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Providence, Rhode Island

Providence, Rhode Island
City of Providence

Providence skyline seen looking north over the Providence River

Seal Flag

Nickname(s): Beehive of Industry, The Renaissance City, The Divine City

Location of Providence in Providence County, Rhode Island.

Coordinates: 41°49′25″N 71°25′20″W / 41.82361°N 71.42222°W / 41.82361; -71.42222 Country State County Government - Mayor Area - City - Land - Water Elevation United States Rhode Island Providence David Cicilline (D) 20.5 sq mi (53.2 km2) 18.5 sq mi (47.8 km2) 2.1 sq mi (5.3 km2) 75 ft (23 m)

Population (2006) 172,459 - City 9,473/sq mi (3,666/km2) - Density 1,600,856 - Metro Time zone - Summer (DST) Area code(s) FIPS code GNIS feature ID Website EST (UTC-5) EDT (UTC-4) 401 44-59000[1] 1219851[2]


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Providence is the capital and the most populous city of the U.S. state of Rhode Island, and one of the first cities established in the United States.[3] Located in Providence County, it is the estimated third-largest city[4] in the New England region. Despite the city proper only having an estimated population of 172,459 as of 2007, it anchors the 36th largest metropolitan population in the country, with an estimated MSA population of 1,600,856, exceeding that of Rhode Island by about 60% due to its reaching into southern Massachusetts.[5][6][7] Situated at the mouth of the Providence River, at the head of Narragansett Bay, the city’s small footprint is crisscrossed by seemingly erratic streets and contains a rapidly changing demographic. Providence was founded in 1636 by Roger Williams, a religious exile from the Massachusetts Bay Colony. He named the area in honor of "God’s merciful Providence" which he believed was responsible for revealing such a haven for him and his followers to settle. After being one of the first cities in the country to industrialize, Providence became noted for its jewelry and silverware industry. Today, Providence city proper alone is home to eight hospitals and seven institutions of higher learning, which has shifted the city’s economy into service industries, though it still retains significant manufacturing work. The city was once nicknamed the "Beehive of Industry", while today "The Renaissance City" is more common, though as of 2000 census, its poverty rate was still among the ten highest for cities over 100,000.[8][9]

Providence, Rhode Island

Providence in the mid-nineteenth century maritime, fishing and agricultural industries, the mainstay of the city’s economy. One example was the Sugar Act, which was a tax levied against Providence’s distilleries that adversely affected its trade in rum and slaves. These taxes caused Providence to join the other colonies in renouncing allegiance to the British Crown. In response to enforcement of unpopular trade laws, Providence residents spilled the first blood of the American Revolution in the notorious Gaspée Affair of 1772.[11] Though during the Revolutionary War the city escaped enemy occupation, the capture of nearby Newport disrupted industry and kept the population on alert. Troops were quartered for various campaigns and Brown University’s University Hall was used as a barracks and military hospital.[11]

The area which is now Providence was first settled in June 1636 by Roger Williams, and was one of the original Thirteen Colonies of the United States.[10] Williams secured a title from the Narragansett natives around this time and gave the city its present name. Williams also cultivated Providence as a refuge for persecuted religious dissenters, as he himself had been exiled from Massachusetts.[11] Providence’s growth would be slow during the next quarter-century—the subsuming of its territory into surrounding towns, difficulty of farming the land, and differing of local traditions and land conflicts all slowed development.[11] In the mid-1770s, the British government levied taxes that impeded Providence’s

Providence in the mid-20th century Following the war, the economy shifted from maritime endeavors to manufacturing, particularly machinery, tools, silverware, jewelry and textiles. At one time, Providence boasted some of the largest manufacturing plants in the country, including Brown & Sharpe, Nicholson File, and Gorham Silverware, and was the country’s country’s ninth-


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largest city.a[›][11] The city’s industries attracted many immigrants from Ireland, Germany, Sweden, England, Italy, Portugal, Cape Verde, and French Canada. Economic and demographic shifts caused social strife, notably with a series of race riots between whites and blacks during the 1820s. In response to these troubles and the economic growth, Providence residents ratified a city charter in 1831.[11] During the Civil War, local politics split over slavery as many had ties to Southern cotton. Despite ambivalence concerning the war, the number of military volunteers routinely exceeded quota, and the city’s manufacturing proved invaluable to the Union. Postwar, horsecar lines covering the city enabled its growth and Providence thrived with waves of immigrants and land annexations bringing the population from 54,595 in 1865 to 175,597 by 1900.[11] The city began to see a decline by the mid-1920s as industries, notably textiles, shut down. The Great Depression hit the city hard, and Providence’s downtown was subsequently flooded by the New England Hurricane of 1938. The city saw further decline as a result of nation-wide trends, with the construction of highways and increased suburbanization.[11] From the 1950s to the 1980s, Providence was a notorious bastion of organized crime.[12] The mafia boss Raymond L.S. Patriarca ruled a vast criminal enterprise.

Providence, Rhode Island
Development funds were invested throughout the city, and the hitherto falling population began to stabilize. In the 1990s, Mayor Vincent Cianci, Jr showcased the city’s strength in arts and pushed for further revitalization, ultimately resulting in the uncovering of the city’s natural rivers (which had been paved over), relocation of a large section of railroad underground, creation of Waterplace Park and river walks along the river’s banks, and construction of the Fleet Skating Rink (now the Bank of America Skating Rink) downtown and the 1.4 million ft² Providence Place Mall.[11] New investment triggered within the city, with new construction including numerous condo projects, hotels, and a new office highrise all filling in the freed space.[13][14] Despite new investment, poverty remains an entrenched problem as it does in most postindustrial New England cities. Nearly 30 percent of the city population lives below the poverty line.[15] Recent increases in real estate values further exacerbate problems for those at marginal income levels, as Providence had the highest rise in median housing price of any city in the United States from 2004 to 2005.[16]


New construction in Providence (August 2006): cranes seen for Waterplace Condominium towers, Westin addition, and the GTECH headquarters prior to completion The city’s eponymous "Renaissance" began in the 1970s. From 1975 until 1982, $606 million of local and national Community

Providence neighborhoods with major highways shown The Providence city limits enclose a small geographic region, with a total area of


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
20.5 square miles (53.2 km²). 18.5 square miles (47.8 km²) of it is land and the remaining 2.1 square miles (5.3 km²) (roughly 10%) of it is water. Providence is located at the head of Narragansett Bay, with the Providence River running into the bay through the center of the city,[17] formed by the confluence of the Moshassuck and Woonasquatucket Rivers. The Waterplace Park amphitheater and riverwalks line the river’s banks through downtown. Constitution Hill (near downtown), College (or Prospect) Hill (east of the Providence River), and Federal Hill (west of downtown and is New England’s largest Italian district) are the most prominent of the city’s hills. The remaining hills include Tockwotten Hill at Fox Point, Smith Hill (where the State House is located), Christian Hill at Hoyle Square (junction of Cranston & Westminster Streets), and Weybosset Hill at the lower end of Weybosset Street, which was leveled in the early 1880s.

