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					                                             Reading Guide

                                                  Litigation
                                             Seventh edition
                                                          by
                    Jill Hunter, Camille Cameron & Terese Henning

                                                      Volume 1
                                       Litigation I: Civil Procedure

Chapter 1          An Introduction to Civil Procedure                                1
1.   Introduction                                                                    1
      Structure of court rules                                                       3
      Titles of court rules                                                          3
      Glossary of terms                                                              4
2.   The efficiency goal                                                             6
      Extract Delays and Efficiency in Civil Litigation                              7
      Extract Access to Justice: Interim Report, 1995                                8
      Excessive delays                                                              10
      Case management schemes                                                       10
      Extract Queensland v JL Holdings Pty Ltd                                      12
      Extract Circular No 8 of 2000                                                 15
      Extract Draft Civil Procedure Bill 2005 (NSW)                                 16
3.   Costs orders                                                                   18
      Extract White Industries v Flower and Hart                                    19
      Extract PCRZ Investments Pty Ltd v National Golf Holdings Limited             22
      Other types of costs orders                                                   23
4.   Payment into court and offers of compromise                                    24
      Extract Maitland Hospital v Fisher [No 2]                                     25
5.   Unofficial settlement offers with costs penalties                              27
      Extract Jones v Bradley (No 2)                                                28

Chapter 2          Alternative Dispute Resolution: ADR                              33
1.   Introduction                                                                   33
      Extract Hilary Astor and Christine Chinkin, Dispute Resolution in Australia   33
2.   Definitions of ADR processes                                                   36
      Extract Dispute Resolution Terms                                              37
      Hybrid processes                                                              40
        Mini-trial                                                                  40
        Early neutral evaluation                                                    40
        Combination of mediation and arbitration: med/arb                           40
        Expert determination                                                        41
        Case appraisal                                                              41
3.   Mediation                                                                      42
      Facilitative and evaluative models                                            42
      Extract Tapoohi v Lewenberg (No 2)                                            42
      Court-ordered mediation                                                       48
      Extract Australian Competition and Consumer Commission v Lux Pty Ltd          48
      Extract McDonald’s Australia Ltd v Challenger Property Nominees Pty Ltd       51
      Comparison of Australian and UK approaches to mediation                       56
      Extract Halsey v Milton Keynes General NHS Trust; Steel v Joy and Halliday    56
4.   Arbitration                                                                    59
      Extract Commercial Arbitration Act 1984 (NSW)                                 60
      International commercial arbitration                                          60
5.   Negotiation                                                                    60
6.   Other dispute resolution processes                                             61
                                              Reading Guide
Chapter 3        Early Moves: Service, Process and Interim Measures                62
1.   Is it worth suing?                                                             62
2.   Where should the case be brought?                                              63
       General considerations                                                       63
       Cross-vesting schemes                                                        64
      Extract BHP Billiton Ltd v Schultz                                            65
3.   Originating process                                                            72
      Jurisdictions with one form of originating process                            72
      Jurisdictions with two principal forms of originating process                 73
      Renewal of originating process                                                74
4.   Service of originating process                                                 75
      Service defines jurisdiction                                                  75
      Personal service                                                              75
      Service on the defendant’s lawyer                                             77
      Substituted service                                                           77
      Confirmation of informal service                                              78
      Service beyond the jurisdiction but within Australia                          78
      Extract Service and Execution of Process Act 1992 (Cth)                       79
      Service overseas                                                              79
      Service in cross-vested matters                                               80
      Appearances and objections                                                    80
5.   Orders preserving property, evidence or assets generally                       81
      Interim orders to preserve property                                           81
      Anton Piller orders                                                           81
      Extract   Anton Piller KG v Manufacturing Processes Ltd                       81
      Extract   Practice Note 10 (Federal Court) Anton Piller orders                83
      Extract   Long v Specifier Publications Pty Ltd                               85
      Extract   Liberty Financial Pty Ltd v Scott                                   86
      Mareva orders                                                                 88
      Extract   Jackson v Sterling Industries Ltd                                   88
      Extract   Derby & Co Ltd v Weldon                                             89
      Extract   Cardile v LED Builders Pty Ltd                                      89
      Extract   Media World Communications Ltd (Administrator Appointed) v Clark    91
      Extract   Bax Global Australia Pty Ltd v Evans                                93
      Extract   Uniform Civil Procedure Rules 1999 (Qld)                            96

Chapter 4        Parties and Causes of Action                                      97
1.   Scope of this chapter                                                          97
2.   Multiple causes of action                                                      97
      Extract   Federal Court Rules, Order 6, r 1                                   98
      Extract   Victoria, Order 9, r 4                                              98
      Extract   Port of Melbourne Authority v Anshun Pty Ltd                        98
      Extract   Gibbs v Kinna                                                      100
      Extract   Rippon v Chilcotin Pty Ltd                                         102
3.   Multiple parties                                                              103
      Mandatory and permissive joinder                                             103
      Incentives to join plaintiffs or defendants                                  104
      Joinder at the time of issue                                                 106
      Extract   Victoria, Order 9, r 9.02                                          107
      Extract   Bendir v Anson                                                     107
      Extract   Birtles v Commonwealth                                             108
      Extract   Payne v Young                                                      109
      Mechanisms for defendants to claim as well as defend                         111
        Set-offs                                                                   111
        Counterclaims                                                              112
        Third party and contribution notices                                       112
      Extract Queensland, r 192                                                    112
        New South Wales and the Federal Court                                      113
      The criteria for the addition of parties                                     113
      Extract Victoria, Order 9, r 9.06                                            113
                                              Reading Guide
      Extract News Ltd v Australian Rugby Football League Ltd                                115
      ‘Joinder’ by leave                                                                     118
      Extract Bishop v Bridgelands Securities Ltd                                            119
      Extract Cheque One Pty Ltd v Cheque Exchange (Australia) Pty Ltd (in liq)              120
      Extract Newman v Hold Pty Ltd                                                          123
4.   Groups as parties                                                                       125
      Representative actions                                                                 125
        The Australian legislative provisions                                                125
      Extract South Australia, r 34.08                                                       125
        Case law                                                                             125
      Group proceedings in the Federal Court and Victoria                                    130
      Extract   Federal Court of Australia Act 1976 (Cth)                                    130
      Extract   Bright v Femcare Ltd                                                         133
      Extract   Wong v Silkfield Pty Ltd                                                     137
      Extract   Philip Morris (Australia) Pty Ltd v Nixon                                    139
      Extract   Bray v Hoffman-La Roche Ltd                                                  142
5.   Grouping separate cases                                                                 150
6.   Amicus Curiae                                                                           151

