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Mosque

Mosque
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A mosque is a place of worship for followers of Islam. Muslims often refer to the mosque by its Arabic name, masjid, Arabic: ‫دجسم‬‎ — Arabic pronunciation: [ˈmæsdʒɪd] (pl. masājid, Arabic: ‫دجاسم‬‎ — [mæˈsæːdʒɪd]). The word "mosque" in English refers to all types of buildings dedicated for Islamic worship, although there is a distinction in Arabic between the smaller, privately owned mosque and the larger, "collective" mosque (Arabic: ‫عماج دجسم‬‎, masjid jāmi‘), which has more community and social amenities. The mosque serves as a place where Muslims can come together for salat (prayer) (Arabic: ‫ةالص‬‎, ṣalāt) as well as a center for information, education, and dispute settlement. The Imam leads the prayer. They have developed significantly from the open-air spaces that were the Quba Mosque and Al-Masjid al-Nabawi in the 7th century. Many mosques have elaborate domes, minarets, and prayer halls. Mosques originated on the Arabian Peninsula, but are now found in all inhabited continents.

Etymology
• The Wiktionary definition of Mosque The Arabic masjid means aplace of worship and is a noun of place from the verb sajada (root "s-j-d," meaning "to bow" or "to kneel") in reference to the prostrations performed during Islamic prayers. Either the word masjid itself or at least the verb from which it is derived was borrowed from Aramaic. The word "m-s-g-d" is attested in Aramaic as early as the 5th century BCE, and the same word is later found in Nabataean inscriptions with the meaning "place of worship"; apparently, this Aramaic word originally meant "stele" or "sacred pillar".[1] The same root exists also in Hebrew,(‫ ,)ד-ג-ס‬meaning "to worship". The modern-day English word "mosque", just like its equivalents in many other European languages, derives from the word masjid via Spanish mezquita.[1] The pre-cursors of the word "mosque" appeared during the 15th, 16th, and 17th centuries and "Moseak", "muskey", "moschy", and "mos’keh" were just some of the variations

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that came into use until it was decided that "mosquee", imitating Middle French, Italian, and Old Spanish, would become the standard. In the early 18th century, the modern spelling became the most popular and standard spelling of the word.[2]

Mosque

History
Grand entryways and tall towers, or minarets, have long been and continue to be closely associated with mosques. However, the first three mosques were very simple open spaces on the Arabian Peninsula. Mosques evolved significantly over the next 1,000 years, acquiring their now-distinctive features and adapting to cultures around the world.

Diffusion and evolution
Mosques were built outside the Arabian Peninsula as Muslims moved to other parts of the world. Egypt became occupied by Muslim Arabs as early as 640, and since then so many mosques have appeared throughout the country that its capital city, Cairo, has acquired the nickname of city of a thousand minarets.[3] Egyptian mosques vary in amenities, as some have Islamic schools (madrassas) while others have hospitals or tombs.[4] Mosques in Sicily and Spain do not primarily reflect the architecture of Visigothic predecessors, but instead reflect the architecture introduced by the Muslim Moors.[5] It is hypothesized, however, that there were some elements of pre-Islamic architecture which were Islamicized into Andalusi and Maghribi architecture, for example, the distinctive horseshoe arch. [6] The first Chinese mosque was established in the eighth century in Xi’an. The Great Mosque of Xi’an, whose current building dates from the eighteenth century, does not replicate many of the features often associated with traditional mosques. Instead, it follows traditional Chinese architecture. It is distinguished from other buildings by its green roof (Buddhist temples are often built with a yellow roof). Mosques in western China incorporate more traditional elements seen in mosques in other parts of the world. Western Chinese mosques were more likely to incorporate minarets and domes while eastern Chinese mosques were more likely to look like pagodas.[7]

The minaret at the Great Mosque of Xi’an, China By the fifteenth century, Islam had become the dominant religion in Java and Sumatra, Indonesia’s two most populous islands. As with Hinduism and Buddhism before it, the new religion and its accompanying foreign influences were absorbed and reinterpreted, with mosques given a unique Indonesian/Javanese interpretation. At the time, Javanese mosques took many design cues from Hindu, Buddhist, and even Chinese architectural influences. They lacked, for example, the ubiquitous Islamic dome which did not appear in Indonesia until the 19th century, but had tall timber, multi-level roofs not too dissimilar to the pagodas of Balinese Hindu temples still common today. A number of significant early mosques survive, particularly along the north coast of Java. These include the Mesjid Agung in Demak, built in 1474, and the Grand Mosque of Yogyakarta that feature multi-level roofs. Javanese styles in turn influenced the architectural styles of mosques among Indonesia’s Austronesian neighbors: Malaysia, Brunei and the southern Philippines.

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Mosque
home to mosques that feature traditional domes and minarets. These large mosques in urban centers are supposed to serve as community and social centers for a large group of Muslims that occupy the region. However, one can still find smaller mosques in more suburban and rural regions throughout Europe where Muslims populate, an example of this is the Shah Jahan Mosque in Woking, the first purpose built mosque in the UK. There are 40,000 to 50,000 mosques in the United States and Islam is the fastest growing religion there.[9] Mosques first appeared in the United States in the early twentieth century, the likely first being one in Maine built by Albanian immigrants in 1915. [1] as more immigrants continue to arrive in the country, especially from South Asia, the number of American mosques is increasing faster than ever before. Whereas only two percent of the country’s mosques appeared in the United States before 1950, eighty-seven percent of American mosques were founded after 1970 and fifty percent of American mosques founded after 1980.[10]

The Great Mosque of Paris. Mosques diffused into India during the reign of the Mughal empire in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The Mughals brought their own form of architecture that included pointed, onion-shaped domes, as seen in Delhi’s Jama Masjid. Mosques first arrived in the Ottoman Empire (mostly present-day Turkey) during the eleventh century, when many local Turks converted to Islam. Several of the first mosques in the Ottoman Empire, such as the Hagia Sophia in present-day Istanbul, were originally churches or cathedrals in the Byzantine Empire. The Ottomans created their own design of mosques, which included large central domes, multiple minarets, and open façades. The Ottoman style of mosques usually included elaborate columns, aisles, and high ceilings in the interior, while incorporating traditional elements, such as the mihrab.[8] Today, Turkey is still home to many mosques that display this Ottoman style of architecture. Mosques gradually diffused to different parts of Europe, but the most rapid growth in the number of mosques has occurred within the past century as more Muslims have migrated to the continent. Major European cities, such as Rome, London, and Munich, are