Providence, Rhode Island
• The South Side (or South Providence) consists of the neighborhoods of Elmwood, Lower South Providence, Upper South Providence, and the West End. • West Broadway is an officially recognized neighborhood with its own association. It overlaps with the southern half of Federal Hill and the northern part of the West End.[20] • The West Side is a vague term sometimes used to mean the West End, Olneyville, and nearby parts of abutting neighborhoods.



Perspective of Westminster Street The city of Providence is geographically very compact, characteristic of eastern seaboard cities which developed prior to use of the automobile. It is among the most densely populated cities in the country. For this reason, Providence has the eighth-highest percentage of pedestrian commuters.[21][22] The street layout is somewhat chaotic—over one thousand streets (a great number for the city’s size) run haphazardly, connecting and radiating from traditionally bustling places like Market Square.[23] Downtown Providence has numerous 19th century mercantile buildings in the Federal and Victorian architectural styles, as well as several post-modern and modernist buildings, are located throughout this area. In particular, a fairly clear spatial separation appears between the areas of pre-1980s development and post-1980s development. West Exchange Street and Exchange Terrace serve as rough boundaries between the two. The newer area, sometimes called "Capitol Center",[24] includes Providence Place Mall (1999), a Westin hotel (1993) and The

The Providence skyline viewed from College Hill Providence has 25 official neighborhoods, though these neighborhoods are often grouped together and referred to collectively:[18][19] • The East Side is a region comprising the neighborhoods of Blackstone, Hope (aka Summit), Mount Hope, College Hill, Wayland, and Fox Point. • The Jewelry District describes the area enclosed by I95, I195, and the Providence River. • The North End is formed by the combination of the neighborhoods of Charles and Wanskuck.


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Residences at the Westin (2007), GTECH (2006), Waterplace condominiums (2007), and Waterplace Park (1994); the area tends toward newer development since much of it is land reclaimed in the 1970s from a mass of railroad tracks which was referred to colloquially as the "Chinese Wall".[25] This part of Downtown is characterized by open spaces, wide roads, and intent landscaping.

Providence, Rhode Island
small number of high-rise buildings (predominantly for housing the elderly), and single family homes. I-95 serves as a physical barrier between the city’s commercial core and neighborhoods such as Federal Hill and the West End.


Downtown Providence at Burnside Park The historic part of downtown has many streetscapes that look as they did eighty years ago. Many of the state’s tallest buildings are found here. The largest structure, to date, is the art-deco-styled former Industrial Trust Tower, currently the Bank of America Building at 426 feet (130 m).[26] By contrast, nearby to it is the second tallest One Financial Plaza, designed in modern taut-skin cladding, constructed a half century later.[27] In between the two is 50 Kennedy Plaza. The Textron Tower is also a core building to the modest Providence skyline. Downtown is also the home of the Providence Biltmore and Westminster Arcade, the oldest enclosed shopping mall in the U.S., built in 1828.[28] The city’s southern waterfront, away from the downtown core, is the location of many oil tanks, a docking station for a ferry boat, a decommissioned Russian submarine, a nonprofit sailing center, bars, strip clubs, and power plants. The Fox Point Hurricane Barrier is also found here, built to protect Providence from storm surge, like that it had endured in the 1938 New England Hurricane and again in 1954 from Hurricane Carol.[29] The majority of the cityscape comprises abandoned and revitalized industrial mills, double and triple decker housing (though the row houses found so commonly in other Northeast cities, are notably rare here),[30] a

Waterplace Park Providence’s climate is between humid continental climate and humid subtropical climate, with warm summers, cold winters, and high humidity year-round. The USDA rates the city at Zone 6a, which is an "in-between" climate. The influence of the Atlantic Ocean keeps Providence, and the rest of the state of Rhode Island, warmer than many inland locales in New England.[31][32] January is the coldest month with average high temperatures of 37 °F (3 °C) and average low temperatures of 20 °F (-7 °C).[33] July is the warmest month with average high temperatures of 83 °F (28 °C) and average low temperatures of 64 °F (18 °C).[33] The record high temperature in the city was 104 °F (40 °C) recorded in 1975.[33] The record low temperature in the city was -17 °F (-27 °C) recorded in 1934.[33] As with the rest of the northeastern seaboard, Providence receives ample precipitation year-round. Monthly precipitation ranges from a high of 4.43 inches (112.5 mm) in March to a low of 3.17 inches (80.5 mm) in July.[34] Precipitation levels are generally slightly lesser in the summer months than the winter months when powerful storms known as Nor’easters can cause significant snowfall and blizzard conditions. Although tropical hurricanes are not frequent in the north Atlantic, Providence’s location at


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the head of Narragansett Bay makes it vulnerable to them.

Providence, Rhode Island
Belying Providence’s traditionally white makeup is the sizable minority presence it has acquired in the last twenty years. Though nearby cities like Boston and Hartford have longer-standing black and Latino communities, Providence now surpasses both in the density of its minority population, with nonHispanic whites comprising less than half (45.8%) of the population.[44][45] Though salient contributions to this growth have been among Asians and unspecified races, the most dramatic change comes from Hispanics, whose presence has increased fivefold. Having origins in Puerto Rico, Colombia, the Dominican Republic, and Central America (particularly Guatemala), Hispanics have strong influence in the neighborhoods of Elmwood, the West End, and Upper and Lower South Providence.[45] Hispanic impact is even larger in the city’s schools. Hispanics represent over half (55%) of all students in the city’s school system while comprising only 30% of Providence’s population.[44][46] In addition, Providence, like the nearby Massachusetts cities of Fall River and New Bedford, has a considerable community of immigrants from various Portuguese-speaking countries, living mostly in the areas of Washington Park and Fox Point.[47][48][49] Portuguese is the city’s third-largest nationality, (after Italian and Irish) at 4% of the population while Cape Verdeans make up another 2%.[41] African Americans constitute approximately 15% of the city with the largest percentages in Mount Hope and Upper and Lower South Providence neighborhoods.[15][50] Asians are 6% of Providence’s population and have enclaves scattered thoroughout the city.[50] Another 6% of the city has multiracial ancestry. Native Americans and Pacific Islanders make up the remaining 1.3%.[15] With Liberians comprising .4% of the population,[41] the city is home to the one of the three largest Liberian immigrant populations in the country.[51] The Providence metropolitan area, which includes Providence, Fall River, Massachusetts, and Warwick is estimated to be 1,622,520.[5] In 2006, this area was officially added to the Boston Combined Statistical Area (CSA), the fifth-largest CSA in the country. In the last fifteen years, Providence has experienced a sizable growth in its under-18 population, attributed to the influx of Hispanics.[44] The median age of the city is 28

