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Stephen Harper

Stephen Harper
The Right Honourable

Political party Other political affiliations

Conservative
(2003–present)

Stephen Joseph Harper
PC, MP, MA

Young Liberals
(c. 1974 – early 1980s)

Progressive Conservative
(1985–1986)

Reform
(1987–1997)

Canadian Alliance
(2002–2003)

Spouse Children Residence

Laureen Harper Benjamin and Rachel 24 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario (Official) Calgary, Alberta (Private) University of Calgary Economist Evangelical (Christian and Missionary Alliance)

Alma mater Occupation Religion Signature

22nd Prime Minister of Canada Incumbent Assumed office February 6, 2006 Monarch Preceded by Elizabeth II Paul Martin

Website

Prime Minister of Canada

Member of the Canadian Parliament for Calgary Southwest Incumbent Assumed office June 28, 2002 Preceded by Preston Manning

Member of the Canadian Parliament for Calgary West In office 1993 – 1997 Preceded by Succeeded by Born Birth name Nationality James Hawkes Rob Anders April 30, 1959 (1959-04-30) Toronto, Ontario, Canada Stephen Joseph Harper Canadian

Stephen Joseph Harper, PC, MP (born April 30, 1959) is the 22nd and current Prime Minister of Canada, and leader of the Conservative Party. Harper became Prime Minister after his party won a minority government in the January 2006 federal election. He is the first Prime Minister from the newly reconstituted Conservative Party, following a merger of the Progressive Conservative and Canadian Alliance parties. Harper has been the Member of Parliament (MP) for the riding of Calgary Southwest in Alberta since 2002. Earlier, from 1993 to 1997, he was the MP for Calgary West. He was one of the founding members of the Reform Party, but ended his first stint as an MP to join, and shortly thereafter head, the National Citizens Coalition. In 2002, he succeeded Stockwell Day as leader of the Canadian Alliance (the successor to the Reform Party) and returned to Parliament as Leader of the Opposition. In 2003, he reached an

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agreement with Progressive Conservative leader Peter MacKay for the merger of their two parties to form the Conservative Party of Canada. He was elected as the party’s first non-interim leader in March 2004. Harper’s Conservative Party won a stronger minority in the October 2008 federal election, showing a small increase in the percentage of the popular vote despite fewer actual votes[1] than in 2006, and increased representation in the Canadian House of Commons with 143 of 308 seats.[2]

Stephen Harper

Early life
Harper was born in Toronto, the first of three sons of Margaret (née Johnston) and Joseph Harper, an accountant at Imperial Oil.[3] He attended Northlea Public School, while living at 332 Bessborough Avenue in Leaside. Later, while living at 57 Princess Anne Crescent, he attended John G. Althouse Middle School and Richview Collegiate Institute, both in Central Etobicoke. He graduated in 1978, at the top of his class with a 95.7% average, and was a member of Richview Collegiate’s team on Reach for the Top, a television quiz show for Canadian high school students.[4] Harper then enrolled at the University of Toronto but after two months he dropped out, then moved to Edmonton, Alberta, where he found work at Imperial Oil, in the mail room.[5] Later, he would advance to work on the company’s computer systems. He took up post-secondary studies again at the University of Calgary, where he completed a Bachelor’s degree in economics. He later returned there to earn a Master’s degree in economics, completed in 1993. Harper has kept strong links to the University of Calgary, and often guest-lectured there. He is the first prime minister since Lester B. Pearson not to have attended law school. Stephen Harper, pictured right, here with young Progressive Conservatives, in 1985 fiscal policy[6] and its inability to fully revoke the NEP until 1986. He left the PC Party that same year.[8] He was then recommended by the University of Calgary’s economist Bob Mansell to Preston Manning, the founder and leader of the Reform Party of Canada. Manning invited him to participate in the party, and Harper gave a speech at Reform’s 1987 founding convention in Winnipeg. He became the Reform Party’s Chief Policy Officer, and he played a major role in drafting the 1988 election platform. He is credited with creating Reform’s campaign slogan, "The West wants in!"[9] Harper ran for the Canadian House of Commons in the 1988 federal election, appearing on the ballot as Steve Harper in Calgary West. He lost by a wide margin to Hawkes, his former employer. The Reform Party did not win any seats in this election, although party candidate Deborah Grey was elected as the party’s first MP in a by-election shortly thereafter. Harper became Grey’s executive assistant, and was her chief adviser and speechwriter until 1993.[10] He remained prominent in the Reform Party’s national organization in his role as policy chief, encouraging the party to expand beyond its Western base and arguing that strictly regional parties were at risk of being taken over by radical elements.[11] He delivered a speech at the Reform Party’s 1991 national convention, in which he condemned extremist views.[12] Harper’s relationship with Manning became strained in 1992, due to conflicting

Political beginnings
Harper became involved in politics as a member of his high school’s Young Liberals Club.[6] He later changed his political allegiance because he disagreed with the National Energy Program (NEP) of Pierre Trudeau’s Liberal government.[7] He became chief aide to Progressive Conservative MP Jim Hawkes in 1985, but later became disillusioned with both the party and the government of Brian Mulroney, especially the administration’s

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strategies over the Charlottetown Accord. Harper opposed the Accord on principle for ideological reasons, while Manning was initially more open to compromise. Harper also criticized Manning’s decision to hire Rick Anderson as an adviser, believing that Anderson was not sufficiently committed to the Reform Party’s principles.[13] He resigned as policy chief in October 1992. Harper stood for office again in the 1993 federal election, and defeated Jim Hawkes amid a significant Reform breakthrough in Western Canada. His campaign likely benefited from a $50,000 print and television campaign organized by the National Citizens Coalition against Hawkes, although the NCC did not endorse Harper directly.[14]

Stephen Harper
delegates who voted against restricting the definition of marriage to "the union of one man and one woman".[21] He actually opposed both same-sex marriage and mandated benefits for same-sex couples, but argued that political parties should refrain from taking official positions on these and other "issues of conscience".[22] Harper was the only Reform MP to vote for a bill establishing the Canadian Firearms Registry at second reading stage in 1995, although he voted against it at third reading. He made his initial decision after concluding that a majority of his constituents supported the measure, but changed his mind after deciding there was substantial opposition.[23] It was reported in April 1995 that some Progressive Conservatives opposed to Jean Charest’s leadership wanted to remove both Charest and Manning, and unite the Reform and Progressive Conservative parties under Harper’s leadership.[24] Despite his prominent position in the party, Harper’s relationship with the Reform Party leadership was frequently strained. In early 1994, he criticized a party decision to establish a personal expense account for Preston Manning at a time when other Reform MPs had been asked to forego parliamentary perquisites.[25] His criticism proved divisive in the party, and he was formally rebuked by the Reform executive council despite winning support from some MPs. His relationship with Manning grew increasingly fractious in the mid-1990s, and he pointedly declined to express any opinion on Manning’s leadership during a 1996 interview.[26] This friction was indicative of a fundamental divide between the two men: Harper was strongly committed to conservative principles and opposed Manning’s inclinations toward populism, which he saw as leading to compromise on core ideological matters.[27] These tensions culminated in late 1996 when Harper announced that he would not be a candidate in the next federal election. He resigned his parliamentary seat on January 14, 1997, the same day that he was appointed as a vice-president of the National Citizens Coalition (NCC), a conservative think-tank and advocacy group.[28] He was promoted to NCC president later in the year. In April 1997, Harper suggested that the Reform Party was drifting toward social conservatism and ignoring the principles of economic conservatism.[29] The Liberal Party

Reform MP
Harper emerged a prominent member of the Reform Party of Canada caucus, and earned respect even from political opponents for his intellect and ideological commitment. Author Mordecai Richler once described him as the "one MP of substance" in the party.[15] Harper was active on constitutional issues during his first term in parliament, and played a prominent role in drafting the Reform Party’s strategy for the 1995 Quebec referendum. A long-standing opponent of centralized federalism, he stood with Preston Manning in Montreal to introduce a twentypoint plan to "decentralize and modernize" Canada in the event of a "no" victory.[16] Harper later argued that the "no" side’s narrow plurality was a worst-case scenario, in that no-one had won a mandate for change.[17] Although not associated with the Reform Party’s radical wing, Harper expressed socially conservative views on some issues.[18] In 1994, he opposed plans by federal Justice Minister Allan Rock to introduce spousal benefits for same-sex couples. Citing the recent failure of a similar initiative in Ontario, he was quoted as saying, "What I hope they learn is not to get into it. There are more important social and economic issues, not to mention the unity question."[19] Harper also spoke against the possibility of the Canadian Human Rights Commission or the Supreme Court changing federal policy in these and other matters.[20] At the Reform Party’s 1994 policy convention, Harper was part of a small minority of

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lost seats but managed to retain a narrow majority government in the 1997 federal election, while Reform made only modest gains.

