Punjabi_people

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Punjabi people

Punjabi people
Punjabis ‫?????? ,یباجنپ‬ Total population Regions with significant populations Pakistan India United Kingdom Canada United States Australia Malaysia New Zealand Hong Kong 34, 000 Singapore Languages • Punjabi • Urdu[8] • Hindi[9][10] Religion • Islam roughly 60% • Hinduism • Buddhism • Sikhism 38% • Jainism
[7]

90,000,000 30,000,000 2,310,000 800,000

[1] [2] [3]

[4]

60, 000 Second largest group of Indian Kiwis

[5] [6]

Christianity •

Related ethnic groups • Indo-Aryans • Sindhis • Gujjar •Dogras • Hindkowans • Seraikis• Sikhs • Romani people

The Punjabi people (Punjabi: ‫?????? ,یباجنپ‬ also Panjabi people) are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group from South Asia (specifically Pakistan and India). They originate from the Punjab region, which has been host to some of the oldest civilizations in the world including one of the world’s first and oldest civilizations, the Indus Valley Civilization. The Punjabi identity is primarily cultural and linguistic, with Punjabis being those whose first

language is Punjabi, an Indo-European tongue. In recent times, however, the definition has been broadened to include also emigrants of Punjabi descent who maintain Punjabi cultural traditions, even when they no longer speak the language. Punjabis are found mostly and primarily in the Punjab province of Pakistan, and additionally, a smaller number are found in the adjacent Punjab region of Northern India as well, which was divided between the two nations at independence from Britain. In India, Punjabis represent about 3% of India’s population. In Pakistan, Punjabis comprise the largest ethnic group at roughly 60% of the total population of the country, and reside predominantly in the province (state) of Punjab and Azad Kashmir. In India, Punjabispeaking people can be found across the greater Punjab region which now comprises the states of Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and Delhi and the Union Territory of Chandigarh. Besides these, large communities are also found in the Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir and the states of Rajasthan, Uttaranchal and Uttar Pradesh. There are also a number of large Punjabi communities scattered around the world, especially in the United Kingdom and Canada (where Punjabi is the 4th most spoken language nationally, tied with Italian and German, and 2nd most spoken in British Columbia). [11]. There are also sizable communities in United States, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Persian Gulf countries, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore, Australia and New Zealand. Punjabis are ethno-linguistically and culturally related to the other Indo-Aryan peoples of South Asia. There are an estimated 120 million Punjabis around the world.

History
The exact point at which the Punjabis formed a distinct ethnic group remains speculative. The region having been the site of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization centred at Harappa became a centre of early civilization from around 3300 BC. Numerous invaders

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including the Persians, Scythians, Greeks, various Central Asians, Arabs, Afghans, and the British have all invaded and ruled the region, giving the Punjab a unique culture as the gateway to South Asia. An early IndoAryan-speaking people conquered the region and imparted their language and merged with the local population that some speculate as having been either an Indic language (a hypothesized parent family) or Aryan-speaking group, but this also remains speculative since the Indus script remains undeciphered. The Indo-Aryans are believed to have arrived in the region between 2000 and 1250 BC and eventually disseminated their languages throughout South Asia.

Punjabi people

Taxila Pakistan is a World Heritage Site emerged as an important faith in the region, along with early Hinduism. Ultimately, two later religions largely supplanted both of these earlier faiths, Islam(Semitic family religion) in western Panjab Pakistan from the 8th century onwards, and Sikhism, which emerged in the fifteenth century, mistaken by some as synthesis of Islam and Vedic religions. Many people converted in western regions to Islam following the invasion of Arabs in 711 AD (see Muhammad bin Qasim) and Turkic tribes in the 11th century and much of the population converted, abandoning their previous faiths. Historians cite the role of forcible conversions by invaders and Sufism with it’s similarities to Bhakti Movement tradition (which dates back to 5th century) in this regard. Following the independence of Pakistan and the subsequent partition of India, a process of population exchange and ethnic cleansing took place in 1947 as Muslims left East Punjab and headed to the Islamic republic of newly created Pakistan, and Hindus and Sikhs left West Punjab[12] to stay in what remained as a part of India. As a result of these population exchanges, both parts are now religiously homogeneous.