City of Providence Population by year[36][36][37][38][39] Census Population U.S. rank year 1790 6,380 9 1800 7,614 9 1810 10,070 11 1820 11,767 13 1830 16,833 12 1840 23,171 14 1850 41,513 17 1860 50,666 16 1870 68,904 21 1880 104,857 20 1890 132,146 25 1900 175,597 20 1910 223,326 23 1920 237,595 27 1930 252,981 37 1940 253,504 37 1950 248,674 43 1960 207,498 56 1970 179,213 71 1980 156,804 100 1990 160,728 110 2000 173,618 119 2006 est. 175,255 128 [1] of 2000, the population As of the census comprised 173,618 people, 62,389 households, and 35,859 families.[15] The population density was 3,629.4/km² (9,401.7/sq mi), characteristic of comparatively older cities in New England such as New Haven, Connecticut; Boston, Massachusetts and Hartford, Connecticut.[40] Also like these cities, its population peaked in the 1940s just prior to the nationwide period of rapid suburbanization. Providence has had a substantial Italian population since the turn of the century, with 14% (a pluralityb[›]) of the population claiming Italian ancestry.[41] Italian influence manifests itself in Providence’s Little Italy in Federal Hill.[42] Irish immigrants have also had considerable influence on the city’s history, with 8% of residents claiming Irish heritage.[43]


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Providence, Rhode Island

Largest Providence employers[65][66] Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Employer Rhode Island Hospital[67] Brown University U.S. Postal Service Women & Infants Hospital of Rhode Island Miriam Hospital Bank of America Verizon Number of employees 5853 4450 4000 2640 1993 1725[68] 1400 David Cicilline, mayor since 2002, is a member of the Mayors Against Illegal Guns Coalition,[62] a bi-partisan group with the goal of reducing illegal gun ownership. The Coalition is co-chaired by Boston Mayor Thomas Menino and New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg.

years, while the largest age cohort is 20 to 24 year olds, owing to the city’s large student population.[44][52] The per capita income, as of the 2000 census, was $15,525, which is well below both the state average of $29,113,[53] and the national average of $21,587.[15][54] The median income for a household was $26,867, and the median income for a family in Providence was $32,058, according to the 2000 census. The city has one of the highest rates of poverty in the nation with 29.1% of the population and 23.9% of families living below the poverty line in 2000, the largest concentrations being found in the city’s Olneyville, and Upper and Lower South Providence areas.[9][55] Poverty has affected children at a disproportionately higher rate with 40.1% of those under the age of 18 living below the poverty line, concentrated particularly west of downtown in the neighborhoods of Hartford, Federal Hill, and Olneyville.[55]

Providence was one of the first cities to industrialize in the United States. By 1830, the city had manufacturing industries in metals, machinery, textiles, jewelry, and silverware. Though manufacturing has declined, the city is still one of the largest centers for jewelry and silverware design and manufacturing. Services, particularly education, health care, and finance, also make up a large portion of the city’s economy. Providence also is the site of a sectional center facility, a regional hub for the U.S. Postal Service.[63] Since it is the capital of Rhode Island, Providence’s economy additionally consists of government services.

The rate of violent crime in the city has dropped for five consecutive years, running contrary to contemporaneous national trends in comparably-sized cities.[56][57] The city’s 11 homicides in 2006 represented a historic low.[56] Averaged over three years, murders had highest concentrations in Olneyville and the West End neighborhoods.[58] Of the 239 United States cities with populations over 100,000, Providence’s violent crime rate ranked 84th in 2003, as compared with New York City at 94th and Boston at 28th.[59] Notwithstanding its comparatively low rate of violent crime, Providence has the fifth-highest rate of property crime per 100,000 inhabitants in the country,[60] which is 50% above the national average, with car theft in particular at 150% higher.[61]

Data from[64] The Fortune 500 conglomerate Textron and Fortune 1000 company Nortek


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Providence, Rhode Island

Textron’s headquarters, One Financial Plaza, and the Rhode Island Hospital Trust building Incorporated are both headquartered in the city, and GTECH’s world headquarters has recently been moved to downtown Providence.[69] Citizens Bank is also headquartered in Providence.[70] Another company whose origins were in the city is Fleet Bank. Once Rhode Island’s largest bank, it moved its headquarters to Boston, Massachusetts, after acquiring Shawmut Bank in 1995. Before its acquisition by Bank of America, Fleet merged with BankBoston to become New England’s largest commercial bank. The city is home to the Rhode Island Convention Center, which opened in December 1993.[71] Along with a hotel, the convention center is connected to the Providence Place Mall, a major retail center, through a skywalk.[71] The Port of Providence, the second largest deepwater seaport in New England,[65] handles cargo such as cement, chemicals, heavy machinery, petroleum, and scrap metal.[72]

Providence City Hall in the Second Empire Baroque style

Rhode Island State House at sunset across from City Hall adjacent to Kennedy Plaza. David N. Cicilline was elected mayor by a large margin in 2002 and was re-elected without any major opposition in 2006. Cicilline is the first and only openly gay mayor of an American state capital.[73] Providence was the largest American city to have an openly gay mayor,[73] until Sam Adams took office in Portland, Oregon on January 1, 2009.