Chapter 5          Pleadings                                                                 152
1.   The objectives of the pleadings system                                                  152
      Extract   Truth About Motorways Pty Ltd v Macquarie Infrastructure Investment Ltd      153
      Extract   Banque Commerciale SA (in liq) v Akhil Holdings Ltd                          154
      Extract   Adler v Australian Securities and Investments Commission                     156
      Extract   Fieldturf Inc v Balsam Pacific Pty Ltd                                       157
      Extract   Jamieson v R                                                                 161
      Extract   Supreme Court Rules 1970 (NSW)                                               163
      Extract   Federal Court Rules                                                          164
2.   The principal rules of pleadings                                                        165
      The requirement to plead material facts                                                165
      Extract Order 13, r 13.02 (Vic)                                                        165
      Extract Charlie Carter Pty Ltd v Allied Employees’ Association (WA)                    165
      Extract Rule 13.02(2) (Vic and NT)                                                     168
      Rules aimed at preventing surprise                                                     168
      Extract   Casey v Australian Broadcasting Commission                                   168
      Extract   Part 15, r 13 (NSW)                                                          171
      Extract   Bright v Sampson & Duncan Enterprises Pty Ltd                                171
      Extract   Rule 13.12(3) (Vic and NT)                                                   173
3.   Particulars                                                                             173
      Extract Pilato v Metropolitan Water Sewerage and Drainage Board                        175
4.   Amending pleadings                                                                      176
      Extract   Etna v Arif                                                                  177
      Extract   Leotta v Public Transport Commission (NSW)                                   180
      Extract   Dare v Pulham                                                                181
      Extract   New South Wales v Thomas                                                     182
      Extract   Cordelia Holdings Pty Ltd v Newkey Investments Pty Ltd                       184
      Extract   Commonwealth Securities v South Pacific Securities Ltd                       185
      Extract   Queensland v JL Holdings Pty Ltd                                             187
      Extract   Custom Credit Corporation Ltd v Dallas Development Corporation Pty Ltd       189
      Extract   Hall Chadwick Corporation Finance (WA) Pty Ltd v Axiom Properties Ltd        191
5.   Challenging pleadings                                                                   193
      Extract National Mutual Property Services (Australia) Pty Ltd v Citibank Savings Ltd   193
      Extract Supreme Court Rules 1970 (NSW)                                                 197
      Extract Hillebrand v Penrith Council                                                   197
6.   Formal admissions                                                                       199
      Extract Rigato Farms Pty Ltd v Ridolfi                                                 200

Chapter 6          Summary Disposition                                                       203
1.   Introduction                                                                            203
2.   Summary judgment                                                                        203
                                                 Reading Guide
      Extract Uniform Civil Procedure Rules 1999 (Qld)                                  203
       Extract Gray v Morris                                                            204
      Extract Pico Holdings Inc v Voss                                                  207
3.   Judgment in default of appearance or defence                                       209
      Extract Cook v DA Manufacturing Co Pty Ltd                                        210
      Extract Westpac Banking Corporation v Garrett                                     212
4.   Other types of default judgment                                                    213
      Dismissal of plaintiff’s claim for want of prosecution                            213
5.   Discontinuance of claims and withdrawal of defences                                214

Chapter 7         Discovery and Gathering Evidence                                      217
1.   Introduction                                                                       217
2.   Notices to produce in New South Wales                                              219
3.   Discovery and inspection of documents                                              220
      Introduction                                                                      220
      Relevance                                                                         221
      Extract Rehn v Australian Football League                                         221
      Extract Commonwealth v Northern Land Council                                      223
      The ‘necessity’ precondition for discovery and inspection                         225
      Extract Mobil Oil Australia Ltd v Guina Developments Pty Ltd                      225
      Extract Ammerlan v Distillers Co (Biochemicals) Ltd                               228
      The definition of ‘document’                                                      229
      Possession, custody or power                                                      230
      Extract Roux v Australian Broadcasting Commission                                 230
      Extract Palmdale Insurance Ltd (in liq) v L Grollo & Co Pty Ltd                   232
      Extract Taylor v Santos Ltd                                                       233
      Privilege                                                                         234
      Extract   Baker v Campbell                                                        235
      Extract   Fagan v New South Wales                                                 235
      Extract   Esso Australia Resources Ltd v Commissioner of Taxation                 237
      Extract   Mitsubishi Electric Australia Pty Ltd v Victorian WorkCover Authority   238
      Extract   Kennedy v Wallace                                                       242
      Extract   Cape Wools SA v KPMG Corporate Finance (Vic) Pty Ltd                    248
      Waiver of privilege                                                               249
      Extract Ashfield Municipal Council v RTA                                          249
      Privileges against self-incrimination and exposure to a penalty or forfeiture     253
      ‘Without prejudice’ communications                                                253
      Extract Mercantile Mutual Custodians Pty Ltd v Village/Nine Network
              Restaurants & Bars Pty Ltd                                                253
      Confidential information                                                          254
      The duty to inquire and continuing discovery                                      256
      Extract Re McGorm; Ex parte Co-operative Building Society of South Australia      256
      Extract Trade Practices Commission v Santos Ltd                                   257
      Establishing the falsity of an affidavit                                          257
      Penalties for breach of the rules                                                 258
      Discovery against non-parties                                                     259
      Extract FAI Home Security Pty Ltd v Price                                         260
4.   Subpoenas                                                                          261
      Extract Yunghanns v Candoora No 19 Pty Ltd (No 5)                                 262
      Extract Pasini v Vanstone                                                         263
5.   Interrogatories                                                                    265
6.   Medical examinations                                                               266
      Extract S v S                                                                     266
      Extract Vakauta v Kelly                                                           268
7.   Inspecting and testing property                                                    270
      Extract Order 17, r 1 (Federal Court)                                             270
8.   Collateral use of material                                                         271
      Extract Hamersley Iron Pty Ltd v Lovell                                           271
      Extract Springfield Nominees Pty Ltd v Bridgelands Securities Ltd                 272
9.   Getting evidence admitted before trial                                             274
                                             Reading Guide
Chapter 8       Privilege                                                                  276
1.   Introduction                                                                          276
      Procedure                                                                            278
2.   Legal professional privilege/client legal privilege                                   279
      Introduction                                                                         279
      Protection in contexts not connected to litigation                                   279
      Rationales for the rule                                                              280
      Basic protections                                                                    283
      Extract Uniform Evidence Acts                                                        283
      Extract Trade Practices Commission v Sterling                                        284
      Extract Pratt Holdings Pty Ltd v Federal Commissioner of Taxation                    286
      The unrepresented litigant                                                           294
      The purpose limit to the privilege                                                   294
      Extract Grant v Downs                                                                295
      Extract Sparnon v Apand Pty Ltd                                                      297
      Copies of documents                                                                  297
      When does a lawyer act as a lawyer?                                                  298
      Extract Medina v R                                                                   298
      Confidentiality at the outset                                                        300
      Extract R v Braham and Mason                                                         300
      Extract J-Corp Pty Ltd v Australian Builders Labourers Federated Union (WA Branch)   303
      Non-availability of the privilege                                                    303
      Extract Dalleagles Pty Ltd v Australian Securities Commission                        304
      Loss of the privilege                                                                305
        Actual and constructive waiver                                                     306
      Extract Uniform Evidence Acts                                                        306
      Extract Mann v Carnell                                                               307
      Extract Goldberg v Ng                                                                309
         Sharing the lawyer’s advice with another                                          315
         Unwanted leaks                                                                    316
         Improper purposes                                                                 317
       Extract Attorney-General (NT) v Kearney                                             318
      Statutory inroads on the privilege                                                   321
      Extract Daniels Corporation International Pty Ltd v
              Australian Competition and Consumer Commission                               322
3.   Other forms of professional privilege                                                 326
      Extract Evidence Act 1995 (NSW)                                                      327
      Extract Criminal Procedure Act 1986 (NSW)                                            329
      Extract Evidence Act 2001 (Tas)                                                      332
4.   Familial privileges                                                                   334
5.   Privilege against self-incrimination                                                  334
      Extract Uniform Evidence Acts                                                        335
      Extract Accident Insurance Mutual Holdings Ltd v McFadden                            339
6.   Exclusion of evidence in the public interest                                          346
      Privileged negotiations                                                              346
      Extract Uniform Evidence Acts                                                        347
      Extract AWA Ltd v Daniels                                                            351
7.   Public interest immunity and privilege for state matters                              353
      Extract Uniform Evidence Act 1995 (Cth)                                              355
      Extract Chapman v Luminis Pty Ltd [No 2]                                             356
      Extract Commonwealth v Northern Land Council                                         359


