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Trumpet

Trumpet
Trumpet

B♭ trumpet Brass instrument Classification Brass • Wind • Brass • Aerophone 423.233 (Valved aerophone sounded by lip movement)

rotary valves, each of which increases the length of tubing when engaged, thereby lowering the pitch. The trumpet is used in many forms of music, including classical music and jazz.

History

Hornbostel-Sachs Classification

Playing range Written range:

Related instruments Flugelhorn, Cornet, Bugle, Natural trumpet, Keyed Trumpet, Bass trumpet, Post horn, Roman tuba, Bucina, Shofar, Conch, Lur, Didgeridoo, Piccolo trumpet, Baritone horn, Pocket trumpet

Moche Trumpet. 300 AD Larco Museum Collection Lima, Peru. The earliest trumpets date back to 1500 BC and earlier. The bronze and silver trumpets from Tutankhamun’s grave in Egypt, bronze lurs from Scandinavia, and metal trumpets from China date back to this period.[3] Trumpets from the Oxus civilization (3rd millennium BC) of Central Asia have decorated swellings in the middle, yet are made out of one sheet of metal, which is considered a technical wonder.[4] The Moche people of ancient Peru depicted trumpets in their art going back to 300 AD [5] The earliest trumpets were signaling instruments used for military or religious purposes, rather than music in the modern sense;[6] and the modern bugle continues this signaling tradition. In medieval times, trumpet playing was a guarded craft, its instruction occurring only within highly selective guilds. The trumpet players were often among the most heavily

The trumpet is a musical instrument with the highest register in the brass family.[1] Trumpets are among the oldest musical instruments,[2] dating back to at least 1500 BC. They are constructed of brass tubing bent twice into an oblong shape, and are played by blowing air through closed lips, producing a "buzzing" sound which starts a standing wave vibration in the air column inside the trumpet. There are several types of trumpet; the most common is a transposing instrument pitched in B♭. The predecessors to trumpets did not have valves; however, modern trumpets have either three piston valves or three

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Trumpet
years. The symphonies of Mozart and Beethoven, even Brahms, were still played on natural trumpets. Crooks and shanks (removable tubing of various lengths) as opposed to keys or valves were standard, notably in France, into the first part of the 20th century. As a consequence of this late development of the instrument’s chromatic ability, the repertoire for the instrument is relatively small compared to other instruments. The 20th century saw an explosion in the amount and variety of music written for the trumpet.

Reproduction Baroque trumpet by Michael Laird guarded members of a troop, as they were relied upon to relay instructions to other sections of the army. Improvements to instrument design and metal making in the late Middle Ages and Renaissance led to an increased usefulness of the trumpet as a musical instrument. The natural trumpets of this era consisted of a single coiled tube, without valves. This only allowed for one overtone series at a time to be played. Changing keys required the player to swap out the crooks of the instrument. The development of the upper, "clarino" register by specialist trumpeters—notably Cesare Bendinelli—would lend itself well to the Baroque era, also known as the "Golden Age of the natural trumpet." During this period, a vast body of music was written for virtuoso trumpeters. The art was revived in the mid-20th century and natural trumpet playing is again a thriving art in Europe. The popularity of natural trumpets in the United States has waned considerably from its heyday in the 1960’s and 70’s. The melody-dominated homophony of the classical and romantic periods relegated the trumpet to a secondary role by most major composers owing to the limitations of the natural trumpet. Berlioz wrote in 1844: "Notwithstanding the real loftiness and distinguished nature of its quality of tone, there are few instruments that have been more degraded (than the trumpet). Down to Beethoven and Weber, every composer - not excepting Mozart - persisted in confining it to the unworthy function of filling up, or in causing it to sound two or three commonplace rhythmical formulae."[7] The attempt to give the trumpet more chromatic freedom in its range saw the development of the keyed trumpet, but this was a largely unsuccessful venture due to the poor quality of its sound. The trumpet was slow to adopt the modern valves (invented around the mid 1830s), and its cousin the cornet would take the spotlight as solo instrument for the next hundred

Construction

Trumpet valve bypass (depressed) The trumpet is constructed of brass tubing bent twice into an oblong shape.[8] The trumpet and trombone share a roughly cylindrical bore which results in a bright, loud sound. The bore is actually a complex series of tapers, smaller at the mouthpiece receiver and larger just before the flare of the bell begins; careful design of these tapers is critical to the intonation of the instrument. By comparison, the cornet and flugelhorn have conical bores and produce a more mellow tone.

