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Three Gorges Dam

Three Gorges Dam
The Three Gorges Dam (simplified Chinese: ??????; traditional Chinese: ??????; pinyin: Chángjiāng Sānxiá Dàbà) is a hydroelectric river dam that spans the Yangtze River (Chinese: ?/??; pinyin: Yángzǐ) in Sandouping, Yichang, Hubei, China. It is the largest hydroelectric power station in the world. With a long history of planning and more than a decade of construction, the dam body was finished in 2006. When the whole project is completed, it will contain 32 main generators, each with a capacity of 700 MW. Except for a planned ship lift, all of the originally planned components of the project were completed on October 30, 2008, when the 26th Three Gorges Dam generator was brought into commercial oper?????? Official name ation.[1] Six additional generators in the underground power plant are being installed, Yangtze River Impounds not expected to become fully operational unSandouping, Yichang, Hubei,til around 2011. The total electric generating Locale China capacity of the dam will then reach 22,500 MW.[2] 2,335 metres (7,661 ft) Length The project produces clean electricity, 101 metres (331 ft) Height prevents deadly floods downstream and en115 metres (377 ft) Width (at base) hances navigation. As of April 2009, the dam has generated 300 TWh of electricity, coverConstruction began December 17, 1994 ing 30% its project cost according to XinEstimated 180 billion yuan (39 [3] The project management and the Construction Cost hua. billion U.S. dollars) Chinese state media regard the project as a historic engineering, social, and economic Reservoir information success,[4] a breakthrough in the design of Three Gorges Reservoir Creates large turbines,[5] and a move towards redu3 (9.4 cu mi) 39.3 km Capacity cing greenhouse gas emissions.[6] However, the dam has also flooded archaeological and 1,000,000 km2 (386,102 sq mi) Catchment area cultural sites and displaced some 1.24 million 1,045 km2 (403 sq mi) Surface area people, and is causing dramatic ecological changes, including increasing the risk of Bridge information landslides.[7][8] The decision to build the dam 177 Carries has been deeply controversial in China and abroad.[9] £10.00 Toll
Three Gorges Dam ID number Geographical Data Coordinates 30°49′48″N 111°0′36″E / 30.83°N 111.01°E / 30.83; 111.01 China Three Gorges Dam Project 7649

Project history
The dam was originally envisioned by Sun Yat-sen in The International Development of China in 1919.[11] In 1932 the Nationalist government, led by Chiang Kai-shek, began preliminary work on plans for a dam in the Three Gorges. Then in 1939 the Japanese military forces occupied Yichang and surveyed

Maintained by

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Three Gorges Dam
started on December 14, 1994.[15] The dam was expected to be fully operational in 2009, but due to additional projects such as the underground power plant with 6 additional generators, and due to the complexity of the ship lift, the dam is not expected to become fully operational until about 2011.[14] The dam will raise the water level the third time to its designed maximum water level (175 m above sea level) by the end of 2008.[16]

Three Gorges Dam (left), Gezhouba Dam (right). In his poem "Swimming" (1956), engraved on the 1954 Flood Memorial in Wuhan, Mao Zedong envisions "walls of stone" to be erected upstream.[10] the area. A design, the Otani plan, was completed for the dam in anticipation of a Japanese victory over China.[12] In 1944 involvement from the United States began when the Bureau of Reclamation engineer J.L. Savage surveyed the area and drew up a dam proposal. Around 54 Chinese engineers were sent to the U.S. for training. Some exploration, survey, economic study, and design work was done, but the government, in the midst of the Chinese Civil War, halted work in 1947.[13] After the 1949 communist victory, the leader Mao Zedong supported the project, but the Gezhouba Dam project was begun first and economic problems including the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution slowed progress. In 1958, after the Hundred Flowers Campaign, some engineers who spoke out against the project were imprisoned.[14] During the 1980s plans were revived. Pushed through by Li Peng, the dam was approved by the National People’s Congress in 1992 with a record number of abstentions and dissenting votes. The construction

Project layout

Map of the location of the Three Gorges Dam, Sandouping, Yichang, Hubei Province, China and major cities along the Yangtze River. In the figure, water flows from top left to bottom right. The dam body was divided into the left side, the spill way, and the right side, when facing down stream. The underground power plant under construction is to the south west of the dam. The dam wall is made of concrete and is about 2,309 metres (7,575 ft) long, and 101 metres (331 ft) high. The wall is 115 metres (377.3 ft) thick on the bottom and 40 metres (131.2 ft) thick on top. The project used 27,200,000 cubic metres (35,600,000 cu yd) of concrete, 463,000 tonnes of steel, enough to build 63 Eiffel Towers, and moved about 102,600,000 cubic metres (1.342E+8 cu yd) of earth.[17]

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When the water level is maximum at 175 metres (574 ft) over sea level (110 metres (361 ft) above the river level down stream), the reservoir created by the Three Gorges Dam is about 660 kilometres (410 mi) in length and 1.12 kilometres (0.70 mi) in width on average, and contains 39.3 km3 (9.4 cu mi) of water.The total surface area of the reservoir is 1045 km². The reservoir will flood a total area of 632 km² of land compared to the 1,350 km² of reservoir created by the Itaipu Dam.[18]

