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Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo

Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo

14th President of the Philippines Incumbent Assumed office January 20, 2001 Vice President Preceded by Teofisto Guingona Noli de Castro Joseph Estrada

Vice President of the Philippines In office June 30, 1998 – January 20, 2001 President Preceded by Succeeded by Born Political party Joseph Ejercito Estrada Joseph Estrada Teofisto Guingona April 5, 1947 (1947-04-05) [1] San Juan, Rizal, Philippines LDP (1992 – 1998) Lakas-CMD (1998 – present) KAMPI (1997 – present) Jose Miguel Arroyo Economist Roman Catholic

to the vice presidency under President Joseph Estrada, despite having run on an opposing ticket. After Estrada was accused of corruption, she resigned her cabinet position as Secretary of Social Welfare and Development and joined the growing opposition to the president, who faced impeachment. Estrada was soon forced from office by what its advocates would ascribe to peaceful street demonstrations of the EDSA Revolution of 2001, but which critics credit to a conspiracy among political and business elites, military top brass and Catholic Church bishop Jaime Cardinal Sin.[2] Arroyo was sworn into the presidency by then-Chief Justice Hilario Davide, Jr. at around noon on January 20, 2001 amidst the EDSA II crowd, hours before Estrada left Malacanang. She was elected to a full six-year presidential term in the controversial May 2004 Philippine elections, and was sworn in on June 30, 2004.

Early life
She was born as Maria Gloria Macaraeg Macapagal to politician Diosdado Macapagal and his wife, Evangelina MacaraegMacapagal. She is the sister of Dr. Diosdado "Boboy" Macapagal, Jr. & Cielo MacapagalSalgado. She spent the first years of her life in Lubao, Pampanga with her two older siblings from her father’s first marriage.[1] At the age of four, she chose to live with her maternal grandmother in Iligan City.[3] She stayed there for three years, then split her time between Mindanao and Manila until the age of 11.[3] She is fluent in English, Tagalog, Spanish and several other Philippine languages, most importantly, Kapampangan, Ilokano (learned from her mother), and Cebuano (learned from living in Iligan City, Mindanao, where the language is lingua franca). In 1961, when Arroyo was just 14 years old, her father was elected as president. She moved with her family into Malacañang Palace in Manila. A municipality was named in her honor, Gloria, Oriental Mindoro. She attended Assumption Convent for her elementary and high school education,

Spouse Occupation Religion Signature Website

Official website

Maria Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (April 5, 1947[1]) is the fourteenth and current president of the Philippines. Arroyo is the country’s second female president, and the daughter of late former Philippine President Diosdado Macapagal. A professor of economics, Arroyo entered government in 1987, serving as assistant secretary and undersecretary of the Department of Trade and Industry upon the invitation of President Corazon Aquino. After serving as a senator from 1992 to 1998, she was elected

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graduating valedictorian in 1964. Arroyo then studied for two years at Georgetown University’s Walsh School of Foreign Service in Washington, D.C. where she was a classmate of future United States President Bill Clinton and achieved consistent Dean’s list status.[4] She then earned her Bachelor of Arts degree in Economics from Assumption College, graduating magna cum laude in 1968. In 1968, Arroyo married lawyer and businessman Jose Miguel Arroyo of Binalbagan, Negros Occidental, whom she had met while still a teenager.[1] They had three children, Juan Miguel (born 1969), Evangelina Lourdes (born 1971) and Diosdado Ignacio Jose Maria (born in 1974). She pursued a Master’s Degree in Economics at the Ateneo de Manila University (1978) and a Doctorate Degree in Economics from the University of the Philippines (1985).[5] From 1977 to 1987, she held teaching positions in different schools, notably the University of the Philippines and the Ateneo de Manila University. She became chairperson of the Economics Department at Assumption College. In 1987 she was invited by President Corazon Aquino to join the government as Assistant Secretary of the Department of Trade and Industry. She was promoted to Undersecretary two years later. In her concurrent position as Executive Director of the Garments and Textile Export Board, Arroyo oversaw the rapid growth of the garment industry in the late 1980s.

Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo

Senator
Arroyo entered politics in the 1992 election, running for senator. At the first general election under the 1987 Constitution, the top twelve vote-getting senatorial candidates would win a six-year term, and the next twelve candidates would win a three-year term.[6] Arroyo ranked 13th in the elections, earning a three-year term. She was re-elected in 1995, topping the senatorial elections with nearly 16 million votes. As a legislator, Arroyo filed over 400 bills and authored or sponsored 55 laws during her tenure as senator, including the AntiSexual Harassment Law, the Indigenous People’s Rights Law, and the Export Development Act.[1] The 1995 Mining Act, which allows 100% foreign ownership of Philippine mines, has come under fire from left-wing political groups.

