tax.[45][46] The decline of Western swing in the years following the war reflected the waxing and waning of the more mainstream big-band sound. Asleep at the Wheel band leader Ray Benson related his experiences with reintroducing Western Swing to Texans in an interview. [11] Moon Mullican, who had performed with Western swing bands, later found more success as a solo artist and his 1940s and 1950s hits often were done with a more western swing than pure country feel. Western swing was one of the many genres to influence rockabilly and rock ’n’ roll. Bill Haley’s music from the late 1940s and early 1950s is often referred to as Western Swing. Haley’s band from 1948 and 1949 was named Bill Haley and The 4 Aces of Western Swing. Willie Nelson, Waylon Jennings and Asleep at the Wheel helped make Austin, Texas a major center of Western swing beginning in the 1970s. The annual South by Southwest music festival and the Austin City Limits PBS TV show have contributed to this success. [12] Western Swing Monthly[13], based in Austin, is a newsletter for musicians and fans.

Another orchestra from this era was The Duece Spriggens Orchestra. They played nightly at the Western Palisades Ballroom, on Santa Monica Pier...then known as the largest ballroom on the West Coast. The music was broadcast as a radio show, The Cavalcade of Western Music, on station KFI. They also appeared on the Melody Roundup radio program. [10]

Notable bands and artists from the early era
(See also Category:Western swing musical groups and Category:Western swing performers.)

Early groups (includes leaders)
• Hank Thompson and His Brazos Valley Boys • Jimmy Heap and the Melody Masters • Bill Boyd and the Cowboy Ramblers • Doug Bine and his Dixie Ramblers • The Flinthill Boys • The Fort Worth Doughboys • Pee Wee King and His Golden West Cowboys • The Hi-Flyers • W. Lee O’Daniel and his Hillbilly Boys • The Light Crust Doughboys • "Texas" Jim Lewis and His Lone Star Cowboys • Ole Rasmussen and his Nebraska Cornhuskers

Decline and lasting influence
In 1944, with the United States’ continuing involvement in World War II, a 30 percent federal excise tax was levied against "dancing" night clubs. Although the tax was later reduced to 20 percent, "No Dancing Allowed" signs went up all over the country. Jazz drummer Max Roach argued that, "This tax is the real story why dancing...public dancing per se...were just out. Club owners,

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• Milton Brown and his Musical Brownies • Jimmie Revard and his Oklahoma Playboys • Herb Goddard and his Oklahoma Wanderers • Deuce Spriggens and His Orchestra • Spade Cooley and His Orchestra • The Port Arthur Jubileers (Jimmie Hart & His Merrymakers) • Dude Martin and His Roundup Gang • Bill Haley and the Saddlemen (later - Bill Haley & His Comets) • Adolph Hofner and his San Antonians • The Southernaires • The Southern Melody Boys • Bob Wills and The Texas Playboys • The Texas Swingsters • Cliff Bruner and The Texas Wanderers • The Lee Bell Band • Al Dexter and His Troopers • Ocie Stockard and the Wanderers • The Tune Wranglers • T.J. "Red" Arnall and His Western Aces • W.A. "Bill" "Slumber" Nichols and His Western Aces • Tex Williams and the Western Caravan • Billy Gray and His Western Okies • Dave Stogner and The Western Rythmnaires • The Washboard Wonders • Smokey Wood and the Wood Chips • The Maddox Brothers & Sister Rose • Cecil Brower and the Kilocycle Cowboys This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.

Western swing
This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.

Later bands and artists of the genre (or influenced by it)
Groups
• Asleep at the Wheel • John England & the Western Swingers [14][15] • The Bebop Cowboys [16] • Big Sandy & His Fly-Rite Boys • Commander Cody and His Lost Planet Airmen • Dan Hicks and His Hot Licks [17] • The Dancehall Racketeers (Australia) • The Ditty Bops • Don Walser and the Pure Texas Band • The Dusty Chaps (band) • The Hot Club of Cowtown • The Jazzabillies [18] • The Lone Star Swing Band (Orkney Islands, Scotland) [19] • Merle Haggard & the Strangers • The Quebe Sisters Band • Red Brown & the Tune Stranglers (Olympia, Washington) [20][21] • The Red Dirt Rangers [22] • The Red Stick Ramblers [23] • Shorty & The Mustangs (Portland, OR) [24] • Stretch Dawrson and the Mending Hearts (Edinburgh, Scotland) [25] • The Time Jumpers • Tom Morrell & The Timewarp Tophands • Wylie & The Wild West [26] • Wild River Band [27] • Wayne Hancock The River Road Boys(http://www,riverroadboys.com)

