The Roaring Twenties The Jazz Age • FACTS about this decade. • 106,521,537 people in the United States • 2,132,000 unemployed, Unemployment 5.2% • Life expectancy: Male 53.6, Female 54.6 • 343,000 in military (down from 1,172,601 in 1919) • Average annual earnings $1236; Teacher's salary $970 • Illiteracy rate reached a new low of 6% of the population. • Gangland crime included murder, swindles, racketeering • It took 13 days to reach California from New York There were 387,000 miles of paved road. Warren G. Harding, Rep. • Harding died while in office, perhaps due to the scandals that dogged his presidency. Chief scandal was the Teapot Dome oil leasing by his Sec. Of the Interior, Albert Fall. His V.P., “Silent” Calvin Coolidge became our next president. Teapot Dome Scandal • Sec. Of the Interior, Albert Fall, leased the Naval oil reserves WITHOUT competitive bidding. • He became the first presidential cabinet member to go to jail. Gertrude Ederle • First woman to swim the English Channel (20 miles). Broke the men’s record by over 2 hours; this record stood for 35 years! Calvin Coolidge - 30th Pres. Republican Party • Kellogg-Briand Treaty was one of his accomplishments. The Kellogg-Briand Treaty would supposedly outlaw war. Ironically Adolph Hitler was beginning his climb to power in Germany. Gertrude Stein • Woman writer who coined the phrase “The Lost Generation” to describe the Americans who moved to Europe (mostly France) in despair over conditions in America. These Americans are known as “ex-patriots” Henry Ford • His Model T was also known as a Tin Lizzie or a flivver. He changed America forever, thanks to his electric assembly line to mass produce cars. The Model T • Could go just about anywhere and for only around $300 bucks! A model T • But its not black!! The changes made by the car: • Highway system was built for cars • Motels were created for car travelers • Fast food restaurants were developed • Jobs created: – service/gas stations - rubber industry (tires) – tourism flourished - need for motels, food – parking garages – buses and taxi cabs Charles “Lucky” Lindbergh • Charles “Lucky” Lindberg flew from the U.S. to France, alone, for a $25,000 prize. • He was one of the greatest heroes of the 20s. • He plane was named THE SPIRIT OF ST. LOUIS. Amelia Earhart • Our first woman to fly solo across the Atlantic. • Amelia is another symbol of women’s rights…sometimes she was referred to as “Lady Lindy”. • President Herbert Hoover and Amelia Earhart, famous aviatrix (female pilot) • Marcus Garvey began the “back to Africa” movement. Although the movement failed, he provided African Americans a new sense of pride Harlem Renaissance • Langston Hughes was a great African American writer and poet. He was religious and had a deep respect for women. He loved Harlem and lived there until he died in 1967. Dream Deferred by Langston Hughes – What happens to a dream deferred? Does it dry up Like a raisin in the sun? Or fester like a sore-- And then run? Does it stink like rotten meat? Or crust and sugar over-- like a syrupy sweet? Maybe it just sags like a heavy load. Or does it explode? Countee Cullen Incident by Countee Cullen – Once riding in old Baltimore, Heart-filled, head-filled with glee, I saw a Baltimorean Keep looking straight at me. – Now I was eight and very small, And he was no whit bigger, And so I smiled, but he poked out His tongue, and called me, "Nigger." – I saw the whole of Baltimore From May until December; Of all the things that happened there That's all that I remember. Bessie Smith, blues singer Duke Ellington • One of the all time great Jazz musicians and composers. Texas Guinan - speakeasy owner All Wet - Describes an erroneous idea or individual, as in, "he's all wet." Applesauce - an expletive (curse); same as horse-feathers, As in "Ah applesauce!" Bee's Knees - An extraordinary person, thing, idea; the ultimate. Berries - That which is attractive or pleasing; similar to bee's knees, As in "It's the berries." Big Cheese - The most important or influential person; boss. Same as big shot. Blind Date - going out with someone you do not know Bluenose - An excessively puritanical person, a prude Bump Off - To murder, To kill. Cake-Eater - An effete (sissy) ladies' man, or someone who attends tea parties. Carry a Torch - To have a crush on someone. Cat's Pajamas - Same as cat's meow. Cheaters - Eyeglasses. Crush - An infatuation. Dogs - feet. Drugstore Cowboy - a guy that hangs around on a street corner trying to pick up girls Dumb Dora - a stupid female. Fall Guy - Victim of a frame. Flapper - A stylish, brash, hedonistic young woman with short skirts and shorter hair. Flat Tire - A dull witted, insipid, disappointing date. Same as pill, pickle, drag, rag, oilcan. Frame - To give false evidence, to set up someone. Gams - A woman's legs. Giggle Water - An intoxicating beverage; alcohol. Gin Mill - An establishment where hard liquor is sold; bar. Hard Boiled - a tough, strong guy. Heebie-Jeebies - The jitters. High-Hat - To snub. Hooch - Bootleg liquor Hoofer - Dancer. Hotsy-Totsy - Pleasing. Jake - OK, as in, "Everything is Jake." Jalopy - Old car. Joint - A club, usually selling alcohol. Keen - Attractive or appealing. Sheik - A man with sex appeal (from the Valentino movies). Kisser - Mouth. Line - Insincere flattery. Lounge Lizard - a guy that is sexually active. Moll - A gangster's girl. Neck - Kissing with passion. Ossified - a drunk person. Pet - Same as neck, but more so. Pinch - To arrest. Pushover - A person easily convinced or seduced. Ritzy - Elegant (from the hotel). Scram - Ask someone to leave immediately. Sheba - A woman with sex appeal (from the move Queen of Sheba) or (e.g. Clara Bow). Speakeasy - An illicit bar selling bootleg liquor. Spiffy - An elegant appearance. Struggle Buggy - the backseat of a car. A parent's worst nightmare. Stuck On - Having a crush on. Swanky - Ritzy. Swell - Wonderful. Also: a rich man. Take for a Ride - To drive off with someone in order to bump them off. Torpedo - A hired gun. Upchuck - To vomit when one has drunk too much. Whoopee - To have a good time. Frank Lloyd Wright • Famous architect who believed a home should fit in with its environment, using natural materials and appearance Chrysler Building-NYC William Jennings Bryan • Ran for president 3 times, Bryan prosecuted John Scopes in the Monkey Trial. He won, but the victory was considered hollow. He died a few days after the trial. Clarence Darrow & Bryan Suffragettes fighting for the vote Margaret Sanger • Pioneered the first birth control program in the U.S. Was arrested for handing out “pornography” The Flapper “Shoeless” Joe Jackson • Baseball’s first major scandal-a fix on the world series - • say it ain’t so, Joe! The Red Scare • The Palmer raids - many Russian immigrants were arrested and sent back to the U.S.S.R., even tho’ they had done no wrong. We would have another Red Scare in the 1950s. Prohibition - Volstead Act • The 18th amendment prohibited the sale and consumption of alcoholic beverages. This law helped to increase organized crime and the rise of the mobsters... Al “Scarface” Capone • One of Chicago’s most notorious gangsters! He was responsible for the St. Valentine’s Day Massacre. He died of syphilis. Thompson Submachine gun • Also known as the tommy gun- • gangster’s favorite weapon St. Valentine’s day massacre • Charlie Chaplin was one of the greatest film comedians. His character, “The little tramp” combined comedy with sadness. The first talking picture • The Jazz Singer was the first talking motion picture. Although studio executives thought “talkies” were just a temporary fad, they were wrong! George Gershwin • Gershwin made Jazz acceptable to white audiences. Some of his most famous works are “Porgy and Bess”, an American opera and “Rhapsody in Blue” Babe Ruth • One of the NY Yankees’ famous murderers of “murderers’ row” also known as the Sultan of Swat and the Big Bambino Benjamin O. Davis • First African American to achieve the rank of General in the army (1940s). Taught military tactics at Tuskegee Institute. • His son became the 1st Af. Am. Air Force General. Flapper fashions Ku Klux Klan “Fatty” Arbuckle • One of the great Hollywood scandals of the 20s. Arbuckle was a popular movie star who was accused of raping and murdering a young starlet. Found innocent, his career was still ruined. Sacco and Vanzetti Found guilty! Of being Italian anarchists F. Scott Fitzgerald • Considered one of the great writers of the 20s, Fitzgerald and his wife, Zelda, were famous for their boozing and partying. His greatest work may be THE GREAT GATSBY. Harry Houdini – escape artist The Oxford Bags Marion Davies (Hearst’s sweetie) Douglas Fairbanks, Sr. 1st Zorro Mary Pickford, America’s Sweetheart Clara Bow – “it” girl Lon Chaney – “The Man of 1,000 Faces” Rudolph Valentino – 30,000 women attended his funeral Greta Garbo – “I want to be alone” Will Rogers - humorist Live in such a way that you would not be ashamed to sell your parrot to the town gossip. All I know is what I read in the papers. A fool and his money are soon elected. There's no trick to being a humorist when you have the whole government working for you. Half our life is spent trying to find something to do with the time we have rushed through life trying to save. Everything is funny as long as it is happening to somebody else. The income tax has made more liars out of the American people than golf has. • We don't know what we want, but we are ready to bite somebody to get it. • We can't all be heroes because somebody has to sit on the curb and clap as they go by. • I don't make jokes. I just watch the government and report the facts. I never met a man I didn't like All I know is what I read in the papers Presidents become great, but they have to be made Presidents first Ammunition beats persuasion when you are looking for freedom I am a peace man. I haven't got any use for wars and there is no more humor in 'em than there is reason for 'em Diplomacy is the art of saying “nice doggy” until you can pick up a rock. No man is great if he thinks he is. Everybody is ignorant. Only on different subjects. If stupidity got us in to this mess, how come it can't get us out? Even if you're on the right track, you'll get run over if you just sit there.