How to Be a Grant Manager

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					Hazard Mitigation
       Hazard Mitigation in MA

Rich Zingarelli, Acting State Hazard Mitigation Officer
     Department of Conservation and Recreation (DCR)

 Scott MacLeod, Hazard Mitigation Grants Manager
   Massachusetts Emergency Management Agency (MEMA)
     Managing Expectations…
•   What is “mitigation”…
•   HMGP grant program focus…
•   Program requirements/pre-requisites…
•   406 vs. 404 mitigation $$$…
•   Eligible types of projects…
•   Application process/timeline…
•   Technical considerations…
       Team Concept
• Massachusetts       • Massachusetts
 Emergency             Department of
 Management            Conservation &
 Agency                Recreation
  – Administrative
    Capability          – Engineering
  – Financial
    Management          – Technical
  – Local Community       Assistance
    Contacts w/         – Resource
    Emergency             Management
 What is Hazard Mitigation?
“Any sustained action taken to reduce or
  eliminate long-term risk to people and
 property from hazards and their effects.”
        Breaking the Cycle!

  Disaster                    Respond


Hazard mitigation results in long-term, cost-
   effective, and environmentally-sound
     reduction of hazard vulnerability.
     Is it Long-Term Hazard

Is there an increased level of
  protection from hazards?

  Do not simply restore condition to
that which existed before the event or
     the same damage will occur…
        The Hazard Mitigation Grant
             Program (HMGP)
• Created in 1988 by Section 404 of the Robert
  T. Stafford Disaster Relief & Emergency
  Assistance Act (as amended).
• Funded by FEMA to assist states, communities,
  tribal governments in reducing risks from
  hazards through hazard mitigation planning
  and mitigation projects, only after a
  Presidential Disaster declaration.
• After the disaster…another „tool‟ in the
  “toolbox” (406 vs. 404 mitigation funding).
      406 vs. 404 Mitigation

    406 Mitigation              404 Mitigation
Implemented thru the        Separate program managed
FEMA P.A. Program           by MEMA/DCR
Structural Measures         Structural & non- structural
                            (planning, etc.)
Must apply to the damaged   Statewide/designated
element of the facility     counties
No program-wide limits on   Program funds capped @
funds                       7.5% of total disaster (I.A.
                            + P.A)
            HMGP vs. PDM
• Hazard Mitigation Grant Program (HMGP)
provides funds for hazard mitigation projects
after a disaster (not an annual allocation);
• HMGP funds are made available for counties
in the federally declared disaster area;
• PDM provides funds for hazard mitigation
prior to a disaster (annual allocation);
• PDM is a nationally competitive grant
       Roles & Responsibilities
•   State:
    - primary responsibility for project management and
      accountability of funds;
    - Solicit for project applications;
    - Review, prioritize & submit applications to FEMA

•   FEMA:
    - Notify state of anticipated amount of funding;
    - Review and evaluate applications submitted by
    - Prepare environmental decision document(s)
    - Provide technical assistance to State & applicants
    - Allocate HMGP funding for projects
          Who May Apply?
• State & local governments
  – Local governments can apply on behalf of
    private property owners and businesses;
  – Regional Planning Agencies;
  – Housing Authorities;
• Certain Private Non-Profits (PNP‟s) (as
  defined in 44 CFR 206.221(e))
• Tribes/Authorized Tribal Organizations
              HMGP Funding $$$
• 7.5% of the aggregate amount of the FEMA
  Disaster Assistance (Individual Assistance +
  Public Assistance) is made available for
  hazard mitigation.
   – October 2005 Flooding (DR 1614): Berkshire,
   Bristol, Essex, Franklin, Hampden, Hampshire,
   Middlesex, Norfolk, Plymouth, Suffolk & Worcester