                                                    VOLUME 2
                       LITIGATION II: EVIDENCE AND CRIMINAL PROCESS
Chapter 9       Issues in Police Investigation                                             395
1.   Introduction                                                                          395
      Scope of this chapter                                                                395
      Major advances in crime investigation                                                396
                                                   Reading Guide
2.   Civil liberties, fairness and reasonableness                            396
3.   Foundational issues relating to police powers                           401
      Extract Goldie v Commonwealth                                          402
      Police discretion                                                      404
      Restorative justice                                                    405
4.   Police work                                                             407
      Report on Government Services 2004, Police Services                     408
      Report on Government Services 2004, Police Services                     409
5.   Policing Indigenous Australians                                         411
      Extract Indigenous Welfare in Australia                                412
6.   Police in the public eye                                                413
      Perceptions                                                            413
      Report on Government Services 2004, Police Services                     414
      Police corruption                                                      415
      Report on Government Services 2004, Police Services                     418
      Tortious liability of police                                           418
7.   Statute and case law                                                    419
      Extract Uniform Evidence Acts                                          420

Chapter 10 Arrest and Bail                                                   421
1.   Introduction                                                            421
2.   The significance of arrest                                              421
      Alternatives to arrest                                                 426
3.   Arrest, detention or ‘voluntary’ attendance: what is an arrest?         427
      Common law arrest                                                      429
      Extract R v O’Donoghue                                                 430
      Statutory clarification and regulation of arrest and custody           434
      Extract Law Enforcement (Powers and Responsibilities) Act 2002 (NSW)   435
4.   Powers of arrest                                                        437
      Police officers                                                        437
        Common law                                                           437
        Statutory powers                                                     437
      Extract Law Enforcement (Powers and Responsibilities) Act 2002 (NSW)   438
      Extract Crimes Act 1914 (Cth)                                          438
      Private persons                                                        439
         Common law                                                          439
         Statutory powers                                                    440
5.   When an arrest may be made — reasonable suspicion                       440
      Extract Hussien v Chong Fook Kam                                       441
      Relying on third party’s suspicion or belief                           442
      Arrestor holds a mistaken view of the law                              442
      Arrest on a holding charge                                             443
6.   The purpose of an arrest                                                444
      Introduction                                                           444
      Impact of an unlawful purpose                                          445
      Extract Michaels v R                                                   446
      Delay in taking an arrestee before a judicial officer                  450
      Statutory detention following arrest                                   453
         Victoria, Tasmania and the Northern Territory                       453
         Commonwealth, Queensland and South Australia                        456
      Extract Crimes Act 1914 (Cth)                                          456
         New South Wales                                                     460
      The investigation period                                                460
      After the investigation period has expired                              461
      Detention warrants                                                      462
7.   How an arrest should be made                                            464
      Notification of grounds of arrest                                      464
        Common law                                                           465
      Extract Abbassy v Commissioner of Police                               465
         Statute                                                             469
      Extract Crimes Act 1914 (Cth)                                          469
      Use of force in making an arrest                                       470
                                             Reading Guide
         Common law                                                      470
      Extract R v Turner                                                 471
         Statute                                                         473
      Extract Crimes Act 1914 (Cth)                                      473
8.   Where an arrest can be made: entry on to premises                   474
      Common law                                                         474
        To effect an arrest or other execution of the King’s process     475
      Extract Lippl v Haines                                             475
         To prevent a breach of the peace or a felony                    479
         Consent or licence to enter                                     479
      Extract Halliday v Nevill                                          479
      Statutory powers                                                   480
      Extract Crimes Act 1914 (Cth)                                      480
9.   Responsibilities of those who arrest                                482
      Police liabilities: personal and/or vicarious                      482
      Bail                                                               484
        Police bail                                                      486
        Court bail                                                       486
        Rights and presumptions to granting bail                         486
        Criteria for granting bail                                       487
        Bail conditions                                                  490
        Refusal, excessive bail and variation of conditions              491
        Surety                                                           492
        Murder                                                           492
        On appeal or awaiting sentence                                   493
        Revocation of bail                                               494

