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CHAPTER ONE                                         CHAPTER TWO

Marketing for Consumers,                            Strategic Planning
Firms, and Society
                                                    The Management Job in Marketing 31
Marketing—What’s It All About? 4                    What Is Marketing Strategy Planning? 32
Marketing Is Important to You 5                     Selecting a Market-Oriented Strategy Is Target
                                                       Marketing 32
How Should We Define Marketing? 6
                                                    Developing Marketing Mixes for Target
Macro-Marketing 9
                                                       Markets 33
The Role of Marketing in Economic Systems 12
                                                    The Marketing Plan Is a Guide to Implementation
Marketing’s Role Has Changed a Lot over the            and Control 39
  Years 13
                                                    The Importance of Marketing Strategy
What Does the Marketing Concept Mean? 15               Planning 41
Adoption of the Marketing Concept Has Not Been      Creative Strategy Planning Needed for
  Easy or Universal 16                                 Survival 43
The Marketing Concept and Customer Value 18         What Are Attractive Opportunities? 43
The Marketing Concept Applies in Nonprofit           Marketing Strategy Planning Process Highlights
  Organizations 20                                     Opportunities 45
The Marketing Concept, Social Responsibility, and   Types of Opportunities to Pursue 49
  Marketing Ethics 21
                                                    International Opportunities Should Be
                                                       Considered 50
Conclusion 25
Key Terms 26                                        Ethical Planning and Strategy 52
Questions and Problems 26
Computer-Aided Problem 27                           Conclusion 54
                                                    Key Terms 54
                                                    Questions and Problems 55
                                                    Computer-Aided Problem 55

                                                    The Economic Environment 96
                                                    The Technological Environment 98
                                                    The Political Environment 100
                                                    The Legal Environment 102
                                                    The Cultural and Social Environment 105
                                                    Using Screening Criteria to Narrow Down to
                                                       Strategies 107
CHAPTER THREE                                       Planning Grids Help Evaluate a Portfolio of
                                                       Opportunities 109
Segmenting and Positioning                          Multiproduct Firms Have a Difficult Strategy
Market Strategy                                        Planning Job 110
                                                    Evaluating Opportunities in International
Search for Opportunities Can Begin by                  Markets 111
   Understanding Markets 60
Market Segmentation Defines Possible Target          Conclusion 113
   Markets 62                                       Key Terms 113
                                                    Questions and Problems 113
What Dimensions Are Used to Segment
                                                    Computer-Aided Problem 114
   Markets? 68
A Best Practice Approach to Segmenting Product-
   Markets 71
More Sophisticated Techniques May Help in
   Segmenting 76
Differentiation and Positioning Take the Customer
   Point of View 77

Conclusion 82
Key Terms 82
Questions and Problems 82
Computer-Aided Problem 83
                                                    CHAPTER FIVE

                                                    Demographics, Consumers,
                                                    and Markets
                                                    Target Marketers Focus on the Customer 118
                                                    People with Money Make Markets 120
                                                    Population Trends in the Canadian Consumer
                                                       Market 125
                                                    Income Dimensions of the Canadian Market 131
                                                    Spending Varies with Income and Other
CHAPTER FOUR                                           Demographic Dimensions 134
                                                    Ethnic Dimensions of the Canadian Market 136
Evaluating Market Opportunities
                                                    Conclusion 139
The Marketing Environment 88                        Key Terms 139
Objectives Should Set Firm’s Course 89              Questions and Problems 139
Company Resources May Limit Search for              Computer-Aided Problem 140
  Opportunities 91
Analyzing Competitors and the Competitive
  Environment 92

                                                   Organizational Buyers Are Problem Solvers 182
                                                   Buyer-Seller Relationships in Business Markets 184
                                                   Internet E-Commerce Is Reshaping Many Business
                                                      Markets 187
                                                   Manufacturers Are Important Customers 192
                                                   Producers of Services—Smaller and More Spread
                                                      Out 194
CHAPTER SIX                                        Retailers and Wholesalers Buy for Their
                                                      Customers 195
Consumer Behaviour                                 The Government Market 197

Consumer Behaviour—Why Do They Buy What            Conclusion 200
   They Buy? 144                                   Key Terms 200
The Behavioural Sciences Help You Understand the   Questions and Problems 200
   Buying Process 145                              Computer-Aided Problem 201
Psychological Influences Within an Individual 146
Social Influences Affect Consumer Behaviour 156
Individuals Are Affected by the Purchase
   Situation 160
Consumers Use Problem-Solving Processes 162
Several Processes Are Related and Relevant to
   Strategy Planning 167
Consumer Behaviour in International Markets 167