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As with all brass instruments, sound is produced by blowing air through closed lips, producing a "buzzing" sound into the mouthpiece and starting a standing wave vibration in the air column inside the trumpet. The player can select the pitch from a range of overtones or harmonics by changing the lip aperture and tension (known as the embouchure). Modern trumpets also have three piston valves, each of which increases the length of tubing when engaged, thereby lowering the pitch. The first valve lowers the instrument’s pitch by a whole step (2 semitones), the second valve by a half step (1 semitone), and the third valve by one-and-ahalf steps (3 semitones). When a fourth valve is present, as with some piccolo trumpets, it lowers the pitch a perfect fourth (5 semitones). Used singly and in combination these valves make the instrument fully chromatic, i.e., able to play all twelve pitches of Western music. The sound is projected outward via the bell. The trumpet’s harmonic series is closely matched to the musical scale, but there are some notes in the series which are a compromise and thus slightly off key; these are known as wolf tones. Some trumpets have a slide mechanism built in to compensate. The mouthpiece has a circular rim which provides a comfortable environment for the lips’ vibration. Directly behind the rim is the cup, which channels the air into a much smaller opening (the back bore or shank) which tapers out slightly to match the diameter of the trumpet’s lead pipe. The dimensions of these parts of the mouthpiece affect the timbre or quality of sound, the ease of playability, and player comfort. Generally, the wider and deeper the cup, the darker the sound and timbre.

Trumpet
from the one indicated on the written music, orchestra trumpet players are generally adept at transposing music at sight, sometimes playing music written for the B♭ trumpet on the C trumpet, and vice versa.

Piccolo trumpet in B♭, with swappable leadpipes to tune the instrument to B♭ (shorter) or A (longer) The standard trumpet range extends from the written F♯ immediately below Middle C up to about three octaves higher. Traditional trumpet repertoire rarely calls for notes beyond this range, and the fingering tables of most method books peak at the C (high C) two octaves above middle C. Several trumpeters have achieved fame for their proficiency in the extreme high register, among them Lew Soloff, Andrea Tofanelli, Bill Chase, Maynard Ferguson, Roger Ingram, Wayne Bergeron, Anthony Gorruso, Dizzy Gillespie, Jon Faddis, Cat Anderson, James Morrison, Doc Severinsen and Arturo Sandoval. It is also possible to produce pedal tones below the low F♯, which is a device commonly employed in contemporary repertoire for the instrument. The smallest trumpets are referred to as piccolo trumpets. The most common of these are built to play in both B♭ and A, with separate leadpipes for each key. The tubing in the B♭ piccolo trumpet is one-half the length of that in a standard B♭ trumpet. Piccolo trumpets in G, F and even C are also manufactured, but are rarer. Many players use a smaller mouthpiece on the piccolo trumpet, which requires a different sound production technique from the B♭ trumpet and can limit endurance. Almost all piccolo trumpets have four valves instead of the usual three — the fourth valve lowers the pitch, usually by a fourth, to facilitate the playing of lower notes. Maurice André, Håkan Hardenberger,

Types of trumpets
The most common type is the B♭ trumpet, but low F, C, D, E♭, E, F, G and A trumpets are also available. The most common use of the C trumpet is in American orchestral playing, where it is used alongside the B♭ trumpet. Its slightly smaller size gives it a brighter, more lively sound. Because music written for early trumpets required the use of a different trumpet for each key — they did not have valves and therefore were not chromatic — and also because a player may choose to play a particular passage on a different trumpet

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and Wynton Marsalis are some well-known piccolo trumpet players.

