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Elements and Principles of Design Handout

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					                                                                                                             14/11/2010




                                                      ELEMENTS AND PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN
                                                       The elements and principles of design are the
                                                        building blocks used to create a work of art.
                                                       The Elements of Design can be thought of as
                                                        the things that make up a painting, drawing,
                                                        design etc.
                                                       Good or bad - all artworks will contain most of if
                                                        not all, the seven elements of design.
             ART BASICS
             Elements and Principles of Design




ELEMENTS AND PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN                     ELEMENTS OF DESIGN
 The Principles of Design can be thought of as           There are 7 elements of design:
  what we do to the elements of design.
 How you apply those principles determines how       1.    Line
  effective your design is in conveying the desired   2.    Shape
  message and how attractive it appears.
                                                      3.    Form
                                                      4.    Size
                                                      5.
                                                      5     Texture
                                                      6.    Colour
                                                      7.    Value




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ELEMENTS OF DESIGN                                  ELEMENTS OF DESIGN
1.   LINE                                           2.   SHAPE
     The linear marks made with a pen or brush or        Shape is an area enclosed by line. It is 2
     the edge created when two shapes meet.              dimensional and can be geometric (square,
                                                         circle, triangle) or organic (leaf, shell, tree).
                                                         Shape is most important in that any shape
                                                         creates automatically a negative space around
                                                         it.




ELEMENTS OF DESIGN                                  ELEMENTS OF DESIGN
 Positive Space: Shapes, form, or lines that       3.   FORM
  stand out from the background in an art work.                      3-Dimensional.
                                                         Forms are 3 Dimensional They occupy space or
 Negative Space: The empty space around forms           give the illusion that they occupy space.
  or shapes in an artwork.                               Basic forms: sphere, cone, cube, cylinder.

                                                         The attributes of form are:
                                                                     ,    g ,           y
                                                         Mass: Bulk, weight, and density of three-
                                                         dimensional forms, either actual or implied.
                                                         Volume: Any three-dimensional quantity that
                                                         is bound or enclosed, whether solid or void.




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ELEMENTS OF DESIGN                                 ELEMENTS OF DESIGN
4.   SIZE                                          5.   SPACE
     Size is simply the relationship of the area                                                  i.e.
                                                        Created through the use of visual clues i e
     occupied by one shape to that of another.          overlapping, vertical location relative to
                                                        horizon, value, amount of detail, size, use of
                                                        vanishing points.




ELEMENTS OF DESIGN                                 ELEMENTS OF DESIGN
6.   TEXTURE                                       6.   COLOUR
     Texture is the surface quality of a shape -        Also called Hue
     rough, smooth, soft, hard, glossy, etc.            Color is the most expressive element of art and
     Texture can be real e.g. impasto paint             is seen by the way light reflects off a surface.
     application, or implied e.g. depiction of          Colour is used to create illusion of depth, as red
     corduroy.                                          colours seem to come forward and blue seems to
                                                        recede into the distance. Colour, and
                                                        particularly contrasting colour, is also used to
                                                        draw the attention to a particular part of the
                                                        image. Remember different types of colour
                                                        schemes (complementary, analogous, etc.)




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ELEMENTS OF DESIGN                      ELEMENTS OF DESIGN
                                        7.   VALUE
                                             Value is the lightness or darkness of a colour.
                                             Value is also called tone.




PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN                    PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN
   There are 7 Principles of Design:   1.   BALANCE
                                             Can have symmetry or asymmetry in a
    1.   Balance                             composition.
    2.   Emphasis                            A large shape close to the center can be
    3.   Contrast                            balanced by a small shape close to the edge.
    4.   Repetition or Rhythm                A large light toned shape will be balanced by a
    5.   Variety                             small dark toned shape (the darker the shape
    6.
    6    Harmony or Unity
         H            U it                   the heavier it appears to be)
                                             th h     i             t b )
    7.   Movement




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PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN
2.   EMPHASIS
     Point of focus in a picture or an area that draws
     attention. Usually there is a primary or main
     area of focus or interest, with secondary points
     of interest elsewhere in the composition.




PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN                                     PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN
3.   CONTRAST                                            4.    REPETITION OR RHYTHM
     Contrast is the juxtaposition of opposing                 Repetition with variation is interesting, without
     elements e.g. opposite colours on the colour              variation repetition can become monotonous.
     wheel - red / green, blue / orange etc. Contrast
     in tone or value - light / dark. Contrast in
     direction - horizontal / vertical.
     The major contrast in an artwork should be
     located at the center of interest. Too much
     contrast scattered throughout a painting can             The five squares above are all the same. They can
     destroy unity and make a work difficult to look          be taken in and understood with a single glance.
     at.




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PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN                                    PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN
5.   VARIETY                                               When variation is introduced, the five squares,
     Different elements are combined to create              although similar, are much more interesting to
     visual interest: notably use of contrast,              look at.
     emphasis, difference in size and color.




                                                           If you wish to create interest, any repeating
                                                            element should include a degree of variation.




PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN                                    PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN
6.   HARMONY OR UNITY                                       Unity in a painting also refers to the visual
     The quality of wholeness or oneness that is            linking of various elements of the work.
     achieved through the effective use of the
     elements and principles of art.
     Relating the design elements to the idea being
     expressed in a painting reinforces the principal
     of harmony.
     E g An image with an active aggressive subject
     E.g.
     would work better with a dominant angled
     direction, course, rough texture, angular lines
     etc.




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ELEMENTS OF DESIGN
7.   MOVEMENT
                                   composition.
     Suggestion of movement in a composition
     Vertical and horizontal lines can suggest
     stability; whereas angles create a sense of
     movement.
     Can be suggested by textures, by placement in
     the composition.




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