Stephen Harper
In 1997, Harper delivered a controversial speech on Canadian identity to the Council for National Policy, a conservative American think tank. He made comments such as "Canada is a Northern European welfare state in the worst sense of the term, and very proud of it", "if you’re like all Americans, you know almost nothing except for your own country. Which makes you probably knowledgeable about one more country than most Canadians", and "the NDP [New Democratic Party] is kind of proof that the Devil lives and interferes in the affairs of men."[37] These statements were publicized and criticized during the 2006 election. Harper argued that the speech was intended as humour, and not as serious analysis.[38] Harper considered campaigning for the Progressive Conservative Party leadership in 1998, after Jean Charest left federal politics. Among those encouraging his candidacy were senior aides to Ontario Premier Mike Harris, including Tony Clement and Tom Long.[39] He eventually decided against running, arguing that it would "burn bridges to those Reformers with whom I worked for many years" and prevent an alliance of rightwing parties from taking shape.[40] Harper was skeptical about the Reform Party’s United Alternative initiative in 1999, arguing that it would serve to consolidate Manning’s hold on the party leadership.[41] He also expressed concern that the UA would dilute Reform’s ideological focus.[42]

Out of Parliament
1997–2000
Soon after leaving parliament, Harper and Tom Flanagan co-authored an opinion piece entitled "Our Benign Dictatorship", which argued that the Liberal Party only retained power through a dysfunctional political system and a divided opposition. Harper and Flanagan argued that national conservative governments between 1917 and 1993 were founded on temporary alliances between Western populists and Quebec nationalists, and were unable to govern because of their fundamental contradictions. The authors called for an alliance of Canada’s conservative parties, and suggested that meaningful political change might require electoral reforms such as proportional representation. "Our Benign Dictatorship" also commended Conrad Black’s purchase of the Southam newspaper chain, arguing that his stewardship would provide for a "pluralistic" editorial view to counter the "monolithically liberal and feminist" approach of the previous management.[30] Harper remained active in constitutional issues. He was a prominent opponent of the Calgary Declaration on national unity in late 1997, describing it as an "appeasement strategy" against Quebec nationalism. He called for federalist politicians to reject this strategy, and approach future constitutional talks from the position that "Quebec separatists are the problem and they need to be fixed".[31] In late 1999, Harper called for the federal government to establish clear rules for any future Quebec referendum on sovereignty.[32] Some have identified Harper’s views as an influence on the Chrétien government’s Clarity Act.[33] As National Citizens Coalition (NCC) leader, Harper launched an ultimately unsuccessful legal battle against federal election laws restricting third-party advertising.[34] He also led the NCC in several campaigns against the Canadian Wheat Board,[35] and supported Finance Minister Paul Martin’s 2000 tax cuts as a positive first step toward tax reform.[36]

2000–2001
When the United Alternative created the Canadian Alliance in 2000 as a successor party to Reform, Harper predicted that Stockwell Day would defeat Preston Manning for the new party’s leadership. He expressed reservations about Day’s abilities, however, and accused Day of "[making] adherence to his social views a litmus test to determine whether you’re in the party or not".[43] Harper endorsed Tom Long for the leadership, arguing that Long was best suited to take support from the Progressive Conservative Party.[44] When Day placed first on the first ballot, Harper said that the Canadian Alliance was shifting "more towards being a party of the religious right".[45] After Pierre Trudeau’s death in 2000, Harper wrote an editorial criticizing Trudeau’s policies as they affected Western

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Canada. He wrote that Trudeau "embraced the fashionable causes of his time, with variable enthusiasm and differing results", but "took a pass" on the issues that "truly defined his century".[46] Harper subsequently accused Trudeau of promoting "unabashed socialism", and argued that Canadian governments between 1972 and 2002 had restricted economic growth through "state corporatism".[47] After the Canadian Alliance’s poor showing in the 2000 election, Harper joined with other Western conservatives in co-authoring a document called the "Alberta Agenda". The letter called on Alberta to reform publiclyfunded health care, replace the Canada Pension Plan with a provincial plan and replace the Royal Canadian Mounted Police with a provincial police force. It became known as the "firewall letter", because it called on the provincial government to "build firewalls around Alberta" in order to stop the federal government from redistributing its wealth to less affluent regions.[48] Alberta Premier Ralph Klein agreed with some of the letter’s recommendations, but distanced himself from the "firewall" comments.[49] Harper also wrote an editorial in late 2000 arguing that Alberta and the rest of Canada were "embark[ing] on divergent and potentially hostile paths to defining their country". He said that Alberta had chosen the "best of Canada’s heritage -- a combination of American enterprise and individualism with the British traditions of order and co-operation" while Canada "appears content to become a second-tier socialistic country [...] led by a second-world strongman appropriately suited for the task". He also called for a "stronger and much more autonomous Alberta", while rejecting calls for separatism.[50] In the 2001 Alberta provincial election, Harper led the NCC in a "Vote Anything but Liberal" campaign.[51] Some articles from this period described him as a possible successor to Klein.[52] Harper and the NCC endorsed a private school tax credit proposed by Ontario’s Progressive Conservative government in 2001, arguing that it would "save about $7,000 for each student who does not attend a unionrun public school". Education Minister Janet Ecker criticized this, saying that her government’s intent was not to save money at the expense of public education.[53]

Stephen Harper
Day’s leadership of the Canadian Alliance became increasingly troubled throughout the summer of 2001, as several party MPs called for his resignation. In June, the National Post newspaper reported that former Reform MP Ian McClelland was organizing a possible leadership challenge on Harper’s behalf.[54] Harper announced his resignation from the NCC presidency in August 2001, to prepare a campaign.[55]

Canadian Alliance leadership
Stockwell Day called a new Canadian Alliance leadership race for 2002, and soon declared himself a candidate. Harper emerged as Day’s main rival, and declared his own candidacy on December 3, 2001. He eventually won the support of at least 28 Alliance MPs,[56] including Scott Reid, James Rajotte[57] and Keith Martin.[58] During the campaign, Harper reprised his earlier warnings against an alliance with Quebec nationalists, and called for his party to become the federalist option in Quebec.[59] He argued that "the French language is not imperilled in Quebec", and opposed "special status" for the province in the Canadian Constitution accordingly.[60] He also endorsed greater provincial autonomy on Medicare, and said that he would not co-operate with the Progressive Conservatives as long as they were led by Joe Clark.[61] On social issues, Harper argued for "parental rights" to use corporal punishment against their children and supported raising the age of sexual consent.[62] He described his potential support base as "similar to what George Bush tapped".[63] The tone of the leadership contest turned hostile in February 2002. Harper described Day’s governance of the party as [64] while his campaign team "amateurish", argued that Day was attempting to win reelection by building a narrow support base among different groups in the religious right.[65] The Day campaign accused Harper of "attacking ethnic and religious minorities".[66] In early March, the two candidates had an especially fractious debate on CBC Newsworld.[67] The leadership vote was held on March 20, 2002. Harper was elected on the first ballot with 55 percent support, against 37 percent for Day. Two other candidates split the remainder.