Vice Presidency
Arroyo considered a run for the presidency in the 1998 election, but was persuaded by President Fidel V. Ramos and leaders of the administration party Lakas-Christian Muslim Democrats to instead seek the vice-presidency as the running mate of its presidential candidate, House Speaker Jose de Venecia, Jr.[7] Though the latter lost to popular former actor Joseph Ejercito Estrada, Arroyo won the vice presidency by a large margin, garnering more than twice the votes of her closest opponent, Estrada’s running mate Senator Edgardo Angara.[8] Arroyo began her term as Vice President on June 30, 1998. Historically, she was the first and only to date female Vice President of the Philippines. She was appointed by Estrada to a concurrent position in the cabinet as Secretary of Social Welfare and Development.[7] Arroyo resigned from the cabinet in October 2000, distancing herself from President Estrada, who was accused of corruption by a former political supporter, Chavit Singson, Governor from Ilocos Sur.[9] She had initially resisted pressure from allies to speak out against Estrada[10], but eventually joined calls for Estrada’s resignation.[9]

The young Gloria Macapagal (far right) and her family; when this picture was taken, her father Diosdado was the President of the Philippines.

Presidency
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Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
proclamation as President, Former Singaporean Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew opined that there is "an assumption of power here which isn’t in the constitution."[13] Weeks later, Estrada filed a lawsuit challenging the legal basis of the Arroyo presidency and insisting he remained the lawful president, though adding he would not try to reclaim his post.[14] The Supreme Court issued its decision on March 2, 2001, asserting that Estrada had resigned the presidency and relinquished his post.[9] The court unanimously voted to dismiss Estrada’s petition, reaffirming the legitimacy of Arroyo’s presidency.[9] On May 1, 2001, a week after Estrada was arrested on charges of plunder, an estimated 40,000 protesters sympathetic to Estrada degenerated into violence and attempted to storm the presidential palace to force Arroyo from office.[15] Four people died, including two policemen, and more than 100 were wounded in clashes between security forces and rioters.[15][16] After being dispersed the crowd had looted stores and burned cars.[15] Arroyo declared a ’state of rebellion’ in Manila and ordered the arrests of opposition leaders who lead the uprising and conspired to topple the government.[15] The state of rebellion was lifted one week later, with Arroyo declaring "the disorder has subsided".[16] Support for the opposition and Estrada subsequently dwindled after the victory of administration allied candidates in the midterm elections that was held later that month. Arroyo outlined her vision for the country as "building a strong republic" throughout her tenure. Her agenda consists of building up a strong bureaucracy, lowering crime rates, increasing tax collection, improving economic growth, and intensifying counter-terrorism efforts.

Official presidential portrait of Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo

Succession
Arroyo’s ascent to the Philippine presidency in 2001 is mired in controversy as much as the ouster of her predecessor with which it is intertwined. On January 20, 2001, after days of political turmoil and popular revolt, the Supreme Court declared the presidency vacant. The military and the national police had earlier withdrawn their support for Estrada. At noon, Arroyo was sworn in as President of the Philippines by Chief Justice Hilario Davide, Jr.[9] Coincidentally, Arroyo assumed office the same day as US President George W. Bush. While the local media and its proponents hailed EDSA II as another peaceful "People Power," international views expressed through the international media described it as a conspiracy to oust Estrada and install Arroyo as president. The New York Times writes that Southeast Asia-based political economist William Overholt called it as "either being called mob rule or mob rule as a cover for a well- planned coup."[11] The International Herald Tribune reports how the "opportunist coalition of church, business elite and left... orchestrated the ’People Power II movement."’ [12] On Arroyo’s

Oakwood mutiny
The Oakwood mutiny occurred in the Philippines on July 27, 2003. A group of 321 armed soldiers who called themselves "Bagong Katipuneros"[17] led by Army Capt. Gerardo Gambala and Lt. Antonio Trillanes IV of the Philippine Navy took over the Oakwood Premier Ayala Center (now Ascott Makati) serviced apartment tower in Makati City to show the Filipino people the alleged corruption of the Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo administration. They also stated that they saw signs

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suggesting that the President was going to declare martial law.

Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
before departing to Cebu City for her oath taking, the first time a Philippine president took the oath of office outside of Luzon.[7] In the middle of 2005, Samuel Ong who is a former deputy director of the country’s National Bureau of Investigation (NBI) claimed to have audio tapes of wiretapped conversations between President Arroyo and an official of the Commission on Elections. According to Ong, the contents of the tape prove that the 2004 national election was rigged by Arroyo in order to win by around one million votes. On June 27, Arroyo admitted to inappropriately speaking to a Comelec official, claiming it was a "lapse in judgement", but denied influencing the outcome of the election. Attempts to impeach Arroyo failed later that year. Two witnesses, Antonio Rasalan and Clinton Colcol, stepped forward in August 2006, claiming involvement in an alleged plot to alter the results for the May 2004 elections. Rasalan claimed that he was fully convinced that the election returns presented at the House of Representatives were manufactured and had replaced the original documents. Colcol, a tabulator for the Commission on Elections (Comelec), said that Arroyo only received 1,445 votes, while Poe received 2,141 in South Upi, Maguindanao during the May 2004 elections.[21][22] On January 25, 2008, Pulse Asia survey (commissioned by Genuine Opposition (GO) per former Senator Sergio Osmeña III) stated that 58% percent of Filipinos in Mindanao believed that President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo cheated in the Philippine general election, 2004. 70% also "believed that because of recurring allegations of election fraud, the credibility of the balloting process in Mindanao was at a record low."[23]