Providence serves as Rhode Island’s capital, housing the Rhode Island General Assembly as well as the offices of the Governor and the Lieutenant Governor in the Rhode Island State House. Providence’s city government has a mayor-council form of government. The Providence City Council consists of fifteen city councilors, one for each of the city’s wards. The council is tasked with enacting ordinances and passing an annual budget. Providence also has probate and superior courts. The U.S. District Court for the District of Rhode Island is located downtown

Seven of the fourteen institutions of higher learning in Rhode Island have campuses in Providence (city proper): • Brown University, an Ivy League university • Community College of Rhode Island (Downcity and Liston campuses)


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Providence, Rhode Island

Public schools
The Providence Public School District serves about 26,000 students from pre-Kindergarten to grade 12. The district has 25 elementary schools, nine middle schools, and thirteen high schools. The Providence Public School District features magnet schools at the middle and high school level, Nathanael Greene and Classical respectively. The overall graduation rate as of 2007 is 70.1%,[78] which is close to the statewide rate of 71% and the national average of 70%.[79] Hope College and Manning Hall at Brown University • Johnson & Wales University, notable for its culinary and hospitality program • Providence College, a top master’s level college and member of the Big East Conference. • Rhode Island College • Rhode Island School of Design (RISD), one of the country’s top art colleges • University of Rhode Island (Providence campus). Between these schools the number of postsecondary students is approximately 44,000, or 25% the population of Providence.[74] Compounded by Brown University’s being the second-largest employer,[65] higher education exerts a considerable presence in the city’s politics and economy.


The Providence Performing Arts Center See also: Media in Providence Much of Providence culture is synonymous with Rhode Island culture. Like the state, the city has a non-rhotic accent which can be heard on local media. Providence also shares Rhode Island’s affinity for coffee, as the former has the most coffee/doughnut shops per capita of any city in the country.[80] Providence is also reputed to have the highest number of restaurants per capita,[81] many of which are founded and/or staffed by its own Johnson & Wales graduates.[82] Providence has several ethnic neighborhoods, notably Federal Hill and the North End (Italian),[83] Fox Point (Cape Verdean and Portuguese),[84] West End (mainly Central American and Asians),[85] and Smith Hill (Irish with miscellaneous enclaves of other groups).[86] There are also many dedicated community organizations and arts associations located in the city.[87] The city gained the reputation as one of the most active and growing LGBT communities in the Northeast;[88][89] the rate of

Private and charter schools
Several private schools, including Moses Brown, the Lincoln School, and the Wheeler School, are in the city’s East Side. LaSalle Academy is located in the Elmhurst area of the city near Providence College. The public charter schools Time Squared Academy (K-12) and Textron Chamber of Commerce (9-12) are funded by GTECH and Textron respectively.[75] In addition, the city’s South Side houses Community Preparatory School, a private school serving primarily low-income students in grades 3-8.[76] Within the semiprivate schools, The Metropolitan Regional Career and Technical Center (The Met) and The Big Picture Company schools serve students through real world experiences and project-based learning. There are two separate centers for students with special needs.[77]


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Providence, Rhode Island
The city is also the home of the Tony Award-winning theater group Trinity Repertory Company, the Providence Black Repertory Company, and the Rhode Island Philharmonic Orchestra.[92] Providence is also the home of several performing arts centers such as the Veterans Memorial Auditorium, the Providence Performing Arts Center, and the Providence Festival Ballet. The city’s underground music scene, centered around artistrun spaces such as the now-defunct Fort Thunder, is known in underground music circles.[93]

The gateway arch over Atwells Avenue is a Federal Hill landmark. A sculpture of a pignoli cluster hangs from the center. reported gay and lesbian relationships is 75% higher than the national average[90] and Providence has been named among the "Best Lesbian Places to Live".[89] The current mayor, David Cicilline, won his election running as an openly gay man, making him the first openly gay mayor of a U.S. state capital.[73] Former Mayor Cianci instituted the position of Mayor’s Liaison to the Gay and Lesbian community in the 1990s.[89] There are numerous social and community organizations supporting the gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender community.

Sites of interest
See also: List of Registered Historic Places in Providence, Rhode Island

Old Stone Bank and Unitarian Church Providence is home to an 1,200-acre (4.9 km2) park system,[94] notably Waterplace Park and Riverwalk, Roger Williams Park, Roger Williams National Memorial, and Prospect Terrace Park, the latter featuring expansive views of the downtown area. As one of the first cities in the country, Providence contains many historic buildings while the East Side neighborhood in particular includes the largest contiguous area of buildings listed on the National Register of Historic Places in the U.S. with many pre-revolutionary houses.[95] The East Side is also home to the First Baptist Church in America, the oldest Baptist church in the Americas, founded by Roger Williams in 1638, as well as the Old State House, which served as the state’s capitol from 1762 to 1904.[96] Nearby is Roger Williams National Memorial. Downcity Providence is home to the fourth largest unsupported dome in the world (the second largest marble dome after St. Peter’s Basilica

Fireworks at the State House during the 2006 July 4 celebration During the summer months, the city regularly hosts WaterFire, an environmental art installation that consists of about 100 bonfires that blaze just above the surface of the three rivers that pass through the middle of downtown Providence.[91] There are multiple Waterfire events that are accompanied by various pieces of classical and world music. The public art displays, most notably sculptures, change on a regular basis.


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in Rome),[97] as well as the Westminster Arcade, which is the oldest enclosed shopping center in the U.S.[98][99]

Providence, Rhode Island
the Rhode Island Reds in their last years)[108] played at the Rhode Island Auditorium. In 1972, the team relocated to the Providence Civic Center, where they played until moving to Binghamton, New York, in 1977. Providence has its own roller derby league. Formed in 2004, it currently has four teams: the Providence Mob Squad, the Sakonnet River Roller Rats, the Old Money Honeys, and the Rhode Island Riveters. The NFL’s New England Patriots and MLS’s New England Revolution play in Foxborough, Massachusetts, which is situated halfway between Providence and Boston. Providence was formerly home to two major league franchises: the NFL’s Providence Steam Roller in the 1920s and 1930s, and the NBA’s Providence Steamrollers in the 1940s. The city is also where Rocky Marciano won 29 of his 49 fights.[109] The city’s defunct baseball team, the Providence Grays, competed in the National League from 1879 through 1885. The team defeated the New York Metropolitans in baseball’s first successful "world championship series" in 1884.[110] In 1914, after the Boston Red Sox purchased Babe Ruth from the then-minor league Baltimore Orioles, the team prepared Ruth for the major leagues by sending him to finish the season playing for a minor league team in Providence that was also known as the Grays. Today, professional baseball is offered by the Pawtucket Red Sox, the AAA affiliate of the Boston Red Sox which plays in nearby Pawtucket. Most baseball fans—along with the local media—tend to follow the Boston Red Sox.[111] Major colleges and universities fielding NCAA Division I athletic teams are Brown University and Providence College. The latter is a member of the Big East Conference. Much local hype is associated with games between these two schools or the University of Rhode Island. Providence has also hosted the Gravity Games alternative sports tournament during several recent summers, and was also the first host of ESPN’s X Games, known in its first edition as the Extreme Games.