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After winning the party leadership, Harper announced his intention to run for parliament in a by-election in Calgary Southwest, recently vacated by Preston Manning. Ezra Levant had already been chosen as the riding’s Alliance candidate and initially declared that he would not stand aside for Harper; he subsequently reconsidered.[68] The Liberals did not field a candidate, following a parliamentary tradition of allowing opposition leaders to enter the House of Commons unopposed. The Progressive Conservative candidate, Jim Prentice, also chose to withdraw.[69] Harper was elected without difficulty over New Democrat Bill Phipps, a former United Church moderator. Harper told a reporter during the campaign that he "despise[d]" Phipps, and declined to debate him.[70] Harper officially became Leader of the Opposition in May 2002. Later in the same month, he said that the Atlantic Provinces were trapped in "a culture of defeat" which had to be overcome, the result of policies designed by Liberal and Progressive Conservative governments. Many Atlantic politicians condemned the remark as patronizing and insensitive. The Legislature of Nova Scotia unanimously approved a motion condemning Harper’s comments,[71] which were also criticized by New Brunswick Premier Bernard Lord, federal Progressive Conservative leader Joe Clark and others. Harper refused to apologize, and said that much of Canada was trapped by the same "can’t-do" attitude.[72] His first 18 months as opposition leader were largely devoted towards consolidating the fractured elements of the Canadian Alliance and encouraging a union of the Canadian Alliance and the federal Progressive Conservatives. The aim of this union was to present only one right-of-center national party in the next federal election. In undertaking the merger talks, PC leader Peter MacKay reversed his previous agreement with leadership opponent David Orchard not to merge with the Alliance. After reaching an agreement with MacKay in October 2003, the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada officially merged in December, with the new party being named the "Conservative Party of Canada".[73] Harper is reported to have attended the 2003 meeting of the Bilderberg Group.[74] In March 2003 Harper and Stockwell Day co-wrote a letter to The Wall Street Journal in which they condemned the Canadian

Stephen Harper
government’s unwillingness to participate in the 2003 invasion of Iraq.[75]

Conservative Party of Canada leadership
On January 12, 2004, Harper announced his resignation as Leader of the Opposition, in order to run for the leadership of the Conservative Party of Canada. Harper won the Conservative leadership election easily, with a first ballot majority against Belinda Stronach and Tony Clement on March 20, 2004. Harper’s victory included strong showings in Ontario, Quebec, and Atlantic Canada. See also: Stephen Harper Leadership Team

2004 federal election
Harper led the Conservatives into the 2004 federal election. Initially, new Prime Minister Paul Martin held a large lead in polls, but this eroded due to infighting, Adscam and other scandals surrounding his government. The Liberals attempted to counter this with an early election call, as this would give the Conservatives less time to consolidate their merger. Martin’s weak performance in the leader’s debate, along with an unpopular provincial budget by Liberal Premier Dalton McGuinty in Ontario, moved the Conservatives into a lead for a time. However, comments by Conservative MPs, leaked press releases slandering the then Prime Minister, as well as controversial TV attack ads suggesting that the Conservatives would make Canada more like the United States, caused Harper’s party to lose some momentum. Harper made an effort to appeal to voters in Quebec, a province where the Reform/Alliance side of the merged party hadn’t done well. He was featured in several of the Tories’ French-language campaign ads. The Liberals were re-elected to power with a minority government, with the Conservatives coming in second place. The Conservatives managed to make inroads into the Liberals’ Ontario stronghold, primarily in the province’s socially conservative central region. However, they were shut out of Quebec, marking the first time that a centre-right party did not win any seats in that province. Harper, after some personal deliberation, decided to stay on as the party leader. Many credited him with bringing the Progressive

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Conservative Party and Canadian Alliance together in a short time to fight a close election.

Stephen Harper
vote on the NDP amendment to the budget tied, and with the Speaker of the House voting to continue debate, the Liberals stayed in power. At the time, some considered the matter to be a constitutional crisis.[76][77] Harper was also criticized for supporting his caucus colleague MP Gurmant Grewal.[78] Grewal had produced tapes of conversations with Tim Murphy, Paul Martin’s chief of staff, in which Grewal claimed he had been offered a cabinet position in exchange for his defection. Some experts analyzed the tapes and concluded that a digital copy of the tapes had been edited.

Harper as Conservative leader and Leader of the Opposition
The Conservative Party’s first policy convention was held from March 17–19, 2005, in Montreal. Harper had been rumoured to be shifting his ideology closer to that of a Blue Tory, and many thought he’d wanted to move the party’s policies closer to the centre. Any opposition to abortion or bilingualism was dropped from the Conservative platform. Harper received an 84% endorsement from delegates in the leadership review. Despite the party’s move to the centre, the party began a concerted drive against samesex marriage. Harper was criticized by a group of law professors for arguing that the government could override the provincial court rulings on same-sex marriage without using the "notwithstanding clause", a provision of Canada’s Charter of Rights and Freedoms. It also argued, in general, for lower taxes, an elected Senate, a tougher stance on crime, and closer relations with the United States. Following the April 2005 release of Jean Brault’s damaging testimony at the Gomery Inquiry, implicating the Liberals in the scandal, opinion polls placed the Conservatives ahead of Liberals. The Conservatives had earlier abstained from the vote on the 2005 budget to avoid forcing an election. With the collapse in Liberal support and a controversial NDP amendment to the budget, the party exerted significant pressure on Harper to bring down the government. In May, Harper announced that the government had lost the "moral authority to govern". Shortly thereafter, the Conservatives and Bloc Québécois united to defeat the government on a vote that some considered to be either a confidence motion or else a motion requiring an immediate test of the confidence of the House. The Martin government did not accept this interpretation and argued that vote had been on a procedural motion, although they also indicated that they would bring forward their revised budget for a confidence vote the following week. Ultimately, the effort to bring down the Government failed following the decision of Conservative MP Belinda Stronach to cross the floor to the Liberal Party. The

Stephen Harper gives a victory speech to party faithful in Calgary after his Conservatives won the 2006 federal election. The Liberals’ support dropped after the first report from the Gomery Inquiry was issued. On November 24, 2005, Harper introduced a motion of no confidence on the Liberal government, telling the House of Commons "that this government has lost the confidence of the House of Commons and needs to be removed." As the Liberals had lost NDP support in the house by refusing to accept an NDP plan to prevent health care privatization, the no confidence motion was passed by a vote of 171–133. It was the first time that a Canadian government had been toppled by a straight motion of no confidence proposed by the opposition. As a result, Parliament was dissolved and a general election was scheduled for January 23, 2006. On February 27, 2008 allegations surfaced that two Conservative Party officials offered

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terminally ill, Independent MP Chuck Cadman a million-dollar life insurance policy in exchange for his vote to bring down the Liberal government in a May 2005 budget vote.[79] If the story would have proven true, the actions may have been grounds for charges as a criminal offence since, under the Criminal Code of Canada, it is illegal to bribe an MP.[80] When asked by Vancouver journalist Tom Zytaruk about the alleged life insurance offer then-opposition leader Stephen Harper states on an audio tape "I don’t know the details. I know there were discussions"[81] and goes on to say "The offer to Chuck was that it was only to replace financial considerations he might lose due to an election".[81] Mr Harper also states that he had told the Conservative party representatives that they were unlikely to succeed. "I told them they were wasting their time. I said Chuck had made up his mind".[81][82] In February 2008 the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) investigated the allegations that Section 119’s provisions on bribery and corruption in the Criminal Code had been violated.[83][84] The RCMP have concluded their investigation stating that there is no evidence for pressing charges.[85] Prime Minister Harper has denied any wrongdoing and subsequently filed a civil libel suit against the Liberal Party of Canada. While such actions could not be initiated for statements made in the House of Commons, where libel laws do not apply, statements made by Liberal party members outside the House and in articles which appeared on the Liberal party web site made accusations that Mr Harper had committed a criminal act. It is for these statements the Prime Minister filed suit.[82][86] The audio expert hired by Harper to prove that the tape containing the evidence was doctored reported that the latter part of the tape was recorded over, but the tape was unaltered where Harper’s voice said "I don’t know the details, I know that, um, there were discussions, um, but this is not for publication?" and goes on to say he "didn’t know the details" when asked if he knew anything about the alleged offer to Cadman.[87]

Stephen Harper
the Liberal plan of holding off major announcements until after the Christmas holidays, so Harper dominated media coverage for the first weeks of the election. Though his party showed only modest movement in the polls, Harper’s personal numbers, which had always significantly trailed those of his party, began to rise. In response, the Liberals launched negative ads targeting Harper, similar to their attacks in the 2004 election. However, their tactics were not sufficient to erode the Conservative’s advantage, although they did manage to close what had been a ten point advantage in public opinion. As Harper’s personal numbers rose, polls found he was now considered not only more trustworthy, but a better choice for Prime Minister than Martin.[88] Immediately prior to the Christmas break, in a faxed letter to NDP candidate Judy Wasylycia-Leis, the Commissioner of the RCMP, Giuliano Zaccardelli announced the RCMP had opened a criminal investigation into her complaint that it appeared Liberal Finance Minister Ralph Goodale’s office had leaked information leading to insider trading before making an important announcement on the taxation of income trusts. On December 27, 2005, the RCMP confirmed that information in a press release. At the conclusion of the investigation, Serge Nadeau, a top Finance Department bureaucrat, was charged with criminal breach of trust. No charges were laid against then Finance Minister Ralph Goodale.[89] The election gave Harper’s Conservatives the largest number of seats in the House, although not enough for a majority government, and shortly after midnight on January 24, Martin conceded defeat. Later that day, Martin informed Governor General Michaëlle Jean that he would resign as Prime Minister, and at 6:45 p.m. Jean asked Harper to form a government. Harper was sworn in as Canada’s 22nd Prime Minister on February 6, 2006.