Conversion of places of worship

The Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, Syria was a Byzantine church before the Islamic conquest of the Levant. Some ecclesiastical elements are still evident. According to early Muslim historians, towns that surrendered without resistance and made treaties with the Muslims received "permission" to take their churches and synagogues, One of the earliest examples of these kinds of conversions was in Damascus, Syria, where in 705 Umayyad caliph Abd alMalik took the church of St. John from the Christians and had it rebuilt as a mosque, which is now known as Umayyad Mosque;

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overall, Abd al-Malik is said to have transformed 10 churches in Damascus into mosques. The process of turning churches into mosques was especially intensive in the villages. The Abbasid caliph al-Ma’mun turned many churches into mosques. Ottoman Turks converted into mosques nearly all churches, monasteries, and chapels in Constantinople, including the famous Hagia Sophia, immediately after capturing the city in 1453. In some instances mosques have been established on the places of Jewish or Christian sanctuaries associated with Biblical personalities who were also recognized by Islam.[1] Mosques have also been converted for use by other religions, notably in southern Spain, following the conquest of the Moors in 1492.[11] The most prominent of them is the Great Mosque of Cordoba. The Iberian Peninsula, Southeast Europe, and India (the Babri Masjid incident) are other regions in the world where such instances occurred once no longer under Muslim rule. Big mosque on the Prairie opens in Calgary Last Updated: Saturday, July 5, 2008 | 4:38 PM MT Comments313Recommend128CBC News Hailing it as an "architectural treasure," Prime Minister Stephen Harper joined hundreds of guests as the biggest mosque ever built in Canada opened its doors on Saturday. The Ahmadiyya Muslim mosque in Calgary took two years to build and cost $15 million. (CBC) The $15-million Baitan Nur mosque in northeast Calgary covers 4,500 square metres, or 48,000 square feet, and was constructed largely through donations from the city’s small but rapidly growing Ahmadiyya Muslim community. "I don’t suppose I will be the first to observe it isn’t exactly the little mosque on the prairie," Harper said. "Quite the opposite. It is Canada’s largest mosque complex." Harper was joined at the opening by several federal and provincial politicians, including Liberal Leader Stéphane Dion. The Ahmadiyya movement of Islam was founded 100 years ago, originating with the teachings of Indian villager Mirza Ghulam Ahmad and is renowned today for promoting a peaceful coexistence with people of all faiths and cultures. "This community knows first-hand what it is to experience persecution and discrimination based on your religious beliefs," Harper

Mosque
said following a tour of the sprawling mosque complex. "So you understand at a profound level that promoting religious freedom

Religious functions
Prayers

Muslims performing salat at the Umayyad Mosque. All adult Muslims, with exceptions for the infirm, are required to offer Salat prayers five times daily. Most mosques will organise a formal time of prayer for each of the daily timeslots. In addition to holding the daily prayers, mosques hold weekly jumu’ah services which replace the midday prayer on Fridays. While daily prayers can be performed anywhere, it is required to attend Friday prayers at the mosque.[12] The mosque is the centre of the Islamic community, illustrating the idea of brotherhood and iman.[13] A funeral prayer, or salat ul-janazah, is normally held for a deceased Muslim outdoors in a courtyard or square close to the mosque, with all congregants present, including the imam, participating.[14] During eclipses, mosques will host special prayers called eclipse prayers.[15] There are two large holidays (Eids) in the Islamic calendar, Eid ul-Fitr and Eid ul-Adha during which there are special prayers held at mosques in the morning. These Eid prayers are supposed to be offered in large groups, and so larger mosques will normally host them for their congregants as well as the congregants of smaller local mosques. Some mosques will even rent convention centers or other large public buildings to hold

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the large number of Muslims who attend. Mosques, especially those in countries where Muslims are the majority, will also host Eid prayers outside in courtyards or town squares.[16]

Mosque
mosques will host all-night programs to observe Laylat al-Qadr, the night Muslims believe that Muhammad first received Qur’anic revelations.[12] On that night, between sunset and sunrise, mosques employ speakers to educate congregants in attendance about Islam. Mosques or the community usually provide meals periodically throughout the night.

The Sultan Ahmed Mosque in Istanbul.

Ramadan events
See also: Ramadan Islam’s holiest month, Ramadan, is observed through many events. As Muslims must fast during the day during Ramadan, mosques will host iftar dinners after sunset and the fourth required prayer of the day, maghrib. Food is provided, at least in part, by members of the community, thereby creating nightly potluck dinners. Because of the community contribution necessary to serve iftar dinners, mosques with smaller congregations may not be able to host the iftar dinners daily. Some mosques will also hold suhoor meals before dawn to congregants attending the first required prayer of the day, fajr. As with iftar dinners, congregants usually provide the food for suhoor, although able mosques may provide food instead. Mosques will often invite poorer members of the Muslim community to share in beginning and breaking the fasts, as providing charity during Ramadan is regarded in Islam as especially honorable.[17] Following the last obligatory daily prayer (isha) special, optional tarawih prayers are offered in larger mosques. During each night of prayers, which can last for up to two hours each night, usually one member of the community who has memorized the entire Qur’an will recite a segment of the book.[12] Sometimes, several such people (not necessarily of the local community) take turns to do this. During the last ten days of Ramadan, larger

The Al-‘Abbās Mosque is visited by millions of Shī‘ah pilgrims every year, in Karbala, Iraq. During the last ten days of Ramadan, larger mosques within the Muslim community will host i’tikaf, a practice in which at least one Muslim man from the community must participate. Muslims performing i’tikaf are required to stay within the mosque for ten consecutive days, often in worship or learning about Islam. As a result, the rest of the Muslim community is responsible for providing the participants with food, drinks, and whatever else they need during their stay.[12]

Charity
The third of the Five Pillars of Islam states that Muslims are required to give approximately one-fortieth of their wealth to charity as zakat. Since mosques form the center of Muslim communities, they are where Muslims go to both give zakat and, if necessary, collect it. Prior to the holiday of Eid ul-Fitr, mosques also collect a special zakat that is supposed to assist in helping poor Muslims attend the prayers and celebrations associated with the holiday.