Chapter 11 The Law and Practice of Search and Seizure                    495
1.   Introduction                                                        495
2.   What is a search?                                                   497
      Extract Darby v Director of Public Prosecutions                    499
3.   What is a seizure?                                                  501
      Returning seized items                                             502
      Extract Puglisi v Australian Fisheries Management Authority        502
4.   Search with an arrest                                               507
      The scope of search upon arrest                                    508
      Extract Mayhew v United States of America                          508
      Extract R (Rottman) v Commissioner of Police                       513
      Statutory powers of search upon arrest                             519
      Extract Crimes Act 1914 (Cth)                                      521
5.   The warrant process                                                 524
      Extract R v Stankovich                                             528
      Commonwealth                                                       532
      Extract Crimes Act 1914 (Cth)                                      532
      What must the issuing officer and the applicant do?                533
      Extract George v Rockett                                           534
      Applicant’s disclosure obligations                                 537
      Extract Price v Elder                                              537
      Extract Kennedy v Baker                                            540
      Clarity, certainty and severance of invalidities in a warrant      545
      Extract Williams v Keelty                                          545
      Executing the warrant                                              558
      Extract Crimes Act 1914 (Cth)                                      559
      A continuous search or multiple searches under a single warrant?   564
      Extract Hart v Commissioner, Australian Federal Police             565
      Extract Kennedy v Baker                                            567
      Use of force                                                       570
      Informing the occupant                                             571
      Search of motor vehicles etc                                       571
      Extract Crimes Act 1914 (Cth)                                      572
                                              Reading Guide
Chapter 12 Interrogation and Evidence of Admissions
           and Confessions                                                                    573
1.    Introduction                                                                            573
2.    Identifying the right to silence                                                        574
       Disclosure of evidence before trial                                                    575
       Furnishing information to the police                                                   576
       Extract Crimes Act 1914 (Cth)                                                          577
       Statutory regulation of police interviews                                              579
       Extract Crimes Act 1914 (Cth)                                                          580
3.    Verballing and other authenticity issues                                                586
       Introduction                                                                           586
       The warning requirement                                                                588
       Extract McKinney v R                                                                   588
       Extract Uniform Evidence Acts                                                          591
       Excluding unsigned records of interview                                                592
       Extract Uniform Evidence Acts                                                          592
       The mandatory taping regimes                                                           593
       Extract   Crimes Act 1914 (Cth)                                                        593
       Extract   Heatherington v R                                                            596
       Extract   Evidence Act 2001 (Tas)                                                      599
       Extract   Kelly v R                                                                    600
       Extract   Nicholls v R; Coates v R                                                     606
       Have the mandatory taping regimes worked?                                              613
4.    Retain the right to silence?                                                            614
5.    The admissibility of evidence of confessions and admissions                             617
       Introduction                                                                           617
       Defining criminal confessions and admissions                                           619
          Can silence constitute an admission?                                                620
        Extract Uniform Evidence Acts                                                         620
          What if the suspect has not been consistent in exercising their right to silence?   621
          Was it silence? Don’t move your shoulders                                           623
          Levelling the power balance extinguishes the right                                  623
          Denials and conduct in the face of an accusation                                    624
          Pre-empting speculation of police impropriety or suspect’s denial                   624
       Lies                                                                                   625
6.    Admissibility restrictions                                                              631
7.    Exclusion for violent, oppressive, inhuman or degrading conduct                         633
       Extract Uniform Evidence Acts                                                          633
8.    Mandatory exclusion for involuntariness at common law                                   634
       Extract   R v Swaffield; Pavic v R                                                     636
       Extract   R v Azar                                                                     639
       Extract   R v Parker                                                                   642
       Extract   R v Dixon                                                                    644
9.    Truth and reliability factors                                                           646
       Extract Uniform Evidence Acts                                                          646
10.   Who is bound by the confession?                                                         651

Chapter 13 Prosecuting Crime: the Charging Process                                            653
1.    The charging process                                                                    653
2.    Initiating prosecutions                                                                 654
       Whether to prosecute — a question of discretion                                        654
       Extract Prosecution Policy of the Commonwealth
               Commonwealth Director of Public Prosecutions                                   655
       Costs in criminal proceedings                                                          657
       The charging process                                                                   658
3.    The charge document                                                                     659
       Time limits for charging                                                               660
       Laying the indictment or information                                                   661
4.    Drafting criminal charges                                                               663
       Including all the necessary legal elements                                             663
                                              Reading Guide
      Including all the necessary factual elements                       665
      Ensuring certainty and single offences                             667
         General principles                                              667
      Extract Walsh v Tattersall                                         667
         Defects disclosed by the evidence — latent duplicity            673
      Extract S v R                                                      673
        Applying Walsh principles                                        675
      Section 80, offence definition and the jury                        676
5.   Amending charges                                                    678
      Nullity or defect? The power to amend                              678
      Extract Flanagan v Remick                                          680
       Amendment principles                                              682
       Amending by prosecution election                                  683
       Statutory powers of amendments: indictable offences               683
       Judicial amendments                                               685
       Alternative charges                                               686
6.   Adjournments                                                        686
7.   Issues in multiple charging                                         687
       Hearing charges together                                          687
       Multiple charges in a single trial                                688
          Indictable offences: joining counts against a single accused   688
          Severing counts in an indictment                               689
          Indictable offences: multiple defendants in a single trial     692
       Multiple accused in a single count                                694
       ‘Overcharging’ and multiple charges                               695
       Plea negotiation                                                  697
      Extract Thionnet v Stephenson                                      699
8.   Case screening and indictable offences                              703
      Committal proceedings                                              703
      Ex officio indictments                                             706
      Basha inquiries                                                    707
      Nolle prosequi                                                     707
      Indemnities and undertakings                                       711

Chapter 14 Prosecuting the Criminal Trial                                712
1.   Introduction                                                        712
2.   Delay reduction and case management                                 712
3.   Offices of the Director of Public Prosecutions                      716
      Police prosecution services vs DPP                                 717
          Professionalism                                                717
          Independence                                                   717
      Common law prosecutorial duty to act fairly                        718
      Extract Australian Bar Association Model Rules                     720
      Extract R v Tran                                                   721
      Professional rules of practice regarding duty of fairness          727
      Extract Australian Bar Association Model Rules                     727
      Prosecution obligation to call material and credible witnesses     728
      Extract Dyers v R                                                  728
      Extract R v Kneebone                                               729
      Extract R v Gibson                                                 734
      The common law duty of disclosure                                  736
      Information relevant to the credibility of prosecution witnesses   738
      Extract Grey v R                                                   738
      Extract Statement on Prosecution Disclosure                        740
      Defence witnesses                                                  741
      Extract R v Jamieson                                               742
4.   Information gathering                                               743
      Subpoenas in criminal cases                                        743
      Extract R v Saleam                                                 743
      Prosecution disclosure — briefs of evidence and particulars        747
                                             Reading Guide
      Extract Criminal Procedure Act 1986 (NSW)                                      748
       Extract DPP(NSW) v Webb                                                       749
      The introduction of reciprocal disclosure                                      752
      Extract Criminal Code (WA)                                                     754
      Complex trials                                                                 756
      Extract Criminal Procedure Act 1986 (NSW)                                      758
5.   Adversarialism and the criminal trial                                           758
      The big reform challenge — adversarialism in the criminal trial                758
      Extract Australian Bar Association Model Rules                                 760
      Adversarial or accusatorial?                                                   761
6.   The judge                                                                       762
      Questioning and calling witnesses                                              763
      Judicial instruction to the jury                                               765
7.   Anatomy of a criminal trial                                                     765
      Extract R v Clearihan                                                          765
8.   Glossary of terms                                                               773