Prime Minister of Canada
Domestic
Unlike his recent predecessors, Harper did not name one of his colleagues to the largely

2006 federal election
The Conservatives began the campaign period with a policy-per-day strategy, contrary to

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Stephen Harper
a priority.[90] On December 11, 2008, the Toronto Star reported that Harper "plans to fill every empty Senate seat [(18 seats)] by the end of the year to kill any chance of a Liberal-NDP coalition government filling the vacancies next year..."[93][94] On Dec 22, 2008, the Globe and Mail reported that "Prime Minister Stephen Harper confirmed Monday (Dec 22, 2008) that he is filling all 18 current [Senate] vacancies." [95] After sidestepping the political landmine for most of the first year of his time as prime minister, much as all the post-Charlottetown Accord prime ministers had done, Harper’s hand was forced to reopen the Quebec sovereignty debate after the opposition Bloc Québécois were to introduce a motion in the House that called for recognition of Quebec as a "nation." On November 22, 2006, Harper introduced his own motion to recognize that "the Québécois form a nation within a united Canada."[96] Five days later, Harper’s motion passed, with a margin of 266-16; all federalist parties, as well as the Bloc Québécois, were formally behind it.[97] Harper has insisted on his right to choose who asks questions at press conferences,[98] which has caused the national media to lodge complaints.[99] Some have alleged that the Prime Minister’s Office also "often informs the media about Harper’s trips at such short notice that it’s impossible for Ottawa journalists to attend the events".[100] Harper’s director of communications has denied this, saying that "this prime minister has been more accessible, gives greater media scrums and provides deeper content than any prime minister has in the last 10 to 12 years". Some suggest that the Conservatives’ then recent electoral success could be credited to their control of the campaign message, a practice that they continued when they became the government.[101]

Stephen Harper (left) seated with Mirza Masroor Ahmad (right) at the grand opening of the largest mosque in Canada, Baitunnur, in Calgary, on July 5, 2008 honorific post of Deputy Prime Minister. Various observers had expected him to name MacKay, the former leader of the Progressive Conservative Party and his deputy party leader, or Lawrence Cannon, as a Quebec lieutenant, to the post. Harper did, however, name an order of succession to act on his behalf in certain circumstances, starting with Cannon, then Jim Prentice, then the balance of his cabinet in order of precedence. Harper has indicated a desire to turn the Canadian Senate into an elected rather than an appointed body, often referred to as a Triple-E Senate, an objective previously proposed by the former Reform Party of Canada. On September 7, 2006, Harper became the first Canadian Prime Minister to appear before a Senate committee as he presented his government’s case for Senate reform. In his first term in office Harper made only one appointment to the Senate. This resulted in 16 senate vacancies by the time he won his first re-election in October 2008.[90] The one exception to this policy was Michael Fortier. When Mr Harper first took office he appointed Michael Fortier to both the Senate and the Cabinet, arguing the government needed representation from the city of Montreal.[91] Although there is a precedent for this action in the Westminster system, the appointment led to criticism from opponents who claimed Harper was reneging on his push for an elected senate. In 2008 Mr Fortier gave up his senate seat and sought election as a Member of Parliament but was defeated by a large margin by the incumbent Bloc Quebecois MP.[92] Upon re-election in 2008, Harper named Senate reform again as

Foreign
Afghanistan
On March 11 and March 12, 2006, Harper made a surprise trip to Afghanistan, where Canadian Forces personnel have been deployed as part of the NATO-led International Security Assistance Force since late 2001, to visit troops in theatre as a show of support for their efforts, and as a demonstration of the government’s commitment to reconstruction and stability in the region. Harper’s

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choice of a first foreign visit was closely guarded from the press until his arrival in Afghanistan (citing security concerns), and is seen as marking a significant change in relationship between the government and the military. While other foreign leaders have visited Afghanistan, Harper’s trip was touted as unprecedented in its length and scope. Harper returned to Afghanistan on May 22, 2007, in a surprise two-day visit which included visiting Canadian troops at the forward operating base at Ma’Sum Ghar, located 25 kilometres (16 mi) south of Kandahar, making Harper the first Prime Minister to have visited the front lines of a combat operation.[102]

Stephen Harper

Award from the the Conference of Presidents of Major American Jewish Organizations
In December 2008, the Conference of Presidents of Major American Jewish Organizations presented Stephen Harper, and his government as a whole, with its inaugural International Leadership Award for his support for Israel. Malcolm Hoenlein, the executive vicechairman of the conference, stated that the award was given to express the group’s appreciation for Canada’s "courageous stands" to boycott the Durban II anti-racism conference. He also praised Canada’s "support for Israel and [its] efforts at the U.N. against incitement and ... the delegitimization [of Israel], where they have taken a role in the forefront."[105]

Israel/Palestine
At the outset of the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict, Harper defended Israel’s "right to defend itself" and described its military campaign in Lebanon as a "measured" response, arguing that Hezbollah’s release of kidnapped IDF soldiers would be the key to ending the conflict.[103] Some Canadians, including many Arab-Canadians, criticized Harper’s description of the Israeli response as "measured". On July 17, 2006, Harper noted that the situation had deteriorated since his initial comments, but that it was difficult for Israel to fight "non-governmental forces" embedded in the civilian population. Harper reiterated his earlier support for Israel and called on both sides to show restraint and minimize civilian casualties. See also: International reactions to the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict Speaking of the situation in both Lebanon and Gaza on July 18, Harper told reporters "We all want to encourage not just a ceasefire, but a resolution. And a resolution will only be achieved when everyone gets to the table and everyone admits... recognition of each other," referring to the refusal of Hezbollah and Hamas to recognize Israel’s right to exist. Harper laid the blame for the civilian deaths on both sides at the feet of Hezbollah. "Hezbollah’s objective is violence," Harper asserted, "Hezbollah believes that through violence it can create, it can bring about the destruction of Israel. Violence will not bring about the destruction of Israel... and inevitably the result of the violence will be the deaths primarily of innocent people."[104]

Statements on the 2008 Mumbai attacks
In March 2009, Harper spoke at a Parliament Hill ceremony organized by ChabadLubavitch to honor the Jewish victims of the 2008 Mumbai attacks, which included an attack on the Nariman House. He expressed condolences over the murder at Chabad’s Mumbai center of Rabbi Gavriel Holtzberg and his wife Rivka. Harper described the killings as "affronts to the values that unite all civilized people." Harper added that the quick installment of a new rabbi at the Chabad center in Mumbai as a signal that the Jewish people will "never bow to violence and hatred."[106]

Antisemitism
At the same ceremony, Harper condemned Antisemitism, stating that: "... (Antisemitism) is a pernicious evil that must be exposed, that must be confronted, that must be repudiated, whenever and wherever it appears. Fueled by lies and paranoia we have learned from history it is an evil so profound, indeed as we saw in Mumbai, that it is ultimately a threat to us all... Under our government, Canada will remain an unyielding defender of Jewish religious freedom, a forceful opponent of antiSemitism in all of its forms and a staunch supporter of a secure and democratic state of Israel."[106]

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Stephen Harper
American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) were more political rhetoric than actual policy. The accuracy of these reports has been debated by both the Obama campaign and the Canadian Government. The news came at a key time nearing the Ohio and Texas primaries where, perceptions among Democratic voters is that the benefits of the NAFTA agreement are dubious. Thus the appearance that Obama was not being completely forthright was attacked by his opponent Hillary Clinton.[110] ABC News reported that Harper’s Chief of Staff, Ian Brodie was responsible for the details reaching the hands of the media.[111] Harper has denied that Brodie was responsible for the leak, and launched an investigation to find the source. The Opposition, as well as Democratic strategist Bob Shrum,[112] criticized the Government on the issue, stating they were trying to help the Republicans by helping Hillary Clinton win the Democratic nomination instead of Obama. They also alleged the leak would hurt relations with the United States if Obama ever were to become President.[113] Obama was elected President in November. In February, Obama made his first foreign visit, as president, to Ottawa, in which he affirmed support for free trade with Canada, as well as complimenting Canada on its involvement in Afghanistan.[114]

Free Trade with EFTA
On June 7, 2007, the Conservative government announced it had finalized free trade negotiations with the European Free Trade Association (EFTA). Under this agreement, Canada seeks to increase its trade ties with Iceland, Norway, Switzerland and Liechtenstein. In 2006, the value of trade between these partners was $10.7 billion. Canada had originally begun negotiations with the EFTA on October 9, 1998, but talks broke down due to a disagreement over subsidies to shipyards in Atlantic Canada.[107]