Contemporary political roles
See also: Political aspects of Islam

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Mosque
February 2006, imams and other Islamic leaders used mosques and Friday prayers as vehicles to call for calm and peace in the midst of widespread violence.[20] A few mosques have become the platforms of extremist imams to advocate terrorism and extreme Islamic ideals. Finsbury Park Mosque in London is exemplary of a mosque that has been used in this manner.

Social conflict

Mosque in Cuiabá, Brazil. The late twentieth century saw an increase in the number of mosques used for political purposes. Today, civic participation is commonly promoted in mosques in the Western world. Because of the importance in the community, mosques are used for preaching peaceful coexistence with non-believers, even in times of adversity.

The 16th Century Babri Mosque in India was destroyed by right-wing Hindu extremists in 1992. See also: Babri Masjid, Islamophobia, and Israeli-Palestinian conflict As they are considered important to the Muslim community, mosques, like other places of worship, can be at the heart of social conflicts. Babri Mosque was the subject of such a conflict up until the early 1990s when it was demolished. Before a mutual solution could be devised, the mosque was destroyed by approximately 200,000 Hindus on December 6, 1992 as the mosque was built by Babur allegedly on the site of a previous Hindu temple marking the birthplace of Ram.[21] The controversy surrounded the mosque was directly linked to rioting in Bombay (presentday Mumbai) as well as bombings in 1993 that killed 257 people. A February 2006 bombing that seriously damaged Iraq’s al-Askari Mosque, exacerbated tensions that had already existed. Other mosque bombings in Iraq, both before and after the February 2006 bombing, have been part of the conflict between the country’s groups of Muslims. However, mosque bombings have not been exclusive to Iraq; in June 2005, a suicide bomber killed at least 19 people at an Afghan mosque.[22] In April

Advocacy
Countries with a minority Muslim population are more likely than Muslim-majority countries of the Greater Middle East to use mosques as a way to promote civic participation.[18] American mosques host voter registration and civic participation drives that promote involving Muslims, who are often firstor second-generation immigrants, in the political process. As a result of these efforts as well as attempts at mosques to keep Muslims informed about the issues facing the Muslim community, regular mosque attendants are more likely to participate in protests, sign petitions, and otherwise be involved in politics.[18] Nevertheless, a link between political views and mosque attendance can still be seen in other parts of the world.[19] Following the al-Askari Mosque bombing in

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2006, two explosions occurred at India’s Jama Masjid. Following the September 11 attacks, several American mosques were targeted in attacks ranging from simple vandalism to arson.[23] Furthermore, the Jewish Defense League was suspected of plotting to bomb the King Fahd Mosque in Culver City, California.[24] Similar attacks occurred throughout the United Kingdom following the 7 July 2005 London bombings. Outside the Western world, in June 2001, the Hassan Bek Mosque was the target of attacks involving hundreds of Israelis angry at Arabs for a previous attack.[25][26][27]

Mosque
Following the fall of the Soviet Union, in 1992, mosques in impoverished Afghanistan saw many contributions from Saudi citizens.[29] The King Fahd Mosque in Culver City, California and the Islamic Cultural Center of Italy in Rome represent two of Saudi Arabia’s largest investments in foreign mosques as former Saudi king Fahd bin Abdul Aziz al-Saud contributed US$8 million[29] and US$50 million[31] to the two mosques, respectively.

Architecture
Styles

Faisal Mosque in Islamabad, Pakistan, by Turkish architect Vedat Dalokay, was financed by approximately 1976 SAR130 million (2006 US$120 million)[28] from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

A stone-age cave converted into a Mosque in Gobustan, Azerbaijan.

Saudi influence
See also: Wahhabism Although the Saudi involvement in mosques around the world can be traced back to the 1960s, it was not until later in the twentieth century that the government of Saudi Arabia became a large influence in foreign mosques.[29] Beginning in the 1980s, the Saudi Arabian government began to finance the construction of mosques in countries around the world. An estimated US$45 billion has been spent by the Saudi Arabian government financing mosques and Islamic schools in foreign countries. Ain al-Yaqeen, a Saudi newspaper, reported in 2002 that Saudi funds may have contributed to building as many as 1,500 mosques and 2,000 other Islamic centers[30] Saudi citizens have also contributed significantly to mosques in the Islamic world, especially in countries where they see Muslims as poor and oppressed.

The Shah Mosque in Isfahan,Iran The architecture of mosques are a continuation of pre-Islamic architecture of palaces built during the Parthian and Sassanian dynasties of Persia. The Sarvestan palace from the Sassanian era is a great example of this. For example, the idea of having an arched entrance and a central dome is clearly one borrowed from pre-Islamic, Persian

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Mosque
Arab-plan or hypostyle mosques are the earliest type of mosques, pioneered under the Umayyad Dynasty. These mosques have square or rectangular plans with an enclosed courtyard and covered prayer hall. Historically, in the warm Mediterranean and Middle Eastern climates, the courtyard served to accommodate the large number of worshippers during Friday prayers. Most early hypostyle mosques had flat roofs on prayer halls, which required the use of numerous columns and supports.[1] One of the most notable hypostyle mosques is the Mezquita de Córdoba in Spain, the building being supported by over 850 columns.[32] Frequently, hypostyle mosques have outer arcades so that visitors can enjoy the shade. Arab-plan mosques were constructed mostly under the Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties; subsequently, however, the simplicity of the Arab plan limited the opportunities for further development, the mosques consequently losing popularity.[1]

The Mosquée Ennasr mosque in Ariana has a futurist architecture architecture. After the Arab invasion of Persia, this architecture, as well as elements of Sassanian culture, was used for the new Islamic world. Many forms of mosques have evolved in different regions of the Islamic world. Notable mosque types include the early Abbasid mosques, T-type mosques, and the central-dome mosques of Anatolia. The oil-wealth of the twentieth century drove a great deal of mosque construction using designs from leading non-Muslim modern architects and promoting the careers of important contemporary Muslim architects.