Providence Catholic Cathedral and environs The main art museum is the Rhode Island School of Design Museum, which has the twentieth largest collection in the country.[100] The city’s southern waterfront hosts a decommissioned Cold War era Russian submarine.[101] In addition to the Providence Public Library and its nine branches, the city is home to the Providence Athenæum, the fourth oldest library in the country.[102] Here, on one of his many visits to Providence, Edgar Allan Poe, met and courted a love interest named Sarah Helen Whitman.[103] Poe was a regular fixture there, as was H. P. Lovecraft; both of them influential writers of gothic literature. The Bank of America Skating Center, formerly the Fleet Skating Center, is located near Kennedy Plaza in the downtown district, connected by pedestrian tunnel to Waterplace Park, a cobblestone and concrete park below street traffic that abuts Providence’s three rivers.[104][105] The southern part of the city is home to the famous roadside attraction Nibbles Woodaway (also known as the "Big Blue Bug"), the world’s largest termite,[106] as well as the aforementioned Roger Williams Park, which contains a zoo, a botanical center, and the Museum of Natural History and Planetarium.[107]

The city is home to the American Hockey League team Providence Bruins, which plays at the Dunkin’ Donuts Center (formerly the Providence Civic Center). From 1926 to 1972, the AHL’s Providence Reds (renamed

Health and medicine
Providence is home to eight hospitals, most prominently Rhode Island Hospital, the


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Providence, Rhode Island

Providence Station

Providence from downtown exit ramp off I-95 largest general acute care hospital in the state.[112] The hospital is in a complex along I-95 that includes Hasbro Children’s Hospital and Women and Infants Hospital. The city is also home to the Roger Williams Medical Center, St. Joseph Hospital For Specialty Care (a division of St. Joseph Health Services Of Rhode Island), The Miriam Hospital, a major teaching affiliate associated with the Alpert Medical School of Brown University, as well as a VA medical center. Providence is home to the Quality Assurance Review Center (QARC), which performs thousands of radiotherapy reviews per year. QARC is primarily supported by grants from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and contracts from the pharmaceutical industry. It receives radiotherapy data from around onethousand hospitals in both the United States and abroad.[113] The center also maintains a strategic affiliation with the University of Massachusetts Medical School in Worcester, Massachusetts. The Rhode Island Blood Center has its main headquarters in Providence. Since 1979, the Rhode Island Blood Center has been the sole organization in charge of blood collection and testing and distribution of blood products to 11 hospitals in Rhode Island.

RIPTA buses in front of Providence City Hall alternative to Boston’s Logan International Airport.[114] Providence Station, located between the Rhode Island State House and the downtown district, is served by Amtrak[115] and MBTA Commuter Rail services, with a commuter rail running to Boston.[116] Approximately 2400 passengers daily pass through the station.[117][118] Additionally, funds have been allocated to extend the commuter rail from Providence to T. F. Green Airport terminating at a $222.5 million intermodal station to be completed in 2009.[119] I-95 runs from north to south through Providence while I-195 connects the city to eastern Rhode Island and southeastern Massachusetts, including New Bedford, Massachusetts, and Cape Cod. I-295 encircles Providence while RI 146 provides a direct connection with Worcester, Massachusetts. The city has commissioned and begun a longterm project, the Iway, to move I-195 not only for safety reasons, but also to free up land and to reunify the Jewelry District with Downcity Providence, which had been split from one another by the highway.[120] The project is estimated to cost $446 million and be completed in 2012.[121]

Providence is served by air primarily by the commercial airfield T. F. Green Airport in nearby Warwick. General aviation fields also serve the region. Due to overcrowding and Big Dig complications in Boston, Massport has been promoting T.F. Green as an


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Kennedy Plaza, in downtown Providence, serves as a transportation hub for local public transit as well as a departure point for Peter Pan[122] and Greyhound[123] bus lines. Public transit is managed by Rhode Island Public Transit Authority (RIPTA).[124] Through RIPTA alone Kennedy Plaza serves over 71,000 people a day.[125] The majority of the area covered by RIPTA is served by traditional buses. Of particular note is the East Side Trolley Tunnel running under College Hill, the use of which is reserved for RIPTA buses. RIPTA also operates the Providence LINK, a system of tourist trolleys in downtown Providence, as well as a ferry to Newport between May and October.

Providence, Rhode Island

See also
• Notable people from Providence • List of tallest buildings in Providence • Neighborhoods in Providence

^ a: Providence was listed as a town (not a city) by the US Census Bureau until the Census of 1840. This is because in all the New England states, city status is conferred by the form of government, not population. Providence retained the title of ninth-largest settlement until the Census of 1810. ^ b: "Other" is the largest nationality group. Italian is the largest nationality by descendancy for a specified country. [1] ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved on 2008-01-31. [2] "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved on 2008-01-31. [3] "Providence: Introduction". Advameg, Inc.. The-Northeast/ProvidenceIntroduction.html. Retrieved on 2007-06-05. [4] The US Census estimates Worcester, Massachusetts to have overtaken Providence in 2006 by 199 people. Though this is well within the margin of error, this article, Worcester, Massachusetts, and List of United States cities by population uses the 2006 estimates for purposes of ranking. The New England article, however, ranks by 2000 Census, which places Providence as second largest. [5] ^ U.S Census Bureau "July 1, 2007 Population Estimates". US Census Bureau. population/www/estimates/ metro_general/2007/CBSAEST2007-01.csv U.S Census Bureau. Retrieved on 2008-03-02. [6] "May 2006 OEC Metropolitan Statistical Area definitions". US Department of Labor. msa_def.htm#77200 Retrieved on 2007-06-09.