Australia
On September 11, 2007, Harper became the first Canadian Prime Minister to address the Parliament of Australia.[108]

Relations with leaders of the United States

2008 federal election
Former U.S. President George W. Bush, former Mexican President Vicente Fox and Stephen Harper, right, at the Chichen-Itza archaeological ruins in 2006 Shortly after being congratulated by George W. Bush for his victory, Harper rebuked U.S. Ambassador David Wilkins for criticizing the Conservatives’ plans to assert Canada’s sovereignty over the Arctic Ocean waters with armed forces.[109] Harper’s first meeting as Prime Minister with the U.S. President occurred at the end of March 2006. The Harper Government received American news coverage during the Democratic Party’s 2008 presidential primaries after the details of a conversation between Barack Obama’s economic advisor Austan Goolsbee, and Canadian diplomat Georges Rioux were revealed. Reportedly Goolsbee was reassuring the Canadians that Obama’s comments on potentially renegotiating the North On October 14, 2008, after a 5 week long campaign, Stephen Harper won a new mandate as Prime Minister of Canada and increased the number of Conservative members of Parliament to 143 MPs up from 127 MPs at the dissolution of the previous Canadian parliament. Meanwhile, the number of opposition Liberal MPs fell from 95 to 77 seats. It takes 155 MPs to form a majority government in Canada’s 308 seat Parliament.

Parliamentary dispute and prorogation
On December 4, 2008, Harper asked Governor General Michaëlle Jean to prorogue Parliament in order to avoid a vote of confidence scheduled for the following Monday, becoming the first Canadian PM ever to do so.[115][116] The request was granted by Jean, and the prorogation lasted until January 26, 2009.

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Stephen Harper
rotation of Atlantic Canadian Supreme Court representation.[120]

Honours
Harper received the Woodrow Wilson Award on October 6, 2006 for his public service in Calgary. It was held at the Telus Convention Centre in Calgary, the same place where he made his victory speech.[121] Time magazine named him as Canada’s Newsmaker of the Year in 2006. Stephen Handelman wrote "that the prime minister who was once dismissed as a doctrinaire backroom tactician with no experience in government has emerged as a warrior in power."[122] On June 27, 2008, Harper was awarded the Presidential Gold Medallion for Humanitarianism by B’nai B’rith International. He is the first Canadian to be awarded this medal.[123]

United States President Barack Obama meets with Stephen Harper in Ottawa.

Supreme Court appointments
Harper chose the following jurists to be appointed as justices of the Supreme Court of Canada by the Governor General: • Marshall Rothstein (March 1, 2006 – present) In keeping with Harper’s election promise to change the appointment process, Rothstein’s appointment involved a review by a parliamentary committee, following his nomination by the Prime Minister. Rothstein had already been short-listed, with two other candidates, by a committee convened by Paul Martin’s previous Liberal government, and he was Harper’s choice. Harper then had Rothstein appear before an ’ad hoc’, non-partisan committee of 12 Members of Parliament. This committee was not empowered to block the appointment, though, as had been called for by some members of Harper’s Conservative Party.[117] On September 5, 2008 Harper nominated Justice Thomas Cromwell of Nova Scotia to fill the Supreme Court seat left vacant by the departure of Justice Michel Bastarache. By and large Cromwell’s nomination has been well received, with many lauding the selection,[118][119] however dissent has been noted surrounding the nomination. First, Harper bypassed Parliament’s Supreme Court selection panel which was supposed to produce a list of three candidates for him to chose from.[118] Second, Newfoundland Justice Minister Jerome Kennedy criticized the appointment, citing the Newfoundland government’s belief that constitutional convention stipulates that a Newfoundlander should have been named to the Court in the

Personal life
Harper married Laureen Teskey in 1993. They have two children: Benjamin, born in 1996, and Rachel, born in 1999. He is the third Prime Minister, after Pierre Trudeau and John Turner, to send his children to Rockcliffe Park Public School, in Ottawa. Harper is the first Protestant elected Canadian Prime Minister since Lester B. Pearson, and the first evangelical since John Diefenbaker.[124] He is a member of the evangelical Christian and Missionary Alliance and attends church at the East Gate Alliance Church in Ottawa.[125] Harper is an avid fan of ice hockey and has been a fan of the Toronto Maple Leafs since his days as a child growing up in Leaside and then Etobicoke communities in the City of Toronto. Mr Harper is working on a book of the history of hockey and writes articles occasionally on the subject.[126] Harper has ventured into the arena of sports broadcasting. During the TSN broadcast of the Canada–Russia final of the World Junior Hockey Championships, Stephen Harper appeared in an interview and expressed several views on the state of hockey today. Among his comments was his preference for an overtime period in lieu of a shootout.[127][128] Harper taped a cameo appearance in an episode of the television show Corner Gas

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
which was aired in spring 2007.[129] Harper reportedly owns a large vinyl record collection and is an avid fan of The Beatles and AC/ DC.[130] Harper stands 1.88 metres (6’2") tall.[131] Green New Democratic Party Marijuana Christian Heritage Total valid votes Expenditures Total rejected ballots Turnout 9.28 8.95 7.74 0.50 0.48 Electors on the lists Darcy Kraus

Stephen Harper
3,210 2,884 516 229 6.22 5.59 1.00 0.44

$534.9

Daria Fox Mark de Pelham Larry R. Heather

$3,648 $0.00

Electoral record
2008 federal election : Calgary Southwest Party Candidate Votes 38,548 % 72.7 Conservative (x)Stephen Harper Liberal Green New Democratic Party Libertarian Christian Heritage Total valid votes Total rejected ballots Turnout

$985.5

51,637 100.00 149 51,786 64.49 80,296

Marlene 4,918 Lamontagne Kelly Christie Holly Heffernan Dennis Young Larry R. Heather 4,732 4,102 265 256

Canadian federal by-election, May 13, 2002 : Calga Southwest Party Canadian Alliance New Democratic Party Green Candidate Votes Stephen Harper Bill Phipps James S. Kohut 13,200 3,813 660 428 320 % 71.66 20.70 3.58 2.32 1.74

Expend

$58,959

$34,789

52,832 100.00 164 52,996

$2,750.

Independent Gordon Barrett Christian Heritage Total valid votes Expenditures Total rejected ballots Turnout 11.41 8.06 7.68 0.49 Electors on the lists Ron Gray

$3,329.

$27,772

2006 federal election : Calgary Southwest Party Candidate Votes % 72.36 Conservative (x)Stephen 41,549 Harper Liberal New Democratic Party Green Christian Heritage Total valid votes Total rejected ballots Turnout Mike Swanson Holly Heffernan Kim Warnke Larry R. Heather 6,553 4,628 4,407 279

18,421 100.00 98 18,519 23.05 80,360

1993 federal election : Calgary West Party Reform Liberal Candidate Votes Stephen Harper Karen Gainer 30,209 15,314 9,090 1,194 1,068 483 347 % 52.25 26.49 15.72 2.06 1.85 0.84 0.60

57,416 100.00 120 57,536

Progressive James Conservative Hawkes New Democratic Party Rudy Rogers Kathleen McNeil Frank Haika Don Francis

2004 federal election : Calgary Southwest Party Candidate Votes % 68.36 18.40 Conservative (x)Stephen 35,297 Harper Liberal Avalon Roberts 9,501

National Expenditures Natural $62,952.76 Law Green $43,846.23

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Christian Heritage Larry R. Heather 116 0.20