Early performers
• Carolina Cotton (yodeler who sang with several Western Swing groups) • Tommy Duncan, the lead singer with the Texas Playboys • Leon Huff, guitarist and lead singer with the Hillbilly Boys (later with Wills) • Buddy Jones • Billie "Tiny" Moore • Merle Travis • Moon Mullican • Patti Page • Hank Penny • Herb Remington • Floyd Tillman • Speedy West • Kitty Williamson ("Texas Rose"), lead fiddle & sometimes vocal with the Hillbilly Boys)

Individuals
• Willie Nelson • Marty Robbins • George Strait • Tracy Byrd This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.

See also
• List of swing/big band musicians

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• Swing music • Western music (North America)

Western swing
[6] Townsend, San Antonio Rose, p. 38: "According to Leon McAuliffe, one of the musicians who later helped Jim Rob pioneer western swing, this emphasis on music for dancing was the principal reason Wills’s music was so different from music in the East that also had rural and folk roots: ’The basic difference in country and western music, if there is any way of defining it, is that west of the Mississippi River when we played, we played for dancing. East of the Mississippi they played a show, or they played in a schoolhouse, just for people to sit and listen, visual or audible entertainment and not for dancing’." [7] Malone, Stars of Country Music, p. 170: "Wills knew dance audience too well to sing about divorce, the heartbreak of broken homes, or poverty during the Depression. ... Bob had fun performing, and he tried to play music that created an atmosphere of gaiety and happiness. Everything that contributed to this atmosphere—the beat, the jazz choruses, the syncopation, and the extemporaneous improvisation—remained basic to his style until the end of his career." [8] Price, "Jazz Guitar and Western Swing", p. 82: "The assimilation was so thorough that western swing, at the hands of an accomplished bandleader like Bob Wills, Milton Brown or Spade Cooley, cannot be seen as ersatz anything. It was from the start—or at least from its earliest documentation on record—its own music, something more than its parts, allowing a freedom of expression offered neither by traditional country music (which would have no part in improvisation or between-the-beats rhythm) nor by the structured jazz community (in which no southwestern bumpkin would be likely to feel welcome)." [9] Coffey, Merl Lindsay and His Oklahoma Nite Riders, pp. 3-4: "By 1938, Merle [Lindsay] was leading a versatile dance band that numbered as many as ten pieces; it was a fairly typical Oklahoma western swing band of the day in its lineup, along similar lines to the Texas Playboys, ... with twin fiddles, three horns, steel guitar and rhythm (including drums, an instrument far more common

References
[1] Brink, "Western Swing", p. 550: "In many ways, western swing music is a manifestation of the cultural forces that came together where the geographical isolation and harsh living conditions of the frontier met the electronic age. People still living in dugouts and sod houses on the Southern High Plains became a part of popular culture through the radio and the jukebox, mingling their musical talents and tastes with the new sounds introduced to them through the accessibility of phonographs and the airwaves." [2] Logsdon, "Folk Songs", p. 299: "In the 1920s Bob Wills, a fiddle player son of a cotton farmer in West Texas, started playing ranch-house dances. His desire to play dances eventually developed a dance genre know as western swing. While the music has elements of jazz and blues, it actually evolved from the specific merger of cowboy and farmer folk song and instrumention." [3] Boyd, Jazz of the Southwest, p. ix-x: "They were and are in the same league with Benny Goodman, Tommy Dorsey, and many others, not in the ’hillbilly’ category where they were assigned by record executives who could not decide how to classify improvisation played on string instruments. Western swing musicians have nothing against country music and in fact recognize country music as one of many tributaries of their music. But ’country’ is an inappropriate and misleading label for western swing." [4] Townsend, San Antonio Rose, p. 63: "Without exception, every former member of Wills’s band interviewed for this study concluded, as Wills himself did, that what they were playing was always closer in music, lyrics, and style to jazz and swing that any other genre." [5] Price, "Jazz Guitar and Western Swing", p. 81: "Clearly western swing deserves its place in any study of jazz, and its guitarists, while always a breed apart, were and are central to the music, intimately bound to its origins and evolution."