The Jami Ul Alfar mosque in Colombo Sri Lanka has a striking candy-striped facade with structural elements fusing Moorish and Colonial style architectures Abuja National Mosque, Nigeria

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Mosque

The Jamiah Masjid in Tamilnadu, South India has Dravidian style of architecture The Ottomans introduced central dome mosques in the fifteenth century. These mosques have a large dome centered over the prayer hall. In addition to having a large central dome, a common feature is smaller domes that exist off-center over the prayer hall or throughout the rest of the mosque, where prayer is not performed.[33] This style was heavily influenced by the Byzantine religious architecture with its use of large central domes.[1] Iwan mosques are most notable for their domed chambers and iwans, vaulted spaces opening out at one end. In iwan mosques, one or more iwans face a central courtyard that serves as the prayer hall. The style represents a borrowing from pre-Islamic Iranian architecture and has been used almost exclusively for mosques in Iran. Hajja Soad’s mosque took a pyramid shape which is a creative style in Islamic architecture.

Hajja Soad mosque in Khartoum land terminal. Designed by arch. Hussein Kinani at 2006, Sudan. constructed in 665 in Basra during the reign of the Umayyad caliph Muawiyah I. Muawiyah encouraged the construction of minarets, as they were supposed to bring mosques on par with Christian churches with their bell towers. Consequently, mosque architects borrowed the shape of the bell tower for their minarets, which were used for essentially the same purpose — calling the faithful to prayer.[35]

Minarets
A common feature in mosques is the minaret, the tall, slender tower that usually is situated at one of the corners of the mosque structure. The top of the minaret is always the highest point in mosques that have one, and often the highest point in the immediate area. The tallest minaret in the world is located at the Hassan II Mosque in Casablanca, Morocco.[34] The first mosques had no minarets, and even nowadays the most conservative Islamic movements, like Wahhabis, avoid building minarets, seeing them as ostentatious and unnecessary. The first minaret was

The Islamic Solidarity Mosque in Mogadishu with a tall minaret.

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Before the five required daily prayers, a muezzin calls the worshippers to prayer from the minaret. In many countries like Singapore where Muslims are not the majority, mosques are prohibited from loudly broadcasting the call to prayer (adhan), although it is supposed to be said loudly to the surrounding community. The adhan is required before every prayer. However, nearly every mosque assigns a muezzin for each prayer to say the adhan as it is a recommended practice or sunnah of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. At mosques that do not have minarets, the adhan is called instead from inside the mosque or somewhere else on the ground.[12] The iqama, which is similar to the adhan and said immediately before the start of prayer, is usually not said from the minaret even if a mosque has one.

Mosque

Domes
The prayer hall, or musalla, in a Turkish mosque, with a Minbar. Qur’anic verses on the walls to assist worshippers in focusing on the beauty of Islam and its holiest book, the Qur’an, as well as for decoration.[12] Usually opposite the entrance to the prayer hall is the qiblah wall, the visually emphasized area inside the prayer hall. The qiblah wall should, in a properly oriented mosque, be set perpendicular to a line leading to Mecca, the location of the Kaaba.[39] Congregants pray in rows parallel to the qiblah wall and thus arrange themselves so they face Mecca. In the qiblah wall, usually at its center, is the mihrab, a niche or depression indicating the direction of Mecca. Usually the mihrab is not occupied by furniture either. Sometimes, especially during Friday prayers, a raised minbar or pulpit is located to the side of the mihrab for a khatib or some other speaker to offer a sermon (khutbah). The mihrab serves as the location where the imam leads the five daily prayers on a regular basis.[40]

The domes of the Khatem Al Anbiyaa Mosque in Beirut, Lebanon. The domes, often placed directly above the main prayer hall, may signify the vaults of heaven and the sky.[36] As time progressed, dome grew, from occupying a small part of the roof near the mihrab to encompassing the whole roof above the prayer hall. Although domes normally took on the shape of a hemisphere, the Mughals in India popularized onion-shaped domes in South Asia and Persia.[37] Some mosques have multiple, often smaller, domes in addition to the main large dome that resides at the center.

Prayer hall
The prayer hall, also known as the musalla, has no furniture; chairs and pews are absent from the prayer hall so as to allow as many worshipers as possible to line the room.[38] Some mosques have Arabic calligraphy and

Ablution facilities
As ritual purification precedes all prayers, mosques often have ablution fountains or other facilities for washing in their entryways or courtyards. However, worshippers at much

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Mosque

A simple heritage mosque in Australian outback contrasts with the grand designs of established Islamic communities. Bourke cemetery, New South Wales smaller mosques often have to use restrooms to perform their ablutions. In traditional mosques, this function is often elaborated into a freestanding building in the center of a courtyard.[32] This desire for cleanliness extends to the prayer halls where shoes are disallowed to be worn anywhere other than the cloakroom. Thus, foyers with shelves to put shoes and racks to hold coats are commonplace among mosques.[38]

Baitul Mukarram (Dhaka), the National Mosque of Bangladesh. The structure resembles the Kaaba in Mecca. hall, that are universal, there are many other rules that are dealt with and enforced in a variety of ways from mosque to mosque.

Prayer leader
Appointment of a prayer leader is considered desirable, but not always obligatory.[41] The permanent prayer leader (imam) must be a free honest man and is authoritative in religious matters.[41] In mosques constructed and maintained by the government, the prayer leader is appointed by the ruler;[41] in private mosques, however, appointment is made by members of the congregation through majority voting. According to the Hanafi school of Islamic jurisprudence, the man who built the mosque has a stronger claim to the title of imam, but this view is not shared by the other schools.[41] Leadership at prayer falls into three categories, depending on the type of prayer: five daily prayers, Friday prayer, or optional prayers.[41] According to the Hanafi and Maliki school of Islamic jurisprudence, appointment of a prayer leader for Friday service is mandatory because otherwise the prayer is invalid. The Shafi’i and Hanbali schools, however, argue that the appointment is not necessary and the prayer is valid as long as it is performed in a congregation. A slave may lead a Friday prayer, but Muslim authorities disagree over whether the job can be done by a minor.[41] An imam appointed to lead Friday prayers may also lead at the five daily prayers; Muslim scholars agree to the leader appointed for five daily services may lead the Friday service as well.[41] All Muslim authorities hold the consensus opinion that only men may lead prayer for men.[41] Nevertheless women prayer leaders

Contemporary features
Modern mosques have a variety of amenities available to their congregants. As mosques are supposed to appeal to the community, they may also have additional facilities, from health clinics to libraries to gymnasiums, to serve the community.