Three Gorges Dam

Total generating capacity

Economics
When finished, the project will have cost 180 billion yuan, over 20 billion yuan less than the initial estimated budget of 203.9 billion yuan, just under 30 billion USD. This is because the calculation accounts for the effect of inflation, and the lower costs are attributed to a low inflation rate in recent years.[19] Until the end of 2008, the total investment reached 148.365 billion yuan, among which, 64.613 billion yuan on construction, 68.557 billion yuan on the relocation of affected residents and 15.195 billion yuan was spent on the interests of financing.[20] It is estimated that the cost of construction will be recovered when the dam has generated 1000 TWh of electricity, which is estimated to sell for 250 billion yuan. Cost recovery is expected to occur ten years after the dam starts full operation.[11] Sources for funding include the Three Gorges Dam Construction Fund, profits from the Gezhouba Dam, policy loans from the China Development Bank, loans from domestic and foreign commercial banks, corporate bonds, and revenue from Three Gorges Dam before and after it is fully operational, with additional charges for electricity contributing to the Three Gorges Construction Fund. The additional charges are as follows: Every province receiving power from the Three Gorges Dam has to pay an additional charge of ¥7.00 per MWh. Provinces that will not receive power from the Three Gorges Dam have to pay an additional charge of ¥4.00 per MWh. Tibet does not have to pay any additional money.[21]

Electricity production in China by source. Compare: The fully completed Three Gorges dam will contribute about 100 TWh of generation per year. thermofossil hydroelectric nuclear The Three Gorges Dam is the world’s largest hydro-electric power station by total capacity, which will be 22,500 MW.[11] It will have 34 generators. 32 will be main generators, each with a capacity of 700 MW, and the other 2 will be plant power generators, each with capacity of 50 MW. Among those 32 main generators, 14 of them are installed in the north side of the dam, 12 in the south side and the remaining 6 in the underground powerplant in the mountain south of the dam. After completion, the expected annual electricity generation will be over 100 TWh,[22] 18% more than the originally predicted 84.7 TWh, since 6 generators were added in 2002.

Generators

Three Gorges Dam Francis Turbine Each of the main generators weighs about 6000 tonnes and are designed to produce at least 700 MW of power. The designed head of

Hydroelectricity generation and distribution
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the generator is 80.6 m. The flow rate varies between 600 m3/s to 950 m3/s depending on the head available. The Three Gorges Dam project installs Francis turbines. The diameter of the turbine is 9.7/10.4 m (VGS design/ Alstom’s design). It rotates at a speed of 75 rpm. The normal rated power of the generator is 778 MVA. The maximum power is 840 MVA. The power factor is 0.9. The generator produces electrical power at 20 kV. The outer diameter of the generator stator is 21.4/20.9 m. The inner diameter is 18.5/18.8 m. The height of the stator is 3.1/3 m. It is the biggest stator in the world. The load at the bearing is 5050/5500 tonnes. The average efficiency of the generators is over 94%, and the highest is 96.5%.[23] The generators are manufactured by two joint ventures. One of them includes Alstom, ABB, Kvaerner and the Chinese company Haerbin Motor. The other includes Voith, General Electric, Siemens (abbreviated as VGS), and the Chinese company Oriental Motor. The technology transfer agreement was signed together with the contract. More than 8 of the 32 generators are made in China. Most of the generators are water-cooled. Some newer ones are air-cooled, which are simpler in design, manufacture and easier to maintain.[24]

Three Gorges Dam
generator in the south side (No. 17) started working on December 27, 2007. The eighth generator in the south side (No. 24) started working on April 25, 2008.[26]The ninth generator in the south side (No. 19) started working on June 18, 2008.[27] The tenth generator in the south side (No. 16) started working on July 2, 2008.[28] The eleventh generator in the south side (No. 23) started working on August 19, 2008.[29] Added to the project in 2002, the underground power plant and its six generators are still under construction.[30][31]

Electricity generation

Generator installation progress
The total capacity of the plant is currently at 18.30 GW. The 14 generators in the north side of the dam have already been installed. The first one (No.2 ) started to power on July 10, 2003. The last one (No.9) started to power on September 7, 2005. All of the 14 generators first ran to full power (9800 MW) on October 18, 2006 after the water level had been raised to 156 m.[25] The 12 generators in the south side of the dam have already been installed. The first generator (No. 22) in the south side of the dam started working on June 11, 2007. The last generator (No. 15) on the south side of the dam was completed and brought to the power grid on Oct.30, 2008.[1] The sixth generator in the south side (No. 17) started working on December 18, 2007. It brought the total capacity of the dam to 14.1 GW, surpassing the generating capacity of Itaipu (14.0 GW), to become the largest hydroelectric power plant in the world. The seventh

As of April 7, 2009 the Three Gorges Dam Project had generated over 300 TWh of electricity,[32] more than one quarter of the 1000 TWh it needs to generate to cover the cost (see Economics).[33] With 18,300 MW installed capacity, the generation capacity of the Three Gorges Dam Project is about 4,300 MW more than that of the Itaipu Dam. In July 2008, the Three Gorges Dam generated 10.3 TWh of electricity, the first time it has generated more than 10 TWh in a month.[34]

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Annual Production of Electricity Year 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Total Number of installed units 6 11 14 14 21 26 26 26(32) TWh 8.607 39.155 49.090 49.250 61.600