Trumpet
to a soprano trombone. The first slide trumpets emerged during the Renaissance, predating the modern trombone, and are the first attempts to increase chromaticism on the instrument. Slide trumpets were the first trumpets allowed in the Christian church.[9] The historical slide trumpet was probably first developed in the late fourteenth century for use in alta capella wind bands. Deriving from early straight trumpets, the Renaissance slide trumpet was essentially a natural trumpet with a sliding leadpipe. This single slide was rather awkward, as the entire corpus of the instrument moved, and the range of the slide was probably no more than a major third. Originals were probably pitched in D, to fit with shawms in D and G, probably at a typical pitch standard near A=466Hz. As no instruments from this period are known to survive, the details - and even the existence of a Renaissance slide trumpet is a matter of some conjecture, and there continues to be some debate among scholars.[10] Some slide trumpet designs saw use in England in the eighteenth century.[11] The pocket trumpet is a compact B♭ trumpet. The bell is usually smaller than a standard trumpet and the tubing is more tightly wound to reduce the instrument size without reducing the total tube length. Its design is not standardized, and the quality of various models varies greatly. It can have a tone quality and projection unique in the trumpet world: a warm sound and a voice-like articulation. Unfortunately, since many pocket trumpet models suffer from poor design as well as cheap and sloppy manufacturing, the intonation, tone color and dynamic range of such instruments are severely hindered. Professional-standard instruments are, however, available. While they are not a substitute for the full-sized instrument, they can be useful in certain contexts. There are also rotary-valve, or German, trumpets, as well as alto and Baroque trumpets. The trumpet is often confused with its close relative, the cornet, which has a more conical tubing shape compared to the trumpet’s more cylindrical tube. This, along with additional bends in the cornet’s tubing, gives the cornet a slightly mellower tone, but the instruments are otherwise nearly identical. They have the same length of tubing and, therefore, the same pitch, so music written for cornet and trumpet is interchangeable.

trumpet in C with rotary valves Trumpets pitched in the key of G are also called sopranos, or soprano bugles, after their adaptation from military bugles. Traditionally used in drum and bugle corps, sopranos have featured both rotary valves and piston valves. The bass trumpet is usually played by a trombone player, being at the same pitch. Bass trumpet is played with a trombone or euphonium mouthpiece, and music for it is written in treble clef. The modern slide trumpet is a B♭ trumpet that has a slide instead of valves. It is similar

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Another relative, the flugelhorn, has tubing that is even more conical than that of the cornet, and an even richer tone. It is sometimes augmented with a fourth valve to improve the intonation of some lower notes.

Trumpet
each drops the pitch by 1-1/2 steps. Alternate fingerings may be used to improve facility in certain passages. Extending the third valve slide when using the fingerings 1-3 or 1-2-3 further lowers the pitch slightly to improve intonation.

Playing
See also: Embouchure

Extended technique
Yale trombone professor John Swallow noted that brass techniques expanded rapidly in the 20th century due to the innovations of jazz players. Contemporary music for the trumpet makes wide uses of extended trumpet techniques. Flutter tonguing: The trumpeter rolls the tip of the tongue to produce a ’growling like’ tone. It is achieved as if one were rolling an R in the Spanish language. This technique is widely employed by composers like Berio and Stockhausen. Growling: While playing a note, clinching the back of the throat to partially obstruct the air, preventing it from flowing evenly. This creates a gargling sound, thus making a ’growling’ sound from the bell. Utilized by many jazz players, not to be confused with flutter tonguing, where the tongue is 100% responsible for creating the sound desired. Double tonguing: The player articulates using the syllables ta-ka ta-ka ta-ka Triple tonguing: The same as double tonguing, but with the syllables ta-ta-ka ta-taka ta-ta-ka. Doodle tongue: The trumpeter tongues so lightly that the articulation is almost indistinguishable. Glissando: Trumpeters can slide between notes by depressing the valve halfway or changing the lip tension. Modern repertoire makes extensive use of this technique. Vibrato: Vibrato is often regulated in contemporary repertoire through specific notation. Composers can call for everything from fast, slow or no vibrato to actual rhythmic patterns played with vibrato. Pedal tone: Composers have written for two and a half octaves below the low F#, which is at the bottom of the standard range. Extreme low pedals are produced by slipping the lower lip out of the mouthpiece. The technique was pioneered famously by Bohumir Kryl. Microtones: Composers such as Scelsi and Stockhausen have made wide use of the trumpet’s ability to play microtonally. Some

Fingering
On any trumpet, cornet, or flugelhorn, pressing the valves indicated by the numbers below will produce the written notes shown "OPEN" means all valves up, "1" means first valve, "1-2" means first and second valve simultaneously and so on. The concert pitch which sounds depends on the transposition of the instrument. Engaging the fourth valve, if present, drops any of these pitches by a perfect fourth as well. Within each overtone series, the different pitches are attained by changing the embouchure, or lip position and "firmness". Standard fingerings above high C are the same as for the notes an octave below (C♯ is 1-2, D is 1, etc.)

