Chapter 13 Social Change Colin Crouch Social Change • The rise of the services economy • Changes in gender roles • Demographic trends and family changes • The decline of European religion Introduction • Politics operates within, and interacts with, the society around it • Social change is seemingly a constant! • Current social change: – Central and eastern Europe – Changing gender relations – Changing family and demographic structure The rise of the services economy • Past three decades have witnessed shift in workforce from manufacturing industry to services • The diversity of services: – Distributive – Business services – Social and community services – Personal services Effects of service economy • Rise in participation of women in paid employment • Rise in education level of population • Shift amongst low-skilled workers, from manufacturing to services Changes in gender roles • Why are more women in paid work? • Employment-creating spiral of women’s employment • Diversity between countries in terms of female employment • This diversity is in part due to the different effects of different public policies Demographic trends and family changes • • • • • • Death rates in decline (in west Europe) Birth rates in decline Ageing society Smaller households Immigration Cultural pluralism The decline of European religion • Religion is in decline in Europe • Except among some immigrant communities • The anticipated Christian renaissance in post-communist Europe has not materialized • A strong church has tended to polarize the population Summary • 19th and 20th century manufacturing economy is turning into a services economy • 4 different service sectors • Rise in female employment goes handin-hand with service economy in west Europe • Significant changes in demographic and family patterns Social change and the political agenda • Globalization, employment change, and the rise of the services economy have all featured in the political agenda • Adaptation challenges for the welfare state • Immigration is a political issue • Disconnection between political elite and rapidly changing European society?
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