Three Gorges Dam

80.812[37] 11.486 300.000 is sold to, ranging from ¥230.6 per MWh to ¥311.1 per MWh.[38] Nine provinces and two cities consume the power from it, including Shanghai.[39] The power distribution and transmission of the Three Gorges Dam project cost about 34.387 billion Yuan. It was completed in December 2007, one year ahead of time.[40] Power is sent in three directions. The 500 kV DC transmission line to the East China Grid has a capacity of 7,200 MW. There are three 500 kV DC transmission lines: HVDC Three Gorges-Shanghai (3,000 MW), HVDC Three Gorges-Changzhou (3,000 MW) and HVDC Gezhouba - Shanghai (1,200 MW). The 500 kV AC transmission lines to Central China Grid have a total capacity of 12,000 MW. The 500 kV DC transmission line HVDC Three Gorges-Guangdong to South China Grid has a capacity of 3,000 MW and supplies Guangdong.[41] In the original plan, it was expected to provide 10% of electricity consumption in China. However, China’s demand for electricity has increased at a higher rate than was planned, and if fully operational now, it would support about 3% of the total electricity consumption in China.[42]

During dry season from November to May next year, the Three Gorges Dam power output is limited by the Yangtze River’s flow rate, as seen from the diagrams on the left. During the flood season when there is enough flow, the power output is limited by the plant generating capacity. The maximum possible power output curves were calculated based on the average flow rate at the dam site, assuming the water level is at 175 m and the plant gross efficiency is 90.15%. The actual power output in the year of 2008 was obtained based on the monthly electricity sent to the grid. The data came from the State Grid Corporation.[35] [36]There are several reasons why the actual power output is significantly smaller than the maximum power output. First, the dam was not operating at 175 m for the most time of the year 2008, thus the water flow though the dam has less potential energy to produce electricity. During the flood season, in order to make room for the flood, the dam lowered the water level to 145 m. Second, a few generators were being installed in 2008 thus the plant haven’t reached its current capacity until the end of the year. Also, the number might be slightly smaller than the total electricity generated in the table below because the diagrams on the right is based on the electricity sent to the power grid while the table is based on total electricity generated.

Environmental contribution of the dam
Direct reduction of air pollutant and greenhouse gas emission
According to The National Development and Reform Commission of China, it takes 366 grams of coal to generate 1 kWh of electricity in China(2006).[43] Therefore, the Three Gorges Dam will potentially reduce the

Power distribution
The electricity generated by the Three Gorges Dam project was sold to the State Grid Corporation and China Southern Power Grid at a flat rate of ¥250 per MWh ($35.7 US) until July 2, 2008. The price of electricity now is different depending on which province

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coal consumption by 31 million tonnes per year, cutting the emission of 100 million tonnes of greenhouse gas,[44] millions of tonnes of dust, 1 million tonnes of sulfur dioxide, 370 thousand tonnes of nitric oxide, 10 thousand tonnes of carbon monoxide and a significant amount of mercury into the atmosphere.[45] The elimination of the fossil fuel also reduces the energy consumption in mining, washing and transporting about 31 million tons of coal from northern China to the load centre in south and east China. Since the dam started generating power on July 10, 2003, total power production is equivalent to 84 million tonnes of standard coal and reduces carbon dioxide emission by 190 million tons, sulfur dioxide by 2.29 million tonnes and nitroxides by 980,000 tonnes.[46]

Three Gorges Dam

Reforestation
The Three Gorges Dam pushes the Chinese government to think seriously about the environmental issues associated with the dam, such as deforestation and water pollution. “The FAO’s research suggests that the AsiaPacific region will, overall, gain about 6,000 square km of forest in 2008. That is quite a turnaround from the 13,000 square km net loss of forest each year in the 1990s. The main reason is China’s huge reforestation effort. This accelerated after terrible floods in 1998 convinced the government that it must restore tree cover, especially in the mighty Yangtze’s basin” upstream of the Three Gorges Dam.[49]

Reduction of greenhouse gas due to navigation
From 2004 to 2007 a total of 198 million tonnes of goods passed through the Three Gorges Dam ship locks. The freight capacity of the river increased 6 times and the cost of shipping reduced by 25%, compared to previous years, which reduces carbon dioxide emission by 630,000 tonnes. Comparing to highway transportation, the amount of fuel that Three Gorges Dam project saved between the year of 2004 and 2007 is equivalent to 4,100,000 tonnes of standard coal. Thus it reduces carbon dioxide emission by 10 million tonnes.[46]

Flood control and drought relief
The most significant function of the dam is to control flooding, which is a major problem of a seasonal river like the Yangtze. Millions of people live downstream of the dam, and many large and important cities like Wuhan, Nanjing and Shanghai lie next to the river. Plenty of farm land and the most important industrial area of China are built beside the river. The reservoir’s flood storage capacity is 22 km3(18 million acre feet). This capacity will reduce the frequency of major downstream flooding from once every 10 years to once every 100 years. With the dam, it is expected that major floods can be controlled. If a "super" flood comes, the dam is expected to minimize its effect.[11] In 1954 the river flooded 193,000 km2 (74,518 sq mi) of land, killing 33,169 people and forcing 18,884,000 people to move. The flood covered Wuhan, a city with 8 million people, for over three months, and the Jingguang Railway was out of service for more than 100 days.[11] In the event of a recurrence of the 1954 flood that carried 50 billion m3 of water, the Three Gorges Dam could only divert the water above Chenglingji, still leaving 30 to 40 billion m3 of flood water to be diverted.[50] Also the dam will not protect the large tributaries such as the Xiangjiang, Zishui, Yuanshui, Lishui, Hanjiang, and Ganjiang from flooding, due to the location of the dam.