A step = a tone; a half step = a semitone Note that the fundamental of each overtone series does not exist - the series begins with the first overtone. Notes in parentheses are the sixth overtone, representing a pitch with a frequency of seven times that of the fundamental; while this pitch is close to the note shown, it is slightly flat relative to equal temperament, and use of those fingerings is generally avoided. The fingering schema arises from the length of each valve’s tubing (a longer tube produces a lower pitch). Valve "1" increases the tubing length enough to lower the pitch by one whole step, valve "2" by one half step, and valve "3" by one and a half steps. This scheme and the nature of the overtone series create the possibility of alternate fingerings for certain notes. For example, third-space "C" can be produced with no valves engaged (standard fingering) or with valves 2-3. Also, any note produced with 1-2 as its standard fingering can also be produced with valve 3 -

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instruments are even adapted with a 4th valve which allows for a quarter-tone step between each note. Mute belt: Karlheinz Stockhausen pioneered the use of a mute belt, worn around the player’s waist, to enable rapid mute changes during pieces. The belt allows the performer to make faster and quieter mute changes, as well as enabling the performer to move around the stage. Valve tremolo: Many notes on the trumpet can be played in several different valve combinations. By alternating between valve combinations on the same note, a tremolo effect can be created. Berio makes extended use of this technique in his Sequenza X. Noises: By hissing, clicking, or breathing through the instrument, the trumpet can be made to resonate in ways that do not sound at all like a trumpet. Noises sound a 1/2 step higher than they are notated, and often require amplification to be heard. Preparation: Composers have called for the trumpet to be played under water, or with certain slides removed. It is increasingly common for all sorts of preparations to be requested of a trumpeter. Extreme preparations involve alternate constructions, such as double bells and extra valves. Singing: Composers such as Robert Erickson and Mark-Anthony Turnage have called for trumpeters to sing during the course of a piece, often while playing. It is possible to create a multiphonic effect by singing and playing different notes simultaneously. Split tones: Trumpeters can produce more than one tone simultaneously by vibrating the two lips at different speeds. The interval produced is usually an octave or a fifth. Lip Trill or Shake: By rapidly varying lip tension, but not changing the depressed valves, the pitch varies quickly between adjacent harmonics. These are usually done, and more straight-forward to execute, in the upper register.

Trumpet
Max Schlossberg, and methods by Claude Gordon and Charles Colin.[14] Vassily Brandt’s Orchestral Etudes and Last Etudes[15] is used in many college and conservatory trumpet studios, containing drills on permutations of standard orchestral trumpet repertoire, transpositions, and other advanced material. A common method book for beginners is the "Walter Beeler Method", and there have been several instruction books written by virtuoso Allen Vizzutti. The Breeze Eazy method is sometimes used to teach younger students, as it includes general musical information.

Players

Jazz trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie in 1988. The trumpet is used in many forms of music, though the most recognised players have been in the jazz field. Louis Armstrong, for example, was well known for his virtuosity with the trumpet. Armstrong’s improvisations on his Hot Five and Hot Seven records were daring and sophisticated while also often subtle and melodic. Miles Davis is widely considered one of the most influential musicians of the 20th century. His trumpet playing was distinctive, with a vocal, clear tone that has been imitated by many. The phrasing and sense of space in his solos have been models for generations of jazz musicians.[16] Dizzy Gillespie was a trumpet virtuoso and gifted improviser, building on the style of Roy Eldridge but adding new layers of harmonic complexity. Gillespie had an enormous

Instruction and method books
One trumpet method publication of longstanding popularity is Jean-Baptiste Arban’s Complete Conservatory Method for Trumpet (Cornet).[12] Other well-known method books include "Technical Studies" by Herbert L. Clarke,[13] "Grand Method" by Louis Saint-Jacome, "Daily Drills and Technical Studies" by