Early construction on the Iway 195 relocation project from across the Narragansett Bay

Electricity and natural gas are provided by Narragansett Electric Company which is owned by National Grid USA.[126] Providence Water is responsible for the distribution of drinking water, ninety percent of which comes from the Scituate Reservoir about ten miles (16 km) west of downtown, with contributions coming from four smaller bodies of water.[127][128]

Sister cities
Providence has four sister cities designated by Sister Cities International:[129] • • • • Phnom Penh, Cambodia Florence, Italy Riga, Latvia Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Providence, Rhode Island

[7] "Population Estimates for Places over Geography-and-Climate.html. Retrieved 100,000: 2000 to 2007". US Census on 2007-06-05. Bureau. [18] "Providence Neighborhoods". City of cities/tables/SUB-EST2007-01.csv. Providence. Retrieved on 2007-06-29. [8] Leazes et al. (2004). Providence, The Neighborhoods/ Renaissance City. Northeastern NeighborhoodMap_c.html. Retrieved on University Press. ISBN 1555536042. 2007-01-17. [9] ^ Bishaw, Alemayehu, and John Iceland [19] Providence Neighborhood Profiles (May 2003). "Poverty 1999 - U.S. Census "Alternative Neighborhood Names". The Brief 2000" (PDF). US Census Bureau. Providence Plan. 2007. c2kbr-19.pdf. Retrieved on 2007-01-17. altnames.html Providence Neighborhood [10] "Roger Williams". Soylent Profiles. Retrieved on 2007-01-31. Communications. [20] "West Broadway Neighborhood people/565/000050415/ Association". WBNA. Retrieved on 2007-06-09. Retrieved on [11] ^ "Three and One-Half Centuries at a 2007-07-30. Glance". City of Providence, Rhode [21] "Carfree Database Island. May 2002. Results". Bikes At Work Inc.. centuries1.html. Retrieved on census2006-01-17. lookup.php?state_select=*&lower_pop=50000&uppe [12] May, Allan (2007). "All About the Retrieved on Providence Mob". Court TV Crime 2007-06-05. Out of cities over 100,000 Library. in population gangsters_outlaws/family_epics/ [22] "Carfree Database providence_mob/1.html. Retrieved on Results". Bikes At Work Inc.. 2007-01-24. [13] Lynn Arditi. "Condo supplies censusrisings as prices drop". Providence lookup.php?state_select=*&lower_pop=250000&upp Journal. Retrieved on content/ 2007-06-05. Out of cities over 100,000 c22_05-22-07_AU5NOR8.35ee4a9.html in population Retrieved on 2007-06-09. [23] Albert J. Wright. "History [14] Daniel Barbarisi. "Hunger for of the State of Rhode Island with Hotels". Providence Journal. Illustrations". USGenWeb Project. hotl13_05-13-07_B35KBM0.370f07e.html Providence/article271.html Retrieved on 2007-06-09. Retrieved on 2007-06-06. [15] ^ "Providence City, Rhode [24] Woodward, William McKenzie (2003). Island". US Census Bureau. PPS/AIAri Guide to Providence Architecture. Providence, RI: Providence SAFFFacts?_event=&geo_id=16000US4459000&_geoContext=01000US%7C04000US44%7C16000U Preservation Society. pp. 303–304. ISBN Retrieved on 2007-06-09. 0-9742847-0-X. [16] "Money Magazine: Best [25] Woodward, William McKenzie (2003). Places to Live: Home Appreciation". PPS/AIAri Guide to Providence Cable News Network LP, LLLP. Architecture. Providence, RI: Providence Preservation Society. pp. 13. ISBN moneymag/bplive/2006/top25s/ 0-9742847-0-X. homeapprec.html [26] "Bank of America Building, Providence". Retrieved on 2007-03-06. Emporis. 2007. [17] "Providence: Geography and Climate". en/wm/bu/?id=125380. Retrieved on Advameg, Inc.. 2007-01-19. us-cities/The-Northeast/Providence-


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[27] "One Financial Plaza". Emporis. 2006. ?id=125377. Retrieved on 2006-06-05. [28] "Providence Buildings, Real Estate, Architecture, Skyscrapers, and Construction Database". Emporis. 2005. ?id=101896. Retrieved on 2005-11-07. [29] "History: A Rhode Island Tradition". The Providence Biltimore. history.htm. Retrieved on 2007-07-11. [30] Woodward, William McKenzie (2003). PPS/AIAri Guide to Providence Architecture. Providence, RI: Providence Preservation Society. pp. 227. ISBN 0-9742847-0-X. [31] "USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map". US Department of Agriculture - The United States National Arboretum. March 2, 2006. Hardzone/hzm-ne1.html. Retrieved on 2007-01-19. [32] "Rhode Island ISDA Hardiness Zone Map". 2000. USDAZoneMaps.exe?MyState=RI. Retrieved on 2007-01-19. [33] ^ "Monthly average temperatures and precipitation". The Weather Channel. 2007. health/fitness/wxclimatology/monthly/ graph/ 02906?from=36hr_bottomnav_fitness. Retrieved on 2007-01-17. [34] "Providence Weather: Records and Averages". Yahoo! Weather. 2005. USRI0050_f.html. Retrieved on 2005-09-13. [35] "Monthly average temperatures and precipitation". The Weather Channel. 2007. health/fitness/wxclimatology/monthly/ graph/ 02906?from=36hr_bottomnav_fitness. Retrieved on 2007-01-17. [36] ^ Gibson, Campbell (June 1998). "Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places in the United States: 1790 to 1990". U.S. Census Bureau Population Division. documentation/twps0027.html. Retrieved on 2007-01-17.

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[37] "Rank by Population of the 100 Largest Urban Places, Listed Alphabetically by State: 1790-1990". U.S. Census Bureau. January 12, 2007. documentation/twps0027/tab01.txt. Retrieved on 2007-01-17. [38] "Providence". U.S. Census Bureau. June 20, 2006. Retrieved on 2007-01-17. [39] "Table 1: Annual Estimates of the Population for Incorporated Places Over 100,000, Ranked by July 1, 2006 Population: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2006". U.S. Census Bureau - Population Division. cities/tables/SUB-EST2006-01.csv. Retrieved on 2008-03-06. [40] "Providence (city) QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau". US Census Bureau. 44/4459000.html. Retrieved on 2007-01-18. [41] ^ "Providence, RI". Moving Traffic, Inc.. rhode-island/providence. Retrieved on 2009-04-01. (Click on People tab) [42] "Federal Hill". City of Providence. Neighborhoods/fedhill.html Retrieved on 2007-06-10. [43] "Providence—Ancestry & Family History". ePodunk Inc.. genealogyInfo.php?locIndex=13448. Retrieved on 2007-06-19. [44] ^ "Information and Data—People & Demographics". The Providence Plan. MultiPiecePage.asp?PageID=54&PageName=InfoDa Retrieved on 2007-06-06. [45] ^ "Geographic Concentration of the Latino Population" (PDF). documents/latino_1_2%281%29.pdf. Retrieved on 2007-06-10. [46] "The Providence Public School Department and The University of Rhode Island Partnership" (PDF). Southern Regional Education Board. 2. publications/case_studies/