"Makeshift" Mosques
Most especially in Metro Manila, Philippines area, is common for some Muslim-denominated bazaars (tiangge) to also have a makeshift mosque. They are made primarily for Muslim tenants, most especially when a mosque is not available on the vicinity. Such mosques can be seen in the Riverbanks Mall in Marikina and on the bazaar in the parking lot between Sta Lucia Mall and Robinsons Metro East in Pasig.

Rules and etiquette
Mosques, in accordance with Islamic practices, institute a number of rules intended to keep Muslims focused on worshipping Allah. While there are several rules, such as those regarding not allowing shoes in the prayer

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Mosque

Dress
Islam requires that its adherents wear clothes that portray modesty. As a result, although many mosques will not enforce violations, both men and women when attending a mosque must adhere to these guidelines. Men are supposed to come to the mosque wearing loose and clean clothes that do not reveal the shape of the body. Likewise, it is recommended that women at a mosque wear loose clothing that covers to the wrists and ankles, and cover their heads with a hijab or other covering. Many Muslims, regardless of their ethnic background, wear Middle eastern clothing associated with Arabic Islam to special occasions and prayers at mosques.[12]

Interior of the Mezquita, a hypostyle former mosque with columns arranged in grid pattern, in Córdoba, Spain. are allowed to lead prayer in front of all-female congregations.

Concentration
As mosques are places of worship, those within the mosque are required to remain respectful to those in prayer. Loud talking within the mosque, as well as discussion of topics deemed disrespectful, is forbidden in areas where people are praying. In addition, it is disrespectful to walk in front of or otherwise disturb Muslims in prayer.[43] The walls within the mosque have few items, except for possibly Arabic calligraphy, so Muslims in prayer are not distracted. Muslims are also discouraged from wearing clothing with distracting images and symbols so as not to divert the attention of those standing behind them during prayer. In many mosques, even the carpeted prayer area has no designs, its plainness helping worshippers to focus.

Cleanliness
See also: Taharah All mosques have rules regarding cleanliness, as it is an essential part of the worshipper’s experience. Muslims before prayer are required to cleanse themselves in an ablution process known as wudu. However, even to those who enter the prayer hall of a mosque without the intention of praying, there are still rules that apply. Shoes must not be worn inside the carpeted prayer hall. Some mosques will also extend that rule to include other parts of the facility even if those other locations are not devoted to prayer. Congregants and visitors to mosques are supposed to be clean themselves. It is also undesirable to come to the mosque after eating something that smells, such as garlic.[42]

Gender separation

Among the crowds at Imām Ridhā Mosque, are many women who dress in Chador to maintain their modesty and elegance.

Muslims praying in the male section of a mosque in Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir. Islamic law requires men and women to be separated in the prayer hall; ideally, the women must occupy the rows behind the men.

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Muhammad preferred women to pray at home rather than at a mosque, and according to the hadith Muhammad said: "The best mosques for women are the inner parts of their houses", although Muhammad told Muslims not to forbid women from entering mosques. The second caliph Umar at one time prohibited women from attending mosques especially at night because he feared they may be teased by males, so he required them to pray at home.[44] Sometimes a special part of the mosque was railed off for women; for example, the governor of Mecca in 870 had ropes tied between the columns to make a separate place for women.[1] Many mosques today will put the women behind a barrier or partition or in another room against most Islamic beliefs. Mosques in South and Southeast Asia put men and women in separate rooms, as the divisions were built into them centuries ago. In nearly two-thirds of American mosques, women pray behind partitions or in separate areas, not in the main prayer hall; some mosques do not admit women at all due to the lack of space and the fact that some prayers, such as the Friday Jummah, are mandatory for men but optional for women. Although there are sections exclusively for women and children, the Grand Mosque in Mecca is desegregated.[45]

Mosque
of the Maliki school of Islamic jurisprudence, who argue that non-Muslims may not be allowed into mosques under any circumstances.[41] The Qur’an addresses the subject of nonMuslims, and particularly polytheists, in mosques in two verses in its ninth chapter, Sura At-Tawba. The seventeenth verse of the chapter prohibits those who join gods with Allah — polytheists — from entering mosques: It is not for such as join gods with Allah, to visit or maintain the mosques of Allah while they witness against their own souls to infidelity. The works of such bear no fruit: In Fire shall they dwell. (Yusuf Ali [Qur’an 9:17]) The twenty-eighth verse of the same chapter is more specific as it only considers polytheists in the Sacred Mosque, the Masjid alHaram in Mecca:

Non-Muslims in mosques
The Badshahi Mosque (Royal Mosque) of Lahore, built by Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb is also open to non-Muslim tourists. O ye who believe! Truly the Pagans are unclean; so let them not, after this year of theirs, approach the Sacred Mosque. And if ye fear poverty, soon will Allah enrich you, if He wills, out of His bounty, for Allah is All-knowing, All-wise. (Yusuf Ali [Qur’an 9:28]) According to Ahmad ibn Hanbal, these verses were followed to the letter at the times of Muhammad, when Jews and Christians, considered monotheists, were still allowed to the Masjid al-Haram. However, the Umayyad caliph Umar II later forbade non-Muslims from entering mosques, and his ruling remained in practice in Saudi Arabia.[1] Today, the decision on whether non-Muslims should be allowed to enter mosques varies. With few

The Hassan II Mosque in Casablanca is one of two mosques in Morocco open to nonMuslims. Under most interpretations of Islamic law, non-Muslims may be allowed into mosques, as long as they do not sleep or eat there. A dissenting opinion is presented by followers

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
exceptions, mosques in the Arabian peninsula as well as Morocco do not allow entry to nonMuslims. For example, the Hassan II Mosque in Casablanca is one of only two mosques in Morocco currently open to non-Muslims.[46] However, there are also many other places in the west as well as the Islamic world where non-Muslims are welcome to enter mosques. Most mosques in the United States, for example, report receiving non-Muslim visitors every month.[10] Many Mosques throughout the United States welcome non-Muslims as a sign of openness to the rest of the community as well as to encourage conversions to Islam.[47][48] In modern-day Saudi Arabia, the Grand Mosque and all of Mecca are open only to Muslims. Likewise, the Masjid al-Nabawi and the city of Medina that surrounds it are also off-limits to those who do not practice Islam.[49] For mosques in other areas, it has most commonly been taken that non-Muslims may only enter mosques if granted permission to do so by Muslims and if they have a legitimate reason. All entrants regardless of religious affiliation are expected to respect the rules and decorum for mosques.[12] In modern Turkey non-Muslim tourists are allowed to enter any mosque, but there are some strict rules. Visiting a mosque is allowed only between prayers; visitors are required to wear long trousers and not to wear shoes, women must cover their heads; visitors are not allowed to interrupt praying Muslims, especially by taking photos of them; no loud talk is allowed; and no references to other religions are allowed (no crosses on necklaces, no cross gestures etc.) At different times and places, non-Muslims living under Muslim rule were required to demonstrate deference to mosques. In most cities of Morocco, Jews were required to remove their shoes when passing by a mosque.[50] Danish traveler Carsten Niebuhr wrote that in 18th century Egypt "Jews and Christians had to dismount before several mosques in veneration of their sanctity."[51]