Mature Harappan "Priest King" statue, Mohenjo-daro, wearing Sindhi Ajrak, late Mature Harappan period, National Museum, Karachi, Pakistan An early Vedic civilization is believed to have emerged in the region and helped shape many aspects of northern Indian culture. Over time, the Greater Punjab region fragmented as various Eurasian invaders conquered sections of the region with the west (Pakistan) bearing the brunt of most invasions. Various religious influences shaped the region and people. Earlier forms of Shamanism and Zorastrianism gave way as Buddhism

Diversity
The Punjab region is diverse, due to its location near Central Asia and the Middle East. It has been prone to numerous invasions that have left imprints upon the local Punjabi population that remain present in the numerous sub-groups. The Punjabi people are a heterogeneous group and can be subdivided into a number of ethnic clan groups in Pakistan called qaums while they adhere to caste

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identities in India, each having their own subtle differences. In terms of ancestry, the majority of Punjabis share many similar genes with other northern Indian populations, but also show a significant relationship with west Eurasian groups. In a 2004 Stanford study conducted with a wide sampling from India, including 112 Punjabis, and selected other countries, displayed the following: Results show that Indian tribal and caste populations derive largely from the same genetic heritage of Pleistocene southern and western Asians and have received limited gene flow from external regions since the Holocene. [13] This study also found that roughly 42% of genetic markers in the Punjab were of West Asian origin, the highest amongst the sampled group of South Asians. Another study also showed that there has been limited gene flow in and out of north India, but the highest amount of genetic inflow from the west showed up in the Punjab region: Broadly, the average proportion of mtDNAs from West Eurasia among Indian caste populations is 17% (Table 2). In the northern States of India their share is greater, reaching over 30% in Kashmir and Gujarat, nearly 43% in Indian Punjab. [14] Some preliminary conclusions from these varying tests support a largely north Indian genetic base for most Punjabis accompanied by some of the highest degrees of west Asian admixture found in north India.

Punjabi people
are the Teli, Hajjam and Muslim Shaikh. There are also Pashtun (see Punjabi Pathan) tribes like the Niazis and the Khakwanis, which are very much integrated into Punjabi village life. Especially the members of the Niazi tribe, who see themselves as Punjabis first. They have big communities in Mianwali, Bakkar, Lahore, Faisalabad, Sahiwal and Toba Tek Singh. The term biradari is often used to describe these various sub-groups. Punjabis in Pakistan, especially in major urban cities have diverse origins, with many post Islamic settlers tracing their origin to Afghanistan, Persia, Arabia, Kashmir, Turkey and Central Asia.[15] The Punjabi tribes of Indo-Scythian origin(Jat, Tarkhan, Khatri, Lohar, Rajput, Gujjar, Kamboj)form a majority in Punjab. These seven tribes are closely and indirectly related and connected to each other. Punjabis have traditionally and historically been farmers and soldiers, which has transferred into modern times with their dominance of agriculture and military fields in Pakistan. In addition, Punjabis in Pakistan have been quite prominent politically, having had many elected Members of Parliament. As the most ardent supporters of a Pakistani state, the Punjabis in Pakistan have shown a strong predilection towards the adoption of the Urdu language but nearly all speak punjabi, and still identify themselves as ethnic Punjabis for the most part. Religious homogeneity remains elusive as a predominant Islamic Sunni-Shia population and a Christian minority have not completely wiped out diversity since the partition of British India. A variety of related sub-groups exist in Pakistan and are often considered by many Pakistani Punjabis to be simply regional Punjabis including the Seraikis (who overlap and are often considered transitional with the Sindhis) and Punjabi Pathans (which publications like Encyclopædia Britannica consider a transitional group between Punjabis and Pathans).

Geographic distribution
Punjabis in Pakistan
Punjabis make up almost 60% of the population of Pakistan. The Punjabis found in Pakistan are composed of various social groups (caste) and economic groups. Groups with pre-Islamic ancestry include Punjabi Shaikhs, Kambohs, Gujjars, Dogars, Rahmani (Muslim Labana), Jats and Punjabi Rajputs (such as the Janjuas). Smaller groups include the Gakhars, Awans, and Arains, comprising the main tribes in the north, while Khagga, Bodla, Gilanis, Gardezis, Syeds and Quraishis are found in the south, many of whom claim Arab ancestry. Other more marginal groups

Nawaz Sharif, former Prime Minister

Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan, the Shahenshahe-Qawwali,

Bohemia The Punjabi Rapper, A

Wasim Akram, A

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
of meaning Pakistan. The Emperor of Qawwali. PakistaniAmerican Punjabi Rapper recognized worldwide as the pioneer of Desi-HipHop and the King of Punjabi Rap.

Punjabi people

cricket le- players in the Indian cricket team (both past gend from and present including Bishen Singh Bedi, the interna-Kapil Dev, Mohinder Amarnath, Navjot tional crick-Sidhu, Harbhajan Singh, Yuvraj Singh, Yograj Singh). et team.