   – May 2006 Flooding (DR 1642): all counties –
             HMGP Funding

• Grant application process for October &
  May Flooding will be combined…don’t
  concern yourself about “counties”.
 DR 1614 (October Floods) = >$700,000
      DR 1642 (May Floods) = TBD
           HMGP Funding
• FEMA will fund up to 75% of eligible
  project costs.
• Applicant responsible for a minimum of
  25% of the eligible project costs.
   – Local match can be cash, in-kind services
• 3-, 6- & 12-month ceiling & lock-in
           Applicant         Federal

             25%             Applicant

             Grant Cost Share
Local share must be in direct support of the
proposed activities:
•Cash -local, state, private cash payments (federal funds
cannot be used except CDBG, SBA, Bureau of Indian Affairs, &
USDA Loan funds)
•IN-KIND Contributions -force account labor (e.g.
DPW staff), equipment, materials, contract labor (e.g.
engineering contract), donated labor
•NFIP Increased Cost of Compliance claim
payment as long as claim period is still open (can‟t use
HMGP and ICC for same costs but can use HMGP to
make up the difference)
           HMGP Pre-requisites
•   Community must have FEMA-approved All-Hazard
    Mitigation Plan at the time of FEMA grant award;
    (FEMA approved State HM Plan – October 2004).
•   National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) Participation
    – HMGP funds for construction or land acquisition
    cannot be awarded in certain communities which do
    not participate in the NFIP. Community must be
    participating in the NFIP if the proposed HMGP project
    is located in a mapped ‘Special Flood Hazard Area’.
             Application Process
                                          8. FEMA Region 1 notifies
                                          State of approved projects -
                                          begin project implementation

2. Communities submit
Pre-application to State                     7. Submit selected projects
                                             to FEMA Region 1
3. State sends community
full Application package                     6. Project
                                             recommendations made to
                                             State Interagency Team,
4. Complete Application                      MEMA Director & DCR
package submitted to State                   Commissioner
by deadline (TBD)

                       5. State HM Team reviews
                       & prioritizes applications
         Eligible HMGP Activities
     - Up to 7% can be used to develop (or update) State, Local or
     Tribal HM Plans

     - Primary focus on natural hazards; hazards other than flood
     are eligible…
     - Award grants to the maximum # of projects

• ADMINISTRATIVE COSTS (% of FEMA grant award;
  awarded to both State & Local)
Mitigation Project – Examples
• Property Acquisition/Relocation of hazard-prone
  property for conversion to open space;
• Elevation/Retrofitting existing buildings for
• Infrastructure protection measures and are not
  a section of a larger flood control system,
  priority given to protection of critical facilities;
• Stormwater management; and,
• Minor structural flood control or protection
  projects including vegetation management
  and/or soil stabilization.
HMGP Projects funded in MA:
•   Regional/Local „All-Hazard Planning‟
•   Backflow prevention devices
•   Culvert upgrades
•   Drainage improvements (new catchbasins)
•   Utility elevation & retrofit
•   Property acquisition
•   Dam/spillway upgrades/improvements
•   Pump station improvements
  What Projects are Ineligible?
• Maintenance and/or repair Projects;
• Completed Projects or Projects that are in-progress;
• Major flood control projects such as construction or
  repair of dikes, levees, seawalls, dams, etc.;
• Designs not integral to project;
• Feasibility studies not integral to project;
• Drainage studies not integral to project;
• Generators not integral to project;
• Phased or partial projects;
• Flood studies or flood mapping;
• Response or communication equipment;
Mitigation Project Requirements
• Conforms with the FEMA-approved Local and State Hazard Mitigation
  Plan Goal or strategy.
• Cost-effective (Benefit-Cost ratio of greater than 1.0) and
  substantially reduces the risk of future damage, hardship, loss from a
  major disaster and is the best alternative given effectiveness and
  available funding.
• Must solve a problem independently (no phased projects).
• Conforms with 44 CFR Parts 9 & 10 (Floodplain Mgmt. and Protection of
  Wetlands/Environmental Considerations).
• Must be able to be permitted under federal, state and local permit
  procedures (not required prior to application approval).
• Cannot duplicate benefits available from other Federal sources for same
  purpose (EPA, ACOE, NRCS).
• Meet the requirements of federal, state and local laws.
• Property acquisition/relocation projects have additional requirements
  and assurances that must be submitted with the application...
     Important Considerations
•      Benefit-Cost Analysis (BCA): A BCA will be required for
       all mitigation projects. If the BCA is not performed or it is
       calculated to be below 1.0 then the application will not be
       considered. The higher the ratio the more competitive the
       application will be.
     –     “Benefits” are damages/losses avoided, e.g. :
         •   damages to buildings, infrastructure, contents;
         •   economic impacts of loss of building, public services, net
             business income and costs for temporary quarters;
         •   economic impacts of loss of function of roads, bridges,
             utilities, and travel costs;
         •   death and injury.