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impact on virtually every subsequent trumpeter, both by the example of his playing and as a mentor to younger musicians. Maynard Ferguson came to prominence playing in Stan Kenton’s orchestra, before forming his own band in 1957. He was noted for being able to play accurately in a remarkably high register.[17] While he was not the first trumpeter to play in the extreme upper register, he had a unique ability to play high notes with full, rich tone, power, and musicality. While regarded by some as showboating, Ferguson’s tone, phrasing and vibrato was instantly recognizable and has been influential on and imitated by generations of amateur and professional trumpet players. A direct connection to Ferguson’s style of playing continues in the work of the trumpeters who played with him, notably Roger Ingram, Wayne Bergeron, and Eric Miyashiro. Although some had believed that Ferguson was endowed with exceptional facial musculature, he often shared in interviews that his command of the upper registers was based mostly on breath control,[18] something he had discovered as a youngster in Montreal. Among the other great modern jazz trumpet players are Clifford Brown, Jon Faddis, Harry James, Wynton Marsalis, Freddie Hubbard, Lee Morgan, Chet Baker, Arturo Sandoval, Doc Severinsen, Fats Navarro, Woody Shaw, Tom Harrell, Nat Adderly, Nicholas Payton, Wallace Roney, Claudio Roditi, and Don Cherry. Notable classical trumpeters include Maurice André, Roger Voisin, Armando Ghitalla, William Vacchiano, Adolph "Bud" Herseth, Charles Schlueter, Malcolm McNab, Sergei Nakariakov, Maurice Murphy, Hakan Hardenberger, Philip Smith, Rafael Méndez, and Wynton Marsalis. The American orchestral trumpet sound is largely attributable to Adolph "Bud" Herseth’s 53-year tenure with the Chicago Symphony Orchestra. Though he was not as prolific a teacher as some of his peers, his widely recorded sound became the standard for American orchestras. A musician who plays the trumpet is called a trumpet player or trumpeter.

Trumpet
jazz, Rock, Blues, pop, rap, cuban music, mariachi and funk.

Solos
The chromatic trumpet was first made in the late 1700s. The repertoire for the natural trumpet and cornetto is extensive. This music is commonly played on modern piccolo trumpets, although there are many highly proficient performers of the original instruments. This vast body of repertoire includes the music of Gabrieli, Monteverdi, Bach, Vivaldi and countless other composers. Because the overtone series doesn’t allow stepwise movement until the upper register, the tessitura for this repertoire is very high. Joseph Haydn’s Trumpet Concerto was one of the first for a chromatic trumpet,[19] a fact shown off by some stepwise melodies played low in the instrument’s range. Johann Hummel wrote the other great Trumpet Concerto of the Classical period, and these two pieces are the cornerstone of the instrument’s repertoire. Written as they were in the infancy of the chromatic trumpet, they reflect only a minor advancement of the trumpet’s musical language, with the Hummel concerto being the more adventurous piece by far. In the 20th century, trumpet repertoire expanded rapidly as composers embraced the almost completely untapped potential of the modern trumpet.

See also
List of trumpeters Muted trumpet Piccolo trumpet Keyed trumpet Guča trumpet festival - The world’s largest trumpet festival • Category:Compositions for trumpet • Trumpet repertoire • • • • •

References
Notes
[1] http://www.musicatschool.co.uk/year_7/ Instruments_sheets/brass.PDF [2] "History of the Trumpet". www.petrouska.com. http://www.petrouska.com/ historyofthetrumpet.htm. Retrieved on 2008-05-03.