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05V05_Providence.pdf. Retrieved on 2007-06-05. [47] "Fox Point". City of Providence. Neighborhoods/foxpoint.html Retrieved on 2007-06-10. [48] "Washington Park". The Providence Plan. profiles/wpk_bk.html Retrieved on 2007-06-10. [49] Manie Marcuss and Ricardo Borgos. "Who are New England’s Immigrants?" (PDF). Federal Reserve Bank of Boston. 4. Fall/Immigrants.pdf. Retrieved on 2007-06-06. [50] ^ "Maps & Rankings: People". The Providence Plan. cw_mrpeo.html Retrieved on 2007-06-10. [51] "Obama extends imigration status of Liberian refugees living in RI". Clarity Digital Group LLC d/b/a x-6179-Providence-Top-NewsExaminer~y2009m3d21-Obama-extendsimigration-status-of-Liberian-refugeesliving-in-RI. Retrieved on 2009-04-01. [52] "Providence Population and Demographics". MDNH, Inc.. statistics.htm Retrieved on 2007-06-05. [53] "Per Capital Personal Income by State". HighBeam Research, LLC. A0104652.html Retrieved on 2007-06-10. [54] "U.S. Summary: 2000" (PDF). US Census Bureau. 4. 2002pubs/c2kprof00-us.pdf. Retrieved on 2007-06-10. [55] ^ "Maps & Rankings: Economics". The Providence Plan. cw_mrecon.html Retrieved on 2007-06-10. [56] ^ Gregory Smith. "Violent crime falls sharply in Providence". Providence Journal. content/

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Prov_Homicides21_01-21-07_HF3VCSS.18cf2e9.html Retrieved on 2007-06-11. [57] "Providence Police and Roger Williams Co-Host Conference on Reducing New England’s Violent Crime". Roger Williams University. newsandevents/news/ policechiefs051507.htm. Retrieved on 2007-06-11. [58] "murder" (PDF). The Providence Plan. crime/pvdnhoodcrime02_04.pdf. Retrieved on 2007-06-11. [59] "Crime & Public Safety: Crime in Providence". The Providence Plan. MultiPiecePage.asp?PageID=52&PageName=InfoDa Retrieved on 2007-06-11. [60] "America’s Most Jealous Cities". insurance/article/104025/America’sMost-Jealous-Cities. Retrieved on 2007-12-14. [61] "Providence Crime Statistics (RI)". citycrime.asp?city=Providence&state=RI. Retrieved on 2007-06-11. [62] "Mayors Against Illegal Guns: Coalition Members". Mayors Against Illegal Guns. html/about/members.shtml. Retrieved on 2007-06-17. [63] "Sectional Center Facility Chart". Act One Lists. resources/zip.html. Retrieved on 2007-06-16. [64] "Providence Economy". Advameg Inc.. 2007. Providence-Economy.html. Retrieved on 2007-03-13. [65] ^ "Providence: Economy—Major Industries and Commercial Activity". Advameg Inc.. Retrieved on 2007-06-03. [66] "Best Places to Live: Providence, RI". Cable News Network LP, LLLP. 2007. moneymag/bplive/2006/snapshots/ PL4459000.html. Retrieved on 2007-01-17. [67] Figure includes Hasbro Children’s Hospital as part of Rhode Island Hospital


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Providence, Rhode Island

[68] (Providence only) Retrieved on 2007-06-05. , [69] "GTECH Corporation - Company Fact "RISD: About RISD". Rhode Island Sheet". GTECH Corporation. School of Design. aboutrisd.cfm Retrieved on fact_sheet.asp?persist=8C934E72427B4F958B9C876926B4BE4A. "About US". 2007-06-05. , and Retrieved on 2007-06-05. University of Rhode Island. [70] Citizens Bank - History "Ownership and History". Citizens Financial Group. Retrieved on 2007-06-05. [75] "The Providence Public School District at history.aspx Citizens Bank - History. a Glance" (PDF). Retrieved on 2007-06-05. [71] ^ "Rhode Island news/files/ Convention Center - About Us?". Rhode 9E0BC30F74514CA18DB979D75C88BEBF.pdf. Island Convention Center. Retrieved on 2007-06-11. [76] "About CPS". ricc_whyus.html Community Preparatory School. Retrieved on 2007-06-05. [72] "About Us". ProvPort, Inc. - Port of 1story.htm Providence. 2007. Retrieved on 2007-06-10. [77] "About the Student Body". Providence Retrieved on 2007-03-01. Schools. [73] ^ Dahir, Mubarak (December 24, 2002). "Leading Providence: David Cicilline students/index.html. Retrieved on becomes the first openly gay mayor of a 2007-06-10. U.S. state capital - Politics". The [78] "State of Rhode Island and Providence Advocate (Gale Group). Plantations, Department of Education Report" (PDF). State of Rhode Island Leading+Providence%3a+David+Cicilline+becomes+the+first+openly+gay...Department of Education. a095916251. Retrieved on 2009-05-20. [74] This figure is calculated as the sum of news/pressrels/ individually given figures from school 2008%20Press%20Release/ websites, see: "facts about Newly%20Calculated%20Graduation%20Rates%20fo Brown University". Brown University. Retrieved on 2009-01-03. [79] "Manhattan Institute Education Working Retrieved on 2007-06-05. , Paper". Manhattan Institute. "General Information about CCRI". Community College of Rhode Island. ewp_03_appendix_tables_2-3.htm. Retrieved on 2009-01-03. Retrieved on 2007-06-05. (Note: exact [80] Patinkin, Mark (August 10, 2004). figures for Providence Campuses were "Chewing over why we love doughnut unavailable. For this estimate two fifths shops". The Providence Journal. of the total student body were approximated to go to two of the five lofiversion/index.php/t5597.html. campuses_, Retrieved on 2007-01-20. "Johnson & Wales Providence". Johnson [81] of major U.S cities & Wales University. [82] "Providence, RI". Moving Traffic, Inc.. index.htm Retrieved on 2007-06-05. , rhode-island/providence "Providence College Retrieved on Fast Facts". Providence College. 2007-06-05. [83] "Charles". City of Fast+Facts/ Retrieved Providence. on 2007-06-05. , "about RIC". Rhode Island College. Neighborhoods/charles.html