The 2004 election and subsequent rigging allegations

Arroyo taking her Oath of Office in Cebu City on June 30, 2004. Although the Philippine Constitution bars a president from reelection, it allows for the election of a person who has succeeded as president and has served for not more than four years.[18] In December 2002, Arroyo made the surprise announcement that she would not seek a new term in the Philippine general election, 2004.[7] Ten months later, however, she reversed her position and declared her intention to seek a direct mandate from the people, saying "there is a higher cause to change society... in a way that nourishes our future".[19] Arroyo faced a tough election campaign in early 2004 against Estrada friend and popular actor Fernando Poe, Jr., senator and former police general Panfilo Lacson, former senator Raul Roco, and Christian evangelist Eddie Villanueva. Her campaign platform centered on a shift to a parliamentary and federal form of government, job creation, universal health insurance, anti-illegal drugs, and anti-terrorism.[7] Arroyo lagged behind Poe in the polls prior to the campaign season, but her popularity steadily climbed to surpass Poe’s.[20] As predicted by pre-election surveys and exit polls, she won the election by a margin of over a million votes against her closest rival, Fernando Poe, Jr.[8] She took her oath of office on June 30, 2004. In a break with tradition, she chose to first deliver her inaugural address at the Quirino Grandstand in Manila

State of Emergency
On Friday, February 24, 2006, an alleged coup d’état plot was uncovered in the Philippines, headed by Brig. Gen. Danilo Lim. The declaration of Proclamation No. 1017 gave Gloria Macapagal Arroyo the power to issue warrantless (and until then unconstitutional) arrests and to take over private institutions that run public utilities. The President, through the Department of Education, suspended classes in elementary and high school levels. In response, colleges and universities suspended classes. By virtue

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of PP 1017, she declared a State of Emergency for the whole country in an attempt to quell rebellion as her grip on power began to slip, to stop lawless violence and promote peace and stability. The government’s first move after the declaration was to disperse demonstrators, particularly the groups picketing along EDSA. Former Philippine president Corazon Aquino was among those that protested, along with leftist and extreme right activists. A number of public figures were reported to have been arrested. After the foiling of the plot and the dispersal of the rallies, PP 1017 continued for a week on threats of military plots (such as the military stand-off of February 26 at Fort Bonifacio headed by Col. Ariel Querubin), violence, illegal rallies and public disturbance. Six leftist representatives - Satur Ocampo, Teodoro Casiño, and Joel Virador of Bayan Muna, Liza Maza of GABRIELA, and Crispin Beltran and Rafael Mariano of Anakpawis were charged with rebellion. Crispin Beltran of Anakpawis was arrested on February 25 on charges of inciting to sedition and rebellion. To avoid further arrest, the other five found shelter at the Batasan Complex. On Saturday, February 25, the office of the Daily Tribune, a newspaper known as a hard-hitting critic of the Arroyo administration, was raided. After the raid, an issuance of Journalism Guideline followed, authored by the government in order to cope with the "present abnormal situation", according to then Chief of Staff Michael Defensor. The move to suppress freedom of the press against the Daily Tribune was criticized by Reporters Without Borders.[24] The decree was lifted on March 3, 2006. However the opposition, lawyers, and concerned citizens filed a complaint in the Supreme Court contesting the constitutionality of PP 1017. The court, on May 4, declared the proclamation constitutional, but said it was illegal to issue warrantless arrests and seize private institutions.

Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
seized the second floor of The Peninsula Manila Hotel along Ayala Avenue. Former Vice-President Teofisto Guingona also joined the march to the hotel. Sen. Antonio Trillanes IV and Brigadier Gen. Danilo Lim surrendered to authorities after an armored personnel carrier rammed into the lobby of the hotel.[25] Director Geary Barias declared that the standoff at the Manila Peninsula Hotel is over as Sen. Antonio Trillanes IV, Brig. Gen. Danilo Lim along with other junior officers agreed to leave the hotel and surrender to Barias after the 6 hour siege.[26] There was difficulty getting out for a while due to the tear gas that was covering the area where they were hiding. Days after the mutiny, the Makati City Regional Trial Court dismissed the rebellion charges against all the 14 civilians involved in the siege, and ordered their release.

National Broadband Network Scandal
The Philippine National Broadband Network controversy is a political affair that centers upon allegations of corruption primarily involving Former Commission on Elections (COMELEC) Chairman Benjamin Abalos, First Gentleman Mike Arroyo and President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo regarding the proposed government-managed National Broadband Network (NBN) for the Philippines and the awarding of its construction to the Chinese firm Zhong Xing Telecommunication Equipment Company Limited (ZTE), a telecommunications and networking equipment provider. The issue has captivated Filipino politics since it erupted in Philippine media around August 2007, largely through the articles of newspaper columnist Jarius Bondoc of the Philippine Star. It has also taken an interesting turn of events, including the resignation of Abalos as COMELEC chairman, the alleged bribery of congressmen and provincial governors (dubbed as "Bribery in the Palace"), the unseating of Jose de Venecia, Jr. as House Speaker, and the alleged "kidnapping" of designated National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA) consultant-turnedNBN/ZTE witness Rodolfo Noel "Jun" Lozada, Jr.