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at the time in Oklahoma bands than in Texas and elsewhere)." [10] Kienzle, Southwest Shuffle, pp. vii-xi: Preface. [11] Carney, "Country Music", p. 535: "Seven substyles of country music emerged during the twentieth century. Four of these originated in the Great Plains states of Texas and Oklahoma: singing cowboy, western swing, honky-tonk, and country rock." [12] Workin’ Man Blues - Country Music in California. Gerald W. Haslan. University of California Press. 1999. page 72, 73. ISBN 0-520-21800-0. [13] San Antonio Rose - The Life and Music of Bob Wills. Charles R. Townsend. 1976. University of Illinois. between pages 74-75. ISBN 0-252-00470-1 [14] San Antonio Rose - The Life and Music of Bob Wills. Charles R. Townsend. 1976. University of Illinois. page 339. ISBN 0-252-00470-1 [15] San Antonio Rose - The Life and Music of Bob Wills. Charles R. Townsend. 1976. University of Illinois. between pages 73. ISBN 0-252-00470-1 [16] Saffle, Michael (2000), Perspectives on American Music, 1900-1950, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 0815321457 . [17] San Antonio Rose - The Life and Music of Bob Wills. Charles R. Townsend. 1976. University of Illinois. between pages 74-75. ISBN 0-252-00470-1 [18] San Antonio Rose - The Life and Music of Bob Wills. Charles R. Townsend. 1976. University of Illinois. page 339, 340. ISBN 0-252-00470-1 [19] Milton Brown and the Founding of Western Swing. Cary Ginell. 1994. University of Illinois Press. page 131. ISBN 0-252-02041-3 [20] Milton Brown and the Founding of Western Swing. Cary Ginell. 1994. University of Illinois Press. page 134. ISBN 0-252-02041-3 [21] San Antonio Rose - The Life and Music of Bob Wills. Charles R. Townsend. 1976. University of Illinois. page 342, 343. ISBN 0-252-00470-1 [22] San Antonio Rose - The Life and Music of Bob Wills. Charles R. Townsend. 1976. University of Illinois. page 237. ISBN 0-252-00470-1 [23] Wills, Bob. 1949 interview from Honky Tonks, Hymns and the Blues.

Western swing
[24] Milton Brown and the Founding of Western Swing. Cary Ginell. 1994. University of Illinois Press. page 81. ISBN 0-252-02041-3 [25] Boyd, "Western Swing", p. 208: "But modernization did not diminish the unique and basically rural character of western swing, which remained distinct from mainstream horn jazz because of the prominent place given to fiddles and guitars, both standard and steel. The fiddle was the lead instrument in any western swing band, even those with horns, and every other instrumentalist adjusted to the fiddlers’ stylings and preferences for sharp keys. There were also rhythmic differences between western swing bands and horn bands.

Dancing
Western swing was dance music, with the emphasis on a clearly discernible and uncluttered beat pattern. Western swing bands tended to use a highly syncopated rhythmic bass (i.e. time signature), moving to the more relaxed swing-four (i.e., time signature) only to back certain soloists. This gave western swing bands more rhythmic drive and an overall more aggressive character than most horn bands. The amount of improvisation also was significantly different between western swing and mainstream horn bands. Most of the nationally know horn bands were populated by reading musicians who were more comfortable with scores than long stretches of solo or collective improvisation. But western swing musicians were largely self-taught nonreaders who improvised out of necessity and the need to express their individuality in their music." [26] Wolff, Country Music, "Big Balls in Cowtown: Western Swing From Fort Worth to Fresno", p. 71: "The instrumentation of both Brown’s and Wills’ bands, in fact, was one of the major distinctions that set their music apart from either straight hillbilly or jazz. For starters, the Brownies featured Bob Dunn, a steel guitarist who is credited as the first country artist on record to use an electric string