Punjabis in India
The Punjabis found in India are composed of various tribal groups, social groups (caste) and economic groups. Some major subgroups of Punjabis in India include (alphabetical order):Aroras, Kalals/Ahluwalias, Khatris, Labanas, Nais,Sansis, and Soods etc. Most of these groups can be further sub-divided into clans and family groups. Some other may include Banias, Bhatias, Brahmins and Chhimbas.The Punjabi tribes of Indo-Scythian origin(Ahluwalias, Khatri,are found as a Majority in Punjab.These seven tribes are closely and indirectly related and connected to each other.These tribes also have intermarriages with each other. Most of East Punjab’s Muslims (in today’s states of Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Delhi and Chandigarh) left for West Punjab in 1947. However, a small community still exists today, mainly in Malerkotla which was spared during partition, the only Muslim princely state among the seven that formed the erstwhile Patiala and East Punjab States Union (PEPSU). The other six (mostly Sikh) states were: Patiala, Nabha, Jind, Faridkot, Kapurthala and Kalsia. Punjabis in India have mainly Indo-Aryan and Indo-Scythian origin. The Punjab region within India maintains a strong influence on the culture of South Asia and the perceived culture of India towards the rest of the world. Numerous Bollywood film productions use the Punjabi language within its songs and dialogues as well as traditional dances and instruments such as the bhangra and the tabla. Prime Ministers of India including Gulzarilal Nanda and Inder Kumar Gujral in the past, and Dr. Manmohan Singh at present, are Punjabis, as are numerous

Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, the current Indian Prime Gurbaksh Chahal, the Minister. youngest and most successful (Punjabi) Indian American entrepreneur abroad.

Har Gobind Khorana Nobel Prize winning Scientist. Yuvraj Singh, Internationally famous Punjabi Indian Cricketer.

The Punjabi Diaspora
The Punjabi people have emigrated in large numbers to many parts of the world. The United Kingdom has a significant number of Punjabis from both Pakistan and India as does Canada (specifically Vancouver and Toronto) and the United States, (specifically California’s Great Central Valley). The Middle East has a large immigrant community of Punjabis, in places such as the UAE and Kuwait. There are large communities in East Africa including the countries of Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. Punjabis have also emigrated to Australia, New Zealand and Southeast Asia including Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore and Hong Kong.

Culture and society
Main article: Punjabi culture Punjabi Culture is the culture of the Punjab region. It is one of the oldest and richest cultures in world history, dating from ancient antiquity to the modern era. The Punjabi Culture is the culture of the Punjabi people who are now distributed throughout the world. The scope, history, sophistication and complexity of the culture are vast. Some of the main areas include, Punjabi Philosophy, poetry, spirituality, education, artistry, dance, music, cuisine, science, technology,

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Punjabi people
Muslim Punjabis are largely concentrated in Pakistan, though a small Muslim Punjabi population exists in India. Sikhism and Hinduism are the major religions followed by Punjabis in India, with Jainism being the largest minority religion that is followed largely by Punjabi Banias and Bhabra people.

Language
The main language of the Punjabi people is Punjabi and its associated dialects which differ depending on the region of Punjab the individual speaker belongs to with notable differences in dialect found in Pakistani Punjabi (Lahnda dialect),However in Pakistani Punjab,many people speak Urdu but nearly all speak Punjabi,In Indian Punjab,all/or most people can speak Hindi,English is sometimes used,but not commonly. Most Hindus speak Hindi while most Sikhs speak Punjabi. They may also speak Urdu, Hindi and English. There is significant Persian influence found in certain Punjabi dialects, although it is more pronounced in the Pakistani Punjab region, due to that regions proximity to the Iranic plateau. In recent years, the respective Punjabi languages have absorbed a considerable number of loan words from surrounding areas/provinces as well as from English and continue to evolve.

Bhangra tournament concert military warfare, architecture, traditions, values and history.

Religion

Cuisine
Punjabi Cuisine has an immense range of dishes and has become world-leader in the field so much so that many entrepreneurs that have invested in the sector have built large personal fortunes due to popularity of Punjabi Cuisine throughout the world.

Music
Bhangra is one of the many Punjabi musical art forms that is increasingly being listened to in the west and is becoming a mainstream favourite. Punjabi music is being used by western musicians, in many ways, such as mixing it with other compositions to produce award-winning music. In addition, Punjabi Classical music is increasingly becoming popular in the west due to the beauty of sounds of the Punjabi language and its composition.The most common instruments used in both Pakistani and Indian Punjab are the Tabla Harmonium and sometimes Sitar.