The Manila Peninsula Rebellion
The Peninsula Manila Rebellion was a rebellion in the Philippines on November 29, 2007. Detained Senator Antonio Trillanes IV, General Lim and other Magdalo officials walked out of their trial and marched through the streets of Makati City, called for the ouster of President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, and

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Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo

Impeachment complaints
In 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2008, impeachment complaints were filed against President Arroyo although none of the cases reached the required endorsement of 1/3 of the members for transmittal to and trial by the Senate. On October 13, 2008, the 4th 97-page impeachment complaint against President Arroyo was filed at the House of Representatives of the Philippines with the required endorsements by Party list Representatives Satur Ocampo, Teodoro Casiño and Liza Maza. The complaint accuses Arroyo of corruption, extra-judicial killings, torture and illegal arrests. The impeachment further raised the issues on "national broadband network agreement with China, human rights violations, the Northrail project, the Mt. Diwalwal project, fertilizer fund scam, alleged bribery of members of the House, the swine scam under the Rural Credit Guarantee Corporation, and 2004 electoral fraud." The opposition complainants were Edita Burgos, Iloilo Vice Governor Rolex Suplico, Jose de Venecia III, Harry Roque, Armando Albarillo, a human rights victim, Roneo Clamor, Karapatan deputy secretary general, Josefina Lichauco, and representatives from civil society - Renato Constantino, Jr., Henri Kahn, Francisco Alcuaz, Rez Cortez, Virgilio Eustaquio, Jose Luis Alcuaz, Leah Navarro, Danilo Ramos, Concepcion Empeño, Elmer Labog, Armando Albarillo, Roneo Clamor, and Bebu Bulchand. The justice committee has 60 days to rule upon the complaint’s sufficiency in form and substance. However, the opposition has only 28 House seats.[27][28][29][30][31] Under Sections 2 and 3, Article XI, Constitution of the Philippines, the House of Representatives of the Philippines has the exclusive power to initiate all cases of impeachment against, the President, Vice President, members of the Supreme Court, members of the Constitutional Commissions (Commission on Elections, Commission on Audit), and the Ombudsman. When a third of its membership has endorsed the impeachment articles, it is then transmitted to the Senate of the Philippines which tries and decide, as impeachment tribunal, on the impeachment case.[32]

President Arroyo, President Bush and other state leaders at the 2004 APEC Trade Summit Development Authority) figures, economic growth in terms of gross domestic product has averaged 5.0% during the Arroyo presidency from 2001 up to the first quarter of 2008.[33] This is higher than in the administration of the previous recent presidents: 3.8% average of Aquino, 3.7% average of Ramos, and 3.7%[34] average of the Joseph Estrada administration. The Philippine economy grew at its fastest pace in three decades in 2007, with real GDP growth exceeding 7%.[35] Arroyo’s handling of the economy has earned praise from former "friend" and classmate in Georgetown, ex-US President Bill Clinton, who cited her "tough decisions" that put the Philippine economy back in shape.[36] Whether the official economic figures are accurate, or how they translate to improving lives of the citizens, however, is debatable. Studies made by the United Nations (UN) and local survey research firms show worsening, instead of improving, poverty levels. A comparative 2008 UN report shows that the Philippines lags behind its Asian neighbors, Indonesia, Thailand, Vietnam and China, in terms of poverty amelioration. The study reveals that from 2003 up to 2006, the number of poor Filipinos increased by 3.8 million, with poverty incidence being approximately three times higher in agricultural communities. [37] With regards the problem of hunger, quarterly studies by the social polling research firm Social Weather Stations show that the number of Filipino households suffering from hunger has significantly increased during Arroyo’s presidency. Her administration first set the record for hunger levels in March 2001, and beginning June

Economy
Arroyo, a practicing economist, has made the economy the focus of her presidency. Based on official (National Economic and

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2004, broke the record again seven times. December 2008 figures saw the new record high of 23.7%, or approximately 4.3 million households, of Filipino families experiencing involuntary hunger.[38] A controversial expanded value added tax (e-VAT) law, considered the centerpiece of the Arroyo administration’s economic reform agenda,[39] was implemented in November 2005, aiming to complement revenue-raising efforts that could plug the country’s large budget deficit. The country aims to balance the national budget by 2010. The tax measure boosted confidence in the government’s fiscal capacity and helped to strengthen the Philippine peso, making it East Asia’s best performing currency in 2005-06.[40] The peso strengthened by nearly 20% in 2007, making it by far Asia’s best performing currency for the year, a fact attributed to a combination of increased remittances from overseas Filipino workers and a strong domestic economy.[41] Annual inflation reached the 17-year high of 12.5 percent in August 2008, up from a record low of 2.8 percent registered in 2007. It eased to 8.8 percent in December 2008 as fuel and energy prices went down.[42] The managing director of the World Bank, Juan Jose Daboub, criticized the administration for not doing enough to curb corruption.[43][44] Early in her presidency, Arroyo implemented a controversial policy of holiday economics, adjusting holidays to form longer weekends with the purpose of boosting domestic tourism and allowing Filipinos more time with their families.[45]

Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
The Arroyo administration has forged a strong relationship with the United States. Arroyo was one of the first world leaders who expressed support for the US-led coalition against global terrorism in the aftermath of the September 11, 2001 attacks, and remains one of its closest allies in the war on terror.[46] Following the US-led invasion of Iraq, in July 2003 the Philippines sent a small humanitarian contingent which included medics and engineers. These troops were recalled in July 2004 in response to the kidnapping of Filipino truck driver Angelo de la Cruz.[46] With the hostage takers demands met, the hostage was released.[46] The force was previously due to leave Iraq the following month.[46] The early pullout drew international condemnation, with the United States protesting against the action, saying giving in to terrorist demands should not be an option.[46]

Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo with George W. Bush during the Arrival Ceremony at the White House South Lawn. Arroyo’s foreign policy is anchored on building strong ties with the United States, East Asian and Southeast Asian nations, and countries where overseas Filipino workers work and live.[47] In 2007, the Philippines was host to the 12th ASEAN Summit in Cebu City. On August 21, 2007, Arroyo’s administration asked the Senate of the Philippines to ratify a $4bn (£2bn) trade deal with Japan (signed on 2006 with the former Japanese prime minister Junichiro Koizumi), which would create more than 300,000 jobs (by specifically increasing local exports such as shrimp to Japan). Japan also promised to hire at least 1,000 Philippine nurses. The opposition-dominated senate objected on the

International relations

Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo with George W. Bush during the latter’s state visit to the Philippines in 2003.

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ground that toxic wastes would be sent to the Philippines; the government denied this due to the diplomatic notes which stated that it would not be accepting Japanese waste in exchange for economic concessions.[48] In keeping with this international mission, President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo is a member of the Council of Women World Leaders, an International network of current and former women presidents and prime ministers whose mission is to mobilize the highestlevel women leaders globally for collective action on issues of critical importance to women and equitable development.

Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo

Domestic policies
Charter change
In 2005, Arroyo initiated a movement for an overhaul of the constitution to transform the present presidential-bicameral republic into a federal parliamentary-unicameral form of government.[49] At her 2005 State of the Nation Address, she claimed "The system clearly needs fundamental change, and the sooner the better. It’s time to start the great debate on Charter Change".[50] In late 2006, the House of Representatives shelved a plan to revise the constitution through constituent assembly.[51]

Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo visited by United States Marines. state run death squads counts 115 murders and says most of these are the result of an internal purge by communist rebels.[54] Human rights groups put the number as high as 830. These violations were alleged to have been committed against left-leaning organizations and party-list groups including BAYAN, Bayan Muna and Anakpawis. These organizations accuse the Philippine National Police and Armed Forces of the Philippines for the deaths of these political opponents. Arroyo has condemned political killings "in the harshest possible terms" and urged witnesses to come forward. "The report, which Melo submitted to Arroyo last month, reportedly linked state security forces to the murder of militants and recommended that military officials, notably retired major general Jovito Palparan, be held liable under the principle of command responsibility for killings in their areas of assignment."[55][56]
[57] [58] [59]

Executive Order No. 464 and calibrated preemptive response
In late September 2005, Arroyo issued an executive order stating that demonstrations without permits would be pre-emptively stopped. Then members of the military testified in Congressional hearings that they were defying a direct order not to testify about their knowledge of the election scandal. There is the issuance of Executive Order No. 464 forbidding government officials under the executive department from appearing in congressional inquiries without President Arroyo’s prior consent.[52] These measures were challenged before the Supreme Court, which apparently declared some sections as unconstitutional.

Human rights
A May 2006 Amnesty International report expressed concern over the sharp rise in vigilante killings of militant activists and community workers in the Philippines.[53] Task Force Usig, a special police unit tasked to probe reported extra-judicial killings, by

General Palparan who retired September 11, 2006 has been appointed by President Arroyo to be part of the Security Council. This has alarmed left-leaning political parties about the potential for human rights violations.[60] An independent commission was assembled in August 2006 to investigate the killings. Headed by former Supreme Court

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Justice Jose Melo, the group known as the Melo Commission concluded that most of the killings were instigated by the Armed Forces of the Philippines, but found no proof linking the murder of activists to a "national policy" as claimed by the left-wing groups. On the other hand the report "linked state security forces to the murder of militants and recommended that military officials, notably retired major general Jovito Palparan, be held liable under the principle of command responsibility for killings in their areas of assignment."[54] Stricter anti-terror laws have also caused some concern in recent years. Under Arroyo’s government, the Philippines has become second only to Iraq as the world’s riskiest place to report the news, with 23 journalists killed since 2003[61] In her July 23, 2007 State of the Nation Address, Arroyo has set out her agenda for her last three years in office, and called for legislation to deal with a spate of political killings that have brought international criticism to her presidency. She promised to bring peace to the troubled south, and also defended a controversial new anti-terrorism legislation. Arroyo told the joint session of Congress that "I would rather be right than popular."[62] Lawmakers and lawyers, however, were dismayed by the SONA’s failure to highlight and address this major hindrance to human rights. Specifically, the Alternative Law Groups (ALG) echoed the lawmakers’ position that Mrs Arroyo failed to take responsibility for the problem.[63] In 2007, incidences of extrajudicial killings dropped 87%, with the decline attributed to the creation of a special task force to handle the killings.[64]

Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
of political beliefs." The National Committee on Social Integration (NCSI) will issue a Certificate of Amnesty to qualified applicants. Implementing rules and regulations are being drafted and the decree will be submitted to the Senate of the Philippines and the House of Representatives for their concurrence. The proclamation becomes effective only after Congress has concurred.[65]

Estrada pardon
On October 25, 2007, Arroyo granted pardon to Joseph Estrada, supposedly based on the recommendation by the Department of Justice. Press Secretary Ignacio Bunye quoted the signed Order: "In view hereof in pursuant of the authority conferred upon me by the Constitution, I hereby grant Executive clemency to Joseph Ejercito Estrada, convicted by the Sandiganbayan of plunder and imposed a penalty of reclusion perpetua. He is hereby restored to his civil and political rights." Bunye noted that Estrada committed in his application not to seek public office, and he would be free from his Tanay resthouse on October 26, noon.[66][67][68]Accordingly, Justice Secretary Raul Gonzales categorically stated in 2008 that an Estrada plan to run for president in the scheduled 2010 elections is unconstitutional. Estrada, however, disagrees, saying that he is eligible to run for president again, based on the legal advise he gets from former Supreme Court Chief Justice Andres Narvasa.[69]

Public perception

Amnesty proclamation
On September 5, 2007, President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo signed Amnesty Proclamation 1377 for members of the Communist Party of the Philippines and its armed wing, the New People’s Army; other communist rebel groups; and their umbrella organization, the National Democratic Front. The amnesty will cover the crime of rebellion and all other crimes "in pursuit of political beliefs," but not including crimes against chastity, rape, torture, kidnapping for ransom, use and trafficking of illegal drugs and other crimes for personal ends and violations of international law or convention and protocols "even if alleged to have been committed in pursuit

Social Weather Stations quarterly public opinion polling of the net satisfaction rating of President Arroyo. The Social Weather Stations public opinion group has conducted quarterly surveys tracking the net satisfaction rating ("satisfied" rating minus "dissatisfied" rating") of President

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Arroyo. She began her presidency in the first quarter of 2001 with a net satisfaction rating of +24. Her rating first dipped into the negative in the first quarter of 2003, making Arroyo the only president to achieve a negative net satisfaction rating in SWS opinion polling. Her rating rebounded well into the positive in 2004, in time for the presidential election where she won election to a new sixyear term. However, net satisfaction sunk back into negative territory in the fourth quarter of 2004, and has remained negative since, dipping as low as -38 in the second quarter of 2008. Her net satisfaction rating in the first quarter of 2009 was -32.[70]

Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo

Appendix
Arroyo is both Chief Scout of the Boy Scouts of the Philippines and Chief Girl Scout of the Girl Scouts of the Philippines.[71][72]

References
[1] ^ "Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo". Current Biography International Yearbook 2004. The H. W. Wilson Company. http://www.hwwilson.com/print/ cbintl_arroyo_biography.htm. Retrieved on 2007-06-04. [2] Bowring, Philip. "Filipino Democracy Needs Stronger Institutions." International Herald Tribune website. 2001, January 22. Retrieved January 27, 2009. http://www.iht.com/articles/2001/ 01/22/edbow.t_3.php [3] ^ Spaeth, Anthony (2001-01-29). "Glory, Gloria!". TIME Pacific. http://www.time.com/time/pacific/ magazine/20010129/cover2.html. Retrieved on 2007-06-04. [4] "Gloria Arroyo, The Most Powerful Women". Forbes. 2005-11-01. http://www.forbes.com/lists/2005/11/ 1YDI.html. Retrieved on 2007-06-04. [5] "President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo Biography". Office of the President. http://www.op.gov.ph/biography.asp. Retrieved on 2007-06-04. [6] "Article 18: Transitory Provisions". The 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines. The Official Website of the Republic of the Philippines. http://www.gov.ph/aboutphil/a18.asp. Retrieved on 2007-06-05.