Waste management
Since the construction of the Three Gorges Dam, many waste water treatment plants have been completed to reduce the water pollution from the large populated city Chongqing and the suburban area around it. According to the ministry of environmental protection of PRC, until April 2007, there were more than 50 waste water treatment plants installed and the total capacity reached 1.84 million tonnes per day. More than 65% of the waste water is treated before being dumped into the Three Gorges Dam reservoir. About 32 land sites deposit were completed and could handle 7,664.5 tonnes of solid waste every day.[47][48]

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In 1998 a flood in the same area caused billions of dollars in damage. The Chinese government asked for support from its military to fight the flooding. 2039 square kilometers of farm land was flooded. The flood affected more than 2.3 million people, and 1,526 were killed.[51] The Dam discharges its reservoir during the dry season between December and March every year.[52] This increases the flow rate of the river downstream, and provides more fresh water for agricultural and industrial usage. It also improves the navigation conditions during dry season. The water level upstream drops from 175 m to 145 m,[53] leaving room for the flooding season. This also increases the power output of the Gezhouba Dam downstream.

Three Gorges Dam
maximum freight capacity of the river at the Three Gorges site was 18.0 million tonnes per year. From year 2004 to 2007, there were total of 198 million tonnes of freight passed through the Three Gorges Dam ship locks. The freight capacity of the river increased 6 times and the cost of shipping reduced by 25%, comparing to the previous years. The total capacity of the ship locks is expected to reach 100 million tonnes.[46] In addition to the canal locks, the Three Gorges Dam will be equipped with a ship lift, a kind of elevator for vessels.[57] The ship lift is designed to be capable of lifting ships of up to 3,000 tons.[58][59][60] In the original plan its capacity was to be 10,000 tons. It would like carrying a modern destroyer up and over the height of the Washington Monument in 42 minutes. The ship lift was not yet complete when the rest of the project was officially opened on May 20, 2006.[61][62] Construction of the ship lift started in October 2007 and is anticipated to be completed in the year 2014.[63]

Navigation

Relocation of local residents
During the planning stages in the 1990s it was estimated that 1.13 million residents would be forced to relocate; the final number (as of June 2008) ended up with 1.24 million after the last town called Gaoyang in Hubei Province was relocated.[64][65] This number is about 1.5% of the total population of Hubei Province (60.3 million) and Chongqing City (31.44 million) where the reservoir is located.[66] About 140,000 residents were relocated out of Hubei province to eastern provinces and some central provinces, and the majority of the remaining people were relocated within Hubei Province.[67] The relocation project was completed on July 22, 2008.[65] On October 11, 2007 Chinese state media announced that under a development plan of Chongqing city, an additional 4 million people will be encouraged to move from their homes near the dam to the Chongqing metropolitan area by the year 2020.[68][69][70] There have been accusations of corruption over money sent to the town of Gaoyang for the purpose of relocation for 13,000 farmers. The money disappeared after it was sent to

Ship locks for river traffic to bypass the Three Gorges Dam, May 2004 The installation of ship locks is intended to increase river shipping from 10 million to 100 million tonnes annually, with transportation costs cut by 30 to 37%. Shipping will become safer, since the gorges are notoriously dangerous to navigate.[46] Each of the two ship locks is made up of 5 stages taking around 4 hours in total to transit and have a capacity of vessels of 10,000 tons.[54] Critics argue, however, that heavy siltation will clog ports such as Chongqing within a few years based on the evidence from other dam projects. The locks are designed to be 280 m long, 35 m wide, and 5 m deep (918 x 114 x 16.4 ft).[55][56] That is 30 m longer than those on the St Lawrence Seaway, but half as deep. Before the dam was constructed, the

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the local government, and residents were denied compensation.[71]

Three Gorges Dam

Sedimentation
There are two hazards uniquely identified with the dam.[75] One is that sedimentation projections are not agreed upon, and the other is that the dam sits on a seismic fault. The Three Gorges area currently has 10% forestation, down from 20% in the 1950s. At current levels 80% of the land in the area is experiencing erosion causing about 40 million tons of sediment to slide into the Yangtze annually.[72] The relocation of people from the reservoir area will cause further deforestation and erosion due to agricultural needs. Excessive sedimentation can block the sluice gates which can cause dam failure under some conditions, such as the failure of the Banqiao Dam in 1975. Critics believe that the Yangtze will add 530 million tons of silt into the reservoir on average per year; in time, this silt could accumulate behind the walls of the dam, clogging the turbines’ entranceway. However, because China has begun constructing four other megadams (see below) on the upstream of Yangtze since 2006, the sedimentation from upstream would be much less than originally predicted. But the absence of silt down stream would still have two dramatic effects: • Some hydrologists think that this could make downstream riverbanks more vulnerable to flooding. • The city of Shanghai, more than one thousand miles (1600 km) away from the dam, rests on a massive plain of sediment. The "arriving silt -- so long as it does arrive -- strengthens the bed on which Shanghai is built... the less the tonnage of arriving sediment the more vulnerable is this biggest of Chinese cities to inundation..."[76] The Benthic sediment build up is a cause of biological damage and reduction in aquatic biodiversity.[77]