The 33rd Punjabi Army (A Picture of an Commander: A Punjabi Subadar). Science, history and Religion has played an important role in shaping Punjabi ethnic identity and it is not uncommon for Punjabis to generally treat their religious identity as synonymous with their ethnic identity or at least a combined identity that differentiates them from others. Punjabis belong largely to three major religions: Islam, Sikhism, and Hinduism

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Punjabi people
traditional times. Punjabi receptions of all sorts are known to be very energetic; filled with loud Bhangra music, people dancing, and a wide variety of Punjabi food.

Prominent Punjabis Photo gallery

Badshahi Masjid The Faiz MaThe hal, Khairpur mosque of Pakistan the Moghal Empire built by the last mughal emperor, Aurangzeb. Tandoori chicken is a popular dish in Punjabi cuisine.

The Fort at Bathinda. The Fort at Bathinda.

Punjabi Dances
Punjabi Dances, due to the long history of the Punjabi culture and of the Punjabi people there is a large number of dances. These dances are normally performed at times of celebration the most prominent being at Punjabi weddings, where the elation is usually particularly intense. The overall style can range from very high energy to more reserved, however the common elements make it particularly attractive to the viewers whether they be of Punjabi heritage or not, the allure is considered universal. Punjabi dances are designed for either men or women.

The main gate of the Qila Mubarak at night. Architect Atit Kumar.

The Golden Temple at night in Amritsar.

The Alamgiri Gate built in 1673, is the main entrance to the Lahore Fort.

The Faisalabad Clock Tower, built during the British Raj

Marriage
Punjabi wedding traditions and ceremonies are traditionally conducted in Punjabi and are a strong reflection of Punjabi culture. While the actual religious marriage ceremony, among Muslims, Sikhs, Hindus, and Jains may be conducted in Sanskrit, Punjabi, Arabic, Pali/Prakrit or English by the Kazi, Pandit, Granthi or Priest, there are commonalities in ritual, song, dance, food, and dress. The Punjabi wedding has many rituals and ceremonies that have evolved since

The Phuara Chowk (lit. the Fountain Crossing) is the central land mark of Patiala.

Entrance to Wideview the present of the Jalli- day Jalliananwala wala Bagh. Jallianwala Bagh Bagh memorimemorial. al to commemorate the fallen brave Punjabi protestors at the Jallianwala Bagh massacre.

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Punjabi people

Bullet marks, visible on a preserved wall, at present day Jallianwala Bagh.

A Phulkari from Patiala. The 33rd Punjabi Army (A Picture of an Commander: A Punjabi Subadar).

Nur Jahan’s (wife of mughal empire JaTandoori chicken hangir) is a popular mausoleum dish in in Punjabi Lahore. cuisine

Jahangir’s (Father of Shah Jahan) mausoleum in Shahdara, Lahore.

Samadhi of Sikh emperor, Ranjit Singh in Lahore.

Sialkot Clock Tower, built during the reign of the British rule, Sialkot.

Jalandhar Railway Station’s reception block.

Irrigated land of Punjab.

Noor Mahal The Jhelum (Palace), Bahawalpur River, one of Clock many rivers Tower at of Punjab. Mausoleum Govt Col- of Shah lege Rukn-e-Alam University, (1320 AD). Lahore.

Chauburji, the Gateway to the Mughal Gardens, Lahore

See also

The Shalimar Gardens.

The Mohindra College, Patiala at night.

• Punjab region • Punjabi culture • Punjabi language The Shali• Punjabi cuisine In Jalandhar Taxila is a mar Gar• List of Jat Clans of West Punjab Punjabi ComWorld Herit- dens in • Music of Punjab munity gets age Site. Lahore. • Punjabi dance together at • Punjabi folklore markets, • Punjabi press amusement • Punjab (Pakistan) parks etc es• Punjab (India) pecially on • History of the Punjab weekends • Sikhism and annual • Hinduism in Punjab Punjabi • Sikhs festivals. • Punjab (British India) • Amritsar • Chandigarh • Lahore The Hiran Faisalabad • CMH Minar loc- Multan • The Wazir Mosque in ated in • Sialkot Khan Jhelum Sheikhupura, • Jalandhar Mosque, built Cantt. was a tribute • Pakistani American-Punjabis and other by Shah Jato Jahangir’s Pakistanis in the U.S. han inLahore. favourite Indian American- Punjabis and other • antelope. Indians in the U.S.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
• Punjabi Mexican American - A crosscultural merger of the first Punjabis with Mexican/Hispanic residents in California. • Indo-Canadian