Mosque

See also
• • • • • • • • • Eidgah List of largest mosques Islamic art Sahn Timeline of Islamic history Arabesque Islamic Golden Age Indo-Islamic Architecture Moorish Revival

Famous mosques
• Masjid al-Haram; Mecca, Saudi Arabia holiest site in Islam[53] • Masjid al-Nabawi; Medina, Saudi Arabia second-holiest site in Islam[54] • Al-Aqsa Mosque; Jerusalem, Israel/Palestinian territories (disputed) third-holiest site in Islam[55] • Fazl Mosque; London, the first ever mosque built in London. • Baitul Futuh; United Kingdom, the largest mosque in Western Europe. • Grand Mosque of Rome; Italy, the largest mosque of whole Europe.[56][57] • Berlin Mosque, Ahmadiyya Moschee; Berlin, Germany, Germany’s oldest mosque, built between 1923 and 1925 • Islamic Centre Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany, one of the leading Shia centres in the Western world • Baitun nur; Canada, the largest mosque in North America. • Al-Azhar Mosque; Cairo, Egypt • Sayyidah Zaynab Mosque; Damascus, Syria - Tomb of Zaynab bint Ali • Sayyidah Ruqayya Mosque; Damascus, Syria - Tomb of Fatimah the youngest daughter of Husayn ibn Ali • Umayyad Mosque; Damascus, Syria • Imam Ali Mosque; Najaf, Iraq - Tomb of the First Shī`a Imām, ’Ali ibn Abī Tālib • Imam Husayn Mosque; Karbala, Iraq Tomb of the Third - Twelver Shī`a Imām, Husayn ibn Ali • Al Kadhimiya Mosque; Kadhimayn, Iraq Tomb of the Seventh Shī`a Imām, Musa alKadhim and the Ninth Shī`a Imām, Muhammad at-Taqi • Al Askari Mosque; Samarra, Iraq - Tomb of the Tenth Shī`a Imām, `Alī an-Naqi and the Eleventh Shī`a Imām, Hasan al`Askarī

Dogs
Dogs are usually banned from entering mosques, but on September 24, 2008, the Muslim Law Council UK granted a blind Muslim permission to take his guide dog into the mosque via a Fatwa.[52]

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
• Imam Ridha Mosque; Mashad, Iran - Tomb of the Eighth Shī`a Imām, ’Ali ar-Ridha • Fatimah al-Ma’sumah Mosque; Qom, Iran Tomb of Fatimah al-Ma’sūmah, sister of the Eighth Shī`a Imām, ’Ali ar-Ridha • Hacı Bayram Mosque; Ankara, Turkey [2] • Faisal Mosque; Islamabad, Pakistan largest mosque in the world, in area[58] • Badshahi Masjid; Lahore, Pakistan largest Mughal Empire mosque • Mezquita; Córdoba, Spain - tenth century Moorish place of worship, now a Roman Catholic cathedral • Hagia Sophia; Istanbul, Turkey - former cathedral; mosque from 1453 to 1935[59] • Sultan Ahmed Mosque (Blue Mosque); Istanbul, Turkey - built across from the Hagia Sophia • Shah Mosque; Isfahan, Iran commissioned by Shah Abbas I • Jama Masjid; Delhi, India - India’s largest mosque[60] • Mother Mosque of America; Cedar Rapids, Iowa - the oldest mosque in North America • Huaisheng Mosque Over 1,300 years old, one of the oldest mosques in China. • Sultan Qaboos Grand Mosque; Muscat, Oman - Mosque with the world’s second largest carpet and chandelier (Sheikh Zayed Mosque in Abu Dhabi now holds these records) • Istiqlal Mosque; Jakarta, Indonesia - the largest mosque in Southeast Asia • Masjid Agung Demak; Demak, Central Java, Indonesia - the first mosque in Java • Hassan II Mosque, Casablanca, Morocco, contains the world’s largest minaret. • Grande Mosquée de Paris, Paris, France

Mosque
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Notes and references
[1] ^ Hillenbrand, R. "Masdjid. I. In the central Islamic lands". in P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Brill Academic Publishers. ISSN 1573-3912. [2] "mosque - Definition from the MerriamWebster Online Dictionary". M-w.com. http://m-w.com/dictionary/mosque. Retrieved on 2008-11-03.

Further reading
• Arberry, A. J. (1996). The Koran Interpreted: A Translation (1st ed.). Touchstone. ISBN 978-0684825076.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
[3] [travel.independent.co.uk/africa/ article253491.ece "Cairo, Egypt"]. The Independent. travel.independent.co.uk/ africa/article253491.ece. Retrieved on 2007-09-22. [4] Budge, E.A. Wallis (2001-06-13). Budge’s Egypt: A Classic 19th Century Travel Guide. Courier Dover Publications. pp. 123–128. ISBN 0-486-41721-2. [5] "Theoretical Issues of Islamic Architecture". Foundation for Science Technology and Civilisation. http://www.muslimheritage.com/topics/ default.cfm?ArticleID=278. Retrieved on 2006-04-07. [6] "Architecture in Christian Spain". Stanford University. http://medspains.stanford.edu/demo/ themes/art_and_architecture/ arch_christian_spain/index.html. Retrieved on 2007-09-10. [7] Cowen, Jill S. (July/August 1985). "Muslims in China: The Mosque". Saudi Aramco World. pp. 30–35. http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/ 198504/muslims.in.chinathe.mosques.htm. Retrieved on 2006-04-08. [8] "Mosques". Charlotte Country Day School. http://www.ccds.charlotte.nc.us/ History/MidEast/04/Jpitts/Jpitts.htm. Retrieved on 2006-04-07. [9] Lawton, John (January/February 1979). "Muslims in Europe: The Mosque". pp. 9–14. http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/ 198504/muslims.in.chinathe.mosques.htm. Retrieved on 2006-04-17. [10] ^ (PDF) The Mosque in America: A National Portrait. Council on AmericanIslamic Relations. 2001. http://www.cairnet.org/mosquereport/ Masjid_Study_Project_2000_Report.pdf. Retrieved on 2006-04-17. [11] Wagner, William (2004). How Islam Plans to Change the World. Kregel Publications. p. 99. ISBN 0-8254-3965-5. "When the Moors were driven out of Spain in 1492, most of the mosques were converted into churches" [12] ^ Maqsood, Ruqaiyyah Waris (2003-04-22). Teach Yourself Islam (2nd ed.). Chicago: McGraw-Hill. pp. 57–8, 72–5, 112–120. ISBN 0-07-141963-2.