Criticism
Environmental impact
Of the 3,000 to 4,000 remaining critically endangered Siberian Crane, a large number currently spend the winter in wetlands that will be destroyed by the Three Gorges Dam. The dam also contributed to the functional extinction of the Baiji, the Yangtze river dolphin. In addition, populations of the Yangtze sturgeon are guaranteed to be "negatively affected" by the dam. There are high levels of pollution currently in the Yangtze. Over one billion tons of wastewater are released annually into the river.[72] The dam will significantly decrease the river’s flushing capacity and the pollution ratings will increase. For the current amount of pollution, there is an estimated cost of 2.8 billion Yuan to clean the river. While logging in the area was required for constructionwhich adds to erosion, stopping the periodic and uncontrolled flooding of the river will lessen bank erosion in the long run. The build up of silt in the reservoir will, however, reduce the amount of silt transported by the Yangtze River to the Yangtze Delta and could reduce the effectiveness of the dam for electricity generation and, perhaps more importantly, the lack of silt deposited in the peninsula could result in erosion and sinking of coastal areas.

Effect on local culture and aesthetic values
The 600 kilometer (375 mi) long reservoir has flooded or will flood some 1,300 archaeological sites and will alter the appearance of the Three Gorges as the water level rises over one hundred meters at various locations.[73] Cultural and historical relics are being moved to higher ground as they are discovered but the flooding of the Gorge will undoubtedly cover some undiscovered relics. Some other sites cannot be moved because of their location, size or design. For example the hanging coffins site high in the Shen Nong Gorge is inherently part of the sheer cliffs themselves.[74]

National security concerns
In an annual report to the United States Congress, the Department of Defense cited that in Taiwan, “proponents of strikes against the mainland apparently hope that merely presenting credible threats to China’s urban population or high-value targets, such as the Three Gorges Dam, will deter Chinese military coercion.”[78] The notion that the Military of the Republic of China would seek to destroy the Dam

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provoked an angry response from the mainland China media. People’s Liberation Army General Liu Yuan was quoted in the China Youth Daily saying that the People’s Republic of China would be "seriously on guard against threats from Taiwan independence terrorists".[79]

Three Gorges Dam
• In the novel Dragon Bones by Lisa See, a murder investigation takes place at the Three Gorges Dam.[84] • In the video game Civilization IV the dam is a World Wonder, providing power to the entire continent.[11] • In the video game Command & Conquer: Generals, the dam is blown up by both the Chinese government and a terrorist organization under plot lines. (It is first blown up by the Chinese as a desperate effort to drown the terrorists with the water behind the dam, while the terrorists blow up a rebuilt dam to flood the Chinese.) The series is banned in China.[11] • Jia Zhangke’s film, Still Life, describes the destiny of two couples with connections to the dam.[11] • Yung Chang’s 2007 award-winning documentary film, Up the Yangtze features the effects of the dam on various people along the Yangtze River[11] • Artists David Kelley and Patty Chang’s video installation, "Flotsam Jetsam", features actors from a local Chinese Opera troupe performing on board an American Nuclear Submarine that is passing through the Three Gorges Dam to the reservoir up river. The sub’s journey becomes an imaginative performance exploring identity, space and memory. • "Kilowatt Dynasty," 2000, is a video by London-based Dutch artist Saskia Olde Wolbers. The fictional work is narrated by an Anglo-Chinese girl whose parents meet in an underwater shopping center constructed entirely of glass. The mother is the hostess of a teleshopping program that shoots on location; the father is a radical environmentalist who kidnaps her.

Future projects upstream

Longitudinal profile of upstream Yangtze River In order to maximize the utility of the Three Gorges Dam and cut down on sedimentation from the Jinsha, or the upstream of the Yangtze river before reaching Yibin, China plans to build a series of dams at the downstream of Jinsha, including Wudongde Dam, Baihetan Dam, Xiluodu Dam and Xiangjiaba Dam. The total capacity of those four dams is 38,500 MW,[80] almost double the capacity of the Three Gorges.[81] There are also another eight dams in the midstream of the Jinsha and eight more upstream of it.[82]

References in culture
• In Max Brooks’ novel World War Z, the large artificial lake upstream of the dam is the site of the initial zombie outbreak before the war; a superstitious character suggests that the outbreak is a retribution for the destruction of ancient holy sites. Later in the novel, the Dam is overrun by zombie hordes, which make the emergency pressure release valves impossible to reach. This eventually results in the Three Gorges Dam rupturing, resulting in a massive tsunami which races to the ocean, destroying what remains of Wuhan, Nanjing, and Shanghai. This results in the outbreak of the Chinese Civil War.[11][83]

Images

Construction Nearly comof the main pleted Three dam includGorges Dam, ing cranes. downstream side.

Downstream side at night.