Punjabi people

References and further reading

• Gilmartin, David. Empire and Islam: Punjab and the Making of Pakistan. Univ of California Press (1988), ISBN 0-520-06249-3. • Grewal, J.S. and Gordon Johnson. The [1] Pakistan 1998 census - Population by Sikhs of the Punjab (The New Cambridge mother tongue History of India). Cambridge University [2] Indian Census Press; Reprint edition (1998), ISBN [3] Roger Ballard, Marcus Banks (1994). 0-521-63764-3. Desh Pardesh. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. • Denzil Ibbetson, Punjab Castes: Race, p. 19-20. http://books.google.com/ Castes and Tribes of the People of Punjab. books?id=74ZVFb37zuIC&pg=PA20&d. Cosmo Publications, ISBN 81-7020-458-5. [4] 2006 Census: Ethnic Origin • Ibbetson, Denzil, (2002). Panjab castes. [5] Amarjit Kaur (1993). Historical Low Price Publications. ISBN Dictionary of Malaysia. Scarecrow Press. 81-7536-290-1. http://books.google.com/ • Latif, Syed. History of the Panjab. Kalyani books?id=G226AAAAIAAJ&d. (1997), ISBN 81-7096-245-5. [6] "Indians - Indian communities - Te Ara • Rose, H.A. Denzil Ibbetson, Edward Encyclopedia of New Zealand". Maclagan (reprint 1990). Glossary of the http://www.teara.govt.nz/ Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North NewZealanders/NewZealandPeoples/ West Frontier Province. Asian Educational Indians/1/en. Services, India, ISBN 81-206-0505-5. [7] Language Change Via Language • Sekhon, Iqbal S. The Punjabis : The Planning: Some Theoretical and People, Their History, Culture and Empirical Aspects with a Focus on Enterprise. Delhi, Cosmo, 2000, 3 Vols., Singapore. p. 77. ISBN 81-7755-051-9. http://books.google.com/ • Singh, Gurharpal. Ethnic Conflict in books?id=zRXR1EVYIHkC&pg=PA77&vq=Punjabis&dq=Punjabis+in+Singapore&source=gbs_searc India : A Case-Study of Punjab. Palgrave [8] "People of Pakistan". Encarta. Macmillan (2000). http://encarta.msn.com/ • Singh, Gurharpal (Editor) and Ian Talbot encyclopedia_761560851_3/ (Editor). Punjabi Identity: Continuity and Pakistan.html#s11. Change. South Asia Books (1996), ISBN [9] "Languages of India". Culturopedia. 81-7304-117-2. http://www.culturopedia.com/Languages/ • Singh, Khushwant. A History of the Sikhs official_languages.html. Retrieved on Volume 1.Oxford University Press, ISBN 2007-01-01. 0-19-562643-5 [10] "Political economy of the three Punjabs". • Steel, Flora Annie. Tales of the Punjab : Daily Times. Told by the People (Oxford in Asia http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/ Historical Reprints). Oxford University default.asp?page=story_2-5-2003_pg3_4. Press, USA; New Ed edition (2002), ISBN Retrieved on 2007-01-01. 0-19-579789-2. [11] Punjabi set to become Canada’s 4th top • Tandon, Prakash and Maurice Zinkin. language Punjabi Century 1857-1947, University of [12] .South Asia: British India Partitioned California Press (1968), ISBN [13] The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest 0-520-01253-4. Settlers Persists Both in Indian Tribal • This article incorporates public domain and Caste Populations material from websites or documents of [14] Most of the extant mtDNA boundaries in the Library of Congress Country Studies. South and Southwest Asia were likely Pakistan, India shaped during the initial settlement of • DNA boundaries in South and Southwest Eurasia by anatomically modern humans Asia, BMC Genetics 2004, 5:26 [15] Country Studies - Pakistan • Ethnologue Eastern Panjabi

Notes

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Ethnologue Western Panjabi Indian Census Pakistan Census The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists Both in Indian Tribal and Caste Populations, Am. J. Hum. Genet. 72:313–332, 2003 • Talib, Gurbachan (1950). Muslim League Attack on Sikhs and Hindus in the Punjab 1947. India: Shiromani Gurdwara Prabandhak Committee. Online 1 Online 2 • • • •

Punjabi people
Online 3 (A free copy of this book can be read from any 3 of the included "Online Sources" of this free “Online Book”)

External links
• Jattworld.com - The Punjabi Jatts • Peoples and Languages in Pre-Islamic Indus Valley • Punjabi Primer - especially designed for those who know English

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Punjabi_people" Categories: Ethnic groups in Pakistan, Ethnic groups in India, Punjabi tribes, Punjabi culture, Muslim communities This page was last modified on 21 May 2009, at 12:15 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers

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