Musical pieces
The trumpet is used in a wide range of musical styles including ska, ska punk, classical,

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Trumpet

[3] Edward Tarr, The Trumpet (Portland, [18] Zan Stewart (September 1985). Oregon: Amadeus Press, 1988), 20-30. "Maynard’s Changes". Down Beat. [4] "Trumpet with a swelling decorated with http://maynard.ferguson.net/ a human head," Musée du Louvre, [1] changes.html. Retrieved on 2007-07-20. [5] Berrin, Katherine & Larco Museum. The "There’s nothing superstrong about my Spirit of Ancient Peru:Treasures from the lip, but there is about my range and Museo Arqueológico Rafael Larco stamina. That comes from [...] my Herrera. New York: Thames and Hudson, breathing." 1997. [19] Keith Anderson, liner notes for Naxos CD [6] "Chicago Symphony Orchestra - Glossary 8.550243, Famous Trumpet Concertos, - Brass instruments". www.cso.org. "Haydn’s concerto, written for Weidinger http://www.cso.org/main.taf?p=1,1,4,3. in 1796, must have startled Retrieved on 2008-05-03. contemporary audiences by its novelty. [7] Berlioz, Hector (1844). Treatise on At the first performance of the new modern Instrumentation and concerto in Vienna in 1800 a trumpet Orchestration. Edwin F. Kalmus, NY, melody was heard in a lower register 1948. than had hitherto been practicable." [8] "Trumpet, Brass Instrument". www.dsokids.com. Bibliography http://www.dsokids.com/2001/ • Don L. Smithers, The Music and History of dso.asp?PageID=162. Retrieved on the Baroque Trumpet Before 1721, 2008-05-03. Syracuse University Press, 1973, ISBN [9] Tarr 0815621574 [10] "IngentaConnect More about • Philip Bate, The Trumpet and Trombone: Renaissance slide trumpets: fact or An Outline of Their History, Development, fiction?". www.ingentaconnect.com. and Construction, Ernest Benn, 1978, http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/ ISBN 0393021297 oup/earlyj/2004/00000032/00000002/ • Roger Sherman, Trumpeter’s Handbook: A art00252. Retrieved on 2008-05-03. Comprehensive Guide to Playing and [11] "JSTOR: Notes, Second Series, Vol. 54, Teaching the Trumpet, Accura Music, No. 2, (1997 ), pp. 484-485". 1979, ISBN 0918194024 www.jstor.org. http://www.jstor.org/pss/ • Stan Skardinski, You Can’t Be Timid With 899543. Retrieved on 2008-05-03. a Trumpet: Notes from the Orchestra, [12] Arban, Jean-Baptiste (1894, 1936, 1982). Lothrop, Lee & Shepard Books, 1980, Arban’s Complete Conservatory Method ISBN 0688419631 for TRUMPET. Carl Fischer, Inc. ISBN • Robert Barclay, The Art of the Trumpet0-8258-0385-3. Maker: The Materials, Tools and [13] Herbert L. Clarke (1984). Technical Techniques of the Seventeenth and Studies for the Cornet,C. Carl Fischer, Eighteenth Centuries in Nuremberg , Inc. ISBN 0-8258-0158-3. Oxford University Press, 1992, ISBN [14] Colin, Charles. Advanced Lip 0198162235 Flexibilities. • James Arthur Brownlow, The Last [15] Vassily Brandt Orchestral Etudes and Trumpet: A History of the English Slide Last Etudes. ISBN 0-7692-9779-X Trumpet, Pendragon Press, 1996, ISBN [16] "Miles Davis, Trumpeter, Dies; Jazz 0945193815 Genius, 65, Defined Cool". • Frank Gabriel Campos, Trumpet www.nytimes.com. Technique, Oxford University Press, 2005, http://www.nytimes.com/learning/ ISBN 0195166922 general/onthisday/bday/0525.html. • Gabriele Cassone, The Trumpet Book, Retrieved on 2008-05-03. pages 352+CD, illustrated, Zecchini [17] "Ferguson, Maynard". Encyclopedia of Editore, 2009, ISBN 8887203806 Music in Canada. The Canadian Encyclopedia. External links http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/ • International Trumpet Guild international index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=U1ARTU0001188. trumpet players’ association with online Retrieved on 2008-01-02.

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library of scholarly journal back issues, news, jobs and other trumpet resources. • Trumpet Playing Articles by Jeff Purtle, protege of Claude Gordon • Jay Lichtmann’s trumpet studies Scales and technical trumpet studies.

Trumpet
• Dallas Music — a non-profit musical instrument resource site • A trumpet fingering chartPDF (43.2 KiB) • Trumpet History articles essays on trumpet history and construction.

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