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Three Gorges Dam
article/0,8599,1671000,00.html. Retrieved on 28 March 2009. "The giant Three Gorges Dam across China’s Yangtze River has been mired in controversy ever since it was first proposed" [2] Laris, Michael (17 August 1998). "Untamed Waterways Kill Thousands Yearly". Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wpsrv/inatl/longterm/china/stories/ death081798.htm. Retrieved on 28 March 2009. "Officials now use the deadly history of the Yangtze, China’s longest river, to justify the country’s riskiest and most controversial infrastructure project – the enormous Three Gorges Dam." [3] Grant, Stan (18 June 2005). "Global Challenges: Ecological and Technological Advances Around the World". CNN. http://edition.cnn.com/ TRANSCRIPTS/0506/18/gc.01.html. Retrieved on 28 March 2009. "China’s engineering marvel is unleashing a torrent of criticism. [...] When it comes to global challenges, few are greater or more controversial than the construction of the massive Three Gorges Dam in Central China." [4] Gerin, Rosanne (11 December 2008). "Rolling on a River". Beijing Review. http://www.bjreview.com.cn/eye/txt/ 2008-12/06/content_168792.htm. Retrieved on 28 March 2009. "[T]he 180-billion yuan ($26.3 billion) Three Gorges Dam project has been highly contentious" [10] "Swimming" by Mao Zedong [11] ^ "Three Gorges Dam". China culture mall trading group inc.. http://www.chinaculturemall.com/Crafts/ article.aspx?id=2530. Retrieved on 2008-01-13. [12] [1] [13] William C. Jones; Marsha Freeman. "Three Gorges Dam: The TVA on The Yangtze River". Schiller Institute. http://www.schillerinstitute.org/ economy/phys_econ/ phys_econ_3_gorges.html. Retrieved on 2008-01-20. [14] ^ Steven Mufson (1997-11-09). "The Yangtze Dam: Feat or Folly?". Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/

Upstream side before filling. Locks under construction (view from above). Model of the dam

Inside a lock of the Three Gorges Dam.

Spillway view. Ship locks.

South dam.

See also
Hydraulic geoengineering (China region) Hydropower Hydroelectricity List of reservoirs and dams List of the largest hydroelectric power stations • Category:Hydroelectric power plants by country • • • • •

References
[1] ^ "?????????26???????????" (in Chinese). China Three Gorges Project Corporation. 2008-10-30. http://www.ctgpc.com.cn/sx/ news.php?mNewsId=30559. Retrieved on 2008-12-06. [2] ":: Three Gorges reservoir raises water to target level". Xinhua. 2008-10-07. http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/ 2008-10/07/content_10162045.htm. Retrieved on 2008-10-14. [3] http://www.hb.xinhuanet.com/ newscenter/2009-04/07/ content_16183098.htm [4] http://www.ctgpc.com.cn/sx/ news.php?mNewsId=32819 [5] http://www.ctgpc.com.cn/sx/ news.php?mNewsId=32325 [6] http://www.hb.xinhuanet.com/zhibo/ 2009-02/03/content_15593414.htm [7] http://unn.people.com.cn/GB/ 9105724.html [8] http://news.xinhuanet.com/newscenter/ 2009-04/09/content_11157017.htm [9] Deeply controversial: [1] Lin Yang (12 October 2007). "China’s Three Gorges Dam Under Fire". Time. http://www.time.com/time/world/

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230701/news/20020726/105549.asp. Retrieved on 2008-04-11. translation [25] "Three Gorges Dam" (in Chinese). Government of China. 2006-10-18. http://www.gov.cn/jrzg/2006-10/18/ content_416256.htm. Retrieved on 2007-05-15. [26] "????????????? (The manufacture domestically large-scale power set stability enhances unceasingly)". ctgpc. 2008-05-05. http://www.ctgpc.com.cn/sx/ news.php?mNewsId=28253. Retrieved on 2008-08-09. translation [27] "??????19?????72?????" (in Chinese). China Three Gorges Project Corporation. 2008-06-20. http://www.ctgpc.com.cn/sx/ news.php?mNewsId=28982. Retrieved on 2008-12-06. [28] ????????????? [29] "??23?????72?????" (in Chinese). China Three Gorges Project Corporation. 2008-08-22. http://www.ctgpc.com.cn/sx/ news.php?mNewsId=29622. Retrieved on 2008-12-06. [30] "Three Gorges Dam" (in Chinese). Xinhua. 2007-10-22. http://www.hb.xinhuanet.com/ newscenter/2007-10/23/ content_11470543.htm. Retrieved on 2007-10-22. [31] "Three Gorges Dam (????????2050???? ?? ???????)" (in Chinese). Xinhua. 2007-12-08. http://chinaneast.xinhuanet.com/jszb/ 2007-12/08/content_11882715.htm. Retrieved on 2007-12-08. [32] http://www.ctgpc.com.cn/sx/ news.php?mNewsId=32321 [33] "?????????26??????????? - ???? - ????" (in Chinese). CRI online. 2008-10-30. http://gb.cri.cn/18824/2008/10/30/ 2945s2302630.htm. Retrieved on 2008-12-06. [34] "???????????????" (in Chinese). China Three Gorges Project Corporation. 2008-08-15. http://www.ctgpc.com.cn/sx/ news.php?mNewsId=29583. Retrieved on 2008-12-06. [35] http://www.sgcc.com.cn/dwxx/qydwyxqk/ lsyxqk/default.shtml [36] http://www.sgcc.com.cn/dwxx/sgddxx/ gdzdxxxt/default.shtml [37] http://www.cepn.sp.com.cn/bwtj/200901/ t20090109_268374.htm [38] ?????????????