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instrument. Wills had his answer to Dunn in McAuliffe, whose "Steel Guitar Rag" became hugely popular and brought the new amplified sound to the public’s attention." [27] Workin’ Man Blues - Country Music in California. Gerald W. Haslan. University of California Press. 1999. page 74. ISBN 0-520-21800-0. [28] Milton Brown and the Founding of Western Swing. Cary Ginell. 1994. University of Illinois Press. page 109. ISBN 0-252-02041-3 [29] Marble, Freedom On My Mind, p. 57: "The Song ’It Don’t Mean A Thing (If It Ain’t Got That Swing)’ is notable because it gave a motto (’The Swing Era’) to the 1930s and to jazz music in general" [30] Lang, Smile When You Call Me a Hillbilly, p. 89: "Prior to the war [WWII], record companies labeled early western swing as ’Novelty Hot Dance’ or ’Hot String Band’ music. In 1941, the Victor recording company referred to its latest release of Texas and Louisiana country groups as ’Texas Swing.’ [31] Lange, Smile When You Call Me A Hillbilly, p. 98: "Wills himself proved an extremely capable musical politician, sharply refuting any association with southeastern country music (’Please don’t anybody confuse us with none of them hillbilly outfits’) ..." [32] San Antonio Rose - The Life and Music of Bob Wills. Charles R. Townsend. 1976. University of Illinois. page 203. ISBN 0-252-00470-1 [33] Logsdon, "The Cowboy’s Bawdy Music", p.137: "The term ’western swing’ was not used until Foreman Phillips, a promoter-disc jockey, used it to describe Spade Cooley in 1942." [34] Komorowski, Spade Cooley, p. 4: " He Spade Cooley promptly proclaimed himself the ’King of Western Swing’, the first time the term was used to describe this style of music, and it was one that stuck." [35] Lang, Smile When You Call Me a Hillbilly, p. 89: In October 1944, Billboard made the following announcement, unceremoniously giving the subgenre its common label for the first time in a national publication: ’Spade Cooley will put out 25 of his original tunes, together with an album of

Western swing
band numbers and suggestions on arrangements for Western Bands. Book to be titled ’Western Swing’. " [36] Workin’ Man Blues - Country Music in California. Gerald W. Haslan. University of California Press. 1999. page 87. ISBN 0-520-21800-0. [37] Workin’ Man Blues - Country Music in California. Gerald W. Haslan. University of California Press. 1999. page 88. ISBN 0-520-21800-0. [38] L.A. Despair: A Landscape of Crimes & Bad Times. John Gilmore. 2005. Amok Books. Page 313. ISBN 9781878923165 ISBN-10: 1878923161 [39] The King of Western Swing - Bob Wills Remembered. Rosetta Wills. 1998. Billboard Books. page 119. ISBN 0-8230-7744-6. [40] Country Music, U.S.A.: Second Revised Edition. By Bill C. Malone. University of Texas Press. 2002. page 186. ISBN 0292752628, 9780292752627 [41] Workin’ Man Blues - Country Music in California. Gerald W. Haslan. University of California Press. 1999. pages 111,112. ISBN 0-520-21800-0. [42] Workin’ Man Blues - Country Music in California. Gerald W. Haslan. University of California Press. 1999. page 111. ISBN 0-520-21800-0. [43] Country: The Twisted Roots of Rock ’n’ Roll. By Nick Tosches. Da Capo Press. 1996. page 159. ISBN 0306807130, 9780306807138 [44] The Complete Book of Country Swing & Western Dancing and a Bit about Cowboys Peter Livingston Livingston/ Boulder Books 1981 ISBN 0-385-17601-5 page 44 [45] Stomping the Blues. By Albert Murray. Da Capo Press. 2000. page 109, 110. ISBN 0-252-02211-4, 0-252-06508-5 [46] [1]

Bibliography
• Boyd, Jean Ann. Jazz of the Southwest: An Oral History of Western Swing. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1998. ISBN 0-292-70859-9 • Boyd, Jean A. "Western Swing: WorkingClass Southwestern Jazz of the 1930s and 1940s". Perspectives on American Music, 1900-1950 (ch. 7, pp. 193-214), edited by