Stephen Harper

[6] ^ "Stephen Harper". Stephen Harper. Canadiancontent.net. http://www.canadiancontent.net/people/ Total valid votes 57,821 100.00 politics/Stephen-Harper.html. Retrieved Total rejected ballots 133 on 2009-02-15. Turnout 57,954 66.29 [7] "Stephen Harper: Fearless, powerful and cynical". Mondostars.com. Electors on the lists 87,421 http://www.mondostars.com/politics/ stephenharper.html. Retrieved on 1988 federal election : Calgary West 2009-02-15. Party Candidate Votes % [8] "Stephen Harper". canadapest.com. 2006. http://canadapest.com/page3/ Progressive (x)James 32,025 58.52 page8/page8.html. Retrieved on Conservative Hawkes 2009-02-15. Reform 9,074 16.58 Steve [9] Murphy, Rex (2007-03-22). "Rex Murphy: Harper Stephen Harper’s new priority". cbc.ca. Liberal John 6,880 12.57 http://www.cbc.ca/national/rex/2007/03/ Phillips stephen_harpers_new_priority.html. Retrieved on 2009-02-15. New DemoRichard D. 6,355 11.61 [10] Geoff White, "Ottawa will be hearing cratic Party Vanderberg from Reform MP", Calgary Herald, April Libertarian David 225 0.41 21, 1989, A5. Faren [11] Paul Gessell, "The "other’ parties are Confederation Brent 170 0.31 picking up big followings", Kitchenerof Regions Morin Waterloo Record, October 26, 1990, A9. Total valid votes 54,729 100.00 George Oake, "Reform Party tries to [12] avoid appearance of extremism", Toronto Total rejected ballots 117 Star, April 6, 1991, A12. Turnout 54,846 78.75 [13] William Johnson, Stephen Harper and Electors on the lists 69,650 the Future of Canada, (Toronto: All electoral information is taken from ElecMcClelland and Stewart, 2005), pp. tions Canada. Italicized expenditures refer to 179-183. submitted totals, and are presented when the [14] Kenneth Whyte, "The right-wingers duke final reviewed totals are not available. it out in the Calgary West corral", Globe and Mail, October 2, 1993, D2. [15] Mordecai Richler, "We’re in trouble: There isn’t even an illusion of choice in • The Harper cabinet the upcoming federal election", • Stephen Harper Leadership Team Kitchener-Waterloo Record, April 22, • Prime Ministers of Queen Elizabeth II 1997, A11. • United States-Canada softwood lumber [16] Neville Nankivell, "Reform’s voice will dispute grow louder", Financial Post, October 31, • List of national leaders 1995, p. 23. [17] "Harris joins other leaders in calling for change", Hamilton Spectator, October 31, 1995, A1. [1] ’CBC.ca Voter Turnout, October 15, 2008 [18] Dufour, Richard (20 January 2006). "Who [2] The Globe and Mail, October 15, 2008, p. is Stephen Harper, the Conservative A1. poised to be Canada’s next prime [3] William Johnson, Stephen Harper and minister?". World Socialist Web Site the Future of Canada, p. 7 (International Committee of the Fourth [4] O’Connor, Naoibh, "’Nerds’ tops in International). http://www.wsws.org/ Canada", The Vancouver Courier, August articles/2006/jan2006/harp-j20.shtml. 5, 2004. Retrieved October 9, 2006 Retrieved on 2009-02-15. [5] William Johnson, Stephen Harper and the Future of Canada, p. 12

See also

References

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
[19] Marta Gold, "Same-sex fight going to Ottawa", Hamilton Spectator, June 10, 1994, A3. [20] Joan Crockett, "Robinson lays equality complaint", Hamilton Spectator, June 22, 1994, A12. [21] Edward Greenspon, "Stephen Harper: a neo-con in a land of liberals", Globe and Mail, March 23, 2002, A17. [22] Johnson, Stephen Harper, p. 222. [23] Dan Lett, "Outlaw Grits say no to party’s gun bill", Winnipeg Free Press, April 6, 1995 and "Gun bill advances despite three rebels", Hamilton Spectator, April 6, 1995, A6; David Vienneau, "Torn MPs face high noon on gun law", Toronto Star, June 13, 1995, A21. [24] Susan Delacourt, "Charest, Manning dismiss reports of parties’ merging", Globe and Mail, April 4, 1995, A5. [25] Geoffrey York, "Reform MPs snarl at party rebuke", Globe and Mail, April 8, 1994, A4. [26] Edward Greenspon, "Reform’s renewal off to slow start", Globe and Mail, August 1, 1996, A4; Edward Greenspon, "Manning seeks to repeat party’s surge", Globe and Mail, August 2, 1996, A4. [27] Kenneth Whyte, "That Manning and Harper would clash has always been a safe bet", Globe and Mail, April 9, 1994, D2; John Ibbitson, "Who is Stephen Harper?", Globe and Mail, January 14, 2006, online edition. [28] "Stephen Harper named A NCC VicePresident", Canada NewsWire, January 14, 1997, 10:51 report. [29] Thomas Walkom, No title [Second of Five Parts], Toronto Star, April 6, 1997, A1. [30] Stephen Harper and Tom Flanagan, "Our Benign Dictatorship", Next City, Winter 1997. [31] Susan Delacourt, "Seeds planted for opposition to unity plan", Globe and Mail, September 18, 1997, A1. [32] Stephen Harper, "Why Chrétien mustn’t flag", Globe and Mail, December 2, 1999, A17. [33] Chantal Hebert, "Harper takes pragmatic approach to Quebec", Toronto Star, April 26, 2002, A25. [34] Daniel Leblanc, "Groups vow to fight new election bill", Globe and Mail, June 8, 1999, A4; "Gagged by statute", National Post, June 8, 2000, A19.

Stephen Harper
[35] National Citizen’s Coalition, "NCC To Back New Court Challenge To Wheat Board Monopoly", Canada NewsWire, February 9, 1998, 11:15 report; National Citizen’s Coalition, "NCC to blitz prairies with anti-Wheat Board radio ads", Canada NewsWire, August 25, 1999, 14:29 report. [36] no title, Toronto Star, February 29, 2000, p. 1. [37] Full text of Stephen Harper’s 1997 speech, CTV.ca, December 14, 2005 [38] Susan Riley, "Harper’s suspect evolution", December 16, 2005, A18. [39] Jack Aubry, "Battle lines being drawn up for ideological heart of Tories", Hamilton Spectator, April 7, 1998, C3. David Frum was also mentioned as a possible supporter. [40] Scott Feschuk, "Harper rejects run at Tory leadership", Globe and Mail, April 10, 1998, A1. [41] Rosemary Spiers, "Preston Manning’s fork in the road", Toronto Star, February 18, 1999, p. 1; "But who will lead it?", Globe and Mail, February 22, 1999, A10. [42] Michael Taube, "United Alternative needs policy, not Reform party lite", Hamilton Spectator, February 25, 1999, A14. [43] Tim Harper, "Bible belts", Toronto Star, June 17, 2000, p. 1. [44] "That sound you hear is the shifting of conservative ground", April 21, 2000, Globe and Mail, A12. [45] Paul Adams, "Front-runner rides tide of religious conservatism", Globe and Mail, June 26, 2000, A1. [46] Stephen Harper, "On second thought", National Post, October 5, 2000, A18. [47] Stephen Harper, "Get the state out of the economy", National Post, February 8, 2002, A14. [48] Stephen Harper, Tom Flanagan et al., "The Alberta Agenda", National Post, January 26, 2001, A14. [49] Jill Mahoney, "No ’firewall’ needed around Alberta, Klein says", Globe and Mail, February 8, 2001, A9. [50] Stephen Harper, "Separation, Albertastyle: It is time to seek a new relationship with Canada", National Post, December 8, 2000, A18. [51] National Citizens Coalition, "NCC Ad Campaign Urges Albertans Not to Vote

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Liberal", Canada NewsWire, February 13, 2001, 11:45 report. [52] Chantal Hebert, "Alberta, Quebec sing from same complaint book", Toronto Star, February 14, 2001, p. 1. [53] Richard Mackie, "School tax-credit plan hailed as a money saver", Globe and Mail, June 19, 2001, A5. [54] Sheldon Alberts, "Harper mounts campaign to lead the right: Behind the scenes", National Post, June 30, 2001, A06. [55] National Citizen’s Coalition, "Stephen Harper to Step Down as NCC President", Canada NewsWire, August 13, 2001, 13:43 report. [56] "Number 28 for Harper". Canada NewsWire. 2002-03-06. [57] "Six Alliance MPs declare or reaffirm support for Harper’s leadership bid". Canadian Press. 2001-12-07. [58] "Five More MPs endorse Harper". Canada NewsWire. 2002-02-20. [59] Harper, Stephen (2002-01-19). "A vision of federalism for all Canadians" (newspaper article). National Post. p. A18. [60] Basu, Arpon (2002-01-19). "Alliance candidate Stephen Harper says French not threatened in Quebec". Canadian Press. [61] Laghi, Brian. "Harper launches campaign" (newspaper article). Globe and Mail date=2001-12-04. p. A8. [62] Laghi, Brian (2002-02-21). "Harper campaigns on social issues" (newspaper article). Globe and Mail. p. A4. [63] Hunter, Ian (2002-03-07). "The cult of policy" (newspaper article). Globe and Mail. p. A19. [64] "No more Mr. Nice Guy in Alliance leadership race", Kitchener-Waterloo Record, February 4, 2002, A3. [65] Robert Fife, "Day accused of courting evangelicals", National Post, February 9, 2002, A06. [66] Campbell Clark, "Harper attacking minorities, Day leadership camp charges", Globe and Mail, February 12, 2002, A12. [67] Brian Laghi, "Harper, Day swap insults in debate", Globe and Mail, March 8, 2002, A4. [68] Dawn Walton, "Rookie Levant ready to run", Globe and Mail, March 28, 2002, A8; Sheldon Alberts, "’Troubled’ Levant