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[39] "Construction of the Three Gorges home%26trurl%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.hb. Project and Ecological Protection". translation Chinagate.com.cn. 2007-11-27. [49] Peter Collins "Falling here, rising there" http://en.chinagate.com.cn/reports/ Page 63,The World in 2008,The 2007-12/05/content_9348644.htm. Economist Retrieved on 2008-01-20. [50] Dai, Qing. Yangtze! Yangtze!. UK: [40] "Three Gorges Dam" (in Chinese). Earthscan Ltd, 1994., 184 National Development and Reform [51] "Three Gorges Dam" (in Chinese). Commission. 2007-12-20. CTGPC. 2002-04-20. http://www.sdpc.gov.cn/xwfb/ http://www.ctgpc.com.cn/sxslsn/ t20071220_180047.htm. Retrieved on index.php?mClassId=003000. Retrieved 2007-12-20. on 2007-06-03. [41] "Three Gorges, China". ABB Group. [52] http://www.gov.cn/jrzg/2009-02/18/ http://www.abb.com/cawp/gad02181/ content_1235518.htm f5933693d1a92404c1256d8800401782.aspx. [53] http://www.hb.xinhuanet.com/zhibo/ Retrieved on 2007-12-20. 2009-02/19/content_15732434.htm [42] Template:Cite news [54] "Yangtze as a vital logistics aid" (in [43] "Three Gorges Dam" (in Chinese). NDRC. Chinese). China Economic Review. 2007-03-07. http://www.ndrc.gov.cn/zjgx/ 2007-05-30. t20070307_120213.htm. Retrieved on http://www.chinaeconomicreview.com/ 2007-05-15. logistics/?cat=88. Retrieved on [44] "Greenhouse Gas Emissions By Country". 2007-06-03. Carbonplanet. 2006. [55] "Three Gorges Dam". Missouri Chapter http://www.carbonplanet.com/home/ American Fisheries Society. 2002-04-20. country_emissions.php. Retrieved on http://www.moafs.org/newsletter/ 2007-05-16. April%202002/3gorgestats.htm. [45] "Three Gorges Dam" (in Chinese). TGP. Retrieved on 2007-01-28. mirror 2006-06-12. http://www.ctgpc.com.cn/ [56] "Its Buildings with Biggest Indices". sxslsn/index.php. Retrieved on China Three Gorges Project. 2002. 2007-05-15. http://www.ctgpc.com/benefifs/ [46] ^ "????(600900)2008????????????? - ???? benefifs_a_5.htm. Retrieved on (The Three Gorges sluice year 2007-01-28. mirror transported goods volume may amount [57] Dorothea Krebs, Thomas Runte, Gerhard to 100,000,000 tons)". Xinhua. Strack. "Planning of the ship lift at the 2007-01-23. http://news.stockstar.com/ Three Gorges dam in China". info/ http://www.kuk.de/content/akt/inf/ darticle.aspx?id=GA,20080708,00069957&columnid=76. yangtze_bautechnik_en.pdf. Retrieved on Retrieved on 2008-08-09. translation 2008-03-12. mirror [47] "????????????????????? (Chongqing [58] "Three Gorges Shiplift resurfaces". Three Three Gorges Reservoir Region sewage Gorges Probe. 2003-11-07. and the garbage disposal project http://www.threegorgesprobe.org/tgp/ construction result is obvious)". index.cfm?DSP=content&ContentID=8803. 2007-04-19. http://www.zhb.gov.cn/info/ Retrieved on 2007-01-28. gxdt/200704/t20070419_102933.htm. [59] "China’s west seeks to impress Retrieved on 2008-08-09. translation investors". BBC. 2005-05-04. [48] "???????????????23.5?? (In the Hubei http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/ Province Three Gorges anti-pollution 4512015.stm. Retrieved on 2007-01-28. project three years invest the mirror approximately 2,350,000,000 Yuan)". [60] "Ship lift work to begin at Three Gorges Xinhua. 2007-04-19. site,". Three Gorges Probe. 2005-03-23. http://www.hb.xinhuanet.com/zhibo/ http://www.threegorgesprobe.org/tgp/ 2008-05/03/content_13148105.htm. index.cfm?DSP=content&ContentID=12712. Retrieved on 2008-08-09. Retrieved on 2007-01-28. [http://www.webcitation.org/ [61] "Three Gorges dam ready to go". Taipei query?url=http%3A%2F%2Fbabelfish.yahoo.com%2Ftranslate_url%3Fdoit%3Ddone%26tt%3Durl%26 Times. 2006-05-21. http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/world/

