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Social Change

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									Chapter 13 Social Change
Colin Crouch

Social Change
• The rise of the services economy • Changes in gender roles • Demographic trends and family changes • The decline of European religion

• Politics operates within, and interacts with, the society around it • Social change is seemingly a constant! • Current social change:
– Central and eastern Europe – Changing gender relations – Changing family and demographic structure

The rise of the services economy
• Past three decades have witnessed shift in workforce from manufacturing industry to services • The diversity of services:
– Distributive – Business services – Social and community services – Personal services

Effects of service economy
• Rise in participation of women in paid employment • Rise in education level of population • Shift amongst low-skilled workers, from manufacturing to services

Changes in gender roles
• Why are more women in paid work? • Employment-creating spiral of women’s employment • Diversity between countries in terms of female employment • This diversity is in part due to the different effects of different public policies

Demographic trends and family changes
• • • • • • Death rates in decline (in west Europe) Birth rates in decline Ageing society Smaller households Immigration Cultural pluralism

The decline of European religion
• Religion is in decline in Europe • Except among some immigrant communities • The anticipated Christian renaissance in post-communist Europe has not materialized • A strong church has tended to polarize the population

• 19th and 20th century manufacturing economy is turning into a services economy • 4 different service sectors • Rise in female employment goes handin-hand with service economy in west Europe • Significant changes in demographic and family patterns

Social change and the political agenda
• Globalization, employment change, and the rise of the services economy have all featured in the political agenda • Adaptation challenges for the welfare state • Immigration is a political issue • Disconnection between political elite and rapidly changing European society?

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