    All data must be documented and that documentation must be
                         provided with application.
        Benefit Cost Helpline is available- 1-866-222-3580 or
    Important Considerations
•       Environmental/Historic Review - Funds will not be
        awarded and the project cannot be initiated if FEMA
        environmental review or assessment is required and has not
        been completed.
    –      Regional FEMA Offices will conduct environmental review but
           sub-applicants need to provide information in the form of
           consultations to make Region aware of potential issues.
    –      FEMA needs complete answers to the Environmental/ Historical
           Preservation questions & supporting documentation in the sub-
    –      To expedite application, identify and analyze potential
           environmental/historic impacts to determine if they would result
           in scope, budget or location changes, or require mitigation that
           would affect the budget. Keep these in mind when formulating
           the budget as they will only be part of the cost share if
           submitted as part of the sub-application.
    Important Considerations
•       Engineering Feasibility - Technical info that the
        sub-applicant believes is pertinent to the review
        should be included in the application. Photos,
        sketches and drawings may help as well…
    –     Basis of Design - If project has a potential effect on
          hazards elsewhere, these should be identified: increasing
          a culvert upstream causes a small increase in flood levels
          downstream and, therefore, flows, frequency of event and
          standards should be included;
    –     Scope of Work and Cost Estimate - Be as detailed as
          possible identifying the work to be done and the
          materials, labor and other costs that are identifiable.
        Is the Project
     Technically Feasible?
• Clearly Defined Problem

• Feasible and Effective Objective

• Sufficient Scope

• Project can be completed timely
   Is it the Best Alternative?
FEMA regulations require that each applicant
consider a range of alternatives to address
the natural hazard problem that you wish to

3 Alternatives are required:
      - proposed project is alternative #1
      - two (2) other feasible alternatives
        must be described
     Is it the Best Alternative?

Local Project Review Criteria
• Socially Acceptable
• Technically Feasible
• Administratively Possible
• Politically Acceptable
• Legal
• Economically Sound
• Environmentally Sound
      Is the Proposed Project
 Are project benefits > project costs?
(benefits=estimated value of future avoided damages)

     BENEFITS                       COSTS
   Is Project in Compliance with
Environmental Rules & Regulations?

           protection through

         Grantee must obtain all
           applicable permits

     Project complies with NEPA and
        MEPA Rules & Regulation
            Next Steps…
• Monitor MEMA‟s website!!!
  ( for HMGP updates
• Formal notice of HMGP availability
• Communities submit Pre-Application to State
• Benefit-Cost Analysis workshops
  (dates/locations TBD)
• Communities submit completed applications
  to State (Deadline TBD)
HMGP Info:
Benefit-Cost Analysis Helpline: (866)222-3580
Application Development:

State Hazard Mitigation:
Scott MacLeod
Hazard Mitigation Grant Manager
Massachusetts Emergency Management Agency
(508) 820-1445

Rich Zingarelli
State Hazard Mitigation Officer
Department of Conservation & Recreation
(617) 626-1406

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