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[13] "Prayer in Congregation". Compendium of Muslim Texts. University of Southern California. http://www.usc.edu/dept/ MSA/fundamentals/hadithsunnah/ muwatta/008.mmt.html. Retrieved on 2006-04-06. [14] "Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Volume 4: Funeral Prayers (Salatul Janazah)". Compendium of Muslim Texts. University of Southern California. http://www.usc.edu/dept/ MSA/law/fiqhussunnah/fus4_62.html. Retrieved on 2006-04-16. [15] "Eclipses". Compendium of Muslim Texts. University of Southern California. http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/ fundamentals/hadithsunnah/bukhari/ 018.sbt.html. Retrieved on 2006-04-16. [16] "’Id Prayers (Salatul ’Idain)". Compendium of Muslim Texts. University of Southern California. http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/ fundamentals/pillars/prayer/EidPrayers_1.html. Retrieved on 2006-04-08. [17] "Charity". Compendium of Muslim Texts. University of Southern California. http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/ fundamentals/pillars/fasting/tajuddin/ fast_51.html. Retrieved on 2006-04-17. [18] ^ Jamal, Amany. "The Role of Mosques in the Civic and Political Incorporation of Muslim American". Teachers’ College – Columbia University. http://www.tc.edu/ muslim-nyc/research/projects/ role%20of%20muslims.html. Retrieved on 2006-04-22. [19] Swanbrow, Diane (2005-06-23). "Study: Islam devotion not linked to terror". The University Record Online. http://www.umich.edu/~urecord/0405/ Jun13_05/03.shtml. Retrieved on 2007-02-24. [20] "Friday prayer plea for Iraq calm". BBC. 2006-02-24. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/ world/middle_east/4747886.stm. Retrieved on 2006-04-23. [21] Romey, Kristen M. (July/August 2004). "Flashpoint Ayodhya". Archaeology. http://www.archaeology.org/0407/ abstracts/ayodhya.html. [22] Aizenman, N.C. (2006-06-02). "Suicide Bomber Kills 20 in Afghan Mosque". The Washington Post. p. A16. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/ content/article/2005/06/01/

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AR2005060100263.html. Retrieved on 2006-04-23. [23] "IPA NY Voices That Must Be Heard". Indypressny.org. http://www.indypressny.org/ article.php3?ArticleID=3113. Retrieved on 2008-11-03. [24] "JDL Chairman, Follower Accused of Plotting to Bomb Mosque, Congressman". Associated Press via FOX News. 2001-12-13. http://www.foxnews.com/story/ 0,2933,40693,00.html. Retrieved on 2006-04-23. [25] "Arafat orders immediate ceasefire". BBC. 2001-06-03. http://news.bbc.co.uk/ 1/hi/world/middle_east/1366719.stm. Retrieved on 2006-04-23. [26] Harris, John (2006-04-22). "Paranoia, poverty and wild rumours - a journey through BNP country". The Guardian. http://politics.guardian.co.uk/farright/ story/0,,1758974,00.html. Retrieved on 2006-05-28. [27] Carlile, Jennifer. "Italians fear mosque plans". MSNBC. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/ 12927212/. Retrieved on 2006-05-28. [28] "King Faisal Mosque in Islamabad". King Fahd bin Abdul Aziz. http://www.kingfahdbinabdulaziz.com/ main/m4201.htm. Retrieved on 2006-06-25. [29] ^ Ottoway, David B. (2004-08-19). "U.S. Eyes Money Trails of Saudi-Backed Charities". The Washington Post. p. A1. http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wpdyn/A13266-2004Aug18. Retrieved on 2007-02-24. [30] Kaplan, David E. (2003-12-15). "The Saudi Connection". U.S. News and World Report. http://www.usnews.com/usnews/ news/articles/031215/15terror.htm. Retrieved on 2006-04-17. [31] "Islamic Center in Rome, Italy". King Fahd bin Abdul Aziz. http://www.kingfahdbinabdulaziz.com/ main/m4506.htm. Retrieved on 2006-04-17. [32] ^ "Religious Architecture and Islamic Cultures". Massachusetts Institute of Technology. http://web.mit.edu/4.614/ www/handout02.html. Retrieved on 2006-04-09. [33] "Vocabulary of Islamic Architecture". Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

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http://ocw.mit.edu/OcwWeb/ Architecture/4-614ReligiousArchitecture-and-IslamicCulturesFall2002/LectureNotes/detail/ vocab-islam.htm#islam6. Retrieved on 2006-04-09. [34] Walters, Brian (2004-05-17). "The Prophet’s People". Call to Prayer: My Travels in Spain, Portugal and Morocco. Virtualbookworm Publishing. p. 14. ISBN 1-58939-592-1. "Its 210-meter minaret is the tallest in the world" [35] Hillenbrand, R. "Manara, Manar". in P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Brill Academic Publishers. ISSN 1573-3912. [36] Mainzer, Klaus (1996-06-01). "Art and Architecture". Symmetries of Nature: A Handbook for Philosophy of Nature and Science. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. p. 124. ISBN 3-11-012990-6. "the dome arching over the believers like the spherical dome of the sky" [37] Asher, Catherine B. (1992-09-24). "Aurangzeb and the Islamization of the Mughal style". Architecture of Mughal India. Cambridge University Press. p. 256. ISBN 0-521-26728-5. [38] ^ "Mosque FAQ". The University of Tulsa. http://www.utulsa.edu/iss/Mosque/ MosqueFAQ.html. Retrieved on 2006-04-09. [39] Bierman, Irene A. (1998-12-16). Writing Signs: Fatimid Public Text. University of California Press. p. 150. ISBN 0-520-20802-1. [40] "Terms 1: Mosque". University of Tokyo Institute of Oriental Culture. http://www.ioc.u-tokyo.ac.jp/~islamarc/ WebPage1/htm_eng/index/ keyword1_e.htm. Retrieved on 2006-04-09. [41] ^ Abu al-Hasankok Ibn Muhammad Ibn Habib, Al-Mawardi (2000). The Ordinances of Government (Al-Ahkam alSultaniyya w’al-Wilayat al-Diniyya). Lebanon: Garnet Publishing. pp. 184. ISBN 1-85964-140-7. [42] "Chapter 16. The Description of the Prayer". SunniPath Library. SunniPath. http://www.sunnipath.com/Resources/ PrintMedia/Hadith/H0002P0016.aspx. Retrieved on 2006-07-12. [43] Connecting Cultures, Inc. (Doc). Building Cultural Competency: Understanding