[7] ^ Malaya, J. Eduardo; Jonathan E. Malaya (2004). ...So Help Us God: The Presidents of the Philippines and Their Inaugural Addresses. Pasig City: Anvil Publishing. pp. 301–303. ISBN 971-27-1487-X. [8] ^ "Results of the Past Presidential & Vice-Presidential Elections". The Philippine Presidency Project. http://www.pangulo.ph/ election_results.php. Retrieved on 2007-06-04. [9] ^ Estrada v. Arroyo, G.R. No. 146710-15. (2001) [10] Philippine Vice President Quits Cabinet, Citing Scandal - New York Times [11] Mydans, Seth. "Expecting Praise, Filipinos Are Criticized for Ouster." 2001, Feb. 5. The New York Times. Retrieved January 27, 2009. http://www.nytimes.com/2001/02/05/ world/ 05FILI.html?ex=1204174800&en=835b6565116a0dd [12] Bowring, Philip. "Filipino Democracy Needs Stronger Institutions." International Herald Tribune website. 2001, January 22. Retrieved January 27, 2009. http://www.iht.com/articles/2001/ 01/22/edbow.t_3.php [13] Singapore’s Lee: Philippine Change No Boost For Democracy. 2001, January 23. Retrieved January 27, 2009. http://www.geocities.com/benign0/agrdisagr/12-2-lky.html [14] New York Times - Ex-President in Philippines Sues to Reclaim at Least His Dignity [15] ^ New York Times - ’State of Rebellion’ Declared After Siege at Manila Palace [16] ^ New York Times - After ’Disorder Has Subsided,’ Philippines Lifts Its Emergency [17] Laurel, Herman T (2006-02-22). "Small setback...". The Daily Tribune. Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. http://web.archive.org/web/ 20070928020715/ http://www.tribune.net.ph/20060222/ commentary/20060222com5.html. Retrieved on 2007-08-10. [18] "Article 7: Executive Department". The 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines. The Official Website of the Republic of the Philippines. http://www.gov.ph/aboutphil/a7.asp. Retrieved on 2007-06-04.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
[19] "Arroyo U-turn on re-election bid". CNN. 2003-10-04. http://edition.cnn.com/2003/ WORLD/asiapcf/southeast/10/04/ arroyo.election/index.html. Retrieved on 2006-06-04. [20] Mangahas, Mahar (2004-05-08). "SWS May 1-4, 2004 Survey". Social Weather Stations. http://www.sws.org.ph/ pr050804.htm. Retrieved on 2007-06-04. [21] Norman Bordadora (2006-08-18). "2 men claim cheating for Arroyo in ’04 election". Philippine Daily Inquirer. http://archive.inquirer.net/ view.php?db=1&story_id=15880. Retrieved on 2006-09-13. [22] Senate election results could mean tough time ahead Arroyo - INQUIRER.net, Philippine News for Filipinos [23] GMA NEWS.TV, Most Mindanaoans believe Arroyo cheated in ’04 polls Pulse [24] "Philippines". Annual report 2007. Reporters Without Borders. 2007. http://www.rsf.org/ country-50.php3?id_mot=666. Retrieved on 2007-04-06. [25] Gma News, Trillanes, Lim decide to call it quits - report [26] GMA News, ’It’s over,’ says Barias of hotel standoff [27] gmanews.tv, Impeachment complaint filed vs Arroyo amid tight security [28] radioaustralia.net.au, Philippines opposition seeks to impeach president [29] english.aljazeera, Arroyo faces new impeachment bid [30] in.reuters.com, Impeachment case filed against Philippines’ Arroyo [31] inquirer.net, Arroyo impeach rap filed at House [32] Chan-Robles Virtual Law Library. "The 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines - Article XI". http://www.chanrobles.com/ article11.htm. Retrieved on 2008-07-25. [33] Economic Indicators Table, National Economic Development Authority [34] [1] [35] Philippines Economy Profile 2008 [36] [http://globalnation.inquirer.net/news/ breakingnews/ view_article.php?article_id=90950 Arroyo shares spotlight with global leaders in forum - INQUIRER.net, Philippine News for Filipinos

Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo

[37] Leyco, Chino. "Philippines Trails In Poverty Reduction, Says UN Report." Manila Times. April 03, 2008, Retrieved January 28, 2009. http://www.manilatimes.net/national/ 2008/apr/03/yehey/top_stories/ 20080403top2.html [38] Fourth Quarter 2008 Social Weather Survey: Hunger at new record-high 23.7% of families; Moderate Hunger at 18.5%, Severe Hunger at 5.2%. 2008, December 22.Social Weather Stations Site. Retrieved January 28, 2009. http://www.sws.org.ph/pr081222.htm [39] Arroyo facing a dilemma after voiding of new tax - International Herald Tribune [40] CIA - The World Factbook - Philippines [41] "Pacific Newsletter". Archived from the original on 2008-01-17. http://web.archive.org/web/ 20080117213927/ http://www.pacificnewscenter.com/ default.asp?sourceid=&smenu=97&twindow=&mad [42] Ferriols, Des. "December inflation falls to 9-month low of 8%." Retrieved January 28, 2009. http://www.philstar.com/ Article.aspx?ArticleId=429620&publicationSubCateg [43] "WB exec laments RP’s slow growth". http://www.globalpinoy.com/news/ news_inside.php?newsnum=3090. Retrieved on 2008-03-26. [44] "The World Bank smells corruption". http://www.preda.org/archives/research/ digest/digest81.html. Retrieved on 2008-03-26. [45] Calica, Aurea (2007-01-19). "GMA bares list of holidays". ABS-CBN News. http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/ storypage.aspx?StoryId=63646. Retrieved on 2007-06-05. [46] ^ CNN.com - Philippines begins Iraq pullout - July 16, 2004 [47] http://www.op.gov.ph/publications/ srvision.pdf [48] BBC NEWS, Philippines fight over trade deal [49] Dalangin-Fernandez, Lira (2006-07-27). "People’s support for Charter change ’nowhere to go but up’". Philippine Daily Inquirer. http://archive.inquirer.net/ view.php?db=1&story_id=12106. Retrieved on 2006-07-27. [50] "2005 State of the Nation Address". The Official Website of the Republic of the Philippines. 2005-07-25. http://www.gov.ph/sona/