Chapter 15 Evidence Law and the Concept of Relevance                                 777
1.   Australian Evidence Law                                                         777
2.   The presentation of evidence                                                    780
3.   Rational evidence law?                                                          780
4.   Fair trials                                                                     782
      Extract The Truth Can Cost Too Much: The Principle of A Fair Trial (extract)   782
5.   The general framework                                                           788
      Extract Uniform Evidence Act 1995 — Chapter 3                                  789
6.   Basic principles of relevance                                                   790
      Threshold relevance                                                            790
      Extract Uniform Evidence Acts                                                  791
      ‘could rationally affect …’                                                    792
      Reliability and relevance                                                      793
      Relevance and timing: applying res gestae principles                           794
      Extract Papakosmas v R                                                         796
      Documents and relevance                                                        802
      Collateral issues                                                              803
7.   Inferential reasoning, circumstantial evidence and relevance                    804
      Provisional relevance                                                          804
      Circumstantial evidence                                                        805
      Relationship, background and context evidence                                  808
      Extract Conway v R                                                             809
      Extract R v (Richard) Adam                                                     811
8.   Relevance, cross-examination and credibility                                    814
      Cross-examination and relevance                                                814
      Extract Wakeley v R                                                            814
      Credibility and relevance                                                      816
      Extract Goldsmith v Sandilands                                                 818
      Relevance to facts in issue and/or to credibility                              819
      Credibility findings and appeals                                               821
      Extract Fox v Percy                                                            821

Chapter 16 Judicial Discretions and Evidence                                         824
1.   Introduction                                                                    824
2.   Exclusionary discretions: uniform Evidence Act                                  826
      An overview                                                                    826
      Extract Uniform Evidence Act 1995                                              826
      Discretionary limitation of evidence                                           828
      Extract Uniform Evidence Act                                                   828
      What is ‘unfair prejudice’?                                                    828
      Procedural disadvantage                                                        829
      The weighing process                                                           832
      Uniform Evidence Act discretions — an application                              833
                                              Reading Guide
      Extract R v Em                                                 833
      The discretions at common law — an application                 845
      Extract R v Lobban                                             846
3.   Timing and discretionary rulings                                858
      Extract Criminal Code 1924 (Tas)                               859
4.   Grants of leave, permissions or directions                      862
      Extract Uniform Evidence Act                                   862

Chapter 17 Identification Evidence                                   863
1.   Introduction — dangers of misidentification                     863
2.   Science and identification                                      864
      DNA: criminal investigations and criminal trials               865
      Obtaining fingerprints, DNA samples, blood samples etc         870
      Extract Crimes Act 1914 (Cth)                                  870
3.   Eyewitness identification                                       874
      Recognition, resemblance and identification                    876
      Extract Festa v R                                              877
      In-court identification                                        879
      Photographs and identification parades                         880
      Extract Uniform Evidence Act 1995                              882
      Identification parades                                         885
      Extract Crimes Act 1914 (Cth)                                  887
      Photographs                                                    889
      Extract Alexander v R                                          890
4.   Other types of identification evidence                          892
      Aural identification                                           892
      Identifying objects                                            893
      Extract Uniform Evidence Act                                   894
5.   Judicial warnings and identification                            895
      Extract Domican v R                                            896
      Extract Uniform Evidence Act                                   898
      Extract Dhanhoa v R                                            899

Chapter 18 Judicial Warnings and Unreliable Evidence                 903
1.   Introduction                                                    903
2.   The tasks for the judge and jury                                904
3.   The warnings                                                    908
      The Bromley/Longman legacy                                     908
      Section 165 uniform Evidence Act                               909
          Uniform Evidence Act jurisdictions                         909
      Extract Uniform Evidence Act                                   910
      When a warning should be given                                 910
      ‘ … evidence of a kind that may be unreliable’                 911
      Extract Grey v R                                               914
      ‘good reasons’ for refusing a warning                          916
      The nature of the warning                                      917
      Extract Uniform Evidence Act                                   917
      Warnings in non-jury trials                                    918
      Sentence discounts for prosecution witnesses and s 165(1)(d)   918
      Section 165(1)(e), Pollitt v R and prison informers            920
      Extract Pollitt v R                                            920
      Extract Criminal Trial Courts Bench Book                       922
      The McKinney warning                                           924
      Uniform Evidence Act jurisdictions                             926
      The Faure warning                                              927
4.   Corroboration law                                               927
      Introduction                                                   927
      Extract R v Taylor                                             929
      Uniform Evidence Act jurisdictions                             932
      Accomplices under the uniform Act                              934
                                             Reading Guide
      Extract Conway v R                                                              935
      Perjury                                                                         938
      Statutory corroboration requirements                                            938
5.   Accomplice evidence at common law                                                939
      Who is an accomplice?                                                           939
      The tasks for the judge and jury                                                940
      The accomplice warning                                                          940
      Extract Jenkins v R                                                             940
      Extract Criminal Appeal Act 1912 (NSW)                                          944
         Corroborative evidence                                                       944
         ‘Tending to confirm the accused’s involvement’                               944
      Extract Doney v R                                                               944
      Extract R v Martin                                                              946
      Co-accused accomplices                                                          949
      Extract Webb v R                                                                949
      Mutual corroboration                                                            950

Chapter 19 Decision Making in Court: Juries, Lawyers and
           Fact Finding                                                              951
1.   Introduction                                                                     951
2.   Counsel, advocacy and the theatre of the court                                   952
      Extract Managing Justice: A Review of the Federal Civil Justice System          952
      Counsel’s questioning                                                           954
      Theatre or justice?                                                             955
      Extract Bardell v Pickwick                                                      956
3.   Testing evidence outside the witness box                                         957
      Testing a witness’s testimony                                                   959
      Extract Thompson v R                                                            959
4.   The jury                                                                         961
      Extract Evidence, Advocacy and Ethical Practice: A Criminal Trial Commentary    961
      In the jury room — ‘according to the evidence’                                  964
      Extract Barker v R                                                              966
      Outside the jury room                                                           967
      Extract R v K                                                                   968
5.   Taking the hearing out of the courtroom                                          975
      Views and demonstrations                                                        975
      Extract Uniform Evidence Act 1995                                               976
6.   Technology and electronic recordings                                             977
      Extract Eastman v R                                                             979
      Technology and information overload                                             983
      Extract Technology — what it means for federal dispute resolution               983