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Mosque

Islam, Muslims, and Arab Culture. leicestershire/7633623.stm. Retrieved on Connecting Cultures, Inc.. p. p. 15. 2008-11-03. http://www.maec.org/ [53] Miller, Pamela (2006-01-07). "Journey of 2004conferencepapers/ismail.doc. a lifetime". Star Tribune. p. 12E. Retrieved on 2006-07-12. [54] Abu-Nasr, Donna (2004-12-09). "Many [44] Doi, Abdur Rahman I.. "Women in Saudis criticize attack". Ventura County Society". Compendium of Muslim Texts. Star. p. 16. University of Southern California. [55] "Arafat to be buried in soil from Islam’s http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/ third holiest site". Associated Press. humanrelations/womeninislam/ 2004-11-11. womeninsociety.html#mosque. Retrieved [56] "Italy: New mosque to open in Rome next on 2006-04-15. to church". adnkronos.com. AKI [45] Rezk, Rawya (2006-01-26). "Muslim Adnkronos international (Rome, Italy). 20 Women Seek More Equitable Role in august 2007. http://www.adnkronos.com/ Mosques". The Columbia Journalist. AKI/English/Religion/ http://www.columbiajournalist.org/ ?id=1.0.1217165774. Retrieved on rw1_dinges/2005/ 2008-11-21. "Rome, the centre of the article.asp?subj=national&course=rw1_dinges&id=624.Catholic world also hosts Roman Retrieved on 2006-04-09. Europe’s largest Muslim place of [46] "Morocco travel". CNN. worship, the Grand Mosque, which was http://edition.cnn.com/2003/TRAVEL/ inaugurated in 1995" DESTINATIONS/02/25/ [57] Willey, David (22 August 2007). "Rome morocco.travel.ap/index.html. Retrieved halts mosque conversion work". on 2006-09-22. news.bbc.co.uk. BBC News (Rome, Italy: [47] Takim, Liyakatali (July 2004). "From BBC). http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/ Conversion to Conversation: Interfaith 6958299.stm. Retrieved on 2008-11-21. Dialogue in Post 9–11 America" (PDF). "Rome also boasts the biggest mosque in Europe, built with Saudi money outside The Muslim World 94: 343–355. the city centre, about 3km (2 miles) from doi:10.1111/j.1478-1913.2004.00058.x. St Peter’s Basilica" http://macdonald.hartsem.edu/articles/ [58] "Press Release: First in Pakistan". mw943f.pdf. Retrieved on 2006-06-16. Embassy of Pakistan, Washington, D.C.. Liyakatali Takim is a professor in the http://www.embassyofpakistan.org/ Department of Religious Studies at the gov2.php. Retrieved on 2006-04-10. University of Denver [59] "Building Big: Databank: Hagia Sophia". [48] "Laptop link-up: A day at the mosque". PBS. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/ BBC. 2005-12-05. http://news.bbc.co.uk/ buildingbig/wonder/structure/ 2/hi/uk_news/4511780.stm. Retrieved on hagia_sophia.html. Retrieved on 2006-06-16. 2006-04-10. [49] Goring, Rosemary (1997-05-01). [60] Lach, Donald F., and Edwin J. Van Kley Dictionary of Beliefs & Religions. (1998-12-01). "The Empire of Wordsworth Editions. ISBN Aurangzib". Asia in the Making of 1-85326-354-0. Europe:. University of Chicago Press. [50] Stillman, Norman (1979). The Jews of p. 721. ISBN 0-226-46767-8. "The Jami Arab Lands: A History and Source Book. Masjid, the largest mosque in India" Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America. pp. 83. ISBN 0827601166. [51] Bat Ye’or (2002). Islam and Dhimmitude. Where Civilizations Collide. Madison/ • Website with a gallery of Masjid Pictures Teaneck, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson from around the world. University Press/Associated University • Mosques in the USA Presses. pp. 98. ISBN 0-8386-3943-7. • Virtual Mosque Tour [52] "BBC NEWS | England | Leicestershire | • - Provide free websites for Mosques in the Ruling allows guide dog in mosque". UK News.bbc.co.uk. 24 September 2008. • UK Mosques - detailed graphical map of http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/ each one

External links

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
• Local Mosques • Ottoman: Art and the Culture - provides information on Ottoman mosques and architecture • Pictures of over 40 Istanbul Mosques • The Mosque Review (Masjid) - provides an overview of the features and floor plans of mosques • The Martyred Mosques On the Seven Mosques of Medina • A review of Mosque Architecture • Islam in Keighley • Darul Ishaat - keighley based Online Islamic store • mosque: Photos, Videos on Technorati • Local Mosques at Islamicity • Imamia Mission Shia Organisation in Bury, Manchester, U.K. • Mosques From Around the World • Mosques From Around the World at Islamicity

Mosque
• High-res photo gallery of world wide mosques • Mosques - Great Buildings Online • LexicOrient- Mosques • Mosques in Egypt • Mosques in Singapore • American Mosques • Mosques at sacred destinations • A directory of UK mosques, with mosque address • The mosque in Islamic religion • Architectural features of mosques • Islamic Architecture • Mosque Online - Assisting Mosques get Online Free • (English)(Turkish) Ulu Cami: A Karachay Mosque serving Muslim Community in Northern Jersey • Mosques map in the World

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