Stephen Harper
lets Harper run", National Post, March 29, 2002, A01. [69] "Alliance leader won’t face Tories in byelection bid", Winnipeg Free Press, March 31, 2002, A8. [70] Jeffrey Simpson, "He makes Harper think uncharitable thoughts", Globe and Mail, May 7, 2002, A19. Phipps later said that he was "shocked" by Harper’s language. See Louise Elliott, "NDP candidate slams Alliance leader for personal comment, refusal to debate", Canadian Press, May 9, 2002, 17:23 report. [71] Brian Laghi, "Motion by MLAs condemns Harper", Globe and Mail, May 31, 2002, A5. The motion was brought forward by Nova Scotia NDP leader Darrell Dexter. [72] Louise Elliott, "Harper calls Canada a nation of defeatists, defends remark about easterners", Canadian Press, May 29, 2002, 17:23 report; Brian Laghi, "Premiers tell Harper his attack was wrong", Globe and Mail, May 30, 2002, A8. [73] Munroe, Susan (03-Apr-2008). "Conservative Party of Canada — Establishment of the New Conservative Party of Canada". About.com: Canada Online. http://canadaonline.about.com/ cs/federalparties/a/conservativepty.htm. Retrieved on 2009-02-15. [74] CTV news report, June 9, 2006. [75] Beers, David (January 25, 2006). "No Bush, please — we’re Canadian". Salon.com. Tommy Douglas Research Institute. http://www.tommydouglas.ca/ news/2006/01/24/no-bush-please-werecanadian. Retrieved on 2009-02-15. [76] The Confidence Convention and the May 2005 Vote on the Public Accounts Committee Report. [77] National Post, May 14, 2005. [78] O’Neil, Peter (2005-05-28). "Is he telling the truth? Doubts linger about Gurmant Grewal". OTTAWA: Free Dominion. http://www.freedominion.com.pa/ phpBB2/viewtopic.php?t=40089. Retrieved on 2009-02-15. [79] Gloria Galloway and Brian Laghi. "Tories tried to sway vote of dying MP, widow alleges". The Globe and Mail. http://www.theglobeandmail.com/servlet/ story/RTGAM.20080227.wcadmann0227/ BNStory/National/home. Retrieved on 2008-02-27.

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Stephen Harper

[80] "Conservatives made million-dollar offer home?cid=al_gam_mostview. Retrieved to MP Cadman: book". CBC News. on 2008-10-19. 2008-02-27. http://www.cbc.ca/canada/ [91] [1], CTV News, February 7, 2006 story/2008/02/27/cadman-book.html. [92] Canadian Press (2008-10-15). "Fortier Retrieved on 2008-02-27. trounced by Bloc incumbent". Canoe [81] ^ "Liberals to RCMP: Investigate Tory News. http://cnews.canoe.ca/CNEWS/ bribe claims". CTV. http://www.ctv.ca/ Canada/CanadaVotes/News/2008/10/14/ servlet/ArticleNews/story/CTVNews/ 7085011-cp.html. Retrieved on 20080228/cadman_bribe_AM_080228/ 2008-10-19. 20080228/. [93] Campion-smith, Bruce (December 11, [82] ^ "PM files libel suit, Dion refuses to 2008). "Canada | Harper set to name 18 apologize". CTV. http://www.ctv.ca/ to Senate". OTTAWA: TheStar.com. servlet/ArticleNews/story/CTVNews/ http://www.thestar.com/news/canada/ 20080313/harper_libel_080313/ article/552046. Retrieved on 20080313. 2009-02-15. [83] Panetta, Alexander. "Harper heard on [94] CTV News (2008-09-12). "Harper to fill tape discussing financial inducements for 18 Senate seats with Tory loyalists". late MP". The Canadian Press. Ctv.ca. http://www.ctv.ca/servlet/ http://news.sympatico.msn.ca/ ArticleNews/story/CTVNews/20081210/ Harper+heard+on+tape+discussing+financial+inducements+for+late+MP/ harper_senate_081210/ National/ 20081210?hub=Canada. ContentPosting.aspx?isfa=1&newsitemid=64918030&feedname=CP[95] Curry, Bill (2008-12-22). "Duffy, Wallin, NATIONAL&show=True&number=5&showbyline=True&subtitle=&detect=&abc=abc&date=True. Greene among 18 new Senators". Retrieved on 2008-02-28. OTTAWA: globeandmail.com. [84] Leblanc, Dominic. "Letter requesting http://www.theglobeandmail.com/servlet/ investigation to RCMP Commissioner story/RTGAM.20081222.wsenate1222/ William Elliot" (PDF). The Toronto Star. BNStory/Front/ http://www3.thestar.com/static/PDF/ ?page=rss&id=RTGAM.20081222.wsenate1222. 080228_leblanc_letter.pdf. Retrieved on Retrieved on 2009-02-15. 2008-03-01. [96] CBC News (2006-11-22). "Quebecers [85] "No charges to be laid in Cadman affair: form a nation within Canada: PM". RCMP". CBC. http://www.cbc.ca/canada/ CBC.ca. http://www.cbc.ca/canada/story/ story/2008/05/16/rcmp-cadman.html. 2006/11/22/harper-quebec.html. [86] "News article summarizing the libel Retrieved on 2006-12-06. suit". AFP. http://afp.google.com/article/ [97] Canadian Press (2006-11-27). "Québécois ALeqM5hAikrxtRRwV2q1-T8iS9LAvWpFxw. motion passes, 266-16". Toronto Star. [87] "Audio expert says Cadman tape not http://www.thestar.com/NASApp/cs/ altered". The Canadian Press. cbc.ca. ContentServer?pagename=thestar/ 2008-10-10. http://www.cbc.ca/canada/ Layout/ british-columbia/story/2008/10/10/ Article_Type1&c=Article&cid=1164625146991&call cadman-tape.html. Retrieved on Retrieved on 2006-12-06. 2009-02-15. [98] CBC News (2006-05-24). "Harper says [88] CTV.ca News Staff (2005-01-11). "Harper he’s finished with Ottawa press corps". seen as most trusted leader, poll finds". CBC.ca. http://www.cbc.ca/canada/story/ CTV.ca. http://www.ctv.ca/servlet/ 2006/05/24/harper05242006.html. ArticleNews/story/CTVNews/20060111/ Retrieved on 2006-12-06. ELXN_poll_060111/ [99] globalnational.com (2006-05-23). 20060111?s_name=election2006&no_ads=. "Stephen Harper vs. The Press". Retrieved on 2006-09-21. canada.com. http://www.canada.com/ [89] CBC globaltv/national/ [90] ^ Steven Chase (2008-10-15). "Harper story.html?id=89eafbaftargets Senate reform". The Globe and ddbe-45b6-aff9-f33ec9cb20a3. Retrieved Mail. http://www.theglobeandmail.com/ on 2006-12-06. servlet/story/ [100] elacourt, Susan (2006-10-23). "PM D RTGAM.20081015.welxnharper1015/ ’critic’ sent packing". Toronto Star. BNStory/politics/ http://www.thestar.com/NASApp/cs/