Conclusion 169
Key Terms 169                                      CHAPTER EIGHT
Questions and Problems 170
Computer-Aided Problem 171                         Improving Decisions with
                                                   Marketing Information
                                                   Radical Changes Are Underway in Marketing
                                                      Information 204
                                                   What Is Marketing Research? 208
                                                   The Scientific Method and Marketing Research 209
                                                   Five-Step Approach to Marketing Research 210
                                                   Defining the Problem—Step 1 210
                                                   Analyzing the Situation—Step 2 212
                                                   Getting Problem-Specific Data—Step 3 215
CHAPTER SEVEN                                      Interpreting the Data—Step 4 225
Marketing to Businesses                            Developing Conclusions—Step 5 228
                                                   International Marketing Research 228
and Organizations
                                                   How Much Information Do You Need? 229
Business and Organizational Customers—A Big
                                                   Conclusion 230
  Opportunity 174
                                                   Key Terms 230
Organizational Customers Are Different 175         Questions and Problems 230
Many Different People May Influence a               Computer-Aided Problem 231
  Decision 178

CHAPTER NINE                                         CHAPTER TEN

Product Planning for Goods                           Product Management and
and Services                                         New-Product Development
The Product Area Involves Many Strategy              Managing Products over Their Life Cycles 264
   Decisions 236                                     Product Life Cycles Should Be Related to Specific
What Is a Product? 236                                  Markets 267
Differences in Goods and Services 239                Product Life Cycles Vary in Length 268
Whole Product Lines Must Be Developed Too 240        Planning for Different Stages of the Product Life
Product Classes Help Plan Marketing Strategies 241      Cycle 271
Consumer Product Classes 241                         Adoption Processes Can Guide Product
Business Products Are Different 244                     Planning 275
Business Product Classes—How They Are                New-Product Planning 278
   Defined 245                                        An Organized New-Product Development Process
Branding Needs a Strategy Decision Too 248              Is Critical 279
Conditions Favourable to Branding 248                New-Product Development: A Total Company
                                                        Effort 284
Achieving Brand Familiarity Is Not Easy 249
                                                     Need for Product Managers 285
Protecting Brand Names and Trademarks 251
What Kind of Brand to Use? 252                       Conclusion 287
Who Should Do the Branding? 253                      Key Terms 287
The Strategic Importance of Packaging 254            Questions and Problems 288
What Is Socially Responsible Packaging? 256          Computer-Aided Problem 288
Warranty Policies Are a Part of Strategy
   Planning 257

Conclusion 258
Key Terms 259
Questions and Problems 259
Computer-Aided Problem 260

                                                     CHAPTER ELEVEN

                                                     Place —Distribution Management
                                                     Place Decisions Are an Important Part of
                                                        Marketing Strategy 292
                                                     Place Decisions Are Guided by “Ideal” Place
                                                        Objectives 294
                                                     Channel System May Be Direct or Indirect 295

Channel Specialists May Reduce Discrepancies and     Why Retailers Evolve and Change 340
  Separations 298                                    Retailer Size and Profits 342
Channel Relationship Must Be Managed 300             Differences in Retailing in Different Nations 343
Vertical Marketing Systems Focus on Final            What Is a Wholesaler? 344
  Customers 303                                      Wholesaling Is Changing with the Times 344
The Best Channel System Should Achieve Ideal         Wholesalers Add Value in Different Ways 345
  Market Exposure 306
                                                     Merchant Wholesalers Are the Most
Channel Systems Can Be Complex 308                      Numerous 346
Physical Distribution Gets It To Customers 310       Agent Middlemen Are Strong on Selling 349
Coordinating Logistics Activities Among Firms 311    What Will Happen to Retailers in the Future? 351
The Transporting Function Adds Value to a
  Marketing Strategy 312                             Conclusion 352
Which Transporting Alternative Is Best? 313          Key Terms 353
The Storing Function and Marketing Strategy 317      Questions and Problems 353
Specialized Storing Facilities May Be Required 320   Computer-Aided Problem 354
The Distribution Centre—A Different Kind of
  Warehouse 321

Conclusion 321
Key Terms 322
Questions and Problems 322
Computer-Aided Problem 323

                                                     CHAPTER THIRTEEN

                                                     Promotion—Integrated Marketing
                                                     Several Promotion Methods Are Available 358
                                                     Integrating the Promotion Blend 360
C H A P T E R T W E LV E                             Which Methods to Use Depends on Promotion
                                                        Objectives 362
Retailing and Wholesaling
                                                     Promotion Requires Effective Communication 363
                                                     Integrated Direct-Response Promotion Is Very
Wholesalers and Retailers Plan Their Own
                                                        Targeted 366
   Strategies 326
                                                     The Customer May Initiate the Communication
The Nature of Retailing 327
                                                        Process 368
Planning a Retailer’s Strategy 327
                                                     How Typical Promotion Plans Are Blended and
Conventional Retailers_Try to Avoid Price               Integrated 371
   Competition 329
                                                     Promotion Blends Vary over the Life Cycle 374
Expand Assortment and Service_To Compete at a
                                                     Setting the Promotion Budget 376
   High Price 330
Evolution of Mass-Merchandising Retailers 331        Conclusion 377
Some Retailers Focus on Added Convenience 334        Key Terms 377
Retail Locations 335                                 Questions and Problems 377
Retailing on the Internet 336                        Computer-Aided Problem 378
Retailing Types Are Explained by Consumer Needs
   Filled 339