Chapter 20 Proof and Fact Finding                                                    986
1.   Introduction                                                                     986
2.   The nature of proof                                                              986
3.   Distinguishing evidential and legal burdens                                      987
4.   Assigning the criminal burden                                                    988
      The normal rule                                                                 988
      Extract Woolmington v DPP                                                       988
      Extract Jayasena v R                                                            989
      The insanity exception                                                          990
      The statutory exceptions                                                        991
      Extract DPP v United Telecasters Sydney Ltd                                     994
      Extract Chugg v Pacific Dunlop Ltd                                              995
      Extract Avel Pty Ltd v Multicoin Amusements Pty Ltd                             999
5.   Assigning the civil burden                                                      1001
      Extract Banque Commerciale SA (in liq) v Akhil Holdings Ltd                    1001
6.   The standards of proof                                                          1003
      Introduction                                                                   1003
      Extract Uniform Evidence Acts                                                  1003
                                             Reading Guide
      The civil standard                                                    1004
      Extract Briginshaw v Briginshaw                                        1004
      Extract Re H                                                           1006
      Extract Neat Holdings Pty Ltd v Karajan Holdings Pty Ltd               1009
      The criminal standard                                                 1010
      Extract R v Southammavong                                              1011
      Extract R v Summers                                                    1018
      Circumstantial evidence                                               1019
      Extract Shepherd v R                                                   1020
      No case to answer                                                     1023
      Statistical evidence                                                  1024
      Extract Jones v Sutherland Shire Council                               1025
      Extract R v GK                                                         1028
7.   Presumptions                                                           1034
      Extract MacCormick v Federal Commissioner of Taxation                  1035
      Extract Mason v Tritton                                                1035
      Extract Family Law Act 1975 (Cth)                                      1039
8.   Judicial notice                                                        1041
      Extract Uniform Evidence Acts                                          1041
      Extract Australian Communist Party v Commonwealth                      1042
9.   Unexplained failure to call a
     material witness or other material evidence in a civil case            1043
      Extract G v H                                                          1045

Chapter 21 Questioning One’s Own Witness In Court                           1048
1.   Introduction                                                           1048
2.   Witness questioning — general issues                                   1048
3.    Leading questions                                                     1050
      Extract Uniform Evidence Acts                                          1050
      Extract Uniform Evidence Acts                                          1051
      Extract Maves v Grand Trunk Pacific Railway Co                         1051
4.   Refreshing memory                                                      1053
      Refreshing memory in court                                            1053
      Extract Uniform Evidence Acts                                          1054
         Contemporaneity: fresh in the memory                               1054
         Adoption                                                           1056
         Using a copy                                                       1057
         The procedure                                                      1057
      Extract R v Da Silva                                                   1058
        Production of the aide mémoire and use of it to cross-examine       1059
      Police officers as witnesses                                          1060
      Extract Uniform Evidence Acts                                          1060
      Refreshing memory out of court                                        1061
        Generally                                                           1061
      Extract Uniform Evidence Acts                                          1062
         Hypnosis out of court                                              1062
      Extract R v Jenkyns                                                    1063
      Extract Roughley v R                                                   1066
5.   The prohibition against credit impeachment                             1068
      Generally                                                             1068
      Contradictory evidence                                                1069
6.   Exceptions to the prohibition                                          1070
      Unfavourable witnesses — uniform Evidence Acts s 38                   1070
      Extract Uniform Evidence Acts                                          1070
         What is ‘unfavourable’?                                            1071
      Extract R v Lozano                                                     1072
         When is a witness not making a genuine attempt to give evidence?   1073
         Prior inconsistent statements                                      1074
      Extract Adam v R                                                       1074
         Procedure                                                          1076
                                            Reading Guide
      Generally                                                                        1076
      Discretionary considerations                                                     1079
      Extract Uniform Evidence Acts                                                    1080
      The common law — hostile witnesses                                              1082
        What is hostility?                                                            1082
      Extract McLellan v Bowyer                                                        1083
         The procedure                                                                1084
      Generally                                                                        1084
      Prior inconsistent statements                                                    1085
      Extract Evidence Act 1958 (Vic)                                                  1085
      Extract R v Hadlow                                                               1085
7.   Prohibition against accreditation                                                1088
      The general rule                                                                1088
      Extract Uniform Evidence Acts                                                    1089
      Common law                                                                      1092
        Prior consistent statements                                                   1092
        Exception: rebutting an allegation of recent invention                        1093
      Extract R v Martin                                                               1093
      Other exceptions                                                                1097
8.   Re-examination                                                                   1098
      Extract Uniform Evidence Acts                                                    1098

Chapter 22 Cross-examination and Re-opening                                           1101
1.   Introduction                                                                     1101
2.   Limits on the style of questioning                                               1102
      Leading questions                                                               1102
      Extract Uniform Evidence Acts                                                    1102
      Improper questions                                                              1103
      Extract Uniform Evidence Acts                                                    1103
      Extract MODEL RULES OF PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT AND PRACTICE
              Advocacy and Litigation Rules                                            1105
      Extract Albrighton v Royal Prince Alfred Hospital                                1105
      Extract Campbell v R                                                             1107
      The ambit of questioning                                                        1107
      Extract Wakeley v R                                                              1108
3.   The rule in Browne v Dunn                                                        1108
      Generally                                                                       1108
      Extract R v Birks                                                                1109
      Extract Uniform Evidence Acts                                                    1114
4.   Cross-examination on credibility                                                 1114
      Generally                                                                       1114
         Significance and assessment of witnesses’ credibility                        1114
         Role of demeanour and lies                                                   1115
      Extract State Rail Authority of New South Wales v
              Earthline Constructions Pty Ltd (in liq)                                 1116
      Extract Whisprun Pty Ltd v Dixon                                                 1118
      The distinction between cross-examination on facts in issue and
               cross-examination on credibility                                       1119
      The common law and non-uniform evidence statutory provisions                    1119
      Extract R v Slack                                                                1121
         Prior convictions at common law and under non-uniform evidence legislation   1124
      Extract Bugg v Day                                                               1125
      Extract R v Aldridge                                                             1127
      Uniform Evidence Acts                                                           1128
      Extract Uniform Evidence Acts                                                    1128
         Prior convictions and misconduct under the uniform Evidence Acts             1131
5.   The credibility rule and the finality principle                                  1132
      Extract Piddington v Bennett and Wood Pty Ltd                                    1133
      Extract Nicholls v R                                                             1137
        Uniform Evidence Act jurisdictions                                            1142
6.   Exceptions to the finality principle                                             1142
                                            Reading Guide
      Extract Uniform Evidence Acts                                              1143
      Evidence of bias, corruption, interest or a motive for being untruthful   1145
      Extract R v Abebe and Mulugeta                                             1145
      Prior convictions                                                         1148
      Prior inconsistent statements                                             1148
         Uniform Evidence Acts                                                  1149
      Extract Uniform Evidence Acts                                              1149
         Other jurisdictions                                                    1151
      Extract Cheney v R                                                         1152
        Inconsistent statements of someone other than the witness testifying    1154
      … is or was unable to be aware of matters …                               1155
      Perjury                                                                   1157
        Common law                                                              1157
      Extract R v Richardson                                                     1157
7.   Rehabilitative evidence                                                    1158
8.   Re-opening and rebuttal                                                    1159
      Criminal cases                                                            1159
         The prosecution’s case                                                 1160
      Extract R v Chin                                                           1160
        The defence case                                                        1164
      Civil cases                                                               1164
      Extract Urban Transport Authority v Nweiser                                1164