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Stephen Harper

ContentServer?pagename=thestar/ BNStory/specialNewTory2006/. Layout/ Retrieved on 2007-12-16. Article_Type1&c=Article&cid=1161553809722&call_pageid=968332188492. [110] anetta, Alexander (2008-03-04). P Retrieved on 2006-12-06. "Harper denies aide leaked Obama [101] anadian Press (2006-03-27). "Harper’s C document". OTTAWA: globeandmail.com. staff, media battle over access issues". http://www.theglobeandmail.com/servlet/ CTV News. http://www.ctv.ca/servlet/ story/ ArticleNews/story/CTVNews/20060327/ RTGAM.20080304.wleakupdate0304/ pmo_media_060327?s_name=&no_ads. BNStory/Front. Retrieved on Retrieved on 2008-02-06. 2009-02-15. [102]PM hints Canada may stay in " [111] ARKER, JENNIFER (2008-02-29). P Afghanistan past 2009". CTV News. "Clinton Campaign Demands Obama 2007-05-23. http://www.ctv.ca/servlet/ Answers on NAFTA". ABC News. ArticleNews/story/CTVNews/20070522/ http://www.abcnews.go.com/Politics/ harper_afghanistan_070523/ Vote2008/story?id=4365922&page=1. 20070523?hub=TopStories. Retrieved on Retrieved on 2009-02-15. 2008-02-06. [112] rian Laghi (2008-03-03). "Harper B [103] anadian Press (2006-07-13). "Harper C meddling in U.S. primaries, Democrats sides firmly with Israel" (fee required). say". globeandmail.com. Globe and Mail. http://www.theglobeandmail.com/servlet/ http://www.theglobeandmail.com/servlet/ story/LAC.20080303.NAFTA03/TPStory/ story/RTGAM.20060713.wHarper0713/ National. Retrieved on 2009-02-15. BNStory/Front. Retrieved on [113]PM denies top aide leaked Obama " 2006-12-06. NAFTA memo". cbc.ca. 2008-03-04. [104] lanchfield, Mike (2006-07-19). "Neutral B http://www.cbc.ca/canada/story/2008/03/ stance rejected". National Post. 04/harper-obama.html. Retrieved on http://www.canada.com/nationalpost/ 2009-02-15. news/ [114]PM, Obama talk trade, Afghanistan, " story.html?id=c0ada2ed-6c3d-4690-9317-739c4d97fd16&k=49262. dialogue’ pledge ’clean energy Retrieved on 2006-12-06. Àpublisher=CBC News". 2009-02-19. [105] residents Conference to honor Harper, P http://www.cbc.ca/canada/story/2009/02/ Jewish Telegraph Agency (JTA), 19/obama-visit.html. Retrieved on December 4, 2008. 2009-03-15. [106] Harper: Anti-Semitism ‘pernicious’, ^ [115]The week that Canada learned the " Jewish Telegraphic Agency (JTA), March definition of ’prorogue’". GristMill. 13, 2009. 2008-12-05. http://gristmill.grist.org/ [107]Canada — European Free Trade " story/2008/12/4/94557/3048. Retrieved Association (EFTA) - Free Trade on 2008-12-05. Agreement". Foreign Affairs and [116]Harper running away from Parliament". " International Trade Canada. 2008-01-28. The Province. 2008-12-05. http://www.international.gc.ca/tradehttp://www.canada.com/theprovince/ agreements-accords-commerciaux/agrnews/ acc/efta-aele.aspx?lang=en. Retrieved on story.html?id=f38b74ff-43a0-4a67-b419-020a95933d 2008-02-06. Retrieved on 2008-12-05. [108]Harper praises Australian troops, " [117] lobe and Mail Update (2006-02-20). G elected senate". CTV News. 2007-09-10. "Committee to judge next Supreme Court http://www.ctv.ca/servlet/ArticleNews/ appointee" (fee required). Globe and story/CTVNews/20070910/ Mail. http://www.theglobeandmail.com/ harper_australia_070910/ servlet/story/ 20070910?hub=Politics. Retrieved on RTGAM.20060220.w2harper02201/ 2008-02-06. BNStory/National/home. Retrieved on [109] loria Galloway (2006-01-27). "Harper G 2006-12-06. rebukes U.S. envoy over Arctic dispute". [118] Globe and Mail Update (2008-09-05). ^ Globe and Mail. "Harper nominates Nova Scotian to http://www.theglobeandmail.com/servlet/ Supreme Court". Globe and Mail. story/RTGAM.20060127.wxharper27/ http://www.theglobeandmail.com/servlet/

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Stephen Harper

story/RTGAM.20080905.wscoc0905/ championships", Conservative Party of BNStory/National/. Retrieved on Canada, January 5, 2007 2008-09-10. [129] rownlee, Karen (August 30, 2006). B [119] lobe and Mail Update (2008-09-09). G "Don’t quit your day job". The Regina "No sign of a hidden agenda". Globe and Leader Post. http://www.canada.com/ Mail. http://www.theglobeandmail.com/ reginaleaderpost/news/ servlet/story/ story.html?id=410fd944-cf55-4760-b0f9-f5bfa9200da RTGAM.20080909.wecromwell09/ Retrieved on 2006-12-06. BNStory/specialComment/. Retrieved on [130] unfield, A. (June 25, 2004). "Lighter D 2008-09-10. side: C’est what?". Globe and Mail. [120] irk Makin K http://www.theglobeandmail.com/servlet/ http://www.theglobeandmail.com/servlet/ story/ story/LAC.20080906.JUDGE06/TPStory/ RTGAM.20040520.wcestwhatele0518/ ?query=newfoundland+supreme+court+(2008-09-09). "Harper BNStory/specialDecision2004/. Retrieved blasted over hasty top-court nomination". on 2006-04-04. ’ Globe and Mail. [131] tephen Harper (I) - Biography S [121] ARRIS, KATHLEEN; CZEKAJ, LAURA H (2008-10-14). "Conservatives back in minority power". Toronto Sun (Canada: • Prime Minister of Canada – official Sun Media). http://www.torontosun.com/ website canadavotes/news/2008/10/14/ • CBC – The Conservative Leader 7084016.html. Retrieved on 2009-02-15. • Canadian Broadcasting [122] TV News (2006-12-17). "Time Magazine C Corporation.Canada Votes 2004: Stephen dubs Harper Cdn. newsmaker of 2006". Harper. CTV. http://www.ctv.ca/servlet/ • Stephen Harper’s article on hockey in the ArticleNews/story/CTVNews/20061217/ Toronto Star harper_newsmaker_061217/20061217/. • Stephen Harper at the Internet Movie [123] ndrew Mayeda (2008-06-28). "PM calls A Database UN conference an ’anti-Western • Office of the Prime Minister’s YouTube hatefest’". National Post. channel http://www.nationalpost.com/news/ canada/story.html?id=619123. Notes: Order of precedence [124] olin Campbell (February 20, 2006). C "The church of Stephen Harper". [1] The Table of Precedence for Canada Macleans.ca. http://www.macleans.ca/ issued by the Department of Canadian article.jsp?content=20060220_121848_121848&source=srch.not include members of the Heritage, do Retrieved on 2009-02-15. Royal Family other than the sovereign [125] ampbell, Colin (February 20, 2006). C and have the Prime Minister preceded in "The church of Stephen Harper". precedence by the Governor General and Macleans. http://www.macleans.ca/ then the Queen. The Canadian Forces article.jsp?content=20060220_121848_121848&source=srch. guideline Honours, Flags, and Heritage Retrieved on 2006-08-02. Structure of the Canadian Forces [126] arper, Stephen (December 23, 2006). H (Section 1.5), however, does include "Long before Leafs, T.O. had a team to members of the Royal Family, other than call its own". The Star. the Queen, while in Canada though http://www.thestar.com/News/article/ without a precedence within the Royal 164678. Retrieved on 2008-10-17. Family itself. According to the Canadian [127] uck, Simon (January 6, 2007). "Harper T Forces’ definition, members of the prefers ’team’ approach to shootouts". Canadian Royal Family are "those Globe and Mail. persons, being subjects of the Canadian http://www.theglobeandmail.com/servlet/ Sovereign, who bear the title ’Royal story/RTGAM.20070105.wsptharper5/ Highness.’" BNStory/Front. Persondata [128] ress release, "Prime Minister P NAME Harper, Stephen congratulates Team Canada on gold medal victory at World Junior Hockey

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
28th Ministry - Government of Stephen Harper Cabinet Posts (1) Predecessor Paul Martin Party political offices Preceded by Leader of the Canadian Alliance John Reynolds (interim) 2002–2003 Office Prime Minister of Canada 2006–present

Stephen Harper

Successor Incumbent

Succeeded by Position abolished John Lynch-Staunton (Conservative)

Preceded by John Lynch-Staunton (interim) Order of precedence Preceded by
Members of the Royal Family other than the Queen[1]

Leader of the Conservative Party Incumbent 2004 – present

Canadian order of precedence

Succeeded by Beverley McLachlin

ALTERNATIVE NAMES SHORT DESCRIPTION DATE OF BIRTH 22nd Prime Minister of Canada April 30, 1959

PLACE OF BIRTH Toronto DATE OF DEATH PLACE OF DEATH

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephen_Harper" Categories: 1959 births, Living people, Stephen Harper, Canadian economists, Canadians of British descent, Canadians of German descent, Conservative Party of Canada MPs, Current national leaders, Leaders of the Conservative Party of Canada, Leaders of the Opposition in the Canadian House of Commons, Members of the Canadian House of Commons from Alberta, Members of the Christian and Missionary Alliance, Members of the Queen's Privy Council for Canada, People from Calgary, People from East York, Toronto, Prime Ministers of Canada, Reform Party of Canada MPs, University of Calgary alumni This page was last modified on 22 May 2009, at 11:02 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers

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