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Retrieved on 2007-06-09. [84] "Fox Point". City of Providence. Neighborhoods/foxpoint.html Retrieved on 2007-06-09. [85] "West End". City of Providence. Neighborhoods/westend.html Retrieved on 2007-06-09. [86] "Smith Hil". City of Providence. Neighborhoods/smhill.html Retrieved on 2007-06-09. [87] "Three and One-Half Centuries at a Glance". History & Facts: America’s Renaissance City. The City of Providence, Rhode Island. 2002. centuries1.html. Retrieved on 2007-01-17. [88] Link, Matthew (2007). "Providence, R.I.: The gayest city you’ve driven right past". PLANETOUT INC.. travel/article.html?sernum=9619. Retrieved on 2007-01-17. [89] ^ K. Alexa Mavromatis. "Gay Business Comfortable in R.I.". rhode_island/rinews21.htm Retrieved on 2007-06-09. [90] "Providence, RI (Providence County) - city gay Index - ePodunk". ePodunk Inc.. cgi-bin/gayInfo.php?locIndex=13448 Retrieved on 2007-06-09. [91] "About". welcome Retrieved on 2007-06-09. [92] "Providence, Rhode Island RI, city profile (Providence County)". ePodunk Inc.. genInfo.php?locIndex=13448. Retrieved on 2007-06-09. [93] Fox, Andrew (August 30, 2006). "Keys to the Underground". Boston Phoenix.

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article_ektid21625.aspx. Retrieved on 2007-01-24. [94] "Parks Department". City of Providence. government/parks/. Retrieved on 2007-11-08. [95] "Cities of New England". Mystic Media, Inc. and Visit New England. current_category.77/ current_advcategory.234/ companies_list.html?print_page=1 Retrieved on 2007-06-10. [96] "History Book". Retrieved on 2007-06-10. [97] "Rhode Island Facts and Figures". State of Rhode Island General Assembly. Retrieved on 2007-01-20. [98] from Providence Journal "32-story condo tower would hold R.I.’s highest homes��". Providence Journal. 2007. rhode_island_highest_homes.html from Providence Journal. Retrieved on 2007-06-10. [99] "Rhode Island State House". Emporis. 2007. bu/?id=125362. Retrieved on 2007-01-17. [100] "Museum: Membership". Rhode r Island School of Design. museum_membership.cfm Retrieved on 2007-06-10. [101]Russian Sub in Providence". City of " Providence. special/sub/hours.html. Retrieved on 2007-07-01. [102]America’s Fourth Oldest Library and " Providence’s Oldest Cultural Institution". Providence Athenaem. Retrieved on 2007-06-10. [103]Providence Athenaem". Fodor’s Travel. " mgresults.cfm?destination=providence@124&cur_se Retrieved on 2007-08-16. [104]Bank of America City Center". " Retrieved on 2007-06-10.


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Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority. schedules_and_maps/rail/lines/stations/ ?stopId=163 MBTA > Schedules & Maps > Commuter Rail > Providence. Retrieved on 2007-06-05. [117]Amtrak Background Information Facts" " (PDF). Amtrak. 2. AmtrakBackgroundInformationFacts-022007.pdf. Retrieved on 2007-06-06. [118]Chapter 11: Commuter Rail" (PDF). " 2. 03tplanch11d.pdf. Retrieved on 2007-06-06. [119] IDOT News - RIAC breaks ground on R Warwick Intermodal Facility "RIAC breaks ground on Warwick Intermodal Facility". Rhode Island Department of Transportation. dispNews.asp?id=237 RIDOT News RIAC breaks ground on Warwick Intermodal Facility. Retrieved on 2007-06-05. [120]Relocating I-195 in Providence". Rhode " Island Department of Transportation. 2007. construction/195intro.asp. Retrieved on 2009-03-05. [121]195 Relocation Background". " Providence College. students/indiapointpark/ 195background.html. Retrieved on 2007-05-26. [122]Tickets - Terminal Listings". Peter Pan " Bus LInes. tickets/terminals.php#RI. Retrieved on 2007-06-05. [123] "Greyhound: Providence, G Rhode Island". Greyhound Lines, Inc.. TicketCenter/ terminal.asp?city=050028&PrinterFriendly=true&Ba scripts/en/TicketCenter/ locations.asp?State=ri Retrieved on 2007-06-05. [124] "RIPTA". Rhode Island Public r Transportation Authority. Retrieved on 2007-06-05. [125] "RIPTA Accomplishments in r FY2006". Rhode Island Public Transportation Authority.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Retrieved on 2007-06-06. 25,943,883 boardings / 365 days = 71,079 daily. [126] avid McPherson. "Electric utility buying D R.I. gas company". Providence Journal. projo_20060217_grid17.1d64dbea.html. Retrieved on 2007-06-25. [127]Introduction". Providence Water. " introduction.htm. Retrieved on 2007-06-25. [128]Providence Water Watershed". " Providence Water. watershed.htm. Retrieved on 2007-06-25. [129]Mayor Announces Sister City - Meeting " (7/30/2003)". Providence, RI, Office of the Mayor. press/sister_city.html. Retrieved on 2007-01-17.

Providence, Rhode Island
Corporation. 2006. riedc/ri_databank/31/266/. • Samantha Cook, Greg Ward, Tim Perry (2004). "Providence". The Rough Guide USA. Rough Guides. pp. 243–247. ISBN 1-84353-262-X. • Rich, Wilbur C. (2000). "Vincent Cianci and Boosterism in Providence, Rhode Island". Governing Middle-Sized Cities. Lynne Rienner Publishers. pp. 197–216. ISBN 1-55587-870-9.

External links
• Providence, Rhode Island is at coordinates 41°49′25″N 71°25′20″W / 41.82355°N 71.422132°W / 41.82355; -71.422132 (Providence, Rhode Island)Coordinates: 41°49′25″N 71°25′20″W / 41.82355°N 71.422132°W / 41.82355; -71.422132 (Providence, Rhode Island) • The City of Providence website • Greater Providence Chamber of Commerce • Providence Warwick Convention & Visitors Bureau • The Providence Plan • Providence travel guide from Wikitravel

Further reading
• "EDC Profile City of Providence". Rhode Island Economic Development

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