Chapter 23 The Witness in Court                                                 1167
1.   Introduction                                                               1167
      Competence and compellability — generally                                 1167
      Assessing competency                                                      1169
          Sworn evidence                                                        1170
          Unsworn evidence                                                      1172
      Extract R v Brooks                                                         1172
         Evidentiary implications regarding unsworn testimony                   1175
      Judges’ competency and compellability                                     1175
      Jurors’ competency and compellability                                     1176
2.   Vulnerable witnesses: cultural differences                                 1176
3.   Vulnerable witnesses: disabilities                                         1177
4.   Vulnerable witnesses: parties’ spouses and relatives                       1179
      Extract Uniform Evidence Acts                                              1181
      Extract Evidence Act 1906 (WA)                                             1183
5.   Vulnerable witnesses: sexual assault complainants                          1184
      Abolition of the corroboration warning                                    1186
      Murray warning                                                            1187
      Longman warning                                                           1187
      Extract R v BWT                                                            1189
      The law relating to recent complaints                                     1198
        Failure to make recent complaint                                        1200
        Admissibility of recent complaint                                       1203
      Cross-examining sexual assault victims                                    1210
        Cross-examination by the accused in person                              1210
      Extract R v MSK; R v MAK                                                   1211
         Cross-examining the complainant about a motive to lie                  1213
         Questioning the accused on the ‘motive to lie’ issue                   1214
         Directing the jury on the ‘motive to lie’ issue                        1216
         Complainant’s sexual experience and sexual reputation                  1217
      Extract Evidence Act 2001 (Tas)                                            1221
      Extract Criminal Procedure Act 1986 (NSW)                                  1224
      Extract R v Henning                                                        1227
        Confidential counselling communications                                 1230
6.   Vulnerable witnesses: children                                             1231
      Special arrangements for testifying                                       1231
      The reliability of children                                               1235
                                            Reading Guide
         Questioning child witnesses                                       1235
         Warning requirements                                              1237
      Extract Evidence Act 1995 (NSW)                                       1238
      Child sexual abuse accommodation syndrome                            1239
      Extract Seen and Heard: Priority for Children in the Legal Process    1240

Chapter 24 The Accused in the Criminal Trial                               1241
1.   Introduction                                                          1241
2.   The accused                                                           1241
      Who is charged and convicted of criminal offences?                   1241
      The criminal trial and the accused                                   1242
      Fitness to stand trial                                               1245
      Mental health and procedures for determining fitness                 1247
          Lawyers’ instructions — accused unfit to plead                   1251
      The criminal trial and the accused’s plea                            1252
      The significance of a guilty plea                                    1252
      Extract R v Wilkes                                                    1254
      Plea to jurisdiction                                                 1256
      Res judicata                                                         1256
         Civil cases                                                       1257
         Criminal cases                                                    1258
         The pleas in bar: autrefois acquit and autrefois convict          1259
      Issue estoppel in criminal cases                                     1261
      Abuse of process issues in other contexts                            1263
      Extract R v Fisher                                                    1264
3.   Fair trials and representation                                        1269
      Extract Dietrich v R                                                  1270
      Extract Legal Aid: A decade after Dietrich                            1271
      McKenzie friend                                                      1273
      Extract Damjanovic v Maley                                            1274
      Incompetent legal representation                                     1279
4.   The accused in court                                                  1280
      Opening the defence case                                             1281
      Testimonial capacity — allowing the accused to testify               1283
      The silent accused                                                   1284
      When an accused must explain                                         1287
      Extract Weissensteiner v R                                            1287
      Extract Uniform Evidence Act                                          1289
      Extract Azzopardi v R                                                 1291
      Co-accused’s comments                                                1293
      Jones v Dunkel and criminal trials                                   1293
      Extract Dyers v R                                                     1293
      Jones v Dunkel and the prosecution                                   1298
      Cross-examining the accused on credibility                           1298
      Extract Uniform Evidence Act                                          1298
      Inferences from accused’s interest in outcome of trial               1299
      An accused who lies in court                                         1301

Chapter 25 The Accused and Limitations on Evidence                         1305
1.   Introducing character evidence                                        1305
      Evidence of an accused person’s character                            1307
      Psychological research                                               1308
      Extract New South Wales Higher Court Statistics                       1311
      Extract Melbourne v R                                                 1312
2.   Tendency, coincidence and similar fact                                1315
      Morally repugnant non-criminal acts                                  1316
      The common law — the ‘no rational inference’ test                    1318
      Extract Pfennig v R                                                   1318
      Extract Al-Hashimi v R                                                1321
      Extract Crimes Act 1958 (Vic)                                         1326
                                              Reading Guide
      Extract R v Rajakaruna                                               1327
      Common law judicial warnings                                        1336
      Extract KRM v R                                                      1336
      Defence evidence                                                    1342
      Extract Button v R                                                   1342
      Tendency and coincidence evidence: the uniform Evidence Acts        1346
      Extract Uniform Evidence Acts                                        1346
         An overview                                                      1347
         Terminology: tendency or disposition evidence                    1348
         Terminology: coincidence or improbability evidence               1349
         Significant probative value                                      1350
         Notice requirements                                              1351
         Relationship and tendency evidence                               1352
      Extract R v Li                                                       1352
         The coincidence rule                                             1358
      Extract R v Ellis                                                    1359
      Extract R v Folbigg                                                  1361
         Concoction and Hoch v R                                          1367
         Weighing probative value and prejudicial effect: s 101           1368
      Extract R v Ellis                                                    1368
      Extract Pfennig v R                                                  1370
      Residual exclusionary or limiting discretions                       1371
      The s 95 warning                                                    1372
      Extract Uniform Evidence Acts                                        1372
3.   Raising character and its consequences                               1373
      Extract Crimes Act 1958 (Vic)                                        1374
      Rebuttal bad character evidence — common law                        1375
      Extract R v Gillard (No 3)                                           1376
      Rebuttal character evidence — uniform Evidence Acts jurisdictions   1378
      Extract Uniform Evidence Acts 1995                                   1379
      Extract Uniform Evidence Act 2001                                    1380
      Extract Uniform Evidence Acts                                        1380
      Potential overlap between ss 104(4)(a) and 110 with s 112           1382
      Differences between s 104(4)(a) and ss 110/112                      1382
      Extract R v Bartle                                                   1384
      Extract R v El-Kheir                                                 1389
      The character shield and cross-examining prosecution witnesses      1393
      Extract Phillips v R                                                 1396
      Joint trials: the impact of a co-accused                            1400
      Extract Uniform Evidence Acts                                        1401
      Extract Uniform Evidence Acts                                        1402
      Extract R v Randall                                                  1404
      Co-accused and judicial directions                                  1408

