Multicultural Education by LisaB1982

VIEWS: 554 PAGES: 29

									Multicultural Education
 Goals and Characteristics – Components
• An idea or concept
– All students regardless of gender, social class, ethnic,racial cultural characteristics have equal opportunity to learn in school

• An education reform movement
– All social class, gender,racial, language, and cultural groups = equal opportunity – Total school or educational environment – Includes curricular change

 A process – Continuous change  Major goals – Improve academic achievement – Promote strength and value of culture – Promote human rights, respect for those different, social justice, equal opportunity, and distribution of power among groups

 Promote alternative life choices for people

Dimensions of multicultural education
 Content integration  The knowledge construction process  Prejudice reduction  An equity pedagogy  An empowering school culture and social


History of Development
 Civil rights movement of 1960s  Goal – To eliminate discrimination in public accommodations, housing, employment, and education  Results – Significant influence on institutions of education (reform curricular, hiring practices,community control of school in

– neighborhoods, textbook revision – Celebrate holidays, other special days, ethnic celebrations – Single group studies – Other marginalized groups take action in 1970s
• grievances and demands more human rights • senior citizens, disable, etc. • mainstreaming in education

– Women (employment, income, education, child rearing)

The 1980s
 Support somewhat diminished – Governmental policies conservative – Critics became active – Present
• Profess they understand , but know little about it • Policy mandates require the inclusion of content • Household term in media

James Banks’ phases of multicultural education
 Phase I – Monoethnic studies
• • • • Civil rights movement Demand of African American teachers More community control of schools Text revision and contributions

 Phase II – Multiethnic studies
• Focus on several minority groups • Comparative perspective

 Phase III – Multiethnic studies education
• Realization that reforming courses was insufficient to result in genuine educational reform

 Phase IV – Multicultural education
• Interest in broader development of pluralistic education • Want reform of total school environment • Focus on a wider range of racial and ethnic groups

 Phase V – Slowly occurring process designed to increase pace and scope of the institutionalization of multiethnic multicultural education within school

Five Characteristics Culture
 Culture is learned.  A culture is logically integrated, functional,

sense-making whole.  All cultures are constantly changing; no culture is completely static.  Every culture has a “value system”.  Culture make possible the reasonably efficient, largely automatic interaction

– between individuals that is a prerequisite to social life.

Understanding Culture
 National – American, Japanese, Mexican, etc.  Ethnic – African American, Hispanic American, Native American, Asian American, European American, etc.  Regional – (U.S., West Coast, East Coast etc.)

 Gender – Male & Female  Socioeconomic Class – Rich & Poor  Age – Different generations  Socioeconomic Class – Rich & Poor

 Physical Ability – Disabled, hearing impaired, blind, wheelchair, etc.  Sexual Orientation – Beliefs and values that may accompany being gay, lesbian, bisexual, or heterosexual  Corporate – Utilities, Computers, Insurance, etc.

 Departmental – Accounting, Field operations, etc.  Union – Skill and professional associations

Society, Culture, the Individual
 Society – An organized group of individuals. Each society possesses a culture, a set of customs and traditions that designate appropriate or required ways of acting, thinking and feeling.  Culture – An organized group of learned responses characteristics of a particular society. Social heritage and design for living shared by group of people and transmitted to the following

– generations.

 The Individual – A living organism capable of independent thought, feeling, and action, but with independence limited and all responses profoundly modified by contact with the society and culture in which one develops.

 Social Structure or Organization – A complex system of interrelated positions and their accompanying roles that define the

– behavior of individuals and their relations with one another.

 Position – refers to location within a society. Every person occupies several different positions simultaneously. In each position certain things are expected of him/her to fulfill certain roles

 Role – Refers to the pattern of behavior that is

– expected or required of a person who occupies a particular position. An individual’s role in connection with each position he/she occupies consists of things he /she is expected to do, other things he/she is expected to do, other things he/she may or may not do as he/she sees fit, and still other things that he/she is expected not to do. Knowing the cultural norm means we can predict the consequences of certain behavior.

 Gender  Race/nationality  Ethnic background  SES  Perception &

expectations in life  Hemispericity &/or learning style
– Left/right brained

 Geographic region
 Personal interest  Lifestyle of family

 Values – Upbringing – Life experiences

 Abilities/disabilities

The Components of the North America Culture: Values and Beliefs
 Rugged Individualism: – Individual primary unit – Has primary responsibility – Independence and autonomy highly values and rewarded – Individual can control environment  Competition: – Winning is everything – Win/lose dichotomy  Action Oriented: – Must master and control nature – Must always do something about a situation – Pragmatic/utilitarian view of lie

 Decision Making: – Majority rule when whites have power – Hierarchical – Pyramid structure  Time: – Adherence to rigid time schedule – Time viewed as a commodity

 Holidays: – Based on Christian religion, White history, male leaders  Communication: – Standard English – Written tradition – Direct eye contact – Limited physical contact – Controlled emotions

 Religion: – Belief in Christianity – No tolerance for deviation from single god concept  History: – Based on European immigrants experience in the U.S. – Romanticize war

 Protestant Work Ethic: – Working hard brings success  Progress and Future

– Plan for future – Delayed gratification – Value continual improvement and progress

 Emphasis on Scientific

– Objective, rational, linear thinking – Cause and effect relationships – Quantitative emphasis – Dualistic thinking

 Status and Power: – Measured by economic possessions – Credentials, titles,and positions – Believe “own” system – Believe better than other systems – Owning goods, space, standard property

 Family Structure – Nuclear family is the ideal social unit – Man is bread winner and head – Woman is homemaker and subordinate to husband – Patriarchal structure

 Aesthetics: – Music and art based on European culture – Women’s beauty based on blonde, blue-eyed, thin, young – Men’s attractiveness based on athletic ability, power, economic status

Why Important
 Enhances a good self-concept and self

understanding  Sensitivity to and understanding of others, including cultural groups around world  Ability to perceive and understand multiple and sometimes conflicting, cultural and national interpretations of and perspectives on events, values, and behavior

 Ability to make decisions and take effective

action based on multicultural analysis and synthesis  Open minds when addressing issues  Understand the process of stereotyping, a low degree of stereotypical thinking, and pride inself and respect for all peoples

School a Social System
 The hidden curriculum
• Attitudes • Text p. 24

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