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archives/2006/05/21/2003309291. Retrieved on 2007-01-28. mirror [62] "China Completes Three Gorges Dam". CBS News. 2006-05-20. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2006/ 05/20/world/main1638180.shtml. Retrieved on 2007-01-28. mirror [63] "?????????_??? (Three Gorges ship lift operation construction)". CnHubei. 2007-11-10. http://news.cnhubei.com/ hbrb/hbrbsglk/hbrb01/200711/ t136849.shtml. Retrieved on 2008-08-09. translation [64] "???????????????" (in Chinese). China Three Gorges Project Corporation. 2008-08-22. http://www.ctgpc.com.cn/sx/ news.php?mNewsId=29626. Retrieved on 2008-12-06. [65] ^ [???] ??????????-????? [66] "China dam to displace millions more". MWC News. 2007-10-13. http://mwcnews.net/content/view/ 17341&Itemid=1. Retrieved on 2007-10-13. [67] Liang Chao (2004-07-15). "More bid farewell to Three Gorges". China Daily. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/english/ doc/2004-07/15/content_348413.htm. Retrieved on 2008-01-20. [68] "Millions forced out by China dam". BBC News. 2007-10-12. http://news.bbc.co.uk/ 2/hi/asia-pacific/7042660.stm. Retrieved on 2008-01-20. [69] Wang Hongjiang (2007-10-11). "Millions more face relocation from Three Gorges Reservoir Area". Xinhua. http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/ 2007-10/11/content_6864252.htm. Retrieved on 2008-01-20. [70] Jiang Yuxia (2007-09-26). "China warns of environmental "catastrophe" from Three Gorges Dam". Xinhua. http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/ 2007-09/26/content_6796234.htm. Retrieved on 2007-10-14. [71] Julie Chao (2001-05-15). "Relocation for Giant Dam Inflames Chinese Peasants". National Geographic. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/ 1925172.stm. Retrieved on 2008-01-20. [72] ^ Qing, Dai, 9. The River Dragon Has Come!: The Three Gorges Dam and the Fate of China’s Yangtze River and Its People (East Gate Book). Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe, 1997.

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[73] Regine Debatty (2007-12-09). "Flotsam, Jetsam and the Three Gorges Dam". World Changing. http://www.worldchanging.com/archives/ 007682.html. Retrieved on 2008-01-20. [74] C.Michael Hogan. "Shen Nong Gorge Hanging Coffins". The Megalithic Portal. http://www.megalithic.co.uk/ article.php?sid=17946. Retrieved on 2008-01-20. [75] Topping, Audrey Ronning. Environmental controversy over the Three Gorges Dam. Earth Times News Service. [76] Winchester, Simon (1998). The River at the Center of the World. New York: Henry Holt & Co. p. 228. ISBN 9780805055085. [77] Segers, Henrik; Martens, Koen (2005). The River at the Center of the World. Springer. p. 73. ISBN 9781402037450. [78] "Annual report on the military power of the People’s Republic of China (.pdf)". US Department of Defense. http://www.defenselink.mil/pubs/ d20040528PRC.pdf. Retrieved on 2007-01-28. [79] "Troops sent to protect China dam". BBC. 2004-09-14. http://news.bbc.co.uk/ 1/hi/world/asia-pacific/3654772.stm. Retrieved on 2007-01-28. [80] ????????????????????? ?????????????_??? ??(www.chinapower.com.cn)???? [81] "Beijing Environment, Science and Technology Update". U.S. Embassy in China. 2003-03-07. http://www.usembassy-china.org.cn/ sandt/estnews030703.htm. Retrieved on 2008-01-20. [82] "Beyond Three Gorges in China". Water Power Magazine. 2007-01-10. http://www.waterpowermagazine.com/ story.asp?storyCode=2041318. Retrieved on 2007-10-13. [83] Matthew S. Muller. Amazon.com review of World War Z: An Oral History of the Zombie War. [84] "Lisa See - Dragon Bones". http://www.lisasee.com/ dragonbones.htm. Retrieved on 2008-01-19.

External links
• Yang Lei (20 May 2006). "Three Gorges dam to facilitate flood control ahead of time". Chinese Government.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://english.gov.cn/2006-05/20/ content_286525.htm. ??????????? Digital Times’ coverage on Three Gorges Dam International Rivers - information page on the Three Gorges Project BBC News Online - Troops to protect dam against terrorists - September 14, 2004. BBC News Online - Dam wall completed May 20, 2006. BBC News Online - In pictures: Three Gorges Dam - May 20, 2006. chinadialogue ????????????? - article about the politics of water in China Up the Yangtze - a documentary film about the impact of the Three Gorges Dam project "Three Gorges dam’s social impact" by Jill McGivering, BBC News, May 20, 2006, retrieved May 20, 2006 " As China’s mega dam rises, so do strains and fear", Reuters November 14, 2007. Jim Yardley (2007-11-21). "Chinese Dam Projects Criticized for Their Human

Three Gorges Dam

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•

• •

Costs". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/11/19/ world/asia/ 19dam.html?fta=y&pagewanted=all. Retrieved on 2007-12-09. • Jim Yardley (2007-11-22). "China to Address Issues Around Dam". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/11/ 22/world/asia/22gorges.html?fta=y. Retrieved on 2007-12-09. • Anderlini, Jamil (2007-10-31). "Sold down the river". Financial Times. http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/ 20d888b0-87d1-11dc-9464-0000779fd2ac.html?nclick_ Retrieved on 2008-01-20. • Three Gorges Probe (2008-03-18). "THREE GORGES ORAL HISTORY SERIES: Absence of Justice: Lu Chengming’s Struggle for Compensation". http://www.probeinternational.org/ catalog/ content_fullstory.php?contentId=6790&cat_id=7. Coordinates: 30°49′15″N 111°00′08″E / 30.82083°N 111.00222°E / 30.82083; 111.00222

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