                                                      Objectives Determine the Kinds of Advertising
                                                         Needed 412
                                                      Coordinating Advertising Efforts with Cooperative
                                                         Relationships 415
                                                      Choosing the “Best” Medium_How to Deliver the
                                                         Message 415
                                                      Advertising on the Internet_New Opportunities
                                                         and New Challenges 420
                                                      Planning the “Best” Message_What to
Personal Selling                                         Communicate 423
                                                      Advertising Agencies Often Do the Work 425
The Importance and Role of Personal Selling 382       Measuring Advertising Effectiveness Is Not Easy 427
What Kinds of Personal Selling Are Needed? 385        How to Avoid Unfair Advertising 428
Order Getters Develop New Business                    Publicity 429
   Relationships 385                                  Sales Promotion_Do Something Different to
Order Takers Nurture Relationships to Keep the           Stimulate Change 431
   Business Coming 387                                Problems in Managing Sales Promotion 433
Supporting Sales Force Informs and Promotes in        Different Types of Sales Promotion for Different
   the Channel 388                                       Targets 435
The Right Structure Helps Assign Responsibility 389
Information Technology Provides Tools to Do the       Conclusion 436
   Job 391                                            Key Terms 437
                                                      Questions and Problems 437
Sound Selection and Training to Build a Sales
                                                      Computer-Aided Problem 438
   Force 394
Compensating and Motivating Salespeople 395
Personal Selling Techniques_Prospecting and
   Presenting 397
Personal Selling Techniques_Closing the Sale 401

Conclusion 403
Key Terms 403
Questions and Problems 403
Computer-Aided Problem 404

                                                      CHAPTER SIXTEEN

                                                      Pricing Objectives and Policies
                                                      Price Has Many Strategy Dimensions 442
                                                      Objectives Should Guide Strategy Planning for
                                                         Price 444
                                                      Profit-Oriented Objectives 444
                                                      Sales-Oriented Objectives 446
CHAPTER FIFTEEN                                       Status Quo Pricing Objectives 447
Advertising, Publicity, and Sales                     Most Firms Set Specific Pricing Policies_To Reach
                                                         Objectives 447
Promotion                                             Price Flexibility Policies 448
                                                      Price-Level Policies_Over the Product Life
Advertising, Sales Promotion, and Marketing              Cycle 450
  Strategy Decisions 408
                                                      Most Price Structures Are Built around List Prices 454
Advertising Objectives Are a Strategy Decision 411

Discount Prices_Reductions from List Prices 454
Allowance Policies_Off List Prices 457
Some Customers Get Something Extra 458
List Price May Depend on Geographic Pricing
   Policies 459
Pricing Policies Combine to Impact Customer
   Value 460
Legality of Pricing Policies 463                       CHAPTER EIGHTEEN

Conclusion 465                                         Marketing Plans and Controls
Key Terms 465
Questions and Problems 466                             Marketing Planning Process is more than
Computer-Aided Problem 466                                Assembling the Four Ps 500
                                                       Blending the Four Ps Takes Understanding of a
                                                          Target Market 501
                                                       Forecasting Target Market Potential and Sales 506
                                                       Forecasting Company and Product Sales by
                                                          Extending Past Behaviour 509
                                                       Predicting Future Behaviour Calls for More
                                                          Judgment and Some Opinions 510
                                                       The Marketing Plan Brings All the Details Together
                                                       Control Provides Feedback to Improve Plans and
CHAPTER SEVENTEEN                                         Implementation 514
                                                       Sales Analysis Shows What’s Happening 515
Price Setting in the Business World                    Performance Analysis Looks for Differences 516
                                                       Performance Indexes Simplify Human Analysis 517
Price Setting Is a Key Strategy Decision 470
                                                       A Series of Performance Analyses May Find the
Some Firms Just Use Markups 471                           Real Problem 518
Average-Cost Pricing Is Common and Can Be              Marketing Cost Analysis_Controlling Costs Too 521
   Dangerous 475
                                                       Planning and Control Combined 523
Marketing Managers Must Consider Various Kinds
                                                       The Marketing Audit 524
   of Costs 476
Some Firms Add a Target Return to Cost 480             Conclusion 525
Break-Even Analysis Can Evaluate Possible Prices 481   Key Terms 525
Marginal Analysis Considers Both Costs and             Questions and Problems 525
   Demand 484                                          Computer-Aided Problem 526
Demand-Oriented Approaches for Setting Prices 487
                                                       Appendix A
Pricing a Full Line 493
                                                       Economics Fundamentals 527
Bid Pricing and Negotiated Pricing Depend Heavily
   on Costs 494                                        Appendix B
                                                       Marketing Arithmetic 537
Conclusion 495
Key Terms 496                                          Notes 549
Questions and Problems 496                             Glossary 597
Computer-Aided Problem 497
                                                       Illustration Credits 607
                                                       Name Index 611
                                                       Organization Index 613
                                                       Subject Index 617


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