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Michael Saffle. Routledge, 2000. ISBN 0-8153-2145-7 Brink, Pamela H. "Western Swing". Encyclopedia of the Great Plains, David J. Wishart (ed.), p. 550. University of Nebraska Press, 2004. ISBN 0-8032-4787-7 Carney, George O. "Country Music". Encyclopedia of the Great Plains, David J. Wishart (ed.), pp. 535-537. University of Nebraska Press, 2004. ISBN 0-8032-4787-7 Coffey, Kevin. Merl Lindsay and his Oklahoma Nite Riders; 1946-1952. (Krazy Kat KKCD 33, 2004) booklet. Ginell, Cary. Milton Brown and the Founding of Western Swing. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1994. ISBN 0-252-02041-3 Ginell, Cary; Kevin Coffey. Discography of western swing and hot string bands, 1928-1942. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2001. ISBN 0-313-31116-1 Kienzle, Rich. Southwest Shuffle: Pioneers of Honky Tonk, Western Swing, and Country Jazz. New York: Routledge, 2003. ISBN 0-415-94102-4 Komorowski, Adam. Spade Cooley: Swingin’ The Devil’s Dream. (Proper PVCD 127, 2003) booklet. Lange, Jeffrey J.Smile When You Call Me a Hillbilly: Country Music’s Struggle for Respectability, 1939-1954. ISBN 0-8203-2623-2 Logsdon, Guy. "The Cowboy’s Bawdy Music". The Cowboy: Six-Shooters, Songs, and Sex (pp. 127-138) edited by Charles W. Harris and Buck Rainey. University of Oklahoma Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8061-1341-3 Logsdon, Guy. "Folk Songs". Encyclopedia of the Great Plains, David J. Wishart (ed.), pp. 298-299. University of Nebraska Press, 2004. ISBN 0-8032-4787-7 Malone, Bill C.; Judith McCulloh (eds.) Stars of Country Music: Uncle Dave Macon to Johnny Rodriguez. University of Illinois Press, 1975. ISBN 0-252-00527-9 Marble, Manning; John McMillian; Nishani Frazier (eds.). Freedom on My Mind: The Columbia Documentary History of the African American Experience. Columbia University Press, 2003. ISBN 0-231-10890-7 Price, Michael H. "Jazz Guitar and Western Swing". pp. 81-88 The Guitar in

Western swing
Jazz: An Anthology, James Sallis (ed.). University of Nebraska Press, 1996. ISBN 0-8032-4250-6 Saffle, Michael (2000), Perspectives on American Music, 1900-1950, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 0815321457 . Townsend, Charles. San Antonio Rose: The Life and Music of Bob wills. University of Illinois Press, 1986. ISBN 0-252-01362-X Wetlock, E. Clyde; Richard Drake Saunders (eds.). Music and dance in Texas, Oklahoma, and the Southwest. Hollywood, CA: Bureau of Musical Research, 1950. Wills, Bob. 1949 interview from Honky Tonks, Hymns and the Blues. Part 2: "Raising the Roof", first broadcast by NPR July-September 2003. Written by Kathie Farnell, Margaret Moos Pick, Steve Rathe. Wolff, Kurt; Orla Duane. Country Music: The Rough Guide. Rough Guides, 2000. ISBN 1-85828-534-8 Zolten, Jerry. Western Swingtime Music: A Cool Breeze in the American Desert. Sing Out! The Folk Song Magazine. Volume 23/ Number 2, 1974.

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External links
Associations
• Seattle Western Swing Music Society • Western Swing Music Society of the Southwest • Western Swing Society–Sacramento

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Periodicals
• Western Swing Journal • Western Swing Monthly

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Public Radio programs
• KANZ 91.1 FM, Garden City, KS—Western Swing and Other Things, Allen Bailey, Saturdays, 10:00 AM–1:00 PM Central Time (US). • KFSR 90.7 FM, Fresno, CA—Big Fresno Barn Dance, Don Fischer & Steve Barile, Sundays, 2:00–4:00 Pacific Time (US). • KWGS 89.5 FM, Tulsa, OK—Swing On This, John Wooley, Saturdays, 7:00–8:00 PM Central Time (US). • KZUM 89.3 FM, Lincoln, NE—The Heyride, John Schmitz, Fridays, 7:30–9:00 PM Central Time (US).

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• WVOF 88.5 FM, Fairfield, CT—Swingin’ West, Mike Gross, Fridays, 1:00–4:00 PM Eastern Time (US) (Seasonal–May thru November).

Western swing
• Sound documentation of Western Swing

Listen
• Swingin’ West radio-online Mike GrossFairfield University Student Radio 1-4pm EST Friday afternoons. • Swingin’ West Hour - Swingin’ West — Hosted by TwangTownUSA ; available 24 hours-requires RealPlayer (two minute commercial introduction). • The Western Hour—Western & Western Swing - Golden Graham — Hosted by TwangTownUSA ; requires RealPlayer (two minute commercial introduction).

General
Bob Wills and His Texas Playboys website Milton Brown bio at TSHA Spade Cooley article in LA Times Western Swing at Big Bands Database Plus • WesternSwing.com Links • Popular Culture Excavation Site • A Short History of Western Swing • • • •

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Western_swing" Categories: American styles of music, Country music genres, Crossover (music), Western swing, Culture of the American West This page was last modified on 19 May 2009, at 19:36 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers

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