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo

sonatext2005.asp. Retrieved on 20080114-112184/PNP-Extrajudicial2007-06-06. killings-fell-by-83-in-2007. [51] Ubac, Michael Lim (2006-12-12). "Arroyo [65] Inquirer.net, Arroyo signs amnesty allies retreat". Philippine Daily Inquirer. proclamation for communists http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/ [66] news.monstersandcritics.com, Philippine inquirerheadlines/nation/ leader pardons ex-president Estrada view_article.php?article_id=37690. [67] Inquirer.net, Arroyo grants pardon to Retrieved on 2007-06-06. Estrada [52] http://news.inq7.net/nation/ [68] GMA News, Estrada granted executive index.php?index=1&story_id=52433index=2&story_id=53595&col=69 clemency [53] "2006 Elections to the Human Rights [69] Cueto, Francis. ‘Erap’ slams DOJ, insists Council - Background information on he can run again in 2010. 22 Nov. 2008. candidate countries". Amnesty Retrieved January 29, 2009, from International. 2006-05-01. http://www.manilatimes.net/national/ http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/ 2008/nov/22/yehey/top_stories/ IOR41/006/2006. Retrieved on 20081122top3.html 2006-09-13. [70] Social Weather Stations [54] ^ Alberto, Thea (2007-02-15). "Melo: [71] "National Leadership (2005-2006)". Boy Commission report ’complete’". Scouts of the Philippines. Philippine Daily Inquirer. http://www.phiscout.org/ http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/ national_leadership.html. Retrieved on breakingnews/nation/ 2007-06-04. view_article.php?article_id=49657. [72] "Central Board". Girl Scouts of the Retrieved on 2007-06-04. Philippines. [55] "State of the Nation Address of President http://www.girlscouts.org.ph/about/ Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo". The Official cboard.htm. Retrieved on 2007-06-04. Website of the Republic of the Philippines. 2006-07-24. http://www.gov.ph/sona/ • Office of the President of the Philippines sonatext2006.asp. Retrieved on • President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo official 2007-06-05. website [56] STOP Extra-Judicial Killings in the • Reporter’s Notebook: Ang Palasyo Philippines Reporter’s Notebook Special, 12/04/2007 [57] PC(USA) News: ‘Graft and corruption’ • President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo with [58] Radio Pinoy USA Council of Women World Leaders [59] Scared Silent: Impunity for Extrajudicial Killings in the Philippines Persondata [60] Norman Borbadora; Michael Lim Ubac NAME Arroyo, Gloria (2006-09-09). "Reign of terror Macapagal continues". Philippine Daily Inquirer. ALTERNATIVE http://archive.inquirer.net/ NAMES view.php?db=1&story_id=20004. SHORT 14th President of the Retrieved on 2006-09-13. DESCRIPTION Philippines [61] A Philippine Shame [62] "Arroyo lays out economic agenda". BBC DATE OF BIRTH April 5, 1947 News. 2007-07-23. http://news.bbc.co.uk/ PLACE OF San Juan, Rizal, 2/hi/asia-pacific/6911261.stm. Retrieved BIRTH Philippines on 2007-07-23. DATE OF DEATH [63] GMANews.TV - SONA: Prexy’s silence on PLACE OF killings hit by lawmakers - Nation DEATH Official Website of GMA News and Public Affairs - Latest Philippine News - BETA [64] "PNP: Extrajudicial killings fell by 83% in 2007". Inquirer.net. 2008-01-14. http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/ breakingnews/nation/view/

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Political offices Preceded by Joseph Ejercito Estrada Preceded by Joseph Ejercito Estrada Preceded by Teofisto Guingona Preceded by Angelo Reyes Preceded by Franklin Ebdalin Preceded by Avelino Cruz Party political offices Preceded by Jose de Venecia Preceded by Luis Villafuerte National Chairman of LakasCMD 2004 – present Chairman Emeritus of KAMPI 2004 – present President of the Philippines 2001 – present

Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo

Incumbent

Vice President of the Philippines Succeeded by 1998 – 2001 Teofisto Guingona Secretary of Foreign Affairs 2002 Secretary of National Defense 2003 Secretary of Foreign Affairs 2003 Secretary of National Defense 2006 – 2007 Succeeded by Blas Ople Succeeded by Eduardo Ermita Succeeded by Delia Albert Succeeded by Hermogenes Ebdane Incumbent

Incumbent

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gloria_Macapagal-Arroyo" Categories: 1947 births, Ateneo de Manila University alumni, Ateneo de Manila University faculty, University of the Philippines alumni, Current national leaders, Female heads of government, Filipino Roman Catholics, Filipino economists, People of Kapampangan descent, Living people, Macapagal family, Presidents of the Philippines, Recipients of the Star of Romania Order, Scouting in the Philippines, Senators of the Philippines, People from Pampanga, Philippine presidential candidates, Vice Presidents of the Philippines, Female heads of state, Filipino women in politics This page was last modified on 11 May 2009, at 21:03 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers

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