European Union Enlargement by LisaB1982


									Chapter 21 EU Enlargement
Ania Krok-Paszkowska Jan Zielonka

EU Enlargement
• • • • Successive enlargements European power politics Diversity and integration Nature of the enlarged EU

• From 6 (1957) to 25 (2004) member states • EU now:
– ¼ world GDP – More than 1/5 global trade – World’s largest single market

• 5 enlargements • 2004 enlargement was largest and most challenging

Challenges from latest round of enlargement
• • • • • Institutional structure Representation of large diverse area Series of ‘no’ referendum results Declining EP turnout Anxiety over Turkey accession

Successive enlargements
• The first enlargement (1973): UK, Ireland, Denmark • ‘Southern’ enlargement: Greece (1981), Spain and Portugal (1986) • 1990 absorption of east Germany • ‘Nordic’ enlargement (1995): Austria, Finland, Sweden • ‘Eastward’ enlargement (2004)

The Copenhagen Criteria
• Candidate states must have:
1. Stability of institutions guaranteeing democracy, the rule of law, human rights, and protection of minorities 2. The existence of a functioning market economy 3. The ability to take on the obligations of membership


The EU must have:
4. The capacity to absorb new members

European power politics
• Eastern enlargement as unprecedented projection of EU power • Aim to create peace, democracy and prosperity in east Europe • Safeguard existing member states’ security, prosperity and democracy • Extension of EU power; imperialism(?) • Conditionality gave EU enormous leverage over east European polity/economy

Diversity and integration
• Is there an unsustainable degree of diversity within post-2004 EU? • Welfare gap • Democracy and political culture • Foreign policy and attitudes to US • Managing diversity

Nature of the enlarged EU
• Multi-layered polity • Fuzzy borders • Cultural plurality

• EU seeks to balance widening and deepening • Decision-making more complex with 25 member states • Flexible governance arrangements as means to overcome decision-making problems?

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