Chapter 26 Opinion Evidence and Proof of Prior Decisions                  1409
1.   Introduction                                                         1409
      Extract Uniform Evidence Acts                                        1409
2.   Definition of ‘opinion’ and distinguishing fact from opinion         1411
      Extract Quick v Stoland Pty Ltd                                      1413
      Extract Barker v R                                                   1414
3.   Lay opinions                                                         1416
      Extract Uniform Evidence Acts                                        1418
      Extract Idoport Pty Ltd v National Australia Bank Ltd                1418
4.   Opinions of expert witnesses                                         1421
      Generally                                                           1421
      Qualifying the expert                                               1423
      Extract R v Leung and Wong                                           1423
      Extract R v Anderson                                                 1425
      Fields of expertise                                                 1429
      The common knowledge rule                                           1431
                                              Reading Guide
      Extract R v Smith                                                               1432
      Extract Murphy v R                                                              1437
         Admissibility of psychiatrists’ opinions                                    1441
      Extract Farrell v R                                                             1441
      Extract Osland v R                                                              1446
      The opinion must be within the expert’s area of expertise                      1454
      The basis rule                                                                 1455
      Extract PQ v Australian Red Cross Society                                       1456
      Lay evaluation of expert opinion                                               1460
5.   The ultimate issue rule                                                         1464
6.   Decisions in other cases: different parties                                     1466
      The rule in Hollington v Hewthorn                                              1466
      Extract Uniform Evidence Acts                                                   1466
      Extract Mickelberg v Director of the Perth Mint                                 1467

Chapter 27 The Hearsay Rule and its Exceptions                                       1470
1.   Introduction                                                                    1470
      The exclusionary rule                                                          1470
      Rationales for the rule                                                        1471
      Extract Criminal Justice Act 2003 (UK)                                          1473
      Extract Uniform Evidence Acts                                                   1475
2.   The basic definition                                                            1475
      Extract Uniform Evidence Acts                                                   1476
      Extract Subramaniam v Public Prosecutor                                         1476
3.   Some definitional issues                                                        1478
      Previous statements/representations                                            1478
      Unintended assertions                                                          1479
      Extract Walton v R                                                              1482
      The relevance test                                                             1483
      The representation must be made by a person                                    1485
      The purpose test                                                               1486
        Transactional words and words that give rise to legal consequences           1487
        Previous representations relevant to credibility                             1488
        Previous representations adduced to establish the basis of expert opinions   1488
        Translated representations                                                   1488
        Previous representations of identification                                   1489
        Previous representations relevant to establish a person’s state of mind      1489
      Extract Walton v R                                                              1492
      Extract Pollitt v R                                                             1494
      Extract R v Benz                                                                1497
         Judicial instructions on the use of non-hearsay evidence                    1500
4.   Hypotheticals — hearsay or original?                                            1500
5.   Statements with hearsay and non-hearsay relevance                               1502
      Extract Lee v R                                                                 1503
      Extract Adam v R                                                                1511
      Extract Adler v Australian Securities and Investments Commission (ASIC);
              Williams v ASIC                                                         1511
      Extract Neowarra v Western Australia                                            1512
6.   Admissibility exceptions in the uniform Evidence Acts                           1515
      Introduction                                                                   1515
      Principal exceptions for first-hand hearsay                                    1519
      Extract Uniform Evidence Acts                                                   1519
      Civil proceedings                                                              1521
      Criminal proceedings — maker of representation not available                   1522
        Section 65(2)                                                                1522
        Section 65(2)(a)                                                             1522
        Sections 65(2)(b) and (c)                                                    1523
      Extract Conway v R                                                              1523
      Extract R v Ambrosoli                                                           1529
         Section 65(2)(d) and (7)                                                    1533
                                               Reading Guide
         Section 65(3)–(6)                                                                  1534
         Section 65(8)                                                                      1535
         Section 65(9)                                                                      1536
       Criminal proceedings — maker of the representation available                         1536
         Section 66                                                                         1536
       Extract Papakosmas v R                                                               1537
         Fresh in the memory: s 66(1)                                                       1540
       Business records                                                                     1542
       Extract Uniform Evidence Acts                                                        1542
       First-hand evidence of admissions                                                    1544
       Some other exceptions                                                                1544
       Extract Uniform Evidence Acts                                                        1544
       Overriding or waiving the rules of evidence (including hearsay)                      1545
        Extract Uniform Evidence Acts                                                       1546
       Procedural safeguards and short cuts                                                 1546
       Problematic cases remain                                                             1547
       Hypothetical problems                                                                1550
7.    Common law exceptions where declarant dead                                            1550
       Declarations against self-interest                                                   1551
       Declarations in the course of duty                                                   1551
       Dying declarations in homicide cases                                                 1552
       Declarations as to public or general rights                                          1552
       Declarations as to pedigree                                                          1552
       Testators’ declarations as to the contents of their wills                            1553
8.    Admissions by parties                                                                 1553
9.    Public documents at common law                                                        1553
10.   Res gestae at common law                                                              1554
       Extract R v Andrews                                                                  1555
       Extract Pollitt v R                                                                  1557
11.   A non-hearsay digression: res gestae overrides other exclusionary rules of evidence   1559
12.   New common law exceptions?                                                            1560
       Extract Willis v R                                                                   1560
       Extract Bannon v R                                                                   1561
13.   Piecemeal statutory reforms                                                           1566
       The 1938 English model                                                               1566
       Extract Evidence Act 2004 (NT)                                                       1566
       The 1976 ‘business records’ reform                                                   1567
       Extract Evidence (Business Records) Interim Arrangements Act (NT)                    1568
       South Australia                                                                      1571
       Extract Evidence Act 1929 (SA)                                                       1572
       Victoria and